American Jews

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American Jews
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{{short description|Ethnic group}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2012}}

}}| pop1 = 5.4–8.3 million{{flagcountry|Israel}}}}FIRST=JUDY WORK=HAARETZ ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2016, | population = 6,829,000–7,160,0001.7–2.6% of total U.S. population, 20122012 U.S. Census Bureau estimateEnlarged population (includes full or partial Jewish ancestry) 8,000,000–10,000,000New York City metropolitan area>New York City, Miami metropolitan area, Greater Los Angeles Area>Los Angeles, Delaware Valley, Chicago metropolitan area>Chicago, San Francisco Bay Area, Greater Boston>Boston, Baltimore–WashingtonAmerican EnglishYiddish>Hebrew}}Judaism (35% Reform Judaism>Reform, 18% Conservative Judaism, 10% Orthodox Judaism>Orthodox, 6% others, 30% Jewish Secularism)ISRAEL VERSUS THE JEWSACCESSDATE=9 JULY 2017THE ECONOMIST>DATE=7 JULY 2017, | image = Jewish_population_in_the_USA_and_Canada.png deadurl= no}}According to a study published by demographers and sociologists Ira Sheskin and Arnold Dashefsky, the distribution of the Jewish population in 2015 is as follows:Ira Sheskin, Arnold Dashefsky. Berman Jewish DataBank: Jewish Population in the United States, 2015. Page 15. Retrieved September 18, 2016 – select state from drop-down menu{| class="wikitable sortable"! State/territory !! American Jews (2015)!! Percentage{{efn|Percentage of the state population that identifies itself as Jewish.}}Alabama}} 8,800 0.18%Alaska}} 6,175 0.84%Arizona}} 106,300 1.58%Arkansas}} 1,725 0.06%California}} 1,232,690 3.18%Colorado}} 103,020 1.92%Connecticut}} 117,850 3.28%Delaware}} 15,100 1.61%District of Columbia}} 28,000 4.25%Florida}} 651,510 3.28%Georgia (U.S. state)}} Georgia (U.S. state) >| 1.27%Hawaii}} 7,280 0.51%Idaho}} 2,225 0.14%Illinois}} 297,435 2.31%Indiana}} 17,220 0.26%Iowa}} 6,170 0.20%Kansas}} 17,425 0.60%Kentucky}} 11,300 0.26%Louisiana}} 10,675 0.23%Maine}} 13,890 1.04%Maryland}} 238,200 3.99%Massachusetts}} 274,680 4.07%Michigan}} 83,155 0.84%Minnesota}} 45,750 0.84%Mississippi}} 1,575 0.05%Missouri}} 64,275 1.06%Montana}} 1,350 0.13%Nebraska}} 6,150 0.33%Nevada}} 76,300 2.69%New Hampshire}} 10,120 0.76%New Jersey}} 523,950 5.86%New Mexico}} 12,725 0.61%New York}} 1,759,570 8.91%North Carolina}} 35,435 0.36%North Dakota}} 400 0.05%Ohio}} 147,715 1.27%Oklahoma}} 4,625 0.12%Oregon}} 40,650 1.02%Pennsylvania}} 293,240 2.29%Rhode Island}} 18,750 1.78%South Carolina}} 13,820 0.29%South Dakota}} 250 0.03%Tennessee}} 19,600 0.30%Texas}} 158,505 0.59%Utah}} 5,650 0.19%Vermont}} 5,985 0.96%Virginia}} 95,695 1.15%Washington}} 72,085 1.02%West Virginia}} 2,310 0.12%Wisconsin}} 33,055 0.57%Wyoming}} 1,150 0.20%| 2.14%Metropolitan areas with largest Jewish populations (2015)">

Significant Jewish population centers{| class"wikitable sortable"|+Metropolitan areas with largest Jewish populations (2015)

! colspan=2 | Rank! rowspan=2 | Metro area! colspan=2 | Number of Jews! (WJC)! (ARDA)WEB,weblink Judaism (estimated) Metro Areas (2000), December 1, 2009, The Association of Religion Data Archives,weblink" title="">weblink November 23, 2009, yes, mdy, ! (WJC)! (ASARB) 1 1New York metropolitan area>New York City1,750,0002,028,200 2 3South Florida metropolitan area>Miami 535,000 337,000 3 2Greater Los Angeles Area>Los Angeles 490,000 662,450 4 4Delaware Valley>Philadelphia 254,000 285,950 5 6Chicago metropolitan area>Chicago 248,000 265,400 6 8San Francisco Bay Area>San Francisco 210,000 218,700 7 7Greater Boston>Boston 208,000 261,100 8 5Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area>Baltimore–Washington 165,000 276,445File:Top of Rock Cropped.jpg|thumb|The New York City metropolitan area is home to by far the largest Jewish-American population.]]{| class="wikitable sortable"|+States with the highest percentage of Jews (2015)! Rank! State! Percent Jewish 1New York (state)>New York 8.91 2|New Jersey 5.86 3Washington, D.C.>District of Columbia 4.25 4| Massachusetts 4.07 5| Maryland 3.99 6| Florida 3.28 7| Connecticut 3.28 8| California 3.18 9| Nevada 2.69 10| Illinois 2.31 11| Pennsylvania 2.29Although the New York City metropolitan area is the second largest Jewish population center in the world (after the Tel Aviv metropolitan area in Israel), the Miami metropolitan area has a slightly greater Jewish population on a per-capita basis (9.9% compared to metropolitan New York's 9.3%). Several other major cities have large Jewish communities, including Los Angeles, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco and Philadelphia. In many metropolitan areas, the majority of Jewish families live in suburban areas. The Greater Phoenix area was home to about 83,000 Jews in 2002, and has been rapidly growing.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2012-05-13, 2002 Greater Phoenix Jewish Community Study, The greatest Jewish population on a per-capita basis for incorporated areas in the U.S. is Kiryas Joel Village, New York (greater than 93% based on language spoken in home),WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, September 23, 2006, Kiryas Joel, New York, Modern Language Association, December 14, 2006, City of Beverly Hills, California (61%),BOOK, Herman, Pini, Needs of the Community: A Classification of Needs & Services for the L.A. Jewish Community, 2000, Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 36,weblink Lakewood Township, New Jersey (59%),WEB, Jewish Population in the United States, 2010,weblink Ira Sheskin University of Miami, Arnold Dashefsky University of Connecticut, 8 November 2013, two incorporated areas, Kiryas Joel and Lakewood, have a high concentration of ultra-Orthodox Jews and one incorporated area, Beverly Hills, having a high concentration of non-Orthodox Jews.The phenomenon of Israeli migration to the U.S. is often termed Yerida. The Israeli immigrant community in America is less widespread. The significant Israeli immigrant communities in the United States are in the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles, Miami, and Chicago.JOURNAL, Gold, Steven, Steven J. Gold, Phillips, Bruce, Israelis in the United States, American Jewish Yearbook, 96, 51–101, 1996,weblink
  • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development calculated an 'expatriate rate' of 2.9 persons per thousand, putting Israel in the mid-range of expatriate rates among the 175 OECD countries examined in 2005.WEB, Database on immigrants and expatriates:Emigration rates by country of birth (Total population), Organisation for Economic Co-ordination and Development, Statistics Portal,weblink April 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, yes,
According to the 2001 undertakingWEB,weblink UJC - NJPS: Demography: The Jewish Population, December 2, 2006, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2006, mdy-all, of the National Jewish Population Survey, 4.3 million American Jews have some sort of strong connection to the Jewish community, whether religious or cultural.

Distribution of Jewish Americans

According to the North American Jewish Data BankWEB,weblink Jewish Maps of the United States by Counties, 2011, Joshua, Comenetz, Berman Jewish DataBank, September 10, 2017, the 104 counties and independent cities {{as of|2011|lc=y}} with the largest Jewish communities, as a percentage of population, were:{{columns-start|num=3}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;"! County! Jewishpopulation !! %of total Rockland County, New York| 29.3% Kings County, New York| 22.4% Nassau County, New York| 17.2% Palm Beach County, Florida| 15.8% New York County, New York| 15.1% Westchester County, New York| 14.3% Montgomery County, Maryland| 11.6% Ocean County, New Jersey| 10.7% Marin County, California| 10.3% Bergen County, New Jersey| 10.2% Monmouth County, New Jersey| 10.2% Broward County, Florida| 9.8% Sullivan County, New York| 9.6% Norfolk County, Massachusetts| 9.5% Queens County, New York| 8.9% Orange County, New York| 8.7% Alpine County, California| 8.6% San Francisco County, California| 8.2% Montgomery County, Pennsylvania| 8.1% Middlesex County, Massachusetts| 7.6% Baltimore County, Maryland| 7.5% Lake County, Illinois| 7.3% Richmond County, New York| 7.3% Santa Clara County, California| 7.2% Arlington County, Virginia| 6.7% San Mateo County, California| 6.7% Bucks County, Pennsylvania| 6.6% Ventura County, California| 6.6% Middlesex County, New Jersey| 6.4% Camden County, New Jersey| 6.2% Essex County, New Jersey| 6.2% Falls Church, Virginia| 6.1% Howard County, Maryland| 6.0% Morris County, New Jersey| 6.0%{{column}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;"! County! Jewishpopulation !! %of total Somerset County, New Jersey| 5.9% Suffolk County, New York| 5.8% Cuyahoga County, Ohio| 5.5% Fulton County, Georgia| 5.4% Los Angeles County, California| 5.3% Ozaukee County, Wisconsin| 5.2% Fairfield County, Connecticut| 5.1% Oakland County, Michigan| 5.1% Baltimore, Maryland| 5.0% St. Louis County, Missouri| 5.0% Nantucket County, Massachusetts| 4.9% Denver County, Colorado| 4.8% Sonoma County, California| 4.8% Union County, New Jersey| 4.8% Washington, D.C.| 4.7% Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania| 4.4% Pitkin County, Colorado| 4.4% Arapahoe County, Colorado| 4.3% Atlantic County, New Jersey| 4.3% Geauga County, Ohio| 4.3% Miami-Dade County, Florida| 4.3% Chester County, Pennsylvania| 4.2% Cook County, Illinois| 4.2% Boulder County, Colorado| 4.1% Passaic County, New Jersey| 4.0% Alameda County, California| 3.9% Albany County, New York| 3.9% Bronx County, New York| 3.9% Putnam County, New York| 3.9% Delaware County, Pennsylvania| 3.8% Clark County, Nevada| 3.7% Suffolk County, Massachusetts| 3.7% DeKalb County, Georgia| 3.6% Fairfax County, Virginia| 3.6%{{column}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="background:#efefef; text-align:center;"! County! Jewishpopulation !! %of total Alexandria, Virginia| 3.5% Dutchess County, New York| 3.4% Napa County, California| 3.4% Schenectady County, New York| 3.4% Allegheny County, Pennsylvania| 3.3% Berkshire County, Massachusetts| 3.3% Fairfax, Virginia| 3.3% Hartford County, Connecticut| 3.3% Clay County, Georgia| 3.2% Ulster County, New York| 3.2% Contra Costa County, California| 3.1% New Haven County, Connecticut| 3.1% Essex County, Massachusetts| 3.0% Burlington County, New Jersey| 2.9% San Diego County, California| 2.9% Sussex County, New Jersey| 2.9% Johnson County, Kansas| 2.8% Orange County, California| 2.8% Hamilton County, Ohio| 2.7% Multnomah County, Oregon| 2.7% Pinellas County, Florida| 2.7% Monroe County, New York| 2.6% Sarasota County, Florida| 2.6% Broomfield County, Colorado| 2.5% Cobb County, Georgia| 2.5% Collier County, Florida| 2.5% Hennepin County, Minnesota| 2.5% Mercer County, New Jersey| 2.5% Cumberland County, Maine| 2.4% Seminole County, Florida| 2.4% Cherokee County, Georgia| 2.3% Custer County, Idaho| 2.3% Dukes County, Massachusetts| 2.3% Hampden County, Massachusetts| 2.3% Santa Cruz County, California| 2.3% Santa Fe County, New Mexico| 2.3%{{columns-end}}

Assimilation and population changes

These parallel themes have facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community, but also have contributed to widespread cultural assimilation.JOURNAL, Postrel, Virginia, Uncommon Culture, Reason Magazine, May 1993,weblink October 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2007, no, More recently however, the propriety and degree of assimilation has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both political and religious skeptics.JOURNAL, Marsha L. Rozenblit, 4467195, Review of Bela Vago's "Jewish Assimilation in Modern Times", Jewish Social Studies, 44, 3/4, 1982, 334–335, Religious Jews regarded those who assimilated with horror, and Zionists campaigned against assimilation as an act of treason., While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 and 25% in 1974,WEB, THE LARGER TASK – MARCUS,weblink American Jewish Archives, 17 October 2013, to approximately 40–50% in the year 2000.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2002-11-28, Cengage Learning – Login, February 15, 2015, By 2013, the intermarriage rate had risen to 71% for non-Orthodox Jews.WEB,weblink Pew survey of U.S. Jews: soaring intermarriage, assimilation rates, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, October 2013, This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older.A third of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, and doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations.NEWS,weblink Boston Globe, Jewish population in region rises, November 29, 2009, Michael Paulson, November 10, 2006, The Boston area, for example, is exceptional in that an estimated 60% of children of intermarriages are being raised Jewish, meaning that intermarriage would actually be contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, December 13, 2006, Wayback Machine, December 13, 2006, As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children.In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number. WEB,weblink The Future of Judaism,, In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called "ultra-orthodox" (Haredi) Jews in USA (7.2%).WEB,weblink Majority of Jews will be Ultra-Orthodox by 2050,, The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%). Data from the Pew Center shows that as of 2013, 27% of American Jews under the age of 18 live in Orthodox households, a dramatic increase from Jews aged 18 to 29, only 11% of whom are Orthodox. The UJA-Federation of New York reports that 60% of Jewish children in the New York City area live in Orthodox homes. In addition to economizing and sharing, many Ultra Orthodox communities depend on government aid to support their high birth rate and large families. The Hasidic village of New Square, New York receives Section 8 housing subsidies at a higher rate than the rest of the region, and half of the population in the Hasidic village of Kiryas Joel, New York receive food stamps, while a third receive Medicaid.Orthodox Population Grows Faster Than First Figures in Pew #JewishAmerica Study, The Jewish Daily Forward, 15 November 2013About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are non-Hispanic white, 5% Hispanic (Most commonly from Argentina, Venezuela, or Cuba), 1% Asian (Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews), 1% Black and 1% Other (mixed race etc.). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2007-11-27, ARIS 2001,  {{small|(449 KB)}} style"background:#efefef"">

Subgroups{|class"wikitable sortable" style"background:#efefef"

!Ancestry||2000||2000 (% of US population)|Ashkenazi Jews URL=HTTP://WWW.IMA.ORG.IL/IMAJ/VIEWARTICLE.ASPX?AID=2748 JOURNAL=ISRAEL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION JOURNAL DATE=MAY 2001 PAGES=341–46, 2013-09-04, |negligible (no data)Sephardi Jews {{Citation needed>reason= Your citations don't seem to confirm the information here. Where did you originally find it? Would love to have it! |date=August 2018}}|200,000–300,000|negligible (no data)|Mizrahi Jews|250,000|negligible (no data)|Italqim|200,000|negligible (no data)|Bukharan Jews|50,000–60,000|negligible (no data)|Mountain Jews|10,000 to 40,000|negligible (no data)|Turkish Jews|8,000|negligible (no data)|Romaniote Jews|6,500|negligible (no data)|Beta IsraelURL=HTTP://WWW.HAARETZ.COM/BLOGS/FOCUS-U-S-A/IT-S-NOT-EASY-BEING-AN-ETHIOPIAN-JEW-IN-AMERICA-1.273719 WORK=HAARETZ ACCESSDATE=2010-12-25, |negligible (no data)|TOTAL|5,425,000–8,300,000number of the core American Jewish population according to: Sergio DellaPergola (2012). American Jewish Year Book 2012. Springer Publishing. p. 271.|(1.7–2.6% of the U.S. population)

American Jews and race

{{see also|African American–Jewish relations}}Some American Jews identify as white, while other American Jews solely identify as Jewish.BOOK, Carolyn Chen, Russell Jeung, Sustaining Faith Traditions: Race, Ethnicity, and Religion Among the Latino and Asian American Second Generation,weblink 2012, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-1735-6, 88, Several commentators have observed that "many American Jews retain an ambivalence about whiteness"."American Jews, Race, Identity, and the Civil Rights Movement" Rosenbaum, Judith. Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Today, many American Jews retain an ambivalence about whiteness, despite the fact that the vast majority have benefited and continue to benefit from white privilege. This ambivalence stems from many different places: a deep connection to a Jewish history of discrimination and otherness; a moral imperative to identify with the stranger; an anti-universalist impulse that does not want Jews to be among the "melted" in the proverbial melting pot; an experience of prejudice and awareness of the contingency of whiteness; a feeling that Jewish identity is not fully described by religion but has some ethnic/tribal component that feels more accurately described by race; and a discomfort with contemporary Jewish power and privilege." Karen Brodkin explains this ambivalence as rooted in anxieties about the potential loss of Jewish identity, especially outside of intellectual elites.BOOK, How Jews Became White Folks and what that Says about Race in America, Karen Brodkin, 1998, Rutgers University Press, : "Ambivalence was expressed in the counterpoint between Jewish intellectuals' embrace of whiteness and the more ambivalent responses to whiteness in Jewish popular culture" (p. 182). Similarly, Kenneth Marcus observes a number of ambivalent cultural phenomena noted by other scholars, and concludes that "the veneer of whiteness has not established conclusively the racial construction of American Jews".BOOK, Jewish Identity and Civil Rights in America, Kenneth L. Marcus, 2010, Cambridge University Press, The relationship between American Jews and white majority identity continues to be described as "complicated".WEB,weblink Are Jews White? It's Complicated, Dave Schechter, December 19, 2016, Atlanta Jewish Times, September 1, 2017, American white nationalists view Jews as non-white.BOOK, Margaret Andersen, Patricia Hill Collins, Race, Class, & Gender: An Anthology,weblink 2015, Cengage Learning, 978-1-305-53727-9, 84–85, In 2013, the Pew Research Center's Portrait of Jewish Americans found that more than 90% of Jews who responded to their survey described themselves as non-Hispanic whites, 2% as black, 3% as Hispanic, and 2% of other racial or ethnic backgrounds.WEB,weblink A Portrait of Jewish Americans: Findings from a Pew Research Center Survey of U.S. Jews, 46, October 1, 2013, Pew Research Center, August 19, 2017,

African American Jews and other American Jews of African descent

The American Jewish community includes African American Jews and other American Jews of African descent, a definition which excludes North African Jewish Americans, who are currently classed by the U.S. Census as white (although a new category has been recommended by the Census Bureau for the 2020 census).WEB,weblink For Some Americans Of MENA Descent, Checking A Census Box Is Complicated, Estimates of the number of American Jews of African descent in the United States range from 20,000WEB,weblink A Fledgling Grant Maker Nurtures Young Jewish 'Social Entrepreneurs', December 17, 2007, David Whelan, May 8, 2003, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, to 200,000.WEB,weblink Organization for black Jews claims 200,000 in U.S., August 2, 2010, Michael Gelbwasser, April 10, 1998, j., Jews of African descent belong to all of American Jewish denominations. Like their white Jewish counterparts, some Black Jews are atheists.Notable African-American Jews include Lisa Bonet, Sammy Davis, Jr., Rashida Jones, Yaphet Kotto, Jordan Farmar, Taylor Mays, and rabbis Capers Funnye and Alysa Stanton.Relations between American Jews of African descent and other Jewish Americans are generally cordial.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}} There are, however, disagreements with a specific minority of Black Hebrew Israelites community from among African-Americans who consider themselves, but not other Jews, to be the true descendants of the ancient Israelites. Black Hebrew Israelites are generally not considered to be members of the mainstream Jewish community, since they have not formally converted to Judaism, nor are they ethnically related to other Jews. One such group, the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, emigrated to Israel and was granted permanent residency status there.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}}


Education plays a major role as a part of Jewish identity; as Jewish culture puts a special premium on it and stresses the importance of cultivation of intellectual pursuits, scholarship and learning, American Jews as a group tend to be better educated and earn more than Americans as a whole.BOOK,weblink Portrait of American Jews: the last half of the twentieth century, 26 August 2014, Samuel C Heilman, 9780295800653, 2011-07-01, WEB,weblink Jewish americans, 26 August 2014, Kamp, Jim, WEB,weblink A Jewish Fight for Public Education, The Jewish Daily, September 2, 2013, 26 August 2014, Amy B. Dean, WEB,weblink New Study Claims US Jews Have Reasons to Be Proud – Latest News Briefs – Arutz Sheva, Arutz Sheva, February 15, 2015, WEB,weblink Doing Well and Doing Good, 26 August 2014, Grubin, David, Jewish Americans also have an average of 14.7 years of schooling making them the most highly educated of all major religious groups in the United States.WEB,weblink 6. Jewish educational attainment, 1615 L. Street NW, Suite 800, Washington DC 20036 USA(202) 419-4300 | Main(202) 419-4349 | Fax(202) 419-4372 | Media Inquiries, December 13, 2016, WEB,weblink Religion and Education Around the World, 1615 L. Street NW, Suite 800, Washington DC 20036 USA(202) 419-4300 | Main(202) 419-4349 | Fax(202) 419-4372 | Media Inquiries, December 13, 2016, Forty-four percent (55% of Reform Jews) report family incomes of over $100,000 compared to 19% of all Americans, with the next highest group being Hindus at 43%.WEB,weblink Demographic Profiles of Religious Groups, Pew Research Centre, May 12, 2015, 12 May 2015, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-04-29, Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics – Pew Research Center, May 11, 2015, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, And while 27% of Americans have had 4 year university or postgraduate education, fifty-nine percent (66% of Reform Jews) of American Jews have, the second highest of any religious group after American Hindus.WEB,weblink Comparative Religions – U.S. Religious Landscape Study – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, February 15, 2015, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-02-06, Religion in America: U.S. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics – Pew Research Center, May 11, 2015, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 75% of American Jews have achieved some form of post-secondary education if two-year vocational and community college diplomas and certificates are also included.WEB,weblink In United States, religious minorities more likely to have college degrees than Christian majority, 1615 L. Street NW, Suite 800, Washington DC 20036 USA(202) 419-4300 | Main(202) 419-4349 | Fax(202) 419-4372 | Media Inquiries, December 5, 2016, NEWS,weblink Jews are world's best-educated religious group, study reveals, Harriet Sherwood Religion, correspondent, December 13, 2016, The Guardian, The Guardian, WEB,weblink Hindus are the most educated group in the US, least educated worldwide, December 14, 2016, 31% of American Jews hold a graduate degree, this figure is compared with the general American population where 11% of Americans hold a graduate degree. White collar professional jobs have been attractive to Jews and much of the community tend to take up professional white collar careers requiring tertiary education involving formal credentials where the respectability and reputability of professional jobs is highly prized within Jewish culture. While 46% of Americans work in professional and managerial jobs, 61% of American Jews work as professionals, many of whom are highly educated, salaried professionals whose work is largely self-directed in management, professional, and related occupations such as engineering, science, medicine, investment banking, finance, law, and academia.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2010-12-14, NATIONAL JEWISH POPULATION SURVEY 2000–01, The Jewish Federations, January 30, 2013, Bernard J. Shapiro, Much of the Jewish American community lead middle class lifestyles.WEB,weblink Do Jews Hate Palin, Frum Forum, January 4, 2010, 26 August 2014, Frum, David, While the median household net worth of the typical American family is $99,500, among American Jews the figure is $443,000.BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 7, 978-1594205460, WEB,weblink Lessons from Jews and Mormons, The Sydney Herald, 7 March 2014, 20 August 2014, James Adonis, In addition, the median Jewish American income is estimated to be in the range of $97,000 to $98,000, nearly twice as high the American national median.BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 53, 978-1594205460, Either of these two statistics may be confounded by the fact that the Jewish population is on average older than other religious groups in the country, with 51% of polled adults over the age of 50 compared to 41% nationally. Older people tend to both have higher income and be more highly educated. By 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000 (compared to the American median household income of $59,000 for 2016).5 key takeaways, some surprising, from new survey of US Modern Orthodox Jews By BEN SALES 30 September 2017, JTA As a whole, American and Canadian Jews donate more than $9 billion a year to charity. This reflects Jewish traditions of supporting social services as a way of living out the dictates of Jewish law. Most of the charities that benefit are not specifically Jewish organizations.Shaul Bar Nissim, Hanna. "American Jews and Charitable Giving: An Enduring Tradition." The Conversation. 10 December 2017. 3 June 2019.While the median income of Jewish Americans is high, there are still small pockets of poverty. In the New York area, there are approximately 560,000 Jews living in poor or near-poor households, representing about 20% of the New York metropolitan Jewish community. Most affected are children, the elderly, immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Orthodox families.Jewish Poverty Skyrockets in New York — Doubles in Size Since 1991 The Jewish Daily Forward, 6 June 2013According to analysis by Gallup, American Jews have the highest well-being of any ethnic or religious group in America.Very Religious Have Higher Wellbeing Across All, by Frank Newport, Sangeeta Agrawal, and Dan Witters, January 6, 2011, Retrieved: 20/04/11Jews, religious or not, top US 'well-being' index, By JORDANA HORN, 01/17/2011 16:16The great majority of school-age Jewish students attend public schools, although Jewish day schools and yeshivas are to be found throughout the country. Jewish cultural studies and Hebrew language instruction is also commonly offered at synagogues in the form of supplementary Hebrew schools or Sunday schools.From the early 1900s until the 1950s, quota systems were imposed at elite colleges and universities particularly in the Northeast, as a response to the growing number of children of recent Jewish immigrants; these limited the number of Jewish students accepted, and greatly reduced their previous attendance. Jewish enrollment at Cornell's School of Medicine fell from 40% to 4% between the world wars, and Harvard's fell from 30% to 4%.L. Sandy Maisel and Ira N. Forman, Eds. Jews in American Politics, pp. 5–6, Rowman & Littlefield, (2001). Before 1945, only a few Jewish professors were permitted as instructors at elite universities. In 1941, for example, antisemitism drove Milton Friedman from a non-tenured assistant professorship at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.Milton Friedman and Rose D. Friedman, Two Lucky People: Memoirs (1998) p. 58 online Harry Levin became the first Jewish full professor in the Harvard English department in 1943, but the Economics department decided not to hire Paul Samuelson in 1948. Harvard hired its first Jewish biochemists in 1954.Morton Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. (2001), pp. 75, 82, 97, 212, 472.Today, American Jews no longer face the discrimination in higher education that they did in the past, particularly in the Ivy League. For example, by 1986, a third of the presidents of the elite undergraduate final clubs at Harvard were Jewish. Rick Levin was president of Yale University from 1993 to 2013, Judith Rodin was president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1994 to 2004 (and is currently president of the Rockefeller Foundation), Paul Samuelson's nephew, Lawrence Summers, was president of Harvard University from 2001 until 2006, and Harold Shapiro was president of Princeton University from 1992 until 2000. style"vertical-align:top;"Public UniversitiesWEB >URLHTTP://WWW.HILLEL.ORG/ABOUT/NEWS/2006/FEB/20060216_TOP.HTM">

AMERICAN JEWS AT AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS{,weblink" title="">weblink >archivedate=2007-12-20 accessdate=January 6, 2009, February 16, 2006, {| class="wikitable sortable" "!width="50"|Rank !! style="width:210px;"|University !! style="width:50px;"|Enrollment for Jewish Students (est.)WEB,weblink News – Views,,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2017, No, September 17, 2017, !! style="width:70px;" |% of Student body !! style="width:70px;"|Undergraduate EnrollmentUniversity of Florida >| 34,464Rutgers University >|36,168University of Central Florida >|55,776University of Maryland, College Park >|28,472|5|University of Michigan|4,500|16%|28,983Indiana University (Bloomington)>Indiana University University of Wisconsin| 11%13%| 39,18431,710|8Brooklyn College>CUNY, Brooklyn CollegeQueens CollegePennsylvania State University, University Park|4,000|28%25%10%|14,40616,32641,827Binghamton University >PUBLISHER=HILLEL AT BINGHAMTON |13,632| University at AlbanyFlorida International UniversityMichigan State UniversityArizona State UniversityCalifornia State University, Northridge| 27%8%9%8%10%|13,13945,81339,09042,47735,552|Private Universities{| class="wikitable sortable" "!width="50"|Rank !! style="width:210px;"|University !! style="width:55px;"|Enrollment of Jewish Student (est.)!width="50"|% of Student body !! style="width:70px;"|Undergraduate EnrollmentNew York University >| 19,401Boston University >| 15,981Cornell University >| 13,515University of Miami >| 14,000The George Washington UniversityUniversity of PennsylvaniaYeshiva University >|10,3949,7182,803Syracuse University >|12,500Columbia UniversityEmory UniversityHarvard UniversityTulane University >|6,8196,5106,7156,533Brandeis UniversityHTTP://WWW.HILLEL.ORG/COLLEGE-GUIDEWORK=HILLEL.ORG, Northwestern UniversityWashington University in St. Louis 1,80056%23%29% 3,1587,8266,097


Jewishness in the United States is considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one. See Ethnoreligious group.File:Hanukkah-US-Military-GITMO-Dec-28-08.jpg|thumb|left|US military and civilian personnel light Menorahs in observance of HanukkahHanukkah

Observances and engagement

Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4.3 million American Jews described as "strongly connected" to Judaism, over 80% report some sort of active engagement with Judaism,WEB, A PORTRAIT OF JEWISH AMERICANS – Chapter 3: Jewish Identity,weblink Pew Research, October 1, 2013, 4 January 2014, ranging from attendance at daily prayer services on one end of the spectrum to as little as attendance Passover Seders or lighting Hanukkah candles on the other.A 2003 Harris Poll found that 16% of American Jews go to the synagogue at least once a month, 42% go less frequently but at least once a year, and 42% go less frequently than once a year.WEB, Humphrey Taylor,weblink While Most Americans Believe in God, Only 36% Attend a Religious Service Once a Month or More Often, The Harris Poll #59, October 15, 2003, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 6, 2010, The survey found that of the 4.3 million strongly connected Jews, 46% belong to a synagogue. Among those households who belong to a synagogue, 38% are members of Reform synagogues, 33% Conservative, 22% Orthodox, 2% Reconstructionist, and 5% other types. Traditionally, Sephardic and Mizrahis do not have different branches (Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc.) but usually remain observant and religious. The survey discovered that Jews in the Northeast and Midwest are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West. Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant.In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more observant, in most cases, Orthodox, lifestyle. Such Jews are called baalei teshuva ("returners", see also Repentance in Judaism).{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}The 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that around 3.4 million American Jews call themselves religious – out of a general Jewish population of about 5.4 million. The number of Jews who identify themselves as only culturally Jewish has risen from 20% in 1990 to 37% in 2008, according to the study. In the same period, the number of all US adults who said they had no religion rose from 8% to 15%. Jews are more likely to be secular than Americans in general, the researchers said. About half of all US Jews – including those who consider themselves religiously observant – claim in the survey that they have a secular worldview and see no contradiction between that outlook and their faith, according to the study's authors. Researchers attribute the trends among American Jews to the high rate of intermarriage and "disaffection from Judaism" in the United States.WEB,weblink US survey: Number of religious Jews drops sharply, ynet, February 15, 2015, About one-sixth of American Jews maintain kosher dietary standards.WEB,weblink Is Keeping Kosher Good for the Environment?, Emily Gertz, February 15, 2015,

Religious beliefs

American Jews are more likely to be atheist or agnostic than most Americans, especially so compared with Protestants or Catholics. A 2003 poll found that while 79% of Americans believe in God, only 48% of American Jews do, compared with 79% and 90% for Catholics and Protestants respectively. While 66% of Americans said they were "absolutely certain" of God's existence, 24% of American Jews said the same. And though 9% of Americans believe there is no God (8% Catholic and 4% Protestant), 19% of American Jews believe God does not exist.A 2009 Harris Poll showed American Jews as the religious group most accepting of evolution, with 80% believing in evolution, compared to 51% for Catholics, 32% for Protestants, and 16% of born-again Christians.WEB,weblink Evolution in a new Harris poll, NCSE, March 14, 2012, 2009-12-16, They were also less likely to believe in supernatural phenomena such as miracles, angels, or heaven.A 2013 Pew Research Center report found that 1.7 million American Jewish adults, 1.6 million of whom were raised in Jewish homes or had Jewish ancestry, identified as Christians or Messianic Jews but also consider themselves ethnically Jewish. Another 700,000 American Christian adults considered themselves "Jews by affinity" or "grafted-in" Jews.National survey shows Jews leaving Judaism, assimilating, becoming Christians or “Nones” How many Jews are there in the United States? Pew Research Center


Jews are overrepresented in American Buddhism specifically among those whose parents are not Buddhist, and without Buddhist heritage, with between one fifthWEB, Yoheved, Sara,weblink Conflicts of a Buddhist Jew,, May 14, 2005, March 14, 2012, and 30% of all American Buddhists identifying as JewishWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink/week126/cover.html, 2008-11-10, Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly . COVER STORY . Jews and American Buddhism . February 27, 1998, PBS, February 27, 1998, March 14, 2012, though only 2% of Americans are Jewish. Nicknamed Jubus, an increasing number of American Jews have begun adopting Buddhist spiritual practice, while at the same time continuing to identify with and practice Judaism. Notable American Jewish Buddhists include: Robert Downey, Jr.NEWS,, The New York Times, Robert Downey Jr.: The Album, November 21, 2004, May 6, 2010, Hilary, De Vries, Allen Ginsberg,WEB, Michael Schumacher,weblink The Allen Ginsberg Trust: Biography,, January 27, 2002, August 23, 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 23, 2008, Linda Pritzker,Forbes: The World's Billionaires - Linda Pritzker July 2018 Jonathan F.P. Rose,IN PERSON; Developer With Eye To Profits For Society" By TINA KELLEY April 11, 2004 Goldie HawnNEWS,weblink CNN, May 6, 2010,, and daughter Kate Hudson, Steven Seagal, Adam Yauch of the rap group The Beastie Boys, and Garry Shandling. Film makers the Coen Brothers have been influenced by Buddhism as well for a time.WEB,weblink The Dude Abides…Not Just Coen Brothers Fans Will Take Comfort in That, The Dudespaper,

Contemporary politics

|qalign = right
}}Today, American Jews are a distinctive and influential group in the nation's politics. Jeffrey S. Helmreich writes that the ability of American Jews to effect this through political or financial clout is overestimated,Steven L. Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), pp. 150–165. that the primary influence lies in the group's voting patterns.WEB,weblink The Israel swing factor: how the American Jewish vote influences U.S. elections, Jeffrey S. Helmreich, October 2, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 20, 2008, no, "Jews have devoted themselves to politics with almost religious fervor," writes Mitchell Bard, who adds that Jews have the highest percentage voter turnout of any ethnic group (84% reported being registered to voteWEB,weblink Pugh Forum findings Page 81, March 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 9, 2011, no, ).Though the majority (60–70%) of the country's Jews identify as Democratic, Jews span the political spectrum, with those at higher levels of observance being far more likely to vote Republican than their less observant and secular counterparts.WEB,weblink Voting patterns of Jews and other religious groups – Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science, Statistical Modeling, Causal Inference, and Social Science, February 15, 2015, Owing to high Democratic identification in the 2008 United States Presidential Election, 78% of Jews voted for Democrat Barack Obama versus 21% for Republican John McCain, despite Republican attempts to connect Obama to Muslim and pro-Palestinian causes. It has been suggested that running mate Sarah Palin's conservative views on social issues may have nudged Jews away from the McCain–Palin ticket.WEB,weblink 78% of American Jews vote Obama, Yitzhak Benhorin, Yedioth Internet, October 5, 2008, In the 2012 United States presidential election, 69% of Jews voted for the Democratic incumbent President Obama.WEB, Berenbaum, Michael,weblink Some Jewish takeaways from the 2012 Election, Jewish Journal, November 8, 2012, November 8, 2012,

Foreign policy

American Jews have displayed a very strong interest in foreign affairs, especially regarding Germany in the 1930s, and Israel since 1945.Michael N. Barnett, The Star and the Stripes: A History of the Foreign Policies of American Jews (2016) Both major parties have made strong commitments in support of Israel. Dr. Eric Uslaner of the University of Maryland argues, with regard to the 2004 election: "Only 15% of Jews said that Israel was a key voting issue. Among those voters, 55% voted for Kerry (compared to 83% of Jewish voters not concerned with Israel)." Uslander goes on to point out that negative views of Evangelical Christians had a distinctly negative impact for Republicans among Jewish voters, while Orthodox Jews, traditionally more conservative in outlook as to social issues, favored the Republican Party.Eric M. Uslaner, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2010-06-15, Two Front War: Jews, Identity, Liberalism, and Voting,  {{small|(59.6 KB)}} A New York Times article suggests that the Jewish movement to the Republican party is focused heavily on faith-based issues, similar to the Catholic vote, which is credited for helping President Bush taking Florida in 2004.NEWS, Laurie Goodstein, William Yardley,weblink President Benefits From Efforts to Build a Coalition of Religious Voters, The New York Times, November 5, 2004, January 19, 2016, However, Natan Guttman, The Forward{{'}}s Washington bureau chief, dismisses this notion, writing in Moment that while "[i]t is true that Republicans are making small and steady strides into the Jewish community … a look at the past three decades of exit polls, which are more reliable than pre-election polls, and the numbers are clear: Jews vote overwhelmingly Democratic,"NEWS, Natan Guttman,weblink Myths About the "Jewish Vote", Moment Magazine, July–August 2011, an assertion confirmed by the most recent presidential election results.Though some critics charged that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans were actually more strongly opposed to the Iraq War from its onset than any other religious group, or even most Americans. The greater opposition to the war was not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U.S. Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions were more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who shared the same political leanings.WEB,weblink Among Religious Groups, Jewish Americans Most Strongly Oppose War, Gallup, Inc., Jeffrey M. Jones, October 4, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2008, no, WEB,weblink Editor's Comments, Near East, October 4, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2008, no,

Domestic issues

A 2013 Pew Research Center survey suggests that American Jews' views on domestic politics are intertwined with the community's self-definition as a persecuted minority who benefited from the liberties and societal shifts in the United States and feel obligated to help other minorities enjoy the same benefits. American Jews across age and gender lines tend to vote for and support politicians and policies supported by the Democratic Party. On the other hand, Orthodox American Jews have domestic political views that are more similar to their religious Christian neighbors.Boyarsky, Bill. "Pew finds Jews mostly liberal." Jewish Journal. 23 October 2013. 23 October 2013.American Jews are largely supportive of LGBT rights with 79% responding in a 2011 Pew poll that homosexuality should be "accepted by society".WEB,weblink Pugh Forum findings Page 92, March 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 9, 2011, no, A split on homosexuality exists by level of observance. Reform rabbis in America perform same-sex marriages as a matter of routine, and there are fifteen LGBT Jewish congregations in North America.NEWS,weblink The gay question and the Jewish question, haaretz, January 6, 2010, 2006-12-10, Reform, Reconstructionist and, increasingly, Conservative, Jews are far more supportive on issues like gay marriage than Orthodox Jews are.WEB,weblink Attacks on Gay Rights: How Jews See It,, A 2007 survey of Conservative Jewish leaders and activists showed that an overwhelming majority supported gay rabbinical ordination and same-sex marriage.WEB,weblink Poll: Conservative Leaders Back Gay Rabbis, Rebecca Spence, April 23, 2009, Forward Association, Accordingly, 78% of Jewish voters rejected Proposition 8, the bill that banned gay marriage in California. No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it.NEWS,weblink L.A. Jews overwhelmingly opposed Prop. 8, exit poll finds, LA Times, December 10, 2008, November 9, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2008, no, In considering the trade-off between the economy and environmental protection, American Jews were significantly more likely than other religious groups (excepting Buddhism) to favor stronger environmental protection.WEB,weblink Pugh Forum findings Page 104, March 10, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 9, 2011, no, Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy. Eighty-six percent of Jewish Americans opposed arresting nonviolent marijuana smokers, compared to 61% for the population at large and 68% of all Democrats. Additionally, 85% of Jews in the United States opposed using federal law enforcement to close patient cooperatives for medical marijuana in states where medical marijuana is legal, compared to 67% of the population at large and 73% of Democrats.WEB,weblink Majority of Americans Oppose US Marijuana Policies, April 23, 2009, NORML,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2009, no, A 2014 Pew Research survey titled "How Americans Feel About Religious Groups", found that Jews were viewed the most favorably of all other groups, with a rating of 63 out of 100.WEB, How Americans Feel About Religious Groups, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2014-07-16,weblink 2018-02-10, Jews were viewed most positively by fellow Jews, followed by white Evangelicals. Sixty percent of the 3,200 persons surveyed said they had ever met a Jew.WEB, Green, Emma, Americans Say Jews Are the Coolest, The Atlantic, 2014-07-16,weblink 2018-02-10,

Jewish American culture

{{See also|Secular Jewish culture}}Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America (over 2,000,000 Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived between 1890 and 1924), Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.Jewish languages in the US">

Language{| class"infobox"|+ Jewish languages in the US

! style="width: 50px"| Year! style="width: 70px"| Hebrew! style="width: 60px"| Yiddishforeignborn}} — 1,051,767{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}foreignborn}} — 1,091,820{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}foreignborn}} — 1,222,658{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}foreignborn}} — 924,440{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}foreignborn}} 38,346 503,605{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}}foreignborn}} 36,112 438,116{{Citation needed|date=June 2014}} PUBLISHER = UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU |315,953 YEAR = 1990 UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU > ACCESSDATE = JULY 22, 2012, 144,292 213,064 PUBLISHER = UNITED STATES BUREAU OF THE CENSUS |178,945{{notea DATE = MARCH 9, 1999 UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU > ACCESSDATE = AUGUST 6, 2012, }}Most American Jews today are native English speakers. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities that are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up America's Jewish population.Many of America's Hasidic Jews, being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent, are raised speaking Yiddish. Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States. It was, in fact, the original language in which The Forward was published. Yiddish has had an influence on American English, and words borrowed from it include chutzpah ("effrontery", "gall"), nosh ("snack"), schlep ("drag"), schmuck ("an obnoxious, contemptible person", euphemism for "penis"), and, depending on ideolect, hundreds of other terms. (See also Yinglish.)The Persian Jewish community in the United States, notably the large community in and around Los Angeles and Beverly Hills, California, primarily speak Persian (see also Judeo-Persian) in the home and synagogue. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Persian Jews also reside in eastern parts of New York such as Kew Gardens and Great Neck, Long Island.Many recent Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in Brighton Beach in New York City and Sunny Isles Beach in Florida. 2010 estimates of the number of Jewish Russian-speaking households in the New York city area are around 92,000, and the number of individuals are somewhere between 223,000–350,000.Kliger, Sam. "Russian Jews in America: Status, Identity and Integration". International Conference "Russian-speaking Jewry in Global Perspective: Assimilation, Integration and Community-building". American Jewish Committee (AJC). June 2004 Another high population of Russian Jews can be found in the Richmond District of San Francisco where Russian markets stand alongside the numerous Asian businesses.File:Brooklyn Posters 1.jpg|thumb|left|A typical poster-hung wall in Jewish BrooklynBrooklynAmerican Bukharan Jews speak Bukhori, a dialect of Persian, and Russian. They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live in Queens, New York. Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to 108th Street, which is called by some "Bukharian Broadway",NEWS,weblink The New York Times, The Silk Road Leads to Queens, Julia, Moskin, January 18, 2006, April 23, 2010, a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Many Bukharians are also represented in parts of Arizona, Miami, Florida, and areas of Southern California such as San Diego.Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh (Bible) and Siddur (prayerbook). Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel, which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language.There are a diversity of Hispanic Jews living in America. The oldest community is that of the Sephardic Jews of New Netherland. Their ancestors had fled Spain or Portugal during the Inquisition for the Netherlands, and then came to New Netherland. Though there is dispute over whether they should be considered Hispanic. Some Hispanic Jews, particularly in Miami and Los Angeles, immigrated from Latin America. The largest groups are those that fled Cuba after the communist revolution (known as Jewbans), Argentine Jews, and more recently, Venezuelan Jews. Argentina is the Latin American country with the largest Jewish population. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. The last Hispanic Jewish community would be those that recently came from Portugal or Spain, after Spain and Portugal granted citizenship to the descendants of Jews who fled during the Inquisition. All of the above listed Hispanic Jewish groups speak either Spanish or Ladino.

Jewish American literature

Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall, there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature. Jewish American literature often explores the experience of being a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history.

Popular culture

Yiddish theater was very well attended, and provided a training ground for performers and producers who moved to Hollywood in the 1920s. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish.BOOK, Sarah Blacher Cohen, From Hester Street to Hollywood: The Jewish-American Stage and Screen, 1983, Indiana University Press, BOOK, Gabler, Neal, Neal Gabler, An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood, 1988, Crown Publishing Group, An Empire of Their Own, They played roles in the development of radio and television networks, typified by William S. Paley who ran CBS.Sally Bedell Smith, In All His Glory: the Life and Times of William S. Paley and the Birth of Modern Broadcasting (1990). Stephen J. Whitfield states that "The Sarnoff family was long dominant at NBC."Stephen J. Whitfield, "The Jewish contribution to American journalism." American Journalism 3.2 (1986): 99–112, quote p 102.Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture.Paul Buhle, From the Lower East Side to Hollywood: Jews in American Popular Culture (Verso, 2004). There have been many Jewish American actors and performers, ranging from early 1900s actors, to classic Hollywood film stars, and culminating in many currently known actors. The field of American comedy includes many Jews. The legacy also includes songwriters and authors, for example the author of the song "Viva Las Vegas" Doc Pomus, or Billy the Kid composer Aaron Copland. Many Jews have been at the forefront of women's issues.There were 110 Jewish players in Major League Baseball between 1870 and 1881.JOURNAL, Patterson, Alan Owen, February 2008, The Eastern European Jewish Immigrant Experience with Baseball in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century, Modern Judaism, 28, 1, 79–104, 30130936, 10.1093/mj/kjm019, The first generation of Jewish Americans who immigrated during the 1880–1924 peak period were not interested in baseball, and in some cases tried to prevent their children from watching or participating in baseball-related activities. Most were focused on making sure they and their children took advantage of education and employment opportunities. Despite the efforts of parents, Jewish children became interested in baseball quickly since it was already embedded in the broader American culture. The second generation of immigrants saw baseball as a means to celebrate American culture without abandoning their broader religious community. After 1924, many Yiddish newspapers began covering baseball, which they had not done previously.

Government and military

File:JewishConfederate.JPG|thumb|right|Grave of Confederate Jewish soldier near Clinton, LouisianaClinton, Louisiana{{see also|Military history of Jewish Americans}}Since 1845, a total of 34 Jews have served in the Senate, including the 14 present-day senators noted above. Judah P. Benjamin was the first practicing Jewish Senator, and would later serve as Confederate Secretary of War and Secretary of State during the Civil War. Rahm Emanuel served as Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama. The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all-time high of 30. Eight Jews have been appointed to the United States Supreme Court, of which three (Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer and Elena Kagan) are currently serving. Had Merrick Garland's 2016 nomination been accepted, that number would have risen to four out of nine.The Civil War marked a transition for American Jews. It killed off the antisemitic canard, widespread in Europe, to the effect that Jews are cowardly, preferring to run from war rather than serve alongside their fellow citizens in battle.Adam Mendelsohn, "Beyond the Battlefield: Reevaluating the Legacy of the Civil War for American Jews," American Jewish Archives Journal 64 (nos. 1–2, 2012), 82–111 online.Howard B. Rock, "Upheaval, Innovation, and Transformation: New York City Jews and the Civil War," American Jewish Archives Journal 64 (nos. 1–2, 2012), 1–26.At least twenty eight American Jews have been awarded the Medal of Honor.

World War II

More than 550,000 Jews served in the U.S. military during World War II; about 11,000 were killed and more than 40,000 were wounded. There were three recipients of the Medal of Honor; 157 recipients of the Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Distinguished Service Cross, or Navy Cross; and about 1600 recipients of the Silver Star. About 50,000 other decorations and awards were given to Jewish military personnel, for a total of 52,000 decorations. During this period, Jews were approximately 3.3 percent of the total U.S. population but constituted about 4.23 percent of the U.S. armed forces. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and medics.Brody, Seymour. "Jewish Heroes and Heroines in America: World War II to the Present, A Judaica Collection Exhibit."Many Jewish physicists, including project lead J. Robert Oppenheimer, were involved in the Manhattan Project, the secret World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb. Many of these were refugees from Nazi Germany or from antisemitic persecution elsewhere in Europe.

American folk music

Jews have been involved in the American folk music scene since the late 19th century;WEB,weblink Union Hymnal: Songs and Prayers for Jewish Worship: Central Conference of American Rabbis, Committee on Synagogue Music, these tended to be refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, and significantly more economically disadvantaged than their established Western European and Sephardic coreligionists.WEB,weblink The Jew and American Popular Music, Margaret Burri, July 18, 2007,, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2013, mdy-all, Historians see it as a legacy of the secular Yiddish theater, cantorial traditions and a desire to assimilate. By the 1940s Jews had become established in the American folk music scene.Examples of the major impact Jews have had in the American folk music arena include, but are not limited to: Moe Asch the first to record and release much of the music of Woody Guthrie, including "This Land is Your Land" (see The Asch Recordings) in response to Irving Berlin's "God Bless America", and Guthrie wrote Jewish songs. Guthrie married a Jew and their son Arlo became influential in his own right. Asch's one-man corporation Folkways Records also released much of the music of Leadbelly and Pete Seeger from the '40s and '50s. Asch's large music catalog was voluntarily donated to the Smithsonian.Three of the four creators of the Newport Folk Festival, Wein, Bikel and Grossman (Seeger is not) were Jewish. Albert Grossman put together Peter, Paul and Mary, of which Yarrow is Jewish. Oscar Brand, from a Canadian Jewish family, has the longest running radio program "Oscar Brand's Folksong Festival" which has been on air consecutively since 1945 from NYC.WEB,weblink Folksong Festival, WNYC, And is the first American broadcast where the host himself will answer any personal correspondence.The influential group The Weavers, successor to the Almanac Singers, led by Pete Seeger, had a Jewish manager, and 2 of the 4 members of the group were Jewish (Gilbert and Hellerman). The B-side of "Good Night Irene" had the Hebrew folk song personally chosen for the record by Pete Seeger "Tzena, Tzena, Tzena".The influential folk music magazine Sing Out! was co-founded and edited by Irwin Silber in 1951, and edited by him until 1967, when the magazine stopped publication for decades. Rolling Stone magazine's first music critic Jon Landau is of German Jewish descent. Izzy Young who created the legendaryDylan, Seeger, Lomax, Cohen all either write whole songs about it, or spend considerable time praising it Folklore Center in NY, and currently the Folklore Centrum near Mariatorget in Södermalm, Sweden, which relates to American and Swedish folk music.WEB, Izzy Young: A folk man in Sweden defined by Dylan,weblink "The Local", 4 January 2014, 2010-02-15, Dave Van Ronk observed that the behind the scenes 1950s folk scene "was at the very least 50 percent Jewish, and they adopted the music as part of their assimilation into the Anglo-American tradition which itself was largely an artificial construct but none the less provided us with some common ground".Dave von Ronk, The Mayor of Macdougal Street, A Folk Memoir p. 29Nobel Prize winner Bob Dylan is also Jewish.

Finance and law

Jews have been involved in financial services since the colonial era. They received rights to trade fur, from the Dutch and Swedish colonies. British governors honored these rights after taking over. During the Revolutionary War, Haym Solomon helped create America's first semi-central bank, and advised Alexander Hamilton on the building of America's financial system.American Jews in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries played a major role in developing America's financial services industry, both at investment banks and investment funds."Banking and Bankers," Encyclopaedia Judaica. (2nd ed. 2008) online German Jewish bankers began to assume a major role in American finance in the 1830s when government and private borrowing to pay for canals, railroads and other internal improvements increased rapidly and significantly. Men such as August Belmont (Rothschild's agent in New York and a leading Democrat), Philip Speyer, Jacob Schiff (at Kuhn, Loeb & Company), Joseph Seligman, Philip Lehman (of Lehman Brothers), Jules Bache, and Marcus Goldman (of Goldman Sachs) illustrate this financial elite.Stephen Birmingham, Our Crowd: The Great Jewish Families of New York (1967) pp. 8–9, 96–108, 128–42, 233–36, 331–37, 343, As was true of their non-Jewish counterparts, family, personal, and business connections, a reputation for honesty and integrity, ability, and a willingness to take calculated risks were essential to recruit capital from widely scattered sources. The families and the firms which they controlled were bound together by religious and social factors, and by the prevalence of intermarriage. These personal ties fulfilled real business functions before the advent of institutional organization in the 20th century.Vincent P. Carosso, "A Financial Elite: New York's German-Jewish Investment Bankers," American Jewish Historical Quarterly, 1976, Vol. 66 Issue 1, pp. 67–88Barry E. Supple, "A Business Elite: German-Jewish Financiers in Nineteenth-Century New York," Business History Review, Summer 1957, Vol. 31 Issue 2, pp. 143–177 Antisemitic elements often falsely targeted them as key players in a supposed Jewish cabal conspiring to dominate the world.Richard Levy, ed. Bankers, Jewish" in Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution'' (2005) pp. 55–56Since the late 20th century, Jews have played a major role in the hedge fund industry, according to Zuckerman (2009).Bruce Zuckerman, The Jewish Role In American Life (2009) pp. 64, 70 Thus SAC Capital Advisors,Led by Steven Cohen; Bruce Zuckerman, The Jewish Role In American Life (2009) p. 71 Soros Fund Management,Bruce Zuckerman, The Jewish Role In American Life (2009) p. 72 Och-Ziff Capital Management,"Schechter school mourns founder Golda Och, 74" New Jersey Jewish News Jan. 13, 2010 GLG Partners"The 400 Richest Americans: No. 355 Noam Gottesman" Forbes Sept 17. 1008 Renaissance TechnologiesSteven L. Pease. The Golden Age of Jewish Achievement (2009) p. 510 and Elliott Management Corporationweblink" title="">JTA: "Jewish, Republican, pro-gay rights" By Ron Kampeas May 14, 2011{{Sfn|Celarier|2012}} are large hedge funds cofounded by Jews. They have also played a pivotal role in the private equity industry, co-founding some of the largest firms in the United States, such as Blackstone,See Jamie Johnson, "Wasps Stung over Renaming of the N.Y.P.L." weblink" title="">Vanity Fair Daily May 19, 2008 Cerberus Capital Management,Hareetz: "A shy wunderkind, Stephen Feinberg" By Eytan Avriel November 16, 2005 TPG Capital,"TPG Sells Shares of Indian Company – Win-win for Everybody!" By Orna Taub, Jewish Business News, March 26, 2013 BlackRock,NEWS,weblink The Jewish Daily Forward, Jews Dominate Vanity Fair 100 Most Influential Moguls List, 3 September 2010, September 3, 2010, Israel, Michael, Kaminer, Carlyle Group,Robin Pogrebin, "Donor Gives Lincoln Center $10 Million", New York Times Sept. 30, 2009 Warburg Pincus,Ron Chernow, The Warburgs (1994) p. 661 and KKR.R. William Weisberger, "Jews and American Investment Banking," American Jewish Archives, June 1991, Vol. 43 Issue 1, pp. 71–75On the careers of John Gutfreund (at Salomon Brothers); Felix Rohatyn (based at Lazard); Sanford I. Weill (of Citigroup) and numerous others see Judith Ramsey Ehrlich, The New Crowd: The Changing of the Jewish Guard on Wall Street (1990), pp. 4, 72, 226.Charles D. Ellis, The Partnership: The Making of Goldman Sachs (2nd ed. 2009) pp. 29, 45, 52, 91, 93Very few Jewish lawyers were hired by White Anglo-Saxon Protestant ("WASP") upscale white-shoe law firms, but they started their own. The WASP dominance in law ended when a number of major Jewish law firms attained elite status in dealing with top -ranked corporations. As late as 1950 there was not a single large Jewish law firm in New York City. However, by 1965 six of the 20 largest firms were Jewish; by 1980 four of the ten largest were Jewish.Eli Wald, "The rise and fall of the WASP and Jewish law firms." Stanford Law Review 60 (2007): 1803-1866; discrimination p. 1838 and statistics p. 1805.

Federal Reserve

Paul Warburg, one of the leading advocates of the establishment of a central bank in the United States and one of the first governors of the newly established Federal Reserve System, came from a prominent Jewish family in Germany.Ron Chernow, The Warburgs (1994) p. 26 Since then, several Jews have served as chairmen of the Fed, including the prior chairmen Ben Bernanke, Alan Greenspan and Janet Yellen.

Science, business, and academia

With the Jewish penchant to be drawn to white collar professional jobs and having excelled at intellectual pursuits, many Jews have also become been remarkably successful as an entrepreneurial and professional minority in the United States. Jewish culture has a strong tradition, emphasis and respect for money and a deep emphasis on financial acumen, business shrewdness, and entrepreneurial savvy have resulted in many Jews starting their own businesses that have become major economic growth engines that shape much of the U.S. economy. Many Jewish family businesses that are passed down from one generation to the next serve as an asset, source of income and layer a strong financial groundwork for the family's overall socioeconomic prosperity.WEB,weblink Common traits bind Jews and Chinese, Asia Times Online, Jan 10, 2014, 23 September 2015, WEB,weblink Common Traits Bind Jews and Chinese, Spengler, WEB,weblink Misconceptions and lessons about Chinese and Jewish entrepreneurs, Lifestyle, Aug 3, 2015, 23 September 2015, WEB,weblink The Chosen Few: A New Explanation of Jewish Success, PBS Newshour, April 18, 2013, 4 July 2015, Maristella Botticini and Zvi Eckstein, WEB,weblink How did American Jews get so rich?, YNetNews, 2011-10-26, 4 July 2015, Tani Goldstein, Within the Jewish American cultural sphere, Jewish Americans have also developed a strong culture of entrepreneurship as excellence in entrepreneurship and engagement in business and commerce is highly prized in Jewish culture.WEB,weblink Why Are So Many Pro Basketball Owners Jewish (Like Donald Sterling)?, Forward, May 6, 2014, 5 April 2015, Josh Nathan-Kazis, American Jews have also been drawn to various disciplines within academia such as physics, sociology, economics, psychology, mathematics, philosophy and linguistics (see Secular Jewish culture for some of the causes), and have played a disproportionate role in numerous academic domains. Jewish American intellectuals such as Saul Bellow, Ayn Rand, Noam Chomsky, Thomas Friedman, and Elie Wiesel have made a major impact within mainstream American public life. Of the United States top 200 most influential intellectuals, 50% are fully Jewish with 76% of Jewish Americans overall having at least one Jewish parent.BOOK, The Triple Package: How Three Unlikely Traits Explain the Rise and Fall of Cultural Groups in America, Penguin Press HC, Amy Chua, Jed Rubenfeld, 2014, 53–54, 978-1594205460, BOOK, The Vanishing American Jew: In Search of Jewish Identity for the Next Century, Hachette, March 1, 1997, Dershowiz, Alan, 11, BOOK,weblink In the Image of God: Religion, Moral Values, and Our Heritage of Slavery, 27 August 2014, David Brion Davis, 2001, 54, 978-0300088144, Of American Nobel Prize winners, 37 percent have been Jewish Americans (18 times the percentage of Jews in the population), as have been 61 percent of the John Bates Clark Medal in economics recipients (thirty-five times the Jewish percentage).WEB,weblink JEWISH RECIPIENTS OF THE JOHN BATES CLARK MEDAL IN ECONOMICS, Jinfo, September 9, 2014, In the business world, while Jewish Americans only constitute less than 2.5 percent of the U.S. population, they occupied 7.7 percent of board seats at various U.S. corporations.WEB,weblink Mother Jones, the Changing Power Elite, 1998, January 20, 2007, American Jews also have a strong presence in NBA ownership. Of the 30 teams in the NBA, there are 14 Jewish principal owners. Several Jews have served as NBA commissioners including prior NBA commissioner David Stern and current commissioner Adam Silver.Since many careers in science, business, and academia generally pay well, Jewish Americans also tend to have a higher average income than most Americans. The 2000–2001 National Jewish Population Survey shows that the median income of a Jewish family is $54,000 a year and 34% of Jewish households report income over $75,000 a year.WEB,weblink NJPS: Demography: Education, Employment and Income,, 2001, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2013,

Notable people

See also

Notes and references




{{reflist|30em|refs=6,700,000–6,829,930 according to:
  • BOOK, Arnold Dashefsky, Ira M. Sheskin, American Jewish Year Book 2015: The Annual Record of the North American Jewish Communities,weblink 3 February 2016, Springer, 978-3-319-24505-8, 175–,
  • WEB, A portrait of Jewish Americans Chapter 1: Population Estimates,weblink Pew Research Center, 7 October 2013, 1 October 2013, Combining 5.3 million adult Jews (the estimated size of the net Jewish population in this survey) with 1.3 million children (in households with a Jewish adult who are being raised Jewish or partly Jewish) yields a total estimate of 6.7 million Jews of all ages in the United States (rounded to the nearest 100,000),
An Estimate of 7,160,000 according to: Enlarged population of 8,000,000–10,000,000 according to:
  • REPORT, DellaPergola, Sergio, 2015, World Jewish Population, 2015,weblink Berman Jewish DataBank, 23 May 2019,


  • American Jewish Committee. American Jewish Yearbook: The Annual Record of Jewish Civilization (annual, 1899–2012+),complete text online 1899–2007; long sophisticated essays on status of Jews in U.S. and worldwide; the standard primary source used by historians
  • Norwood, Stephen H., and Eunice G. Pollack, eds. Encyclopedia of American Jewish history (2 vol 2007), 775pp; comprehenisive coverage by experts; excerpt and text search vol 1
  • Etengoff, C., (2011). An Exploration of religious gender differences amongst Jewish-American emerging adults of different socio-religious subgroups, Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 33, 371–391.
  • The Jewish People in America 5 vol 1992
  • Antler, Joyce., ed. Talking Back: Images of Jewish Women in American Popular Culture. 1998.
  • Cohen, Naomi. Jews in Christian America: The Pursuit of Religious Equality. 1992.
  • Cutler, Irving. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb. 1995
  • Diner, Hasia et al. Her works praise her: a history of Jewish women in America from colonial times to the present (2002)
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004) online
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard. Antisemitism in America. 1994.
  • Dollinger, Marc. Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America. 2000.
  • Eisen, Arnold M. The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology. 1983.
  • Feingold, Henry L. American Jewish Political Culture and the Liberal Persuasion (Syracuse University Press; 2014) 384 pages; traces the history, dominance, and motivations of liberalism in the American Jewish political culture, and look at concerns about Israel and memories of the Holocaust.
  • Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2nd ed., 1989.
  • Goren, Arthur. The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews. 1999.
  • Howe, Irving. World of our Fathers: The journey of the East European Jews to America and the life they found and made (1976)
  • Gurock, Jeffrey S. From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America. Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998.
  • Hyman, Paula, and Deborah Dash Moore, eds. Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 1997
  • Kobrin, Rebecca, ed. Chosen Capital: The Jewish Encounter With American Capitalism (Rutgers University Press; 2012) 311 pages; scholarly essays on the liquor, real-estate, and scrap-metal industries, and Jews as union organizers.
  • Lederhendler, Eli. New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970. 2001
  • Lederhendler, Eli. American Jewry: A New History (Cambridge UP, 2017). 331 pp.
  • Marcus, Jacob Rader. United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 1: The Sephardic Period; United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 2: The Germanic Period.; United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 3: The Germanic Period, Part 2.; United States Jewry 1776–1985. Vol. 4: The East European Period: The Emergence of the American Jew; Epilogue. (Wayne State University Press, 1989–1993) 3119pp.
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. (To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A.) 1994
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation (2006)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. 1999.
  • Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp.
  • Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism Yale University Press, 2004. {{ISBN|978-0-300-10197-3}}. 512 pp. weblink
  • Sorin, Gerald. Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America. 1997.
  • Svonkin, Stuart. Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties. 1997
  • Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don't Know about the Judaism of America's Jews." Contemporary Jewry (2002) 23: 72–95. {{ISSN|0147-1694}} Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973–2002.
  • Wertheimer, Jack, ed. The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed. 1987.


  • Appel, John J. "Hansen's Third-Generation" Law" and the Origins of the American Jewish Historical Society." Jewish Social Studies (1961): 3–20. in JSTOR
  • Butler, Jon. "Jacob Rader Marcus and the Revival of Early American History, 1930–1960." American Jewish Archives 501/2 (1998): 28–39. online
  • Fried, Lewis, et al., eds. Handbook of American-Jewish literature: an analytical guide to topics, themes, and sources (Greenwood Press, 1988)
  • JOURNAL, Gurock, Jeffrey S, 2013, Writing New York's Twentieth Century Jewish History: A Five Borough Journey, History Compass, 11, 3, 215–226, 10.1111/hic3.12033,
  • Gurock, Jeffrey S. American Jewish orthodoxy in historical perspective (KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1996)
  • Handlin, Oscar. "A Twenty Year Retrospect of American Jewish Historiography." American Jewish Historical Quarterly (1976): 295–309. in JSTOR
  • Kaufman, David. Shul with a Pool: The" synagogue-center" in American Jewish History (University Press of New England, 1999.)
  • Robinson, Ira. "The Invention of American Jewish History." American Jewish History (1994): 309–320. in JSTOR
  • Sussman, Lance J. "'Historian of the Jewish People': A Historiographical Reevaluation of the Writings of Jacob R. Marcus." American Jewish Archives 50.1/2 (1998): 10–21. online
  • Whitfield, Stephen J. In Search of American Jewish Culture. 1999
  • Yerushalmi, Yosef Hayim. Zakhor: Jewish history and Jewish memory (University of Washington Press, 2012)

Primary sources

  • Marcus, Jacob Rader, ed. The American Jewish Woman, A Documentary History (Ktav 1981).
  • Schappes, Morris Urman, ed. A documentary history of the Jews in the United States, 1654–1875 (Citadel Press, 1952).
  • Staub, Michael E. ed. The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. {{ISBN|1-58465-417-1}} online review

External links

{{Organized Jewish Life in the United States|state=expanded}}{{Demographics of the United States}}{{Middle Eastern American}}

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