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Los Angeles
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{{about|the U.S. city|the county in California|Los Angeles County, California|other uses|Los Angeles (disambiguation)}}{{redirect-multi|2|LA|L.A.|the U.S. state with the postal abbreviation LA|Louisiana|other uses|L.A. (disambiguation)}}{{use mdy dates|date=July 2018}}{{use American English|date=May 2016}}







factoids
Downtown Los Angeles| photo2a = Wiki training 0226.jpg{{!}}Hollywood Sign| photo2b = Griffith Observatory - Dusk.jpg{{!}}Griffith Observatory| photo3a = Los Angeles City Hall 2013.jpg{{!}}Los Angeles City Hall| photo3b = LAX Theme Building by Mark Baertschi 3-12-11.jpg{{!}}Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport| photo4a = Vincent Thomas Bridge 2.jpg{{!}}Vincent Thomas Bridge| photo4b = Venice Beach, Los Angeles, CA 01.JPG{{!}}Venice Beach| spacing = 1| color_border = white| color = white| size = 280|Hottest|63.9|64.2|67.5|68.2|71.5|75.9|79.8|79.0|80.3|75.4|66.9|62.2|Coldest|46.7|51.1|52.0|55.2|57.2|62.9|66.2|66.3|63.1|57.8|55.2|49.4|Wettest|14.43|15.23|10.44|7.31|3.83|0.98|0.43|2.54|5.13|5.13|9.96|11.46|Driest|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0
Downtown Los Angeles>Downtown seen from Echo Park, Los Angeles, Griffith Observatory, the Theme Building at Los Angeles International Airport, Venice Beach, Vincent Thomas Bridge, Los Angeles City Hall>City Hall and the Hollywood Sign}}| image_flag = Flag of Los Angeles, California.svg| image_seal = Seal of Los Angeles, California.svgThe Entertainment Capital of the World, The Big Orange,HTTP://LEARNINGENGLISH.VOANEWS.COM/CONTENT/NICKNAMES-FOR-LOS-ANGELES/1644584.HTMLWORK=VOICE OF AMERICALAST1=GOLLUSTACCESSDATE=JUNE 26, 2014, La-la-land, Tinseltown| image_map = LA County Incorporated Areas Los Angeles highlighted.svg| map_caption = Location within Los Angeles County| pushpin_map = California#USA#North America#World| pushpin_map_caption = Location within CaliforniaLocation within the United StatesLocation within North America##Location on Earth| pushpin_label = Los Angeles| pushpin_mapsize = 280| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_label_position = right34N15region:US-CA|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country{{flagu|United States}}}}U.S. state>StateList of counties in California>CountyCombined Statistical Area>CSAMetropolitan statistical area>MSACalifornia}}Los Angeles County, California>Los AngelesGreater Los Angeles>Los Angeles-Long BeachLos Angeles metropolitan area>Los Angeles-Long Beach-AnaheimPueblo de Los Ángeles>PuebloTITLE=HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA QUARTERLYACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2011PAGE=151FFVOLUME=4, | established_title1 = City status PUBLISHER=KCET DATE = APRIL 2016, Municipal corporation>IncorporatedDEAD-URL = YES TITLE = CALIFORNIA CITIES BY INCORPORATION DATEPUBLISHER=CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL AGENCY FORMATION COMMISSIONS, August 25, 2014, Queen of Heaven>Our Lady, Queen of the AngelsMayor–council government>Mayor-Council-CommissionHTTP://WWW.LACITY.ORG/CITY-GOVERNMENT/ABOUT-CITY-GOVERNMENT >TITLE=ABOUT THE CITY GOVERNMENT ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2015 ARCHIVE-DATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2015 DF=MDY-ALL, | governing_body = Los Angeles City CouncilMayor of Los Angeles, California>MayorEric Garcetti (Democratic Party (United States)>D)HTTP://WWW.LACITY.ORG/CITYDIRECTORY/INDEX.HTM >TITLE=CITY DIRECTORYPUBLISHER=CITY OF LOS ANGELES ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141113102218/HTTP://WWW.LACITY.ORG/CITYDIRECTORY/INDEX.HTM, November 13, 2014, Los Angeles City Attorney>City Attorney| leader_name1 = Mike Feuer (D)| total_type = Total| unit_pref = ImperialPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 28, 2017, | area_total_km2 = 1302.15| area_total_sq_mi = 502.76| area_land_km2 = 1214.03| area_land_sq_mi = 468.74| area_water_km2 = 88.12| area_water_sq_mi = 34.02| area_water_percent = 6.7PUBLISHER=US GEOLOGICAL SURVEYACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 10, 2015, | elevation_min_footnotes = | population_total = 37926212010 United States Census>2010ACCESSDATE=JULY 2, 2016, | population_density_km2 = 3275.32| population_density_sq_mi = 8483.02| population_est = 3990456| pop_est_as_of = 2018PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION, May 23, 2019, | population_urban = 12,150,996ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120516110036/HTTP://WWW2.CENSUS.GOV/GEO/UA/UA_LIST_ALL.TXTARCHIVE-DATE=MAY 16, 2012UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU>ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 29, 2014,weblink {{Webarchiveweblink >date=April 3, 2019 }}List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>2nd)PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 15, 2014, List of largest California cities by population>1st, California2nd, U.S.Combined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>2nd)| population_demonym = Angeleno| postal_code_type = ZIP Codes| postal_code = {{collapsible list
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|90001–90084, 90086–90089, 90091, 90093–90097, 90099, 90101–90103, 90174, 90185, 90189, 90291–90293, 91040–91043, 91303–91308, 91311, 91316, 91324–91328, 91330, 91331, 91335, 91340, 91342–91349, 91352–91353, 91356–91357, 91364–91367, 91401–91499, 91504–91505, 91601–91609Zip Codes Within the City of Los Angeles – LAHD }}
Area codes 213 and 323>213/323, Area codes 310 and 424, Area codes 747 and 818>747/818North American Numbering Plan>Area codesFederal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code06|44000}}Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature IDs1662328}}, {{GNIS 4|2410877}}| website = {{official website}}| short_description = City in CaliforniaLos Angeles City Controller>City Controller| leader_name2 = Ron Galperin (D)| elevation_max_ft = 5074WEBSITE=CENSUS BUREAU ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 29, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140815134909/HTTP://FACTFINDER2.CENSUS.GOV/FACES/TABLESERVICES/JSF/PAGES/PRODUCTVIEW.XHTML?SRC=BKMK, August 15, 2014, Pacific Time Zone>Pacific| utc_offset = −08:00Pacific Daylight Time>PDT| utc_offset_DST = −07:00}}Los Angeles ({{IPAc-en|l|ɔː|s|_|ˈ|æ|n|dÊ’|É™|l|É™|s|audio=En-us-los-angeles.ogg}};{{efn|{{IPAc-en|uk|audio=En-uk-Los Angeles.ogg|l|É’|s|_|ˈ|æ|n|dÊ’|ɪ|l|iː|z|,_|-|l|ɪ|z|,_|-|l|ɪ|s}}}} ; ),EPD, 18, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million,WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2018 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, May 23, 2019, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as {{convert|10000|ft|m}} on the other. The city proper, which covers about {{convert|469|sqmi|km2}},US GAZETTEER, 2010, places, CA, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is also the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 – United States – Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico, United States Census Bureau, It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area, also the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2015 Population Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, April 6, 2016, Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is also famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index. The Los Angeles metropolitan area also has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion ({{As of|2017|lc=y}}), making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028. The city also hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, and was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments.Historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was officially founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood. The discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.WEB,weblink Subterranean L.A.: The Urban Oil Fields {{!, The Getty Iris|date=2013-07-16|website=blogs.getty.edu|accessdate=December 31, 2015}} The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, later assured the city's continued rapid growth.{{TOC limit|3}}

History

{{See also|Timeline of Los Angeles|Los Angeles in the 1920s}}

Pre-colonial history

The Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Tongva (Gabrieleños) and Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), meaning "poison oak place".BOOK,weblink Fifteen Hundred California Place Names, Bright, William, University of California Press, 1998, 978-0-520-21271-8, 86, 97043147, Founded on the site of a Gabrielino Indian village called Yang-na, or more accurately iyáangẚ, 'poison-oak place.', NEWS,weblink Roots of native names, Sullivan, Ron, December 7, 2002, San Francisco Chronicle, January 7, 2015, Los Angeles itself was built over a Gabrielino village called Yangna or iyaanga', 'poison oak place.', Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.BOOK,weblink The Herald's History of Los Angeles, Willard, Charles Dwight, Kingsley-Barnes & Neuner, 1901, Los Angeles, 21–24, September 29, 2011, Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769.WEB,weblink Portola Expedition 1769 Diaries, Pacifica Historical Society, January 7, 2015,

Spanish rule

In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area.BOOK,weblink California missions and presidios, Leffingwell, Randy, Worden, Alastair, November 4, 2005, Voyageur Press, 978-0-89658-492-1, 43–44, September 30, 2011, On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called .WEB,weblink Settlement of Los Angeles, Los Angeles Almanac, en-US, 2018-09-02, mdy-all, {{efn|It is popularly believed that the original name was El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciuncula ("The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels of (the River) Porciuncula"), but official documents make it clear that it was not.}} The present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or (New Spain) settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry.BOOK, Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California, Mulroy, Kevin, Taylor, Quintard, Autry Museum of Western Heritage, March 2001, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-98082-9, 79, The Early African Heritage in California (Forbes, Jack D.), September 30, 2011,weblink The settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents.BOOK,weblink Historical and biographical record of southern California: containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century, Guinn, James Miller, Chapman pub. co., 1902, 63, September 30, 2011, Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles.BOOK,weblink Los Angeles's Olvera Street, Estrada, William D., Arcadia Publishing, 2006, 978-0-7385-3105-2, September 30, 2011,

Mexican rule

New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, and the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico. During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital.WEB,weblink Pio Pico, Afro Mexican Governor of Mexican California, African American Registry,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202031612weblink">weblink February 2, 2017, yes, January 24, 2017,

1847 to present

Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847.BOOK,weblink Historical and biographical record of southern California: containing a history of southern California from its earliest settlement to the opening year of the twentieth century, Guinn, James Miller, Chapman pub. co., 1902, 50, September 30, 2011, Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885.BOOK,weblink William Mulholland and the Rise of Los Angeles, Mulholland, Catherine, University of California Press, 2002, 978-0-520-23466-6, 15, September 30, 2011, Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, and by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output.BOOK,weblink Los Angeles in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City of Angels, Kipen, David, University of California Press, 2011, 978-0-520-26883-8, 45–46, September 30, 2011, By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000,WEB,weblink Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1900, June 15, 1998, United States Census Bureau, January 8, 2015, putting pressure on the city's water supply.WEB,weblink The Los Angeles Aqueduct and the Owens and Mono Lakes (MONO Case), American University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109051618weblink">weblink January 9, 2015, yes, January 8, 2015, The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city.BOOK,weblink Cadillac desert: the American West and its disappearing water, Reisner, Marc, Penguin, 1993, 978-0-14-017824-1, 86, Marc Reisner, September 30, 2011, Due to clauses in the city's charter that effectively prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.CITATION, Basiago, Andrew D., The Regents of the University of California, Water For Los Angeles – Sam Nelson Interview,weblink February 7, 1988, 11, October 7, 2013, MAP, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Engineering, Annexation and Detachment Map,weblink WEB,weblink CityDig: L.A.'s 20th Century Land Grab, Creason, Glen, 2013-09-26, Los Angeles Magazine, October 10, 2013, Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones. The new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were prohibited. The proscriptions included barns, lumber yards, and any industrial land use employing machine-powered equipment. These laws were enforced against industrial properties after-the-fact. These prohibitions were in addition to existing activities which were already regulated as nuisances. These included explosives warehousing, gas works, oil-drilling, slaughterhouses, and tanneries. Los Angeles City Council also designated seven industrial zones within the city. However, between 1908 and 1915, Los Angeles City Council created various exceptions to the broad proscriptions which applied to these three residential zones, and as a consequence, some industrial uses emerged within them. There are two differences from the 1908 Residence District Ordinance and later zoning laws in the United States. First, the 1908 laws did not establish a comprehensive zoning map as the 1916 New York City Zoning Ordinance did. Second, the residential zones did not distinguish types of housing; it treated apartments, hotels, and detached-single-family housing equally.BOOK, The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and Urban Land Planning, Weiss, Marc A, Columbia University Press, 1987, 978-0-231-06505-4, New York, 8086, In 1910, Hollywood merged into Los Angeles, with 10 movie companies already operating in the city at the time. By 1921, more than 80 percent of the world's film industry was concentrated in LA.BOOK,weblink L.A. Noir: The Struggle for the Soul of America's Most Seductive City, Buntin, John, April 6, 2010, Random House Digital, Inc., 978-0-307-35208-8, 18, September 30, 2011, The money generated by the industry kept the city insulated from much of the economic loss suffered by the rest of the country during the Great Depression.BOOK,weblink The Great Depression in America: a cultural encyclopedia, Young, William H., Young, Nancy K., March 2007, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-33521-1, 21, September 30, 2011, By 1930, the population surpassed one million.WEB,weblink Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1930, June 15, 1998, United States Census Bureau, January 8, 2015, In 1932, the city hosted the Summer Olympics.During World War II, Los Angeles was a major center of wartime manufacturing, such as shipbuilding and aircraft. Calship built hundreds of Liberty Ships and Victory Ships on Terminal Island, and the Los Angeles area was the headquarters of six of the country's major aircraft manufacturers (Douglas Aircraft Company, Hughes Aircraft, Lockheed, North American Aviation, Northrop Corporation, and Vultee). During the war, more aircraft were produced in one year than in all the pre-war years since the Wright brothers flew the first airplane in 1903, combined. Manufacturing in Los Angeles skyrocketed, and as William S. Knudsen, of the National Defense Advisory Commission put it, "We won because we smothered the enemy in an avalanche of production, the like of which he had never seen, nor dreamed possible."Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, pp.5–8, 14, 26, 36, 50, 60, 78, 94, 108, 122, Cypress, CA, 2013. {{ISBN|978-0-9897906-0-4}}.Following the end of World War II, Los Angeles grew more rapidly than ever, sprawling into the San Fernando Valley.BOOK,weblink Sprawl: A Compact History, Bruegmann, Robert, November 1, 2006, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-07691-1, 133, Robert Bruegmann, October 1, 2011, The expansion of the Interstate Highway System during the 1950s and 1960s helped propel suburban growth and signaled the demise of the city's electrified rail system, once the world's largest.The 1960s saw race relations boil over into the Watts riots of 1965 which resulted in 34 deaths and over 1,000 injuries. In 1969, Los Angeles became the birthplace of the Internet, as the first ARPANET transmission was sent from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to SRI in Menlo Park.BOOK,weblink Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins Of The Internet, Hafner, Katie, Lyon, Matthew, August 1, 1999, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-684-87216-2, 153, Katie Hafner, October 1, 2011, In 1973, Thomas Bradley was elected as the city's first African American mayor, serving for five terms until retiring in 1993. Other events in the city during the 1970s included the Symbionese Liberation Army's South Central standoff in 1974, the Hillside Stranglers murder cases in 1977–1978, Daryl Gates becoming Los Angeles Police Department's 49th-and as controversially outspoken as his predecessor Edward Davis-police chief in 1978 and also in 1978 the 50th Academy Awards ceremony at the city's Dorothy Chandler Pavilion and Jimmy Carter's first ever presidential visit and in 1979, the decade ending with the 50th anniversary of the Academy Awards (51st ever ceremony, also at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion), President Carter's second visit to the city and the City Council's and Bradley's respective passing and signing of the city's first homosexual rights bill.In 1984, the city hosted the Summer Olympic Games for the second time. Despite being boycotted by 14 Communist countries, the 1984 Olympics became more financially successful than any previous,NEWS,weblink Rodney W. Rood, 88; Played Key Role in 1984 Olympics, Built Support for Metro Rail, Woo, Elaine, June 30, 2004, Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2011, and the second Olympics to turn a profit until then–the other, according to an analysis of contemporary newspaper reports, being the 1932 Summer Olympics, also held in Los Angeles.JOURNAL, Zarnowski, C. Frank, Summer 1992, A Look at Olympic Costs,weblink yes, Citius, Altius, Fortius, 1, 1, 16–32,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528012143weblink">weblink May 28, 2008, October 1, 2011, Racial tensions erupted on April 29, 1992, with the acquittal by a Simi Valley, California jury of four Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) officers captured on videotape beating Rodney King, culminating in large-scale riots.BOOK, Encyclopedia of American race riots, Rucker, Walter C., Upton, James N., Hughey, Matthew W., Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, 978-0-313-33301-9, 376–85, Los Angeles (California) Riots of 1992, October 1, 2011,weblink NEWS,weblink Riot anniversary tour surveys progress and economic challenges in Los Angeles, Wilson, Stan, April 25, 2012, CNN, January 23, 2015, In 1994, the 6.7 Northridge earthquake shook the city, causing $12.5 billion in damage and 72 deaths.NEWS,weblink Study Raises Northridge Quake Death Toll to 72, Reich, Kenneth, December 20, 1995, Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2011, B1, The century ended with the Rampart scandal, one of the most extensive documented cases of police misconduct in American history.NEWS,weblink Rampart Scandal Timeline, October 1, 2011, Frontline (U.S. TV series), PBS Frontline, In 2002, voters defeated efforts by the San Fernando Valley and Hollywood to secede from the city.NEWS,weblink Secession drive changed San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles, Orlov, Rick, November 3, 2012, Los Angeles Daily News, January 12, 2015, Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games, making Los Angeles the third city to host the Olympics three times.WEB,weblink Los Angeles will host 2028 Olympics, Horowitz, Julia, August 1, 2017, CNNMoney,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170731190432weblink">weblink July 31, 2017, no, WEB,weblink Cities Which Have Hosted Multiple Summer Olympic Games, worldatlas,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161215161622weblink">weblink December 15, 2016, no,

Geography

{{See also|Los Angeles Basin|San Fernando Valley|Greater Los Angeles Area|Los Angeles County, California}}

Topography

The city of Los Angeles covers a total area of {{convert|502.7|sqmi|km2|0|sp=us}}, comprising {{convert|468.7|sqmi|km2}} of land and {{convert|34.0|sqmi|km2}} of water. The city extends for {{convert|44|mi|km}} longitudinally and for {{convert|29|mi|km}} latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is {{convert|342|mi|km}}.Los Angeles is both flat and hilly. The highest point in the city proper is Mount Lukens at {{convert|5074|ft|m|abbr=on}},WEB,weblink Elevations of the 50 Largest Cities (by population, 1980 Census), United States Geological Survey,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111002023211weblink">weblink October 2, 2011, yes, October 3, 2011, WEB,weblink Mount Lukens Guide, Sierra Club Angeles Chapter, October 3, 2011, located at the northeastern end of the San Fernando Valley. The eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains stretches from Downtown to the Pacific Ocean and separates the Los Angeles Basin from the San Fernando Valley. Other hilly parts of Los Angeles include the Mt. Washington area north of Downtown, eastern parts such as Boyle Heights, the Crenshaw district around the Baldwin Hills, and the San Pedro district.Surrounding the city are much higher mountains. Immediately to the north lie the San Gabriel Mountains, which is a popular recreation area for Angelenos. Its high point is Mount San Antonio, locally known as Mount Baldy, which reaches {{convert|10064|ft|m}}. Further afield, the highest point in the Greater Los Angeles area is San Gorgonio Mountain, with a height of {{convert|11503|ft}}.The Los Angeles River, which is largely seasonal, is the primary drainage channel. It was straightened and lined in {{convert|51|mi|km}} of concrete by the Army Corps of Engineers to act as a flood control channel.BOOK,weblink The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth, Gumprecht, Blake, March 2001, JHU Press, 978-0-8018-6642-5, 173, October 3, 2011, The river begins in the Canoga Park district of the city, flows east from the San Fernando Valley along the north edge of the Santa Monica Mountains, and turns south through the city center, flowing to its mouth in the Port of Long Beach at the Pacific Ocean. The smaller Ballona Creek flows into the Santa Monica Bay at Playa del Rey.

Vegetation

Los Angeles is rich in native plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent plant communities are coastal sage scrub, chaparral shrubland, and riparian woodland.BOOK,weblink Landscaping with Native Plants of Southern California, Miller, George Oxford, January 15, 2008, Voyageur Press, 978-0-7603-2967-2, 15, October 6, 2011, Native plants include: the California poppy, matilija poppy, toyon, Ceanothus, Chamise, Coast Live Oak, sycamore, willow and Giant Wildrye. Many of these native species, such as the Los Angeles sunflower, have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Although it is not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the Coral Tree (Erythrina caffra)BOOK,weblink Tropical legumes: resources for the future : report of an ad hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Commission on International Relations, National Research Council, National Research Council (U.S.). Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, National Academies, 1979, 258, NAP:14318, October 6, 2011, and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise (Strelitzia reginae).BOOK, Los Angeles Magazine, April 2003, Emmis Communications, 62, Flower, 1522-9149, October 6, 2011,weblink Mexican Fan Palms, Canary Island Palms, Queen Palms, Date Palms, and California Fan Palms are common in the Los Angeles area, although only the last is native.

Geology

Los Angeles is subject to earthquakes because of its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The geologic instability has produced numerous faults, which cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes annually in Southern California, though most of them are too small to be felt.WEB,weblink Earthquake Facts, United States Geological Survey, October 3, 2011, The strike-slip San Andreas Fault system is at the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and is vulnerable to the "big one", a potentially large and damaging event after the San Francisco earthquake in 1906.WEB,weblink San Andreas Fault Set for the Big One, June 21, 2006, Physorg.com, October 3, 2011, The Los Angeles basin and metropolitan area are also at risk from blind thrust earthquakes.JOURNAL, Shaw, John H., Shearer, Peter M., March 5, 1999, An Elusive Blind-Thrust Fault Beneath Metropolitan Los Angeles, Science, 283, 5407, 1516–1518, 1999Sci...283.1516S, 10.1126/science.283.5407.1516, 10066170, Major earthquakes that have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1933 Long Beach, 1971 San Fernando, 1987 Whittier Narrows, and the 1994 Northridge events. Nevertheless, all but a few are of low intensity and are not felt. The USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California. Parts of the city are also vulnerable to tsunamis; harbor areas were damaged by waves from Aleutian Islands earthquake in 1946, Valdivia earthquake in 1960, Alaska earthquake in 1964, Chile earthquake in 2010 and Japan earthquake and Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011.WEB,weblink World's Largest Recorded Earthquake, Geology.com, January 12, 2015,

Cityscape

{{wide image|Los Angeles Panorama from Griffith Observatory 2013.jpg|1340px|Panorama of Los Angeles as viewed from Griffith Observatory.Left to right: Los Feliz, Downtown and Hollywood|align-cap=center}}The city is divided into many different districts and neighborhoods,WEB,weblink Mapping L.A. Neighborhoods, Los Angeles Times, June 7, 2019, WEB,weblink Los Angeles CA Zip Code Map, USMapGuide, June 6, 2019, some of which were incorporated cities that merged with Los Angeles.BOOK,weblink New York, Chicago, Los Angeles: America's global cities, Abu-Lughod, Janet L., U of Minnesota Press, 1999, 978-0-8166-3336-4, 66, Janet L. Abu-Lughod, October 2, 2011, These neighborhoods were developed piecemeal, and are well-defined enough that the city has signage marking nearly all of them.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150907050707weblink">weblink y, LADOT, September 7, 2015,

Overview

The city's street patterns generally follows a grid plan, with uniform block lengths and occasional roads that cut across blocks. However, this is complicated by rugged terrain, which has necessitated having different grids for each of the valleys that Los Angeles covers. Major streets are designed to move large volumes of traffic through many parts of the city, many of which are extremely long; Sepulveda Boulevard is {{convert|43|mi|km}} long, while Foothill Boulevard is over {{convert|60|mi|km}} long, reaching as far east as San Bernardino. Drivers in Los Angeles suffer from one of the worst rush hour periods in the world, according to an annual traffic index by navigation system maker, TomTom. LA drivers spend an additional 92 hours in traffic each year. During the peak rush hour there is 80% congestion, according to the index.WEB,weblink Los Angeles tops worst cities for traffic in USA, USA TODAY, December 31, 2015, The tallest building in the city is the Wilshire Grand Center.Los Angeles is often characterized by the presence of low-rise buildings. Outside of a few centers such as Downtown, Warner Center, Century City, Koreatown, Miracle Mile, Hollywood and Westwood, skyscrapers and high-rise buildings are not common. The few skyscrapers built outside of those areas often stand out above the rest of the surrounding landscape. Most construction is done in separate units, rather than wall-to-wall. That being said, Downtown Los Angeles itself has many buildings over 30 stories, with fourteen over 50 stories, and two over 70 stories. Also, Los Angeles is increasingly becoming a city of apartments rather than single family dwellings, especially in the dense inner city and Westside neighborhoods.

Landmarks

{{See also||List of sites of interest in the Los Angeles area|National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California}}Important landmarks in Los Angeles include the Hollywood Sign, Walt Disney Concert Hall, Capitol Records Building, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Angels Flight, Grauman's Chinese Theatre, Dolby Theatre, Griffith Observatory, Getty Center, Getty Villa, Stahl House, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, L.A. Live, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Venice Canal Historic District and boardwalk, Theme Building, Bradbury Building, U.S. Bank Tower, Wilshire Grand Center, Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles City Hall, Hollywood Bowl, Battleship {{USS|Iowa|BB-61|6}}, Watts Towers, Staples Center, Dodger Stadium, and Olvera Street.{{gallery cleanup}}File:Capitol Records sunset.jpg|Capitol Records BuildingFile:USS Iowa Port of Los Angeles 2014 - panoramio.jpg|Battleship IowaFile:The Broad LA 2017.jpg|The Broad {{clarify|date=April 2019}}File:Los Angeles, CA, USA - panoramio (37).jpg|Griffith ObservatoryFile:Grauman's Chinese Theatre2.jpg|Grauman's Chinese TheatreFile:Angels Flights-14.jpg|Angels Flight{{clarify|date=April 2019}}File:Downtown LA I.jpg|Downtown Los AngelesFile:Getty Center patio.jpg|The Getty Museum, Brentwood

Climate

File:MacArthurParkLA.jpg|alt=|thumb|MacArthur ParkMacArthur ParkLos Angeles has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb on the coast and most of downtown, Csa near the metropolitan region to the west), and receives just enough annual precipitation to avoid semi-arid climate (BSh),JOURNAL, Peel, M. C., Finlayson B. L., McMahon, T. A., yes, 2007, Updated world map of the Köppen−Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 5, 1633–1644, 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007, 1027-5606, making the myth that the city has been built in a desert not be completely incorrect.WEB,weblink The Myth of a Desert Metropolis: Los Angeles was not built in a desert, but are we making it one?, 2017-05-22, Boom California, en, 2019-03-08, WEB,weblink Interactive North America Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map, www.plantmaps.com, 2019-03-08, Los Angeles has plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of only 35 days with measurable precipitation annually.WEB,weblink Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America, Weatherbase.com, December 15, 2011, The coastal region around Los Angeles has a climate comparable to coastal areas of southeastern Spain such as Alicante or Elche, in temperature range and variation, in sunshine hours and as well as annual precipitation levels.Temperatures in the coastal basin exceed {{convert|90|F|C|abbr=on}} on a dozen or so days in the year, from one day a month in April, May, June and November to three days a month in July, August, October and to five days in September. Temperatures in the San Fernando and San Gabriel Valleys are considerably warmer. Temperatures are subject to substantial daily swings; in inland areas the difference between the average daily low and the average daily high is over {{convert|30|F-change|0}}.WEB,weblink Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971–2000), 2004, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130902181245weblink">weblink September 2, 2013, yes, October 5, 2011, The average annual temperature of the sea is {{convert|63|°F|°C|abbr=on}}, from {{convert|58|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in January to {{convert|68|°F|°C|abbr=on}} in August.WEB,weblink Pacific Ocean Temperatures on California Coast, beachcalifornia.com, October 5, 2011, Hours of sunshine total more than 3,000 per year, from an average of 7 hours of sunshine per day in December to an average of 12 in July.WEB,weblink Los Angeles Climate Guide, weather2travel.com, October 5, 2011, File:Griffith Observatory entrance lawn with Hollywood sign.jpg|thumb|A very clear evening view of Mount LeeMount LeeThe Los Angeles area is also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate, causing extreme variations in temperature in close physical proximity to each other. For example, the average July maximum temperature at the Santa Monica Pier is {{convert|75|°F}} whereas it is {{convert|95|°F}} in Canoga Park.WEB,weblink Climate of California, Western Regional Climate Center, October 6, 2011, The city, like much of the southern California coast, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom". This involves overcast or foggy skies in the morning which yield to sun by early afternoon.BOOK,weblink Frommer's Los Angeles 2011, Poole, Matthew R., September 22, 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-62619-1, 22, October 5, 2011, Downtown Los Angeles averages {{convert|14.93|in|mm|abbr=on}} of precipitation annually, mainly occurring between November and March, generally in the form of moderate rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall during winter storms. Rainfall is usually higher in the hills and coastal slopes of the mountains because of orographic uplift. Summer days are usually rainless. Rarely, an incursion of moist air from the south or east can bring brief thunderstorms in late summer, especially to the mountains. The coast gets slightly less rainfall, while the inland and mountain areas get considerably more. Years of average rainfall are rare. The usual pattern is year to year variability, with a short string of dry years of {{convert|5|–|10|in|abbr=on|mm}} rainfall, followed by one or two wet years with more than {{convert|20|in|mm|abbr=on}}. Wet years are usually associated with warm water El Niño conditions in the Pacific, dry years with cooler water La Niña episodes. A series of rainy days can bring floods to the lowlands and mudslides to the hills, especially after wildfires have denuded the slopes.Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city basin and along the coast, with the last occurrence of a {{convert|32|°F}} reading at the downtown station being January 29, 1979; freezing temperatures occur nearly every year in valley locations while the mountains within city limits typically receive snowfall every winter. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was {{convert|2.0|in|cm|0}} on January 15, 1932.BOOK,weblink Extreme weather: a guide & record book, Burt, Christopher C., Stroud, Mark, June 26, 2007, W. W. Norton & Company, 978-0-393-33015-1, 100, October 5, 2011, Whilst the most recent snowfall occurred in February 2019, the first snowfall since 1962.WEB,weblink Los Angeles sees first snow in years, thehill.com, Frazin, Rachel, February 21, 2019, Capitol Hill Publishing Corp., April 6, 2019, WEB,weblink Snow falling in Los Angeles, Pasadena and California's coastal cities, nbcnews.com, February 22, 2019, NBC Universal, April 6, 2019, At the official downtown station, the highest recorded temperature is {{convert|113|°F}} on September 27, 2010,NEWS,weblink L.A.'s hottest day ever, Pool, Bob, September 27, 2010, Los Angeles Times, October 5, 2011, Lin II, Rong-Gong, while the lowest is {{convert|28|°F}}, on January 4, 1949. During autumn and winter, Santa Ana winds sometimes bring much warmer and drier conditions to Los Angeles, and raise wildfire risk.{{Los Angeles weatherbox}}{{Weather box|location=Los Angeles (Canoga Park, in the San Fernando Valley)|collapsed=Y|single line=Y|Jan record high F=93|Feb record high F=94|Mar record high F=101|Apr record high F=105|May record high F=113|Jun record high F=113|Jul record high F=115|Aug record high F=116|Sep record high F=115|Oct record high F=110|Nov record high F=99|Dec record high F=96|year record high F=116|Jan high F=67.9|Feb high F=69.9|Mar high F=72.0|Apr high F=77.7|May high F=81.3|Jun high F=88.8|Jul high F=95.0|Aug high F=96.0|Sep high F=91.7|Oct high F=84.4|Nov high F=74.7|Dec high F=68.8|year high F=80.7|Jan mean F=53.7|Feb mean F=55.4|Mar mean F=57.2|Apr mean F=61.3|May mean F=65.2|Jun mean F=71.0|Jul mean F=76.0|Aug mean F=76.8|Sep mean F=73.5|Oct mean F=66.8|Nov mean F=58.2|Dec mean F=53.6|year mean F=64.1|Jan low F=39.5|Feb low F=40.9|Mar low F=42.3|Apr low F=44.8|May low F=49.1|Jun low F=53.2|Jul low F=56.9|Aug low F=57.6|Sep low F=55.2|Oct low F=49.2|Nov low F=41.7|Dec low F=38.3|year low F=47.4|Jan record low F=19|Feb record low F=18|Mar record low F=26|Apr record low F=30|May record low F=33|Jun record low F=36|Jul record low F=42|Aug record low F=42|Sep record low F=38|Oct record low F=27|Nov record low F=23|Dec record low F=20|year record low F=18|Jan rain inch=3.83|Feb rain inch=4.40|Mar rain inch=3.60|Apr rain inch=0.88|May rain inch=0.32|Jun rain inch=0.07|Jul rain inch=0.01|Aug rain inch=0.15|Sep rain inch=0.24|Oct rain inch=0.62|Nov rain inch=1.29|Dec rain inch=2.38|Jan rain days=6.2|Feb rain days=5.9|Mar rain days=6.1|Apr rain days=3.0|May rain days=1.3|Jun rain days=0.4|Jul rain days=0.1|Aug rain days=0.7|Sep rain days=1.3|Oct rain days=2.0|Nov rain days=3.2|Dec rain days=4.4|source 1=NOAA|date=August 2010}}{| class="wikitable"

Environmental issues

{{Further|Pollution in California#Los Angeles Air Pollution}}(File:Los Angeles Pollution.jpg|thumb|The city is often covered in smog, as in this December 2005 image.){{external media|width=210px|align=right|headerimage=|audio1=“Fighting Smog in Los Angeles”, Distillations Podcast, 2018 Science History Institute}}A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Yang-na has also been translated as "the valley of smoke".NEWS,weblink Smoke is Normal â€“ for 1800, Bowman, Chris, July 8, 2008, The Sacramento Bee, October 6, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080709015204weblink">weblink July 9, 2008, WEB,weblink Environment: Evolution of a Concept, Gordon J. MacDonald, 2, The Native American name for Los Angeles was Yang na, which translates into "the valley of smoke.", Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.BOOK,weblink What can we do about smog?, Stimson, Thomas E., July 1955, Popular Mechanics, 65, 0032-4558, October 6, 2011, The percentage of small particle pollution (the kind that penetrates into the lungs) coming from vehicles in the city can get as high as 55 percent.NEWS, Conniff, Richard, The Urban Pedestrian Strikes Back, The New York Times, 16 December 2018, 5,weblink The smog season lasts from approximately May to October.BOOK,weblink Smog Hangs Over Olympic Athletes, August 11, 1983, New Scientist, 393, 0262-4079, October 6, 2011, While other large cities rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only {{convert|15|in|mm|-1}} of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. When the act was passed, California was unable to create a State Implementation Plan that would enable it to meet the new air quality standards, largely because of the level of pollution in Los Angeles generated by older vehicles.“Early Implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in California.” EPA Alumni Association. Video, Transcript (see p7,10). July 12, 2016. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years because of aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures.The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium.WEB,weblink L.A.'s Environmental Success Story: Cleaner Air, Healthier Kids, Marziali, Carl, March 4, 2015, USC News, March 16, 2015, Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.WEB,weblink Most Polluted Cities, American Lung Association, January 12, 2015, In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution.WEB,weblink Pittsburgh and Los Angeles the most polluted US cities, May 4, 2008, citymayors.com, October 7, 2011, The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles meets 20 percent renewable energy goal, January 14, 2011, Bloomberg News, October 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110201090303weblink">weblink February 1, 2011, The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short-term and year-round pollution amounts.WEB,weblink American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA, American Lung Association State of the Air 2013, September 1, 2015, Los Angeles is also home to the nation's largest urban oil field. There are more than 700 active oil wells within 1,500 feet of homes, churches, schools and hospitals in the city, a situation about which the EPA has voiced serious concerns.WEB,weblink EPA officers sickened by fumes at South L.A. oil field, latimes.com, March 24, 2016,

Demographics

{{US Census population|1850=1610|1860=4385|1870=5728|1880=11183|1890=50395|1900=102479|1910=319198|1920=576673|1930=1238048|1940=1504277|1950=1970358|1960=2479015|1970=2811801|1980=2968528|1990=3485398|2000=3694820|2010=3792621|estyear=2018|estimate=3990456|estref=WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places of 50,000 or More, Ranked by July 1, 2018 Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, May 23, 2019, |align-fn=center}}The 2010 United States CensusWEB,weblink 2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA — Los Angeles, United States Census Bureau, July 12, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140724205607weblink">weblink July 24, 2014, yes, mdy-all, reported Los Angeles had a population of 3,792,621.WEB,weblink Los Angeles (city), California, United States Census Bureau, October 3, 2016, The population density was 8,092.3 people per square mile (2,913.0/km²). The age distribution was 874,525 people (23.1%) under 18, 434,478 people (11.5%) from 18 to 24, 1,209,367 people (31.9%) from 25 to 44, 877,555 people (23.1%) from 45 to 64, and 396,696 people (10.5%) who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.6 males.There were 1,413,995 housing units—up from 1,298,350 during 2005–2009—at an average density of 2,812.8 households per square mile (1,086.0/km²), of which 503,863 (38.2%) were owner-occupied, and 814,305 (61.8%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 1,535,444 people (40.5% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 2,172,576 people (57.3%) lived in rental housing units.(File:Distribution of high income households across LA County.png|thumb|Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.)According to the 2010 United States Census, Los Angeles had a median household income of $49,497, with 22.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line.

Race and ethnicity {| class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size: 90%;"

!Racial composition!2010!1990!1970!1940|Non-Hispanic White|28.7%|37.3%|61.1%From 15% sample|86.3%African American>Black or African American|9.6%|14.0%|17.9%|4.2%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino|48.5%|39.9%|17.1%|7.1%Hispanic origin based on the White population of Spanish mother tongue.Asian American>Asian|11.3%|9.8%|3.6%|2.2%(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Los Angeles (5560490330).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in Los Angeles, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow))According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of Los Angeles included: 1,888,158 Whites (49.8%), 365,118 African Americans (9.6%), 28,215 Native Americans (0.7%), 426,959 Asians (11.3%), 5,577 Pacific Islanders (0.1%), 902,959 from other races (23.8%), and 175,635 (4.6%) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,838,822 persons (48.5%). Los Angeles is home to people from more than 140 countries speaking 224 different identified languages.WEB,weblink City Basics, April 12, 2005, Government of Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101127033250weblink">weblink November 27, 2010, yes, April 13, 2010, WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink January 15, 2016, yes, November 6, 2015, Ethnic enclaves like Chinatown, Historic Filipinotown, Koreatown, Little Armenia, Little Ethiopia, Tehrangeles, Little Tokyo, Little Bangladesh, and Thai Town provide examples of the polyglot character of Los Angeles.Non-Hispanic whites were 28.7% of the population in 2010, compared to 86.3% in 1940.WEB,weblink Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, United States Census Bureau,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120812191959weblink">weblink August 12, 2012, yes, November 6, 2015, The majority of the Non-Hispanic white population is living in areas along the Pacific coast as well as in neighborhoods near and on the Santa Monica Mountains from the Pacific Palisades to Los Feliz.Mexican ancestry make up the largest ethnic group of Hispanics at 31.9% of the city's population, followed by those of Salvadoran (6.0%) and Guatemalan (3.6%) heritage. The Hispanic population has a long established Mexican-American and Central American community and is spread well-nigh throughout the entire city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area. It is most heavily concentrated in regions around Downtown as East Los Angeles, Northeast Los Angeles and Westlake. Furthermore, a vast majority of residents in neighborhoods in eastern South Los Angeles towards Downey are of Hispanic origin.The largest Asian ethnic groups are Filipinos (3.2%) and Koreans (2.9%), which have their own established ethnic enclaves−Koreatown in the Wilshire Center and Historic Filipinotown. Chinese people, which make up 1.8% of Los Angeles's population, reside mostly outside of Los Angeles city limits and rather in the San Gabriel Valley of eastern Los Angeles County, but make a sizable presence in the city, notably in Chinatown. Chinatown and Thaitown are also home to many Thais and Cambodians, which make up 0.3% and 0.1% of Los Angeles's population, respectively. The Japanese comprise 0.9% of LA's population, and have an established Little Tokyo in the city's downtown, and another significant community of Japanese Americans is in the Sawtelle district of West Los Angeles. Vietnamese make up 0.5% of Los Angeles's population. Indians make up 0.9% of the city's population.The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to a large population of Armenians and Iranians, many of whom live in enclaves like Little Armenia and Tehrangeles.African Americans have been the predominant ethnic group in South Los Angeles, which has emerged as the largest African American community in the western United States since the 1960s. The neighborhoods of South Los Angeles with highest concentration of African Americans include Crenshaw, Baldwin Hills, Leimert Park, Hyde Park, Gramercy Park, Manchester Square and Watts.BOOK, The City of Watts, California: 1907 to 1926, Ray, MaryEllen Bell, 1985, 978-0-917047-01-5, Apart from South Los Angeles, neighborhoods in the Central region of Los Angeles, as Mid-City and Mid-Wilshire have a moderate concentration of African Americans as well. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 17.9% black, 61.1% non-Hispanic white and 17.1% Hispanic.

Religion

File:Los Angeles Cathedral-2.jpg|thumb|Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels is the mother cathedral for the Los Angeles archdiocese.]]According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Los Angeles (65%).Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research CenterWEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, May 12, 2015, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, Perhaps owing to the fact of its founding by Franciscan friars of Roman Catholicism, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country.NEWS,weblink Cardinal Puts Church in Fight for Immigration Rights, Pomfret, John, April 2, 2006, Washington Post, October 22, 2011, Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in Downtown Los Angeles.NEWS,weblink Pomp Past, Masses Flock to Cathedral, Stammer, Larry B., September 4, 2002, Los Angeles Times, October 22, 2011, Becerra, Hector, Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.In 2011, the once common, but ultimately lapsed, custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honor of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles, in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781, was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support and approbation of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders.NEWS,weblink 2011 'Grand Procession' revives founding of L.A. Marian devotion, Dellinger, Robert, September 6, 2011, The Tidings Online, January 14, 2015, The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses which commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States.WEB,weblink World Jewish Population, SimpleToRemember.com, October 23, 2011, Many of Los Angeles's Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights once had a large Jewish population prior to World War II due to restrictive housing covenants. Major Orthodox Jewish neighborhoods include Hancock Park, Pico-Robertson, and Valley Village, while Jewish Israelis are well represented in the Encino and Tarzana neighborhoods, and Persian Jews in Beverly Hills. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the greater Los Angeles area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades; it is no longer in daily use as a synagogue and is being converted to a museum and community center.NEWS,weblink Washington Symposium and Exhibition Highlight Restoration and Adaptive Reuse of American Synagogues, March 1997, Jewish Heritage Report, October 23, 2011, 1, NEWS,weblink Los Angeles's Breed Street Shul Saved by Politicians, Spring–Summer 1998, Jewish Heritage Report, October 23, 2011, 1–2, II, The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city.NEWS,weblink Madonna Finds A Cause, Luscombe, Belinda, August 6, 2006, Time Magazine, October 23, 2011, The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel was founded in Los Angeles by Aimee Semple McPherson in 1923 and remains headquartered there to this day. For many years, the church convened at Angelus Temple, which, when built, was one of the largest churches in the country.Edith Waldvogel Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson: everybody's sister, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, USA, 1993, page 246-247Los Angeles has had a rich and influential Protestant tradition. The first Protestant service in Los Angeles was a Methodist meeting held in a private home in 1850 and the oldest Protestant church still operating, First Congregational Church, was founded in 1867.WEB,weblink n Overview of Religion in Los Angeles from 1850 to 1930, Clifton L. Holland, In the early 1900s the Bible Institute Of Los Angeles published the founding documents of the Christian Fundamentalist movement and the Azusa Street Revival launched Pentecostalism. The Metropolitan Community Church also had its origins in the Los Angeles area.WEB,weblink History of MCC – Metropolitan Community Churches, www.mccchurch.org, Important churches in the city include First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood, Bel Air Presbyterian Church, First African Methodist Episcopal Church of Los Angeles, West Angeles Church of God in Christ, Second Baptist Church, Crenshaw Christian Center, McCarty Memorial Christian Church, and First Congregational Church.The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood neighborhood of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.WEB,weblink LDS Los Angeles California Temple, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 23, 2011, The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology.WEB,weblink Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International, Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International, June 17, 2018, {{citation needed|date=September 2017}}Because of Los Angeles's large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world. The first Buddhist joss house was founded in the city in 1875. Atheism and other secular beliefs are also common, as the city is the largest in the Western U.S. Unchurched Belt.

Economy

{{See also|Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce|Los Angeles County, California#Economy}}(File:Tree Map of Employment by Industries in Los Angeles County, Ca (2015).svg|thumb|Employment by industry in Los Angeles County (2015))The economy of Los Angeles is driven by international trade, entertainment (television, motion pictures, video games, music recording, and production), aerospace, technology, petroleum, fashion, apparel, and tourism.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}} Other significant industries include finance, telecommunications, law, healthcare, and transportation. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Los Angeles was ranked as having the 19th most competitive financial center in the world, and sixth most competitive in United States (after New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Boston, and Washington, D.C.).WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 21, March 2017, Long Finance,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170611000617weblink">weblink 2017-06-11, yes, Two of the six major film studios, Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox, are within the city limits,BOOK,weblink The New Historical Dictionary of the American Film Industry, Slide, Anthony, February 25, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-135-92554-3, en, their locations being part of the so-called "Thirty-Mile Zone" of entertainment headquarters in Southern California.Los Angeles is the largest manufacturing center in the western United States.WEB,weblink Los Angeles: Economy, City-Data, October 7, 2011, The contiguous ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach together comprise the busiest port in the United States by some measures and the fifth-busiest port in the world, vital to trade within the Pacific Rim.The Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion ({{As of|2017|lc=y}}),WEB,weblink Table 3.1. GDP & Personal Income, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2018, April 6, 2019, making it the third-largest economic metropolitan area in the world, after Tokyo and New York. Los Angeles has been classified an "alpha world city" according to a 2012 study by a group at Loughborough University.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2012, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Loughborough University, January 25, 2014, The largest employers in the city {{As of|2009|lc=y}} were, in descending order, the City of Los Angeles, the County of Los Angeles, and University of California, Los Angeles.WEB,weblink City of Los Angeles CAFR (2010), Government of Los Angeles, City of Los Angeles, 332 (367), October 14, 2011, The University of Southern California (USC) is the city's fourth largest employer and the largest private sector employer.NEWS,weblink Trojan Dollars: Study Finds USC Worth $4 Billion Annually to L.A. County, George, Evan, December 11, 2006, Los Angeles Downtown News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090430211002weblink">weblink April 30, 2009, {{as of|2018}}, Los Angeles is home to three Fortune 500 companies: AECOM, CBRE Group, and Reliance Steel & Aluminum Co.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made The List, Fortune, Meredith Corporation, April 13, 2015,

Culture

File:Hollywood bowl and sign.jpg|right|thumb|220x220px|Hollywood BowlHollywood BowlLos Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World", because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industryWEB,weblink Is Los Angeles really the creative capital of the world? Report says yes, November 19, 2009, SmartPlanet, October 14, 2011, and there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in history.WEB,weblink Only In LA: Tapping L.A. Innovation, University of Southern California,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111002195549weblink">weblink October 2, 2011, yes, October 14, 2011,

Movies and the performing arts

The city's Hollywood neighborhood has become recognized as the center of the motion picture industry and the Los Angeles area is also associated as being the center of the television industry. The city is home to the major film studios as well as major record labels. Los Angeles plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the Primetime Emmy Awards, the Grammy Awards as well as many other entertainment industry awards shows. Los Angeles is the site of the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States.NEWS,weblink At U.S.C., a Practical Emphasis in Film, Waxman, Sharon, January 31, 2006, The New York Times, October 14, 2011, File:Dolby Theatre.jpg|alt=|thumb|The Dolby Theatre, venue for the Academy AwardsAcademy AwardsThe performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles's cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation", with more than 1.3 million visitors per year.WEB,weblink Explore the Center, Music Center of Los Angeles County,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111005150134weblink">weblink October 5, 2011, yes, October 14, 2011, The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.

Museums and galleries

{{See also|List of museums in California#Los Angeles|l1=Los Angeles City Museums}}There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County.WEB,weblink The Los Angeles Region, May 5, 2008, Loyola Marymount University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111018115613weblink">weblink October 18, 2011, yes, October 20, 2011, WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150823092410weblink">weblink August 23, 2015, yes, November 6, 2015, In fact, Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United StatesWEB,weblink Overview, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, October 20, 2011, ), the Getty Center (part of the J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institutionNEWS,weblink Getty slashes operating budget after severe investment losses, Boehm, Mike, March 16, 2009, Los Angeles Times, October 20, 2011, ), the Petersen Automotive Museum, the Huntington Library, the Natural History Museum, the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.NEWS,weblink Downtown L.A. Art Walk safety changes planned, Mather, Kate, August 5, 2011, Los Angeles Times, October 20, 2011,

Sports

{{See also|Sports in Los Angeles|History of the National Football League in Los Angeles}}File:Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.JPG|alt=|thumb|Los Angeles Memorial ColiseumLos Angeles Memorial ColiseumFile:Dodger Stadium field from upper deck 2015-10-04.jpg|thumb|Dodger StadiumDodger StadiumThe city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area are the home of eleven top level professional sports teams, several of which play in neighboring communities but use Los Angeles in their name. These teams include the Los Angeles Dodgers and Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball (MLB), the Los Angeles Rams and Los Angeles Chargers of the National Football League (NFL), the Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Los Angeles Kings and Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League (NHL), the Los Angeles Galaxy and Los Angeles Football Club of Major League Soccer (MLS), and the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA).Other notable sports teams include the UCLA Bruins and the USC Trojans in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), both of which are Division I teams in the Pac-12 Conference.File:Staples Center 2012.jpg|thumb|Staples Center is a sports arena, home to the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Sparks, Los Angeles Clippers, and Los Angeles KingsLos Angeles KingsLos Angeles is the second-largest city in the United States but hosted no NFL team between 1995 and 2015. At one time, the Los Angeles area hosted two NFL teams: the Rams and the Raiders. Both left the city in 1995, with the Rams moving to St. Louis, and the Raiders moving back to their original home of Oakland. After 21 seasons in St. Louis, on January 12, 2016, the NFL announced the Rams would be moving back to Los Angeles for the 2016 NFL season. A new stadium will be built in Inglewood, California for the team by the 2020 season.NEWS,weblink Rams to relocate to L.A.; Chargers first option to join, Hanzus, Dan, January 12, 2016, January 13, 2016, National Football League, NFL.com, NEWS,weblink Rams to Return to Los Angeles, January 12, 2016, January 13, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160120221040weblink">weblink January 20, 2016, yes, St. Louis Rams, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink NFL returns to Los Angeles: Owners approve move by Rams; Chargers with option to join, Maske, Mark, January 12, 2016, The Washington Post, January 12, 2016, Prior to 1995, the Rams played their home games in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum from 1946 to 1979 and the Raiders played their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum from 1982 to 1994. The San Diego Chargers announced on January 12, 2017 they would relocate to Los Angeles and become the Los Angeles Chargers beginning in the 2017 NFL season and play at Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California for the next three seasons until the Rams' Inglewood stadium is completed.Los Angeles has twice hosted the Summer Olympic Games: in 1932 and in 1984, and will host the games for a third time in 2028.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Makes Deal to Host the 2028 Summer Olympics, NAGOURNEY, Adam, July 31, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, no, The New York Times, LONGMAN, JERÉ, Adam Nagourney, Los Angeles will be the third city after London (1908, 1948 and 2012) and Paris (1900, 1924 and 2024) to host the Olympic Games three times. When the tenth Olympic Games were hosted in 1932, the former 10th Street was renamed Olympic Blvd. Super Bowls I and VII were also held in the city, as well as multiple FIFA World Cup games at the Rose Bowl in 1994, including the final. Los Angeles also hosted the Deaflympics in 1985WEB,weblink Games – Deaflympics, deaflympics.com, and Special Olympics World Summer Games in 2015.WEB,weblink Los Angeles To Host 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games, September 14, 2011, Special Olympics, February 9, 2012, Los Angeles boasts a number of sports venues, including Dodger Stadium, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium and the Staples Center. The Forum, Dignity Health Sports Park, and the Rose Bowl are also in adjacent cities. The XFL Los Angeles are tenants of Dignity Health Sports ParkWEB,weblink XFL.com – Official home of the XFL, www.xfl.com, {{Clear}}

Government

{{See also|Government of Los Angeles County}}Los Angeles is a charter city as opposed to a general law city. The current charter was adopted on June 8, 1999 and has been amended many times.WEB,weblink Los Angeles, California Code Resources, American Legal Publishing,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150123035002weblink">weblink January 23, 2015, yes, January 23, 2015, mdy-all, The elected government consists of the Los Angeles City Council and the Mayor of Los Angeles which operate under a mayor-council government, as well as the city attorney (not to be confused with the district attorney, a county office) and controller. The mayor is Eric Garcetti. There are 15 city council districts.The city has many departments and appointed officers, including the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners, the Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD), the Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles (HACLA), the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT), and the Los Angeles Public Library (LAPL).The Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are relatively autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, and elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils.Residents of Los Angeles elect supervisors for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th supervisorial districts.

Federal and state representation

In the California State Assembly, Los Angeles is split between fourteen districts.WEB,weblink Communities of Interest â€” City, California Citizens Redistricting Commission,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023054757weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, yes, September 28, 2014, mdy-all, In the California State Senate, the city is split between eight districts.WEB,weblink Communities of Interest â€” City, California Citizens Redistricting Commission,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151023054153weblink">weblink October 23, 2015, yes, September 28, 2014, mdy-all, In the United States House of Representatives, it is split amongst ten congressional districts.WEB,weblink Communities of Interest â€” City, California Citizens Redistricting Commission,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130930184128weblink">weblink September 30, 2013, yes, September 27, 2014, mdy-all,

Crime

{{See also|Crime in Los Angeles|List of criminal gangs in Los Angeles}}File:May Day Immigration March LA66.jpg|left|thumb|The LAPD on May DayMay DayLos Angeles experienced a significant decline in crime in the 1990s and late 2000s and reached a 50-year low in 2009 with 314 homicides.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles crime rates hit 50-year lows, Powell, Amy, January 6, 2010, January 14, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150721210109weblink">weblink July 21, 2015, yes, KABC-TV, WEB,weblink LAPD year-end crime statistics, Los Angeles Police Department, April 13, 2010, This is a rate of 7.85 per 100,000 population—a major decrease from 1980 when a homicide rate of 34.2 per 100,000 was reported.WEB,weblink Uniform Crime Reports of Los Angelesand Index from 1985 to 2005, April 20, 2016, WEB,weblink LAPD Online Crime Rates, Los Angeles Police Department, April 13, 2010, This included 15 officer-involved shootings. One shooting led to the death of a SWAT team member, Randal Simmons, the first in LAPD's history.WEB,weblink Simmons, Randal, Los Angeles Police Department, July 9, 2008, Los Angeles in the year of 2013 totaled 251 murders, a decrease of 16 percent from the previous year. Police speculate the drop resulted from a number of factors, including young people spending more time online.WEB,weblink LAPD City Murder Rate Drops 16 Percent, January 6, 2014, KCBS-TV, February 4, 2014, The Dragna crime family and the Cohen crime family dominated organized crime in the city during the Prohibition era and reached its peak during the 1940s and 1950s with the battle of Sunset Strip as part of the American Mafia, but has gradually declined since then with the rise of various black and Hispanic gangs in the late 1960s and early 1970s.BOOK,weblink The Mafia Made Easy: The Anatomy and Culture of La Cosa Nostra, DeVico, Peter, Tate Publishing, 2007, 978-1-60247-254-9, 154, September 6, 2012, According to the Los Angeles Police Department, the city is home to 45,000 gang members, organized into 450 gangs.WEB,weblink Gangs, Los Angeles Police Department, April 13, 2010, Among them are the Crips and Bloods, which are both African American street gangs that originated in the South Los Angeles region. Latino street gangs such as the Sureños, a Mexican American street gang, and Mara Salvatrucha, which has mainly members of Salvadoran descent, all originated in Los Angeles. This has led to the city being referred to as the "Gang Capital of America".NEWS,weblink Police target 11 worst Los Angeles street gangs, Serjeant, Jill, February 8, 2007, Reuters, January 14, 2015,

Education

Colleges and universities

File:UCLA-old-statenormal-campus.jpg|alt=|thumb|Second branch of the California State Normal SchoolCalifornia State Normal SchoolFile:Cal State University, Los Angeles.jpg|right|thumb|220x220px|CSULACSULAThere are three public universities within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).Private colleges in the city include:{{div col}} {{div col end}}The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District:{{div col}} {{div col end}}There are numerous additional colleges and universities outside the city limits in the Greater Los Angeles area, including the Claremont Colleges consortium, which includes the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S., and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), one of the top STEM-focused research institutions in the world.File:Los-angeles-central-library.jpg|thumb|220x220px|The Los Angeles Central Library is in Downtown Los AngelesDowntown Los Angeles

Schools and libraries

{{See also|Los Angeles County, California#Colleges and universities|List of high schools in Los Angeles County, California}}Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000.WEB,weblink US Census, District information, United States Census Bureau,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081225054728weblink">weblink December 25, 2008, yes, October 24, 2011, mdy-all, After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools.Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city.WEB,weblink Los Angeles Public Library Branches, Los Angeles Public Library, October 24, 2011, Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents.{{Clear}}

Media

(File:LA Times building.jpg|alt=|thumb|Los Angeles Times headquarters){{See also|List of television shows set in Los Angeles|List of films set in Los Angeles}}The Los Angeles metro area is the second-largest broadcast designated market area in the U.S. (after New York) with 5,431,140 homes (4.956% of the U.S.), which is served by a wide variety of local AM and FM radio and television stations. Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them.WEB,weblink Allocation, Museum of Broadcast Communications, October 20, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829172310weblink">weblink August 29, 2013, yes, mdy-all, File:Foxplaza la.jpg|alt=|thumb|The Fox Plaza in Century City, headquarters for 189pxAs part of the region's aforementioned creative industry, the Big Four major broadcast television networks, ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC, all have production facilities and offices throughout various areas of Los Angeles. All four major broadcast television networks, plus major Spanish-language networks Telemundo and Univision, also own and operate stations that both serve the Los Angeles market and serve as each network's West Coast flagship station: ABC's KABC-TV (Channel 7), CBS's KCBS-TV (Channel 2), Fox's KTTV-TV (Channel 11), NBC's KNBC-TV (Channel 4), MyNetworkTV's KCOP-TV (channel 13), Telemundo's KVEA-TV (Channel 52), and Univision's KMEX-TV (Channel 34). The region also has three PBS stations, as well as KCET, the nation's largest independent public television station. KTBN (Channel 40) is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. A variety of independent television stations, such as KCAL-TV (Channel 9) and KTLA-TV (Channel 5), also operate in the area.The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times. La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper. The Korea Times is the city's major daily Korean language paper while The World Journal is the city and county's major Chinese newspaper. The Los Angeles Sentinel is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest African-American readership in the Western United States. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its LA corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa del Rey.There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Los Angeles Register, Los Angeles Community News, (which focuses on coverage of the greater Los Angeles area), Los Angeles Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles Magazine, the Los Angeles Business Journal, the Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter, Variety (both entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram.Los Angeles arts, culture and nightlife news is also covered by a number of local and national online guides like Time Out Los Angeles, Thrillist, Kristin's List, DailyCandy, Diversity News Magazine, LAist, and Flavorpill.WEB,weblink Flavorpill,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207012702weblink">weblink February 7, 2013, yes, September 1, 2015, {{clear}}

Transportation

Freeways

File:Los Angeles - Echangeur autoroute 110 105.JPG|thumb|The Judge Harry Pregerson InterchangeJudge Harry Pregerson InterchangeThe city and the rest of the Los Angeles metropolitan area are served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. The Texas Transportation Institute, which publishes an annual Urban Mobility Report, ranked Los Angeles road traffic as the most congested in the United States in 2005 as measured by annual delay per traveler.NEWS,weblink Best And Worst Cities For Commuters, Woolsey, Matt, April 25, 2008, Forbes, October 24, 2011, The average traveler in Los Angeles experienced 72 hours of traffic delay per year according to the study. Los Angeles was followed by San Francisco/Oakland, Washington, D.C. and Atlanta, (each with 60 hours of delay).NEWS,weblink In Depth: 10 Worst Cities For Commuters, Woolsey, Matt, Forbes, October 24, 2011, Despite the congestion in the city, the mean travel time for commuters in Los Angeles is shorter than other major cities, including New York City, Philadelphia and Chicago. Los Angeles's mean travel time for work commutes in 2006 was 29.2 minutes, similar to those of San Francisco and Washington, D.C.WEB,weblink American Community Survey 2006, Table S0802, United States Census Bureau,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080916055045weblink">weblink September 16, 2008, yes,weblink the major highways that connect LA to the rest of the nation include Interstate 5, which runs south through San Diego to Tijuana in Mexico and north through Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle to the Canada–US border; Interstate 10, the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway in the United States, going to Jacksonville, Florida; and U.S. Route 101, which heads to the California Central Coast, San Francisco, the Redwood Empire, and the Oregon and Washington coasts.

Transit systems

File:Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Liner map.svg|thumb|Los Angeles Metro Rail and Metro Transitway map]]The LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA County Metro) and other agencies operate an extensive system of bus lines, as well as subway and light rail lines across Los Angeles County, with a combined monthly ridership (measured in individual boardings) of 38.8 million {{as of|2011|September|lc=y}}. The majority of this (30.5 million) is taken up by the city's bus system,WEB,weblink Ridership Statistics, Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, October 24, 2011, the second busiest in the country. The subway and light rail combined average the remaining roughly 8.2 million boardings per month. LA County Metro recorded over 397 million boardings for the 2017 calendar year, including about 285 million bus riders and about 113 million riding on rail transit.WEB,weblink Interactive Estimated Ridership Stats: Calendar Year, 2017, Los Angeles County Metro Transit Authority, May 6, 2018, For the first quarter of 2018, there were just under 95 million system-wide boardings, down from about 98 million in 2017, and about 105 million in 2016.WEB,weblink Interactive Estimated Ridership Stats: Year over Year, 2018, Los Angeles County Metro Transit Authority, May 6, 2018, In 2005, 10.2% of Los Angeles commuters rode some form of public transportation.NEWS,weblink New Yorkers are Top Transit Users, Christie, Les, June 29, 2007, October 24, 2011, CNN, According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 9.2% of working Los Angeles (city) residents made the journey to work via public transportation.WEB,weblink Means of Transportation to Work by Age, Census Reporter, May 6, 2018, The city's subway system is the ninth busiest in the United States and its light rail system is the country's busiest.WEB,weblink Public Transit Ridership Report, 2011, American Public Transportation Association, October 24, 2011, The rail system includes the Red and Purple subway lines, as well as the Gold, Blue, Expo, and Green light rail lines. In 2016, the Expo Line was extended to the Pacific at Santa Monica. The Metro Orange and Silver lines are bus rapid transit lines with stops and frequency similar to those of light rail. {{as of|2018}}, the total number of light rail stations is 93. The city is also central to the commuter rail system Metrolink, which links Los Angeles to all neighboring counties as well as many suburbs.Besides the rail service provided by Metrolink and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles is served by inter-city passenger trains from Amtrak. The main rail station in the city is Union Station just north of Downtown.In addition, the city directly contracts for local and commuter bus service through the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, or LADOT.

Airports

File:LAX LA.jpg|thumb|The Theme Building at Los Angeles AirportLos Angeles AirportThe main international and domestic airport serving Los Angeles is Los Angeles International Airport {{airport codes|LAX|KLAX}}, commonly referred to by its airport code, LAX.Other major nearby commercial airports include:
  • {{airport codes|ONT|KONT}} LA/Ontario International Airport, owned by the city of Ontario, CA; serves the Inland Empire.
  • {{airport codes|BUR|KBUR}} Hollywood Burbank Airport, jointly owned by the cities of Burbank, Glendale, and Pasadena. Formerly known as Bob Hope Airport and Burbank Airport; the closest airport to Downtown Los Angeles; serves the San Fernando, San Gabriel, and Antelope Valleys.
  • {{airport codes|LGB|KLGB}} Long Beach Airport, serves the Long Beach/Harbor area.
  • {{airport codes|SNA|KSNA}} John Wayne Airport of Orange County.
One of the world's busiest general-aviation airports is also in Los Angeles, Van Nuys Airport {{airport codes|VNY|KVNY}}.WEB,weblink Van Nuys Airport General Description, Los Angeles World Airports, October 25, 2011,

Seaports

File:Vincent Thomas bridge.San Pedro.JPG|alt=|thumb|The Vincent Thomas Bridge is at Terminal IslandTerminal IslandThe Port of Los Angeles is in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro neighborhood, approximately {{convert|20|mi|km}} south of Downtown. Also called Los Angeles Harbor and WORLDPORT LA, the port complex occupies {{convert|7500|acre|km2}} of land and water along {{convert|43|mi|km}} of waterfront. It adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach.The sea ports of the Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach together make up the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor.WEB,weblink Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Safety Committee,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061008141319weblink">weblink October 8, 2006, yes, March 16, 2011, WEB,weblink Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor Employers Association, Harboremployers.com, March 16, 2011, Together, both ports are the fifth busiest container port in the world, with a trade volume of over 14.2 million TEU's in 2008.WEB,weblink AAPA World Port Rankings 2008, March 16, 2011, Singly, the Port of Los Angeles is the busiest container port in the United States and the largest cruise ship center on the West Coast of the United States â€“ The Port of Los Angeles's World Cruise Center served about 590,000 passengers in 2014.WEB,weblink Cruise Passenger and Ferry Terminals, Port of Los Angeles, January 14, 2015, There are also smaller, non-industrial harbors along Los Angeles's coastline. The port includes four bridges: the Vincent Thomas Bridge, Henry Ford Bridge, Gerald Desmond Bridge, and Commodore Schuyler F. Heim Bridge. Passenger ferry service from San Pedro to the city of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island is provided by Catalina Express.

Homelessness

In October 2018 there was a typhus outbreak in Los Angeles, which was linked to a homeless encampment. A Los Angeles city employee has contracted typhus while working in the Los Angeles City Hall.WEB,weblink Flea-borne typhus outbreak, rats taking over Los Angeles city building, usatoday.com, Ashley, May, February 8, 2019, June 19, 2019, {{As of|2019}}, there are 36,000 homeless people in Los Angeles. The city has homeless encampments which are blocking sidewalks, spreading rodents and diseases.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles homeless hits 36,000 in dramatic rise, theguardian.com, Sam T., Levine, June 4, 2019, June 19, 2019, WEB,weblink LA's homeless: Aerial view tour of Skid Row, epicenter of crisis, abc7.com, Chris, Cristi, June 13, 2019, June 19, 2019, Near the Little Tokyo neighborhood, which is adjacent to Downtown Los Angeles, there are 62 blocks of homeless people living in tents.Near the Los Angeles City Hall, in addition to the rodents infestation the area, there are also human waste and hypodermic needles left on the streets. WEB,weblink Los Angeles grapples with homeless camps, illegal dumped trash and rat-infested City Hall, cbsnews.com, Brian, Pascus, June 4, 2019, June 19, 2019,

Notable people

As home to Hollywood and its entertainment industry, numerous singers, actors, celebrities and other entertainers live in various districts of Los Angeles.

Twin towns and sister cities

File:Sister cities of Los Angeles.jpg|alt=|thumb|A sign near City Hall points to the sister cities of Los Angeles.]]Los Angeles has 25 sister cities,WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Los Angeles, Government of Los Angeles, Sister Cities Los Angeles, 25 February 2019, listed chronologically by year joined:{{Colbegin}}
  • {{flagdeco|ISR}} Eilat, Israel (1959)
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Nagoya, Japan (1959)
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Salvador, Bahia, Brazil (1962)
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Bordeaux, France (1964)WEB,weblink Bordeaux– Rayonnement européen et mondial, Mairie de Bordeaux, July 29, 2013, French,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207154903weblink">weblink February 7, 2013, WEB,weblink Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures, Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères), July 29, 2013, French,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207152951weblink">weblink February 7, 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|GER}} Berlin, Germany (1967)WEB,weblink Berlin City Partnerships, Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin, September 17, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521054019weblink">weblink May 21, 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|ZMB}} Lusaka, Zambia (1968)
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Mexico City, Mexico (1969)
  • {{flagdeco|NZL}} Auckland, New Zealand (1971)
  • {{flagdeco|KOR}} Busan, South Korea (1971)
  • {{flagdeco|IND}} Mumbai, India (1972)
  • {{flagdeco|IRN}} Tehran, Iran (1972)
  • {{flagdeco|TWN}} Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1979)
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (1981)WEB,weblink Guangzhou Sister Cities, Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office, July 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121024091437weblink">weblink October 24, 2012,
  • {{flagdeco|GRE}} Athens, Greece (1984)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Saint Petersburg, Russia (1984)
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1986)WEB,weblink Vancouver Twinning Relationships, City of Vancouver, December 5, 2009,
  • {{flagdeco|EGY}} Giza, Egypt (1989)
  • {{flagdeco|IDN}} Jakarta, Indonesia (1990)
  • {{flagdeco|LTU}} Kaunas, Lithuania (1991)
  • {{flagdeco|PHL}} Makati, Philippines (1992)
  • {{flagdeco|CRO}} Split, Croatia (1993)WEB,weblink Gradovi prijatelji Splita, Split Twin Towns, Grad Split [Split Official City Website], December 19, 2013, Croatian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120324035937weblink">weblink March 24, 2012,
  • {{flagdeco|SLV}} San Salvador, El Salvador (2005)
  • {{flagdeco|LBN}} Beirut, Lebanon (2006)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Ischia, Campania, Italy (2006)
  • {{flagdeco|ARM}} Yerevan, Armenia (2007)WEB,weblink Yerevan Twin Towns & Sister Cities, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, November 4, 2013,
{{Colend}}In addition, Los Angeles has the following "friendship cities":
  • {{flagdeco|GBR}} London, United Kingdom
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Łódź, Poland
  • {{flagdeco|GBR}} Manchester, United KingdomWEB,weblink Twinning link with LA, July 27, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731001604weblink">weblink July 31, 2013, yes, July 28, 2009, Manchester Evening News,
  • {{flagdeco|ISR}} Tel Aviv, IsraelWEB,weblink Tel Aviv/Los Angeles Partnership, 2007, The Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080623075353weblink">weblink June 23, 2008, August 7, 2008,

See also

{{div col}} {{div col end}}

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

{{See also|Bibliography of Los Angeles}}General
  • BOOK, Southern California: An Island on the Land, Carey McWilliams, Peregrine Smith, 2009, 978-0-87905-007-8, 9th, Carey McWilliams (journalist),
  • BOOK, It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own: A New History of the American West, It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own, Richard White, University of Oklahoma Press, 1991, 978-0-8061-2567-1, Richard White (historian),
  • BOOK, Los Angeles: Capital of the Third World, David Rieff, Touchstone, 1992, 978-0-671-79210-7, David Rieff,
  • BOOK, Translating LA: A Tour of the Rainbow City, Peter Theroux, Norton, 1994, 978-0-393-31394-9, Peter Theroux,
  • BOOK, Los Angeles: A History of the Future, Paul Glover, Greenplanners, 1995, 978-0-9622911-0-4, Paul Glover (activist),
  • BOOK, Los Angeles A to Z: An Encyclopedia of the City and County, Leonard Pitt & Dale Pitt, University of California Press, 2000, 978-0-520-20530-7, Berkeley,
  • BOOK, Los Angeles: Portrait of a City, Kevin Starr and David Ulin, Taschen America, 2009, 978-3-8365-0291-7, Jim Heimann,
Architecture and urban theory
  • BOOK, Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies, Reyner Banham, University of California Press, 2009, 978-0-520-26015-3, 2nd, Berkeley, Reyner Banham,
  • BOOK, City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, City of Quartz, Mike Davis, Verso, 2006, 978-1-84467-568-5, Mike Davis (scholar),
  • BOOK, The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles 1850–1930, Robert M. Fogelson, University of California Press, 1993, 978-0-520-08230-4, Berkeley,
  • BOOK, The History of Forgetting: Los Angeles and the Erasure of Memory, Norman M. Klein, Verso, 1997, 978-1-84467-242-4,
  • BOOK, L.A. Lost & Found: An Architectural History of Los Angeles, Sam Hall Kaplan, Hennessey and Ingalls, 2000, 978-0-940512-23-8,
  • BOOK, Overdrive: L.A. Constructs the Future, 1940–1990, Wim de Wit and Christopher James Alexander, Getty Publications, 2013, 978-1-60606-128-2,
Race relations
  • BOOK,weblink Anything but Mexican: Chicanos in contemporary Los Angeles, Acuña, Rodolfo, Verso, 1996, 978-1-85984-031-3, Rodolfo Acuña, September 30, 2011,
  • BOOK, No Crystal Stair: African Americans in the City of Angels, George, Lynell, Verso, 1992, 978-0-86091-389-4,
  • BOOK, L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present, Sides, Josh, University of California Press, 2006, 978-0-520-24830-4, Berkeley,
  • BOOK, Murder at the Sleepy Lagoon: Zoot Suits, Race, and Riot in Wartime L.A., Eduardo Obregón Pagán, The University of North Carolina Press, 2006, 978-0-8078-5494-5,
  • BOOK, The Great Black Way: L.A. in the 1940s and the Last African American Renaissance, R. J. Smith, PublicAffairs, 2007, 978-1-58648-521-4,
LGBT
  • BOOK, Gay L. A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, And Lipstick Lesbians, Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons, Basic Books, 2006, 978-0-465-02288-5,
  • BOOK, Bohemian Los Angeles: and the Making of Modern Politics, Hurewitz, Daniel, University of California Press, 2007, 978-0-520-24925-7, Berkeley,
Environment
  • BOOK, Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water, Cadillac Desert, Marc Reisner, Penguin Books, 1986, 978-0-14-017824-1, Marc Reisner,
  • BOOK, Smogtown: The Lung-Burning History of Pollution in Los Angeles, Chip Jacobs and William Kelly, Outlook Hardcover, 2008, 978-1-58567-860-0,
Art and literature
  • BOOK, Writing Los Angeles: A Literary Anthology, Library of America, 2002, 978-1-931082-27-3, David L. Ulin,
  • BOOK, Pop L.A.: Art and the City in the 1960s, Whiting, Cécile, University of California Press, 2008, 978-0-520-25634-7, Berkeley,

External links

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