Iberian Peninsula

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Iberian Peninsula
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{{Redirect|Iberia}}{{Short description|Peninsula located in southwest Europe}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2015}}

!Location!Coldest month!April!Warmest month!October| Madrid| Barcelona| Valencia| Seville| Lisbon| Porto
name Iberian Peninsula

framestyle=border:none; padding:0 titlestyle=background:transparent; text-align:center; font-size:9pt;

|1 = {{native name|an|Peninsula Iberica{edih}
|2 = {{native name|ast|Península Ibérica}}
|3 = {{native name|eu|Iberiar Penintsula}}
|4 = {{native name|ca|Península Ibèrica}}
|6 = {{native name|en|Iberian Peninsula}}
|7 = {{native name|fr|Péninsule Ibérique}}
|8 = {{native name|gl|Península Ibérica}}
|9 = {{native name|mwl|Península Eibérica}}
|10 = {{native name|oc|Peninsula Iberica}}
|11 = {{native name|pt|Península Ibérica}}
|12 = {{native name|es|Península Ibérica}}}}|image_name = España y Portugal.jpg|image_caption = Satellite image of the Iberian Peninsula.|image_size = 255px|image_alt = |map_image= Iberia (orthographic projection).svg|location = Southwestern Europe
40N00scale:10000000|display=inline,title}}|area_km2 = 596,740 |highest_mount = Mulhacén|elevation_m = 3478|country = Andorra|country_capital_and_largest_city = Andorra la Vella|country_capital_type = town|country_area_km2 = 468|country1 = Portugal|country1_capital_and_largest_city = Lisbon|country1_area_km2 = 89015|country2 = Spain|country2_capital_and_largest_city = Madrid|country2_area_km2 = 492175Gibraltar {{nobold>(United Kingdom)}}|country3_capital = GibraltarWestside (Gibraltar)>Westside|country3_largest_city_type = district|country3_area_km2 = 7|country4 = France|country4_largest_city = Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via|country4_largest_city_type = commune|country4_area_km2 = 33,563|demonym = Iberian|population = About 57.2 million|ethnic_groups = }}The Iberian Peninsula {{IPAc-en|aɪ|ˈ|b|ɪər|i|É™|n}},{hide}efn|In the local languages:
  • Spanish, Portuguese, Galician and Asturian: Península Ibérica (mostly rendered in lowercase in Spanish: península ibérica)
    • {{IPA-es|peˈninsula iˈβeɾika|lang{edih} (the same in Asturian)
    • {{IPA-pt|pɨˈnÄ©sulɐ iˈβɛɾikɐ|lang}}
    • {{IPA-gl|peˈninsÊŠlɐ iˈβɛɾikɐ|lang}}
      • {{IPA-ca|pəˈninsulÉ™ iˈβɛɾikÉ™|ec}}
  • Aragonese and Occitan: Peninsula Iberica
    • {{IPA-an|peninˈsula iβeˈɾika|lang}}
    • {{IPA-oc|peninˈsylÉ” iβeˈɾikÉ”, -beˈʀi-|lang}}
  • {{IPA-fr|penɛ̃syl ibeʁik|}}
  • {{IPA-mwl|pɨˈnÄ©sulɐ ejˈβɛɾikɐ|}}
  • {{IPA-eu|iβeɾiar penints̺ula|}}}} also known as Iberia,{hide}efn|In the local languages:
  • Spanish, Aragonese, Asturian and Galician: Iberia
    • {{IPA-es|iˈβeɾja|lang{edih} (the same in Aragonese and Asturian)
    • {{IPA-gl|iˈβɛɾjɐ|lang}}
  • Portuguese and Mirandese: Ibéria
    • {{IPA-pt|iˈβɛɾiɐ|lang}}
    • {{IPA-mwl|iˈβɛɾiɐ|lang}}
  • Catalan and Occitan: Ibèria
    • {{IPA-ca|iˈβɛɾiÉ™|ec}}
    • {{IPA-oc|iˈβɛɾiÉ”, -ˈbɛʀi-|lang}}
  • French: Ibérie {{IPA-fr|ibeʁi|}}
  • Basque: Iberia {{IPA-eu|iβeɾia|}}}} is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory. It also includes Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of approximately {{convert|596740|km2|sqmi}}WEB,weblink Iberian Peninsula, 11 October 2018, ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, and by population, after the Balkan Peninsula.


(File:Iberia Europe satfoto 2014067.jpg|thumb|Iberian Peninsula and southern France, satellite photo on a cloudless day in March 2014)

Greek name

The word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία ({{transl|el|Ibēríā}}) by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula.BOOK, Claire L. Lyons, John K. Papadopoulos, The Archaeology of Colonialism,weblink 2002, Getty Publications, 978-0-89236-635-4, 68–69, At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people.BOOK, Strabo, Strabo, Geographica, Book III Chapter 1 Section 6, And also the other Iberians use an alphabet, though not letters of one and the same character, for their speech is not one and the same., Strabo's 'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē (Gaul) by the PyreneesBOOK, Charles Ebel, Transalpine Gaul: The Emergence of a Roman Province,weblink 1976, Brill Archive, 90-04-04384-5, 48–49, and included the entire land mass southwest (he says "west") of there.BOOK, Ricardo Padrón, The Spacious Word: Cartography, Literature, and Empire in Early Modern Spain,weblink 1 February 2004, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-64433-2, 252, With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct 'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean.BOOK, Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Encyclopedia of European Peoples,weblink 2006, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-2918-1, 404, Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC.BOOK, Strabo, Strabo, Horace Leonard Jones (trans.), The Geography, II, 1988, Bill Thayer, Cambridge, ancient Greek, English, 118, Note 1 on 3.4.19,weblink Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia."BOOK, Herodotus, The nine books of the History of Herodotus, tr. from the text of T. Gaisford, with notes and a summary by P.E. Laurent,weblink 1827, 75, According to Strabo,III.4.19. prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος ({{transl|el|Ibēros}})" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but currently they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit,III.37. but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. ElsewhereIII.17. he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia."StraboIII.4.11. refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians.

Roman names

According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia (Greek: Iberia) as synonyms. The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in political and geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians". This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus. Hiber (Iberian) was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro.BOOK, Félix Gaffiot, Dictionnaire illustré latin-français,weblink 1934, Hachette, 764, The first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC.BOOK, Greg Woolf, Rome: An Empire's Story,weblink 8 June 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-997217-3, 18, BOOK, Berkshire Review,weblink 1965, Williams College, 7, BOOK, Carlos B. Vega, Conquistadoras: Mujeres Heroicas de la Conquista de America,weblink 2 October 2003, McFarland, 978-0-7864-8208-5, 15, Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos ("restless Iberi") in his Georgics.BOOK, Virgil, The Eclogues and Georgics of Virgil,weblink 1846, Harper & Brothers, 377, The Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania.As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for 'near' and 'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. (The name "Iberia" was ambiguous, being also the name of the Kingdom of Iberia in the Caucasus.)Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, which was preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.


File:Sesars.svg|thumb|Northeast Iberian script from Huesca.]]The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known it was hardly necessary to state; for example, Ibēria was the country "this side of the Ibērus" in Strabo. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River.III.3.21. The river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian,WEB, Horace, White, Jona Lendering, Appian's History of Rome: The Spanish Wars (§§6–10),weblink, 1 December 2008, Chapter 7, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, PolybiusWEB, Polybius: The Histories: III.6.2,weblink Bill Thayer, states that the "native name" is Ibēr, apparently the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination.The early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must also remain unknown. In modern Basque, the word ibarMorris Student Plus, Basque-English dictionary means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names.


(File:Arte esquemático-Cigüeña.png|thumb|upright|Schematic rock art from the Iberian Peninsula.)(File:Iberia Late Bronze.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Iberian Late Bronze Age since {{circa}} 1300 BC)


The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor.Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the peninsula. It continued to exist until around 30,000 BP, when Neanderthal man faced extinction.About 40,000 years ago, anatomically modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula from Southern France.BOOK, Jonathan Adams, Species Richness: Patterns in the Diversity of Life,weblink 26 February 2010, Springer, 978-3-540-74278-4, 208, Here, this genetically homogeneous population (characterized by the M173 mutation in the Y chromosome), developed the M343 mutation, giving rise to Haplogroup R1b, still the most common in modern Portuguese and Spanish males.WEB, Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA),weblink NAP Professional, North American Pharmacal, Persistent Entity,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2014, dead, dmy-all, On the Iberian Peninsula, modern humans developed a series of different cultures, such as the Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures, some of them characterized by the complex forms of the art of the Upper Paleolithic.


During the Neolithic expansion, various megalithic cultures developed in the Iberian Peninsula.JOURNAL,weblink Redes y expansión del Neolítico en la Península Ibérica, Bernat, Martí Oliver, 2012, 1 September 2018, Rubricatum. Revista del Museu de Gavà, 5, 1135-3791, 549–553, es, Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert, PDF, An open seas navigation culture from the east Mediterranean, called the Cardium culture, also extended its influence to the eastern coasts of the peninsula, possibly as early as the 5th millennium BC. These people may have had some relation to the subsequent development of the Iberian civilization.


In the Chalcolithic ({{circa}} 3000 BC), a series of complex cultures developed that would give rise to the peninsula's first civilizations and to extensive exchange networks reaching to the Baltic, Middle East and North Africa. Around 2800 – 2700 BC, the Beaker culture, which produced the Maritime Bell Beaker, probably originated in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.BOOK, Case, H, 'Beakers and Beaker Culture' Beyond Stonehenge: Essays on the Bronze Age in honour of Colin Burgess, 2007, Oxbow, Oxford, 237–254,

Bronze Age

Bronze Age cultures developed beginning {{circa}} 1800 BC,BOOK, Caminos hacia la complejidad: el Calcolítico en la región cantábrica,weblink Roberto, Ontañón Peredo, Universidad de Cantabria, 2003, 72, 9788481023466, when the civilization of Los Millares was followed by that of El Argar.JOURNAL,weblink Del Calcolítico al Bronce antiguo en el Guadalquivir inferior. El cerro de San Juan (Coria del Río, Sevilla) y el 'Modelo de Reemplazo', 0514-7336, 10.14201/zephyrus2015761538, Daniel, García Rivero, José Luis, Escacena Carrasco, July–December 2015, 1 September 2018, Zephyrus, Universidad de Salamanca, 15–38, PDF, es, JOURNAL,weblink Dra. Ana Mª, Vázquez Hoys, 15 May 2005, 1 September 2018, Revista Terrae Antiqvae, es, Los Millares, UNED, José Luis, Santos, From this centre, bronze technology spread to other cultures like the Bronze of Levante, South-Western Iberian Bronze and Las Cogotas.In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.Early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Pre-Celts and Celts migrated from Central Europe, thus partially changing the peninsula's ethnic landscape to Indo-European-speaking in its northern and western regions. In Northwestern Iberia (modern Northern Portugal, Asturias and Galicia), a Celtic culture developed, the Castro culture, with a large number of hill forts and some fortified cities.


File:Celts in Europe.png|thumb|250px|Celtic expansion in Europe, 6th–3rd century BC]]By the Iron Age, starting in the 7th century BC, the Iberian Peninsula consisted of complex agrarian and urban civilizations, either Pre-Celtic or Celtic (such as the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, Gallaeci, Astures, Celtici and others), the cultures of the Iberians in the eastern and southern zones and the cultures of the Aquitanian in the western portion of the Pyrenees.The seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks and Carthaginians successively settled along the Mediterranean coast and founded trading colonies there over a period of several centuries. Around 1100 BC, Phoenician merchants founded the trading colony of Gadir or Gades (modern day Cádiz) near Tartessos. In the 8th century BC, the first Greek colonies, such as Emporion (modern Empúries), were founded along the Mediterranean coast on the east, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians. The Greeks coined the name Iberia, after the river Iber (Ebro). In the sixth century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in the peninsula while struggling with the Greeks for control of the Western Mediterranean. Their most important colony was Carthago Nova (modern-day Cartagena, Spain).


Roman rule

File:Conquista Hispania.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|(Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula|Roman conquest]]: 220 BC - 19 BC)In 218 BC, during the Second Punic War against the Carthaginians, the first Roman troops occupied the Iberian Peninsula; however, it was not until the reign of Augustus that it was annexed after 200 years of war with the Celts and Iberians. The result was the creation of the province of Hispania. It was divided into Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior during the late Roman Republic, and during the Roman Empire, it was divided into Hispania Tarraconensis in the northeast, Hispania Baetica in the south and Lusitania in the southwest.Hispania supplied the Roman Empire with silver, food, olive oil, wine, and metal. The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and Theodosius I, the philosopher Seneca the Younger, and the poets Martial and Lucan were born from families living on the Iberian Peninsula.During their 600-year occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the Romans introduced the Latin language that influenced many of the languages that exist today in the Iberian peninsula.

Germanic kingdoms

(File:Hispania 560 AD.PNG|thumb|left|upright=1.3|Germanic and Byzantine rule {{circa}} 560)In the early fifth century, Germanic peoples occupied the peninsula, namely the Suebi, the Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and their allies, the Alans. Only the kingdom of the Suebi (Quadi and Marcomanni) would endure after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who occupied all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually occupied the Suebi kingdom and its capital city, Bracara (modern day Braga), in 584–585. They would also occupy the province of the Byzantine Empire (552–624) of Spania in the south of the peninsula and the Balearic Islands.

Islamic Caliphate

File:Al Andalus & Christian Kingdoms.png|thumb|upright=1.3|Islamic rule: al-Andalusal-AndalusIn 711, a Muslim army invaded the Visigothic Kingdom in Hispania. Under Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Islamic army landed at Gibraltar and, in an eight-year campaign, occupied all except the northern kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula in the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Al-Andalus (, tr. al-ʾAndalÅ«s, possibly "Land of the Vandals"),BOOK, Abraham Ibn Daud's Dorot 'Olam (Generations of the Ages): A Critical Edition and Translation of Zikhron Divrey Romi, Divrey Malkhey Yisra?el, and the Midrash on Zechariah,weblink 10 August 2013, 7 June 2013, BRILL, 978-90-04-24815-1, 57, BOOK, Julio Samsó, The Formation of Al-Andalus: History and society,weblink 10 August 2013, 1998, Ashgate, 978-0-86078-708-2, 41–42, is the Arabic name given to what is today southern Spain by its Muslim Berber and Arab occupiers.From the 8th–15th centuries, only the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula was part of the Islamic world. It became a center of culture and learning, especially during the Caliphate of Córdoba, which reached its height of its power under the rule of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his successor al-Hakam II.BOOK, Jaime Vicens Vives, Approaches to the History of Spain,weblink 1970, University of California Press, 978-0-520-01422-0, 37, The Muslims, who were initially Arabs and Berbers, included some local converts, the so-called Muladi.BOOK, Darío Fernández-Morera, The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise,weblink 9 February 2016, Intercollegiate Studies Institute, 978-1-5040-3469-2, 286, The Muslims were referred to by the generic name, MoorsBOOK, F. E. Peters, The Monotheists: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Conflict and Competition, Volume I: The Peoples of God,weblink 11 April 2009, Princeton University Press, 1-4008-2570-9, 182, The Reconquista gained momentum in {{circa}} 718, when the Christian Asturians opposed the Moors.


Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Kingdom of Asturias. From there, they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors; this war of reconquest is known as the Reconquista. Christian and Muslim kingdoms fought and allied among themselves. The fighting was characterised by raids into Islamic territory with the intent of destroying crops, orchards, and villages, and of killing and enslaving any Muslims they came across. Christian forces were usually better armoured than their Muslim counterparts, with noble and non-noble milites and cavallers wearing mail hauberks, separate mail coifs and metal helmets, and armed with maces, cavalry axes, sword and lances.BOOK, Warfare in the Medieval World, 2006, Pen and Sword, 9781848846326, File:Enrique of Transtamare kills his half-brother Pedro I, king of Leon and Castile.jpg|thumb|Henry II kills his predecessor as King of Castile and León, Peter the Cruel ]]During the Middle Ages, the peninsula housed many small states including the Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Portugal. The Muslims were driven out of Portugal by 1249. By the end of the 13th century, the Spanish Reconquista was largely completed.The 14th century was a period of great internal changes in the Spanish kingdoms. After the death of Peter the Cruel of Castile (reigned 1350–69), the House of Trastámara succeeded to the throne in the person of Peter's half brother, Henry II (reigned 1369–79). In the kingdom of Aragón, following the death without heirs of John I (reigned 1387–96) and Martin I (reigned 1396–1410), a prince of the House of Trastámara, Ferdinand I (reigned 1412–16), succeeded to the Aragonese throne.WEB,weblink A History of Europe: From 1378 to 1494, W. T., Waugh, 14 April 2016, Routledge, Google Books, During this period the Jews in Spain became very numerous and acquired great power;WEB,weblink The History of the Inquisition of Spain: From the Time of Its Establishment to the Reign of Ferdinand VII., Composed from the Original Documents of the Archives of the Supreme Council and from Those of Subordinate Tribunals of the Holy Office, Juan Antonio, Llorente, 30 September 1843, James M. Campbell & Company, Google Books, they were not only the physicians, but also the treasurers of the kings. Don Jusaph de Ecija administered the revenues of Alfonso XI, and Samuel ha-Levi was chief favourite of Peter the Cruel. The Jews of Toledo then set on foot their migration in protest against the laws of Alfonso X (Las Siete Partidas), which prohibited the building of new synagogues.After the accession of Henry of Trastámara to the throne, the populace, exasperated by the preponderance of Jewish influence, perpetrated a massacre of Jews at Toledo. In 1391, mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000–100,000 Jews.WEB,weblink Jews of Spain: A History of the Sephardic Experience, Jane S., Gerber, 31 January 1994, Simon and Schuster, Google Books, WEB,weblink Teaching Jewish History, Julia Phillips, Berger, Sue Parker, Gerson, 30 September 2006, Behrman House, Inc, Google Books, WEB,weblink Codex Judaica: Chronological Index of Jewish History, Covering 5,764 Years of Biblical, Talmudic & Post-Talmudic History, Máttis, Kantor, 30 September 2005, Zichron Press, Google Books, WEB,weblink Why Me God: A Jewish Guide for Coping and Suffering, Lisa, Aiken, 1 February 1997, Jason Aronson, Incorporated, Google Books, WEB,weblink Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities, Melvin, Ember, Carol R., Ember, Ian, Skoggard, 30 November 2004, Springer Science & Business Media, Google Books, WEB,weblink The Christian Church from the 1st to the 20th Century, Philip, Schaff, 24 March 2015, Delmarva Publications, Inc., Google Books, WEB,weblink The Routledge Atlas of Jewish History, Martin, Gilbert, 30 September 2003, Psychology Press, Google Books, Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. According to Hasdai Crescas, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed.BOOK, Anti-Jewish Riots in the Crown of Aragon and the Royal Response, 1391-1392, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 9781107164512, 19, (File:Iberian Kingdoms in 1400.svg|thumb|Iberian Kingdoms in 1400)The last Muslim stronghold, Granada, was conquered by a combined Castilian and Aragonese force in 1492. As many as 100,000 Moors died or were enslaved in the military campaign, while 200,000 fled to North Africa.BOOK, Religious Refugees in the Early Modern World: An Alternative History of the Reformation, 2015, Cambridge University Press, 9781107024564, 108, Muslims and Jews throughout the period were variously tolerated or shown intolerance in different Christian kingdoms. After the fall of Granada, all Muslims and Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or face expulsion—as many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain.BOOK, The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia, 9780753457849, 201,weblink WEB,weblink True Jew: Challenging the Stereotype, Bernard, Beck, 30 September 2012, Algora Publishing, Google Books, WEB,weblink The Expulsion of the Jews: Five Hundred Years of Exodus, Yale, Strom, 30 September 1992, SP Books, Google Books, WEB,weblink Dreams Deferred: A Concise Guide to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and the Movement to Boycott Israel, CARY R., NELSON, 11 July 2016, Indiana University Press, Google Books, Historian Henry Kamen estimates that some 25,000 Jews died en route from Spain.WEB,weblink Secrecy and Deceit: The Religion of the Crypto-Jews, David Martin, Gitlitz, 30 September 2002, UNM Press, Google Books, The Jews were also expelled from Sicily and Sardinia, which were under Aragonese rule, and an estimated 37,000 to 100,000 Jews left.BOOK, The Jewish Time Line Encyclopedia: A Year-by-Year History From Creation to the Present, Jason Aronson, Incorporated, 9781461631491, 178, In 1497, King Manuel I of Portugal forced all Jews in his kingdom to convert or leave. That same year he expelled all Muslims that were not slaves,BOOK, Latin America in Colonial Times, 2018, Cambridge University Press, 9781108416405, 27, and in 1502 the Catholic Monarchs followed suit, imposing the choice of conversion to Christianity or exile and loss of property. Many Jews and Muslims fled to North Africa and the Ottoman Empire, while others publicly converted to Christianity and became known respectively as Marranos (Spanish for pig) and Moriscos (after the old term Moors).WEB,weblink A Concise Survey of Western Civilization: Supremacies and Diversities throughout History, Brian A., Pavlac, 19 February 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, Google Books, However, many of these continued to practice their religion in secret. The Moriscos revolted several times and were ultimately forcibly expelled from Spain in the early 17th century. From 1609–14, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey.BOOK, Spanish Royal Patronage 1412-1804: Portraits as Propaganda, 2018, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 9781527512290, 111, WEB,weblink Notes On Entering Deen Completely: Islam as its followers know it, Talib, Jaleel, 11 July 2015, EDC Foundation, Google Books, WEB,weblink We are All Moors: Ending Centuries of Crusades Against Muslims and Other Minorities, Anouar, Majid, 30 September 2009, U of Minnesota Press, Google Books, (File:Carte historique des Royaumes d'Espagne et Portugal.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Map of Spain and Portugal, Atlas historique, dated approximately 1705–1739, of H.A. Chatelain)


The small states gradually amalgamated over time. Portugal was the exception, except for a brief period (1580–1640) during which the whole peninsula was united politically under the Iberian Union. After that point, the modern position was reached and the peninsula now consists of the countries of Spain and Portugal (excluding their islands—the Portuguese Azores and Madeira and the Spanish Canary Islands and Balearic Islands; and the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla), Andorra, French Cerdagne and Gibraltar.

Geography and geology

The Iberian Peninsula is the westernmost of the three major southern European peninsulas—the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan.JOURNAL, Las redes de Transporte entre la Península Ibérica y el resto de Europa, Víctor, Sánchez Blanco, Cuadernos de Estrategia, 1697-6924, 7, 1988, 21–32,weblink es, Dialnet (bibliographic database), Dialnet, It is bordered on the southeast and east by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north, west, and southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. The Pyrenees mountains are situated along the northeast edge of the peninsula, where it adjoins the rest of Europe. Its southern tip is very close to the northwest coast of Africa, separated from it by the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea.The Iberian Peninsula extends from the southernmost extremity at Punta de Tarifa ({{Coord|36|00|15|N|5|36|37|W|display=inline}}) to the northernmost extremity at Punta de Estaca de Bares ({{Coord|43|47|38|N|7|41|17|W|display=inline}}) over a distance between lines of latitude of about {{convert|865|km|mi|abbr=on}} based on a degree length of {{convert|111|km|mi|abbr=on}} per degree, and from the westernmost extremity at Cabo da Roca ({{Coord|38|46|51|N|9|29|54|W|display=inline}}) to the easternmost extremity at Cap de Creus ({{Coord|42|19|09|N|3|19|19|E|display=inline}}) over a distance between lines of longitude at 40° N latitude of about {{convert|1155|km|mi|abbr=on}} based on an estimated degree length of about {{convert|90|km|mi|abbr=on}} for that latitude. The irregular, roughly octagonal shape of the peninsula contained within this spherical quadrangle was compared to an ox-hide by the geographer Strabo.III.1.3.About three quarters of that rough octagon is the Meseta Central, a vast plateau ranging from 610 to 760 m in altitude.BOOK, Fischer, T, 1920, The Iberian Peninsula: Spain, Mill, Hugh Robert, The International Geography, New York and London, D. Appleton and Company, 368–377,weblink It is located approximately in the centre, staggered slightly to the east and tilted slightly toward the west (the conventional centre of the Iberian Peninsula has long been considered Getafe just south of Madrid). It is ringed by mountains and contains the sources of most of the rivers, which find their way through gaps in the mountain barriers on all sides.


The coastline of the Iberian Peninsula is {{convert|3313|km|mi|abbr=on}}, {{convert|1660|km|mi|abbr=on}} on the Mediterranean side and {{convert|1653|km|mi|abbr=on}} on the Atlantic side.These figures sum the figures given in the Wikipedia articles on the geography of Spain and Portugal. Most figures from Internet sources on Spain and Portugal include the coastlines of the islands owned by each country and thus are not a reliable guide to the coastline of the peninsula. Moreover, the length of a coastline may vary significantly depending on where and how it is measured. The coast has been inundated over time, with sea levels having risen from a minimum of {{convert|115|-|120|m|ft|abbr=on}} lower than today at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to its current level at 4,000 years BP.BOOK, 305, Evolution of groundwater systems at the European coastline, WM, Edmunds, K Hinsby, C Marlin, MT Condesso de Melo, M Manyano, R Vaikmae, Y Travi, Palaeowaters in Coastal Europe: Evolution of Groundwater Since the Late Pleistocene, W. M., Edmunds, C. J., Milne, Geological Society, 2001, London, 1-86239-086-X, The coastal shelf created by sedimentation during that time remains below the surface; however, it was never very extensive on the Atlantic side, as the continental shelf drops rather steeply into the depths. An estimated {{convert|700|km|mi|abbr=on}} length of Atlantic shelf is only {{convert|10|-|65|km|mi|abbr=on}} wide. At the {{convert|500|m|ft|abbr=on}} isobath, on the edge, the shelf drops off to {{convert|1000|m|ft|abbr=on}}.BOOK, Iberian Peninsula – Atlantic Coast, An Atlas of Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves, February 2004, Global Ocean Associates,weblink pdf, 9 December 2008, The submarine topography of the coastal waters of the Iberian Peninsula has been studied extensively in the process of drilling for oil. Ultimately, the shelf drops into the Bay of Biscay on the north (an abyss), the Iberian abyssal plain at {{convert|4800|m|ft|abbr=on}} on the west, and Tagus abyssal plain to the south. In the north, between the continental shelf and the abyss, is an extension called the Galicia Bank, a plateau that also contains the Porto, Vigo, and Vasco da Gama seamounts, which form the Galicia interior basin. The southern border of these features is marked by Nazaré Canyon, which splits the continental shelf and leads directly into the abyss.


File:Rios peninsula Iberica-es.png|thumb|upright=1.3|Major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula: Miño / Minho, Duero / Douro, Tajo / Tejo, Guadiana, Guadalquivir, Segura, Júcar / Xúquer and Ebro / Ebre.]]The major rivers flow through the wide valleys between the mountain systems. These are the Ebro, Douro, Tagus, Guadiana and Guadalquivir.NEWS,weblink Los 10 ríos mas largos de España, 30 May 2013, 1 September 2018, 20 Minutos, es, WEB,weblink 2. El territorio y la hidrografía española: ríos, cuencas y vertientes, 1 September 2018, Junta de Andalucía, All rivers in the Iberian Peninsula are subject to seasonal variations in flow.The Tagus is the longest river on the peninsula and, like the Douro, flows westwards with its lower course in Portugal. The Guadiana river bends southwards and forms the border between Spain and Portugal in the last stretch of its course.


The terrain of the Iberian Peninsula is largely mountainous.BOOK,weblink TEMA 8.- EL RELIEVE DE ESPAÑA, José Antonio, Manzano Cara, CEIP Madre de la Luz, es, Junta de Andalucía, 1 September 2018, The major mountain systems are:


(File:Geological units of the Iberian Peninsula EN.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Major Geologic Units of the Iberian Peninsula)The Iberian Peninsula contains rocks of every geological period from the Ediacaran to the Recent, and almost every kind of rock is represented. World-class mineral deposits can also be found there. The core of the Iberian Peninsula consists of a Hercynian cratonic block known as the Iberian Massif. On the northeast, this is bounded by the Pyrenean fold belt, and on the southeast it is bounded by the Baetic System. These twofold chains are part of the Alpine belt. To the west, the peninsula is delimited by the continental boundary formed by the magma-poor opening of the Atlantic Ocean. The Hercynian Foldbelt is mostly buried by Mesozoic and Tertiary cover rocks to the east, but nevertheless outcrops through the Sistema Ibérico and the Catalan Mediterranean System.


The Iberian peninsula has two dominant climate types. One of these is the oceanic climate seen in the Atlantic coastal region resulting in evenly temperatures with relatively cool summers. However, most of Portugal and Spain have a mediterranean climate with various precipitation and temperatures depending on latitude and position versus the sea. There are also more localized semi-arid climates in central Spain, with temperatures resembling a more continental mediterranean climate. In other extreme cases highland alpine climates such as in Sierra Nevada and areas with extremely low precitipation and desert climates or semi-arid climates such as the AlmeríaWEB,weblink Standard climate values for Almería,, 7 March 2015, area, Murcia area and southern Alicante area. In the Spanish interior the hottest temperatures in Europe are found, with Córdoba averaging around {{convert|37|C|F}} in July.WEB,weblink Standard climate values for Córdoba,, 7 March 2015, The Spanish mediterranean coast usually averages around {{convert|30|C|F}} in summer. In sharp contrast A Coruña at the northern tip of Galicia has a summer daytime high average at just below {{convert|23|C|F}}.WEB,weblink Standard climate values for A Coruña,, 7 March 2015, This cool and wet summer climate is replicated throughout most of the northern coastline. Winter temperatures are more consistent throughout the peninsula, although frosts are common in the Spanish interior, even though daytime highs are usually above the freezing point. In Portugal, the warmest winters of the country are found in the area of Algarve, very similar to the ones from Huelva in Spain, while most of the Portuguese Atlantic coast has fresh and humid winters, similar to Galicia.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 60%; font-size: 95%"
Average temperatures for the six largest urban areas of the peninsulaHTTP://WWW.AEMET.ES/EN/SERVICIOSCLIMATICOS/DATOSCLIMATOLOGICOS/VALORESCLIMATOLOGICOS, Standard Climate Values, Spain,, 7 March 2015, WEB,weblink IPMA Climate Normals,, 7 March 2015,
{{convertC2.71}} {{convertC7.71}} {{convertC19.01}} {{convertC10.71}}
{{convertC8.81}} {{convertC12.51}} {{convertC23.11}} {{convertC16.51}}
{{convertC7.11}} {{convertC11.51}} {{convertC21.91}} {{convertC15.21}}
{{convertC5.71}} {{convertC11.11}} {{convertC20.31}} {{convertC14.41}}
{{convertC8.31}} {{convertC11.91}} {{convertC18.61}} {{convertC15.11}}
{{convertC5.21}} {{convertC9.11}} {{convertC15.91}} {{convertC12.21}}

Major modern countries

Political divisions of the Iberian Peninsula sorted by area:(File:Iberian Peninsula at Night - NASA Earth Observatory.jpg|thumb|Satellite image of Iberia at night){| class="wikitable"!Country/Territory!Mainland populationPopulation only includes the inhabitants of mainland Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla), mainland Portugal (excluding Madeira and Azores), Andorra and Gibraltar.!km2!sq mi! %!Share|Spain 43,731,572 approx.Census data , "Official Spanish census" 492175sqmi|disp=table}}|84.5%|occupies most of the peninsula|Portugal 10,047,083 approx.Census data , "Portuguese census department" 89015sqmi|disp=table}}|15.3%|occupies most of the west of the peninsula|France12,035539sqmi|disp=table}}|0.1%French Cerdagne is on the south side of the Pyrenees mountain range, which runs along the border between Spain and France.PETER SAHLINSURL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=WPLEOKM1CI8C&PG=PA49PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESSPAGE=49, PAUL WILSTACH>TITLE=ALONG THE PYRENEESYEAR=1931PAGE=102, JAMES ERSKINE MURRAY>TITLE=A SUMMER IN THE PYRENEESYEAR=1837PAGE=92, For example, the Segre river, which runs west and then south to meet the Ebro, has its source on the French side. The Pyrenees range is often considered the northeastern boundary of Iberian Peninsula, although the French coastline converges away from the rest of Europe north of the range.|Andorra84,082468sqmi|disp=table}}|0.1%|a northern edge of the peninsula in the south side of the Pyrenees range between Spain and FranceGibraltar {{nowrap>(United Kingdom)}}29,4317sqmidisp=table}}|

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