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{{about|the country}}{{Redirect|España}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Kingdom in Southwest Europe}}{{Coord|40|N|4|W|type:country_region:ES|display=title}}{{EngvarB|date=December 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2018}}

| common_name = Spain| name = {{collapsible list|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:center;line-height:normal;font-size:84%;1.0 emname=aEspaña (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document. Nonetheless, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established in an ordinance published in 1984 that the denominations España (Spain) and Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the official name by many international organisations.HTTP://NOTICIAS.JURIDICAS.COM/BASE_DATOS/ADMIN/AI281209-AEC.HTMLWEBSITE=NOTICIAS JURíDICAS, }}{{efnIn Spain, Languages of Spain are officially recognised as legitimate Indigenous language>autochthonous regional language under the Spanish Constitution. In each of these, Spain's official name (, pronounced: {{IPA-es>ˈreino ð(e) esˈpaɲa|}}) is as follows:
  • , {{nowrap|{{IPA-ca|ˈreÅ‹nÉ™ ðəsˈpaɲə|IPA}}
  • , {{IPA-eu|es̺paɲiako eres̺uma|IPA}}
  • , {{IPA-gl|ˈrejnÊŠ ð(ɪ) esˈpaɲɐ|IPA}}
  • , {{IPA-oc|reˈjawme ðesˈpaɲɔ|IPA}}}}}}


}}| image_flag = Flag of Spain.svg| image_coat = File:Coat of Arms of Spain.svglaPlus ultra">italics=no}} {{small|"Further Beyond"}}esMarcha Real">italics=noAUTHOR=PRESIDENCY OF THE GOVERNMENTBOLETíN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO NúM. 244>DATE=11 OCTOBER 1997URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=24 SEPTEMBER 2015AUTHOR-LINK=GOVERNMENT OF SPAIN, {{smallcenter)(File:EU-Spain (orthographic projection).svgShow globeupright=1.15Show map of Europe|default=1}}country={{noboldlocation_color=dark green region_color=dark grey |subregion=the European Union|subregion_color = green}}| image_map2 = Spain - Location Map (2013) - ESP - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Madrid40N42type:city}}| largest_city = capital{{nobold|and national language}}}}Spanish language>Spanish{{efnThe official Spanish language of the State is established in the Section 3 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to be Castilian.HTTP://WWW.LAMONCLOA.GOB.ES/IDIOMAS/9/ESPANA/LEYFUNDAMENTAL/INDEX.HTM >TITLE=THE SPANISH CONSTITUTION ACCESSDATE=26 APRIL 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130325101204/HTTP://WWW.LAMONCLOA.GOB.ES/IDIOMAS/9/ESPANA/LEYFUNDAMENTAL/INDEX.HTM autonomous communities of Spain>autonomous communities, Catalan language 20%, Galician language>Galician 5% and Basque language 2% are co-official languages. Aragonese language>Aragonese, Asturian language, and Occitan language>Occitan (locally known as Aranese) have some degree of official recognition.}}89.67% Spaniards |10.33% others}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2019WEBSITE=DATOSMACRO.COM, item_style=white-space:nowrap; Catholicism >27.2% Irreligion >3.1% Other religions}}| religion_year = 2019| religion_ref =weblinkSpaniards >Spaniard}}Unitary state>Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyMonarchy of Spain>Monarch| leader_name1 = Felipe VIPrime Minister of Spain>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Pedro SánchezPresident of the Spanish Senate>President of the Senate| leader_name3 = Manuel Cruz Rodríguez| leader_title4 = President of the Congress of Deputies| leader_name4 = Meritxell BatetPresident of the Supreme Court of Spain>President of the Supreme Court| leader_name5 = Carlos Lesmes Serrano| legislature = Cortes GeneralesSenate of Spain>Senate| lower_house = Congress of DeputiesHistory of Spain>FormationCatholic Monarchs>De facto| established_date1 = 20 January 1479Nueva Planta decrees>De jure| established_date2 = 9 June 1715Spanish Constitution of 1812>First constitution| established_date3 = 19 March 1812Current democracy}}Spanish Constitution of 1978>29 December 1978Enlargement of the European Union#Mediterranean enlargements}}{{efn>European Union (EU) since 1993.}}| established_date5 = 1 January 1986WEBSITE=INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADíSTICA (SPAIN)URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=24 SEPTEMBER 2015, dmy-all, | area_rank = 51st| area_sq_mi = 195,364 | percent_water = 1.04As of 1 July 2018, the Spanish population increased in 74,591 in the first half of 2018, reaching a number of 46,733 million inhabitants. In the same month the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,069,312. The number of foreigners (i.e. immigrants, ex-pats and refugees) permanently living in Spain was estimated to be at 4,663,726 (9.9%) in 2018.HTTPS://WWW.INE.ES/EN/PRENSA/CP_J2018_P_EN.PDF>TITLE=POPULATION FIGURES AT 01 JULY 2018. MIGRATIONS STATISTICS. FIRST HALF OF 2018.PUBLISHER=INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADíSTICA (SPAIN) (INE)>LANGUAGE=ESARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170628123003/HTTP://WWW.INE.ES/DYNGS/INEBASE/ES/OPERACION.HTM?C=ESTADISTICA_C&CID=1254736176951&MENU=ULTIDATOS&IDP=1254735572981DF=DMY-ALL, }}| population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 30th| population_density_km2 = 92| population_density_sq_mi = 240 | population_density_rank = 112th$1.946 trillionHTTP://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2018/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=70&PR.Y=7&SY=2018&EY=2018&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=193,946,122,137,124,546,156,181,423,138,935,196,128,142,939,182,172,359,132,135,134,576,174,936,532,961,176,184,178,144,436,146,136,528,158,112,542,111,941&S=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC&GRP=0&A=>TITLE=REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTS,, }}| GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 15th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $42,124| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 30th$1.583 trillion}}| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 12th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $34,281| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 30th| Gini = 34.1 | Gini_year = 2017| Gini_change = decreasePUBLISHER=EUROSTAT ACCESS-DATE=7 MARCH 2019, | Gini_rank = 103rd| HDI = 0.891 | HDI_year = 2017 | HDI_change = increase YEAR=2016 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170322153238/HTTP://HDR.UNDP.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/2016_HUMAN_DEVELOPMENT_REPORT.PDF DF=DMY-ALL, | HDI_rank = 26thEuro{{efn>The Spanish peseta before 2002.}} (Euro sign>€)| currency_code = EURWestern European Time>WET and CET| utc_offset = ⁠±0 to +1 Note: most of Spain observes CET/CEST, except the Canary Islands and Plazas de soberanía which observe WET/WEST}}Western European Summer Time>WEST and CEST| utc_offset_DST = +1 to +2(CE)}}| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Spain>+34| iso3166code ={{efn> domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Països Catalans>Catalan-speaking territories, .gal in Galiza and .eus in the Euskal Herria>Basque-speaking area.}}}}Spain ( {{IPA-es|esˈpaɲa||Es-España.ogg}}), officially the Kingdom of SpainWEB,weblink Spain | Facts, Culture, History, & Points of Interest, Encyclopedia Britannica, (),{{efn|name=a}}{{efn|name=b}} is a European country located in Southwestern Europe with some pockets of Spanish territory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la GomeraWEB,weblink Spanish Military Arrest Four Moroccans after they Tried to Hoist Moroccan Flag in Badis Island, News, Morocco World, 2012-08-29, Morocco World News, en-US, 2019-03-17, make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco).{{efn|See list of transcontinental countries.}} Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.With an area of {{convert|505990|km2|abbr=on}}, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Málaga and Bilbao.Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania.WEB,weblink Iberia vs Hispania: Origen etimológico, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2016, dmy-all, At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as Hispania.In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Muslim of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 711, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to eight centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion. Following the establishment of Al-Andalus, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista,BOOK, Esparza, José Javier, La gesta española : historia de España en 48 estampas, para quienes han olvidado cuál era su nación, 2007, Áltera, Barcelona, 978-84-96840-14-0, 1a., which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. The end of Muslim rule in Spain occurred in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the New World.In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones,WEB,weblink 572 millones de personas hablan español, cinco millones más que hace un año, y aumentarán a 754 millones a mediados de siglo,, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez.The most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was also published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy,WEB,weblink La Constitución española de 1978. Título preliminar., Página oficial del Congreso de los Diputados, 30 September 2017, es, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2017, dmy-all, with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed countryNEWS, Whitehouse, Mark, Number of the Week: $10.2 Trillion in Global Borrowing,weblink The Wall Street Journal, 6 November 2010, live,weblink 20 September 2017, dmy-all, and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group.JOURNAL, Henley, Peter H., Blokker, Niels M., The Group of 20: A Short Legal Anatomy,weblink Melbourne Journal of International Law, 14, 568, 23 October 2018, Spain’s peculiar but seemingly secure position within the G20 also appears to have facilitated their greater participation in the G20’s work: Spain is the only outreach participant to have made policy commitments comparable to those of G20 members proper at summits since Seoul. Spain therefore appears to have become a de facto member of the G20.,


The origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.WEB,weblink "I-span-ya", el misterioso origen de la palabra España, ABC, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2016, dmy-all, Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses:File:Dama de Elche (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Lady of Elche, possibly depicting Tanit, from Carthaginian IberiaCarthaginian IberiaThe Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world".Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged".#Linch, John (director), Fernández Castro, María Cruz (del segundo tomo), Historia de España, El País, volumen II, La península Ibérica en época prerromana, p. 40. Dossier. La etimología de España; ¿tierra de conejos?, {{ISBN|978-84-9815-764-2}} It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet,BOOK, Burke, Ulick Ralph, A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic, Volume 1, Longmans, Green & Co, 1895, London, 12,weblink and Strabo called it the "land of the rabbits". The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan) actually means "Hyrax", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals.WEB,weblink Rabbits, fish and mice, but no rock hyrax, Understanding Animal Research, Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia, Ἑσπερία in Greek) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima.BOOK, Anthontitle = A system of ancient and mediæval geography for the use of schools and colleges, Harper & Brotherslocation = New Yorkurl =weblink There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque word Ezpanna meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a Grecian by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España (Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.Abrabanel, Commentary on the First Prophets (Pirush Al Nevi'im Rishonim), end of II Kings, pp. 680–681, Jerusalem 1955 (Hebrew). See also Shelomo (also spelled Sholomo, Solomon or Salomón) ibn Verga, Shevet Yehudah, pp. 6b–7a, Lemberg 1846 (Hebrew)


File:Reproduction cave of Altamira 02.jpg|thumb|Reproduction of Altamira Cave paintings,{{Harvard citation|Pike|Hoffmann|García-Díez|Pettitt|2012|pp=1409-14013|sp=sí}} in CantabriaCantabriaIberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians, Basques and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cadiz and Malaga. Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule. During the early Middle Ages it came under Gothic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Muslim invaders from North Africa. In a process that took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Muslim state fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Prior to the Second World War, Spain suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges.

Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples

(File:Greek and Phoenician Colonies in The Iberian Peninsula.png|thumb|Pre-Roman map of the Iberian Peninsula)Archaeological research at Atapuerca indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids 1.2 million years ago.NEWS,weblink 'First west Europe tooth' found, BBC, 30 June 2007, 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 October 2009, dmy-all, In Atapuerca fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins in Europe, the Homo antecessor. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago.Typical Aurignacian items were found in Cantabria (Morín, El Pendo, El Castillo), the Basque Country (Santimamiñe) and Catalonia. The radiocarbon datations give the following dates: 32,425 and 29,515 BP. {{Failed verification|date=January 2016}}[{{Failed verification|date=January 2016}} The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE by Cro-Magnon.JOURNAL, Bernaldo de Quirós Guidolti, Federico, Cabrera Valdés, Victoria, Complutum, 5, 1994, Cronología del arte paleolítico,weblink 17 November 2012, 1131-6993, 265–276, PDF, harv, Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age.The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians and the Celts. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians and Vettones occupied areas in the central west. A number of cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks in the East. Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.

Roman Hispania and the Visigothic Kingdom

File:Teatro de Mérida, España, 2017 18.jpg|thumb|left|Roman Theatre, Mérida ]]During the Second Punic War, roughly between 210 and 205 BC the expanding Roman Republic captured Carthaginian trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast. Although it took the Romans nearly two centuries to complete the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, they retained control of it for over six centuries. Roman rule was bound together by law, language, and the Roman road.WEB, Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 1 Ancient Hispania, The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 1973,weblink 9 August 2008, The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised (Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.{{efn|The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system.}}WEB, Rinehart, Robert, Seeley, Jo Ann Browning, A Country Study: Spain. Chapter 1 – Hispania, Library of Congress Country Series, 1998,weblink 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2008, dmy-all, Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool, olive oil, and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Hadrian, Trajan, Theodosius I, and the philosopher Seneca were born in Hispania.{{efn|The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.}} Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD. Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.File:Concil Toled.jpg|thumb|upright|Reccared I and bishops. Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial.]]The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi and Vandals, together with the Sarmatian Alans entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes had crossed the Rhine in early 407 and ravaged Gaul. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.File:Corona de (29049230050).jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.6|Votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of GuarrazarTreasure of GuarrazarThe Byzantines established an occidental province, Spania, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule. These Visigoths, or Western Goths, after sacking Rome under the leadership of Alaric (410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula, with Athaulf for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Wallia extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Theodoric I took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, where Attila was routed. Euric (466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives.Athanagild, having risen against King Agila, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St. Hermengild, the king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians. Recared, son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo (589). The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation. Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain.{{CathEncy|wstitle=Spain}}Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.BOOK, A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: Volume 1, Portugal: From Beginnings to 1807, 2009, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-71764-0, The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza and Isidore of Seville played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture. Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo. Isidore created the first western encyclopedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages.BOOK, Marcolongo, Andrea, La lengua de los dioses: Nueve razones para amar el griego, 2017, Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España, 978-84-306-1887-3,weblink el,

Muslim era and Reconquista

File:Mort de Roland.jpg|thumb|left|The death of the Frankish leader Roland defeated by a Basque and Muslim-Muladi (Banu Qasi) alliance at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass (778) originated the Kingdom of Navarre led by Íñigo Arista.]]In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered (711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion. Legend has it that Count Julian, the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda, by King Roderic, invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula.Under Islamic law, Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.BOOK, H. Patrick Glenn, Legal Traditions of the World, Oxford University Press, 2007, 218–219, Dhimma provides rights of residence in return for taxes., BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, The Jews of Islam, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1984, 978-0-691-00807-3, 62, Dhimmi have fewer legal and social rights than Muslims, but more rights than other non-Muslims., Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The muladíes (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) are believed to have formed the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, Thomas F. GlickWEB, Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 2 Al-Andalus, The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 1973,weblink 9 August 2008, The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.{{efn|The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central (Inner Plateau) handed to them by the Arab rulers.}} Over time, large Moorish populations became established, especially in the Guadalquivir River valley, the coastal plain of Valencia, the Ebro River valley and (towards the end of this period) in the mountainous region of Granada.File:Cordoba sal.jpg|thumb|The Great Mosque of Córdoba is among the oldest mosque buildings in the world ]]Córdoba, the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes, Ibn Arabi and Maimonides. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the Roman Empire.BOOK, Moa, Pío, Nueva historia de España : de la II Guerra Púnica al siglo XXI, 2010, Esfera de los Libros, Madrid, 978-84-9734-952-9, 1., In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states (Arab, Berber, and Slav),BOOK,weblink Handbook of Medieval Culture, Albrecht, Classen, 31 August 2015, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, Google Books, 9783110267303, allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids and the Almohads restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains.File:Leon (San Isidoro, panteón).jpg|thumb|left|Basilica of San Isidoro, León ]]The Reconquista (Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom. The Kingdom of León was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session in Europe was held in León (Cortes of León). The Kingdom of Castile, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism.Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers, Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s. Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon.WEB, Rinehart, Robert, Seeley, Jo Ann Browning, A Country Study: Spain – Castile and Aragon, Library of Congress Country Series, 1998,weblink 9 August 2008, For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the Ebro and Douro valleys.{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Ramon Llull.jpg| width1 = 154| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Ibn Arabi.jpg| width2 = 140| alt2 = | caption2 = Order of Friars Minor>Franciscan Ramon Llull and Sufi Ibn Arabi, both mystic theologists| footer_align = left| valign = middle}}The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in 1238. The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian Spain in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out. After 800 years of Muslim presence in Spain, the last Nasrid sultanate of Granada, a tributary state would finally surrender in 1492 to the Catholic monarchs Queen Isabella I of CastileWEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia: Isabella I,, 1 October 1910, 1 March 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2014, dmy-all, and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.WEB,weblink BBC – Religions – Islam: Muslim Spain (711–1492), live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Islamic History, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Europe & the Islamic Mediterranean AD 700–1600, live,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2016, dmy-all, File:LibroDesJuegasAlfonXAndCourt.jpg|thumb|left|Alfonso X, pretender to the Holy Roman Empire crown and king of the Crown of CastileCrown of CastileFrom the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Roman law and its institutions were the model for the legislators. The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom. Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the Siete Partidas code. The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic, Ancient Greek, and Ancient Hebrew.The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. The Castilian language—more commonly known (especially later in history and at present) as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latin, as did other Romance languages of Spain like the Catalan, Asturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe. Basque, the only non-Romance language in Spain, continued evolving from Early Basque to Medieval. The Glosas Emilianenses founded in the monasteries of San Millán de la Cogolla contain the first written words in both Basque and Spanish, having the first become an influence in the formation of the second as an evolution of Latin.File:Patio de los Leones. Alhambra de Granada. Spain..JPG|thumb|right|Alhambra, the Nasrids were the last ruling Moorish dynasty]]The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily and Naples.WEB, Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 5 The Rise of Aragon-Catalonia, The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 1973,weblink 9 August 2008, Around this time the universities of Palencia (1212/1263) and Salamanca (1218/1254) were established. The Black Death of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.WEB,weblink The Black Death, 13 August 2008, Channel 4,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2008, dead, The Catalans and Aragonese offered themselves to the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus to fight the Turks. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and moreover seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens (1311). The royal line of Aragon became extinct with Martin the Humane, and the Compromise of Caspe gave the Crown to the dynasty of Castile, thus preparing the final union.Anti-Semitic animus accompanied the Reconquista. There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo. In 1391, Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000 Jews.BOOK,weblink Teaching Jewish History, Julia Phillips, Berger, Sue Parker, Gerson, 24 September 2006, Behrman House, Inc, Google Books, 9780867051834, BOOK,weblink Codex Judaica: Chronological Index of Jewish History, Covering 5,764 Years of Biblical, Talmudic & Post-Talmudic History, Máttis, Kantor, 24 September 2005, Zichron Press, Google Books, 9780967037837, BOOK,weblink Why Me God: A Jewish Guide for Coping and Suffering, Lisa, Aiken, 1 February 1997, Jason Aronson, Incorporated, Google Books, 9781461695479, BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities, Melvin, Ember, Carol R., Ember, Ian, Skoggard, 30 November 2004, Springer Science & Business Media, Google Books, 9780306483219, WEB,weblink The Christian Church from the 1st to the 20th Century, Philip, Schaff, 24 March 2015, Delmarva Publications, Inc., Google Books, BOOK,weblink The Routledge Atlas of Jewish History, Martin, Gilbert, 24 September 2003, Psychology Press, Google Books, 9780415281508, Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. According to Hasdai Crescas, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed.BOOK, Anti-Jewish Riots in the Crown of Aragon and the Royal Response, 1391–1392, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-16451-2, 19, St. Vincent Ferrer converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa (1413–14).

Spanish Empire

File:Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze - Columbus Before the Queen.JPG|thumb|left|Christopher Columbus meets Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in the Alcázar of Córdoba ]]In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon were united by the marriage of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada from its last ruler Muhammad XII, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence of Islamic rule in Iberia.That same year, Spain's Jews were ordered to convert to Catholicism or face expulsion from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition.WEB,weblink Spanish Inquisition left genetic legacy in Iberia, New Scientist, 4 December 2008, 18 January 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2014, dmy-all, As many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain.BOOK, The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia, 978-0-7534-5784-9, 201,weblink Kingfisher, Editors of, 9 September 2004, BOOK,weblink True Jew: Challenging the Stereotype, Bernard, Beck, 24 September 2012, Algora Publishing, Google Books, 9780875869032, BOOK,weblink The Expulsion of the Jews: Five Hundred Years of Exodus, Yale, Strom, 24 September 1992, SP Books, Google Books, 9781561710812, This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily and Portugal in 1497. The Treaty of Granada guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims,WEB,weblink The Treaty of Granada, 1492, Islamic Civilisation, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2008, dmy-all, for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos. A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa.{{efn|For the related expulsions that followed see Morisco.}}WEB, Rinehart, Robert, Seeley, Jo Ann Browning, A Country Study: Spain – The Golden Age, Library of Congress Country Series, 1998,weblink 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2008, dmy-all, From 1609–14, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion, and 60,000 died on the journey.BOOK, Spanish Royal Patronage 1412–1804: Portraits as Propaganda, 2018, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 978-1-5275-1229-0, 111, WEB,weblink Notes On Entering Deen Completely: Islam as its followers know it, Talib, Jaleel, 11 July 2015, EDC Foundation, Google Books, BOOK,weblink We are All Moors: Ending Centuries of Crusades Against Muslims and Other Minorities, Anouar, Majid, 24 September 2009, U of Minnesota Press, Google Books, 9780816660797, The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient. Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest,BOOK, The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia, 2016, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-422-3, 221, while others died from various other causes. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind.BOOK, Naimark, Norman, Genocide: A World History, 35, 2016, The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period.{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Retrato de Hernán Cortés.jpg| width1 = 150| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Portrait of Francisco Pizarro.jpg| width2 = 138| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro.| footer_align = left| valign = middle}}The colonisation of the Americas started with conquistadores like Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro. Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation. Florida was colonised by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés when he founded St. Augustine, Florida and then defeated an attempt led by the French Captain Jean Ribault to establish a French foothold in Spanish Florida territory. St. Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain. Andrés de Urdaneta discovered the tornaviaje or return route from the Philippines to Mexico, making possible the Manila galleon trading route. The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate the Philippines, Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei. The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines, a repeat of the Reconquista.Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662 By: Ethan P. Hawkley The Spanish explorer Blas Ruiz intervened in Cambodia's succession and installed Crown Prince Barom Reachea II as puppet.BOOK,weblink History of South-East Asia, Macmillan Press, 1981, 978-0-333-24163-9, 282, Daniel George Edward Hall, As Renaissance New Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand centralised royal power at the expense of local nobility, and the word España, whose root is the ancient name Hispania, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms.With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, Spain emerged as the first world power. The death of their son Prince John caused the Crown to pass to Charles I (the Emperor Charles V), son of Juana la Loca.The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.WEB,weblink Imperial Spain, 13 August 2008, University of Calgary, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2008, BOOK,weblink Handbook of European History, Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial España, 90-04-09760-0, 1994, File:Doña María Pacheco después de Villalar (Museo del Prado).jpg|thumb|left|María Pacheco, last leader of Revolt of the ComunerosRevolt of the ComunerosThere were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Revolt of the Comuneros in Castile and Revolt of the Brotherhoods in Majorca and Valencia. After years of combat, Comuneros Juan López de Padilla, Juan Bravo and Francisco Maldonado were executed and María Pacheco went into exile. Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.Habsburg Spain was Europe's leading power throughout the 16th century and most of the 17th century, a position reinforced by trade and wealth from colonial possessions and became the world's leading maritime power. It reached its apogee during the reigns of the first two Spanish Habsburgs—Charles I (1516–1556) and Philip II (1556–1598). This period saw the Italian Wars, the Schmalkaldic War, the Dutch Revolt, the War of the Portuguese Succession, clashes with the Ottomans, intervention in the French Wars of Religion and the Anglo-Spanish War.WEB, Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 13 The Spanish Empire, The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 1973,weblink 9 August 2008, (File:Spanish Empire Complete.svg|thumb|upright=1.56|Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire, including territorial claims)Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set. This was an Age of Discovery, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism. Spanish explorers brought back precious metals, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.BOOK, Thomas, Hugh, Hugh Thomas (writer), Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire, George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003, London, passim, 978-0-297-64563-4, The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of humanism, the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights. Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period.File:Europe map 1648.PNG|thumb|left|Following the Peace of Westphalia, major Catholic countries like Spain, Poland and the Holy Roman Empire lost their influence and the HabsburgHabsburgSpain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean.WEB,weblink The Seventeenth-Century Decline, 13 August 2008, The Library of Iberian resources online, live,weblink" title="">weblink 21 September 2013, dmy-all, By the middle decades of a war- and plague-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal and the United Provinces, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War.WEB, Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal; Ch. 14 Spanish Society and Economics in the Imperial Age, The Library of Iberian Resources Online, 1973,weblink 9 August 2008, In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.File:La familia de Felipe V (Van Loo).jpg|thumb|The Family of Philip V. During the Enlightenment in Spain a new royal family reigned, the House of BourbonHouse of BourbonThe decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent.WEB, Rinehart, Robert, Seeley, Jo Ann Browning, A Country Study: Spain – Spain in Decline, Library of Congress Country Series, 1998,weblink 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2008, dmy-all, During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons, was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.WEB, Rinehart, Robert, Seeley, Jo Ann Browning, A Country Study: Spain – Bourbon Spain, Library of Congress Country Series, 1998,weblink 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 August 2008, dmy-all, The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Bourbon reformers created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War (1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), the Seven Years' War (1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War (1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed.

Liberalism and nation state

File:El Tres de Mayo, by Francisco de Goya, from Prado in Google Earth.jpg|thumb|left|The Third of May 1808 by Francisco de Goya depicts an episode of the Spanish Independence War.]]In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon's brother, Joseph Bonaparte.Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.David A. Bell. "weblink" title="">Napoleon's Total War". These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence against the Napoleonic regime.(Gates 2001, p.20) The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén, where Castaños, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont; and the sieges of Zaragoza and Girona, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum and Numantia.Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas and Wellington's British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII.(Gates 2001, p.467)File:Cortes de cadiz.jpg|thumb|right|The Proclamation of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 in CádizCádizDuring the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution.BOOK, Jaime Alvar Ezquerra, Diccionario de historia de España,weblink 2001, Ediciones Akal, 978-84-7090-366-3, 209, Cortes of Cádiz (1812) was the first parliament of Spain with sovereign power It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire.BOOK, Independence of Spanish America, Rodríguez, Cambridge University Press, weblink citation: "It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish world" In 1812, a constitution for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch. These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens (Peninsulars) over those born overseas (Criollos) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people. Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba and Puerto Rico.File:Barcelona, proclamación de la república, aspecto de la plaza de San Jaime en la mañana del 21 de febrero, de Pellicer.jpg|thumb|left|Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic in Barcelona, 1873. Francesc Pi i Margall, was president and intellectual theoric of federalismfederalismThe Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars. Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic, a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo (the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government).File:Semana tragica.jpg|thumb|Demonstration in Barcelona after the Tragic Week events in 1909]]In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre (the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98 who were conducting an analysis of the country.Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa, with the colonisation of Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea. It remained neutral during World War I (see Spain in World War I). The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.

Second Republic

(File:Nuevo gobierno republicano, Agence Meurisse, BNF Gallica.jpg|thumb|right|Members of the provisional government of the Second Republic)File:Arrested workers during the Asturian Revolution, 1934.jpg|thumb|Arrested workers during the Asturian miners' strike of 1934Asturian miners' strike of 1934After a period of dictatorship during the governments of Generals Miguel Primo de Rivera and Dámaso Berenguer and Admiral Aznar-Cabañas (1923–1931), the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councillors in rural areas. The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government.A constitution for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña supported by republican parties and the PSOE followed. In the election held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalisation of the left and the right. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo, the Revolution of 1934 and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms in order to modernise the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralisation or women's right to vote.On 17 July and 18, 1936, part of the military carried out a coup d'état that triumphed in only part of the country. The situation led to a civil war, in which the territory was divided into two zones: one under the authority of the Republican government, that counted on outside support from the Soviet Union and Mexico, and the other controlled by the Nationalist rebels, most critically supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. General Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the rebels in the Autumn of 1936. An uneasy relation between the Republican government and the grassroots anarchists who maintained a partial Social revolution also ensued.

Civil War and Francoist dictatorship

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H25224, Guernica, Ruinen.jpg|thumb|right|Ruins of Guernica after bombing by the LuftwaffeLuftwaffeThe Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936. For three years the Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco and supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy fought the Republican side, which was supported by the Soviet Union, Mexico and International Brigades but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of non-intervention. The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country.Spanish Civil War fighters look back, BBC News, 23 February 2003NEWS,weblink Relatives of Spaniards who fled Franco granted citizenship, The Daily Telegraph, 28 December 2008, 18 January 2014, London, live,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2013, dmy-all, In 1939, General Franco emerged victorious and became a dictator.File:Franco eisenhower 1959 madrid.jpg|thumb|Francisco Franco and later's visit to Spain in 1959|es|Visita de Dwight D. Eisenhower a España en 1959}}.The state as established under Franco was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the Axis. The only legal party under Franco's post civil war regime was the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET y de las JONS), formed in 1937 upon the merging of the Fascist Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist traditionalists and to which the rest of right-wing groups supporting the rebels also added. The name of "Movimiento Nacional", sometimes understood as a wider structure than the FET y de las JONS proper, largely imposed over the later's name in official documents along the 1950s.After World War II Spain was politically and economically isolated, and was kept out of the United Nations. This changed in 1955, during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin. In the 1960s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation, a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid, Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry. Franco's rule was also characterised by authoritarianism, promotion of a unitary national identity, the favouring of a very conservative form of Roman Catholicism known as National Catholicism, and discriminatory language policies.On 17 January 1966, a fatal collision occurred between a B-52G and a KC-135 Stratotanker over Palomares. The conventional explosives in two of the Mk28-type hydrogen bombs detonated upon impact with the ground, dispersing plutonium over nearby farms.NEWS, US to clean up Spanish radioactive site 49 years after plane crash,weblink The Guardian, 19 October 2015,

Restoration of democracy

File:MITING CNT MONTJUÏC.jpg|thumb|upright=1|left|Federica Montseny speaks at the meeting of the w:Confederación Nacional del Trabajo|CNT]] in Barcelona in 1977 after 36 years of exile.]]In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.WEB,weblink El contubernio que preparó la democracia, EL PAÍS, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2013, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Contubernio de Múnich: 50 años, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 October 2014, WEB,weblink El contubernio de Munich, La Vanguardia, With Franco's death in November 1975, Juan Carlos succeeded to the position of King of Spain and head of state in accordance with the franquist law. With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the restoration of democracy, the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities. The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law let people of Franco's regime continue inside institutions without consequences, even perpetrators of some crimes during transition to democracy like the Massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria or 1977 Massacre of Atocha. The 'founding chairman' of the current leading political party in Spain, the People's Party, was Manuel Fraga who had been a minister in Franco's government and yet continued with his political career until shortly before his death in 2012.File:President Bush addresses the Middle East Peace Conference at the Royal Palace in Madrid, Spain - NARA - 186439.tif|thumb|Madrid Conference of 1991 about Israeli–Palestinian peace process with presidents George H. W. Bush and Felipe GonzálezFelipe GonzálezIn the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed organisation ETA until the latter's dissolution in May 2018.WEB,weblink Speech by Mrs Nicole FONTAINE, President of the European Parliament on the occasion of the presentation of the Sakharov Prize 2000 to Basta ya!, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2016, dmy-all, The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but has continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government. King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender.During the 1980s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society. New cultural movements based on freedom appeared, like La Movida Madrileña and a culture of human rights arose with Gregorio Peces-Barba. On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO, followed by a referendum after a strong social opposition. That year the Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE) came to power, the first left-wing government in 43 years. In 1986 Spain joined the European Economic Community, which later became the European Union. The PSOE was replaced in government by the Partido Popular (PP) in 1996 after scandals around participation of the government of Felipe González in the Dirty war against ETA; at that point the PSOE had served almost 14 consecutive years in office.On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.NEWS,weblink Economy reaps benefits of entry to the 'club' : Spain's euro bonanza, International Herald Tribune, 9 August 2008, 11 July 2002, Pfanner, Eric, live,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dmy-all, See also: NEWS,weblink Spain's economy / Plain sailing no longer, The Economist, 3 May 2007, 9 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2008, dmy-all, File:Tratado de Lisboa 13 12 2007 (081).jpg|thumb|Spain has been a member of the European UnionEuropean UnionIn 2002 the Prestige oil spill occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar supported US president George W. Bush in the Iraq War, and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March 2004 a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.NEWS,weblink BBC, Al-Qaeda 'claims Madrid bombings', 13 August 2008, 14 March 2004, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2006, dmy-all, See also: NEWS,weblink BBC, Madrid bombers get long sentences, 13 August 2008, 31 October 2007, Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA, evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist involvement. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.NEWS,weblink BBC, Spain votes under a shadow, 13 August 2008, 14 March 2004, Dominic, Bailey, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 August 2004, dmy-all, The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.File:Go Spanish revolution - Indignados.jpg|thumb|left|Puerta del Sol square in MadridMadridThe proportion of Spain's foreign born population increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis.NEWS, Ortiz, Fiona, Spain's population falls as immigrants flee crisis,weblink 2 September 2017, Reuters, 22 April 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2017, dmy-all, In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage. Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.The bursting of the Spanish property bubble in 2008 led to the 2008–16 Spanish financial crisis and high levels of unemployment, cuts in government spending and corruption in Royal family and People's Party served as a backdrop to the 2011–12 Spanish protests. Catalan independentism was also on rise. In 2011, Mariano Rajoy's conservative People's Party won the election with 44.6% of votes, and Rajoy became the Spanish Prime Minister, after having been the leader of the opposition from 2004 to 2011, and continued to implement austerity measures required by the EU Stability and Growth Pact. On 19 June 2014, the monarch, Juan Carlos, abdicated in favour of his son, who became Felipe VI.A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October 2017 and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan RepublicNEWS, Alandete, David, Análisis {{!, Is Catalonia independent?|url=|work=El País|date=27 October 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=28 October 2017|df=dmy-all}}NEWS, Piñol, Pere Ríos, Àngels, El Parlament de Cataluña aprueba la resolución para declarar la independencia,weblink El País, 27 October 2017, es, live,weblink 29 October 2017, dmy-all, on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.NEWS, 26 October 2017, Catalan crisis: Regional MPs debate Spain takeover bid,weblink BBC, 27 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2017, dmy-all, NEWS, 27 October 2017, Catalan crisis: Spain PM Rajoy demands direct rule,weblink BBC, 27 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 October 2017, dmy-all, Later that day the Senate granted the power to impose direct rule and Mr Rajoy dissolved the Catalan parliament and called a new election.NEWS, 27 October 2017, Catalonia independence: Rajoy dissolves Catalan parliament,weblink BBC News, Barcelona, Madrid, 27 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2017, dmy-all, No country recognised Catalonia as a separate state.NEWS, Sandford, Alasdair, Catalonia: what direct rule from Madrid could mean,weblink 27 October 2017, euronews, 27 October 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 October 2017, dmy-all, On 1 June 2018 the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sanchez, thus bringing socialists back to power after 7 years.NEWS,weblink Spain's Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, Is Ousted in No-Confidence Vote, 2018-06-18,


(File:Spain topo.jpg|thumb|Topographic map of Spain)At {{convert|505992|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, Spain is the world's fifty-second largest country and Europe's fourth largest country. It is some {{convert|47000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} smaller than France and {{convert|81000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} larger than the US state of California. Mount Teide (Tenerife) is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base. Spain is a transcontinental country, having territory in both Europe and Africa.Spain lies between latitudes 26° and 44° N, and longitudes 19° W and 5° E.On the west, Spain is bordered by Portugal; on the south, it is bordered by Gibraltar (a British overseas territory) and Morocco, through its exclaves in North Africa (Ceuta and Melilla, and the peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera). On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and the Principality of Andorra. Along the Pyrenees in Girona, a small exclave town called Llívia is surrounded by France.Extending to {{convert|1214|km|mi|abbr=on}}, the Portugal–Spain border is the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union.Medina García, Eusebio (2006). «Orígenes históricos y ambigüedad de la frontera {{Not a typo|hispano-lusa}} (La Raya)» {{webarchive|url= |date=25 May 2017 }}. Revista de Estudios Extremeños. Tomo LXII (II Mayo-Agosto). {{ISSN|0210-2854}}, pp. 713–723.


Spain also includes the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean and a number of uninhabited islands on the Mediterranean side of the Strait of Gibraltar, known as ("places of sovereignty", or territories under Spanish sovereignty), such as the Chafarinas Islands and Alhucemas. The peninsula of Vélez de la Gomera is also regarded as a plaza de soberanía. The isle of Alborán, located in the Mediterranean between Spain and North Africa, is also administered by Spain, specifically by the municipality of Almería, Andalusia. The little Pheasant Island in the River Bidasoa is a Spanish-French condominium.Largest inhabited islands of Spain:File:Teide 2 Blick auf.jpg|thumb|Mt Teide, TenerifeTenerife{|class="wikitable" style="font-size: 95%"! Island !! PopulationTenerife >|899,833Majorca (Mallorca)>|862,397Gran Canaria >|838,397Lanzarote >|141,938Ibiza (Eivissa) >|125,053Fuerteventura >|103,107Menorca >|92,434La Palma >|85,933

Mountains and rivers

File:Circo de Soaso.jpg|thumb|right|Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park, World Heritage Site in the PyreneesPyreneesMainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica (Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico (Iberian System), Sistema Central (Central System), Montes de Toledo, Sierra Morena and the Sistema Bético (Baetic System) whose highest peak, the {{convert|3478|m|ft|adj=mid|abbr=off|-high}} Mulhacén, located in Sierra Nevada, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain is the Teide, a {{convert|3718|m|ft|adj=on}} active volcano in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central (often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.There are several major rivers in Spain such as the Tagus (Tajo), Ebro, Guadiana, Douro (Duero), Guadalquivir, Júcar, Segura, Turia and Minho (Miño). Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia.


(File:Koppen-Geiger Map ESP present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate map of Spain)File:2009Somiedo (7).JPG|thumb|Somiedo Natural Park, Cantabrian MountainsCantabrian MountainsFile:Tossa de Mar View.jpg|thumb|The coastal Mediterranean region of Costa BravaCosta BravaFile:291114B- Tablas Daimiel - El puente - Castilla-La Mancha.jpg|thumb|Tablas de Daimiel National ParkTablas de Daimiel National ParkThree main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions:WEB,weblink World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated – (see p.3), 30 April 2011, World Map of Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2013 }},, April 2006.[// Media:Koppen World Map.png]
  • The Mediterranean climate, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification.
    • The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout Andalusia, Extremadura and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures.
    • The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain (e.g. western Castile–León, northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia). Note areas with relatively high rainfall such as Galicia are not considered Mediterranean under local classifications, but classed as oceanic.
  • The semi-arid climate (BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia, southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro valley, which crosses southern Navarre, central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude.
  • The oceanic climate (Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country, Cantabria, Asturias, and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.
Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates (Dfc, Dfb / Dsc, Dsb) in the Pyrenees as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range, the Central System, Sierra Nevada and the Iberian System, and a typical desert climate (BWk, BWh) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern Canary Islands. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above {{convert|18.0|C|1}} during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate.

Fauna and flora

File:Iberian Wolf AdF 001.jpg|thumb|Iberian wolf in Castile and Leon. The region has the 25% of the land covered by Natura 2000Natura 2000The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes, the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude. Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.


{{See also|Spanish Constitution of 1978}}File:Palacio Real Jardines.jpg|thumb|left|The Royal Palace in Madrid]]According to the Democracy Index of the EIU, Spain is one of the 19 full democracies in the world.The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy.The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of 1812. In June 1976, Spain's new King Juan Carlos dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as Prime Minister.John Hooper, The New Spaniards, 2001, From Dictatorship to DemocracySpain's fast-living king turns 70 {{webarchive|url= |date=6 January 2010 }} BBC News Friday, 4 January 2008 Extracted 18 June 2009 The resulting general election in 1977 convened the Constituent Cortes (the Spanish Parliament, in its capacity as a constitutional assembly) for the purpose of drafting and approving the constitution of 1978.WEB,weblink Spanish Constitution,, 1 November 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 November 2011, dmy-all, After a national referendum on 6 December 1978, 88% of voters approved of the new constitution.As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in 2007 aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life.WEB,weblink SPAIN: No Turning Back from Path to Gender Equality,, 15 March 2007, 5 May 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2014, dmy-all, According to Inter-Parliamentary Union data as of Sept 1, 2018, 137 of the 350 members of the Congress were women (39.1%), while in the Senate, there were 101 women out of 266 (39.9%), placing Spain 16th on their list of countries ranked by proportion of women in the lower (or single) House.WEB,weblink Women in National Parliaments,, 28 February 2010, 1 May 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2014, dmy-all, The Gender Empowerment Measure of Spain in the United Nations Human Development Report is 0.794, 12th in the world.WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2007/2008, 330,, 18 January 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011,


{{See also|List of Spanish monarchs|Monarchs of Spain family tree}}File:Sesión Solemne en el Congreso de los Diputados.jpg|thumb|Congress of DeputiesCongress of DeputiesSpain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament, the Cortes Generales (General Courts).BOOK, Fred M. Shelley, Governments around the World: From Democracies to Theocracies: From Democracies to Theocracies,weblink 2015, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-4408-3813-2, 197, The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers of Spain presided over by the Prime Minister, nominated and appointed by the monarch and confirmed by the Congress of Deputies following legislative elections. By political custom established by King Juan Carlos since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have all been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress.The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados) with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate (Senado) with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.File:Presidente del Gobierno, Pedro Sánchez.jpg|thumb| Spanish PM Pedro Sánchez in 2018]] Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías ("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium;NEWS,weblink CNN, Catalonians vote for more autonomy, 18 June 2006, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2008, dmy-all, See also: WEB,weblink Economic Survey: Spain 2005, 13 August 2008, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2008, dmy-all, and NEWS,weblink Country Briefings: Spain, 9 August 2008, The Economist, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2012, dmy-all, and WEB,weblink Swiss Experience With Decentralized Government, 13 August 2008, The World Bank, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2008, dmy-all, for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra, Ertzaintza, Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa and Policía Canaria).

Human rights

{{See also|LGBT rights in Spain}}File:Europride 2007 Madrid.JPG|thumb|Europride in Madrid. In 2017 a Summit about LGBTI human rights took part at the same time as World PrideWorld PrideThe Spanish Constitution of 1978 "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".WEB,weblink La Constitución española de 1978. Preámbulo., Página oficial del Congreso de los Diputados, 8 October 2017, es, live,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2017, dmy-all, According to Amnesty International (AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light.Spain 2015/2016 {{webarchive|url= |date=8 August 2016 }} Amnesty International. Retrieved 22 June 2016. Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address.WEB,weblink Analysis of 8 years of Gender Violence Law in Spain {{!, Gender violence and justice||access-date=9 May 2017|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=25 May 2017|df=dmy-all}}NEWS,weblink The successes and failures of Spain's fight against domestic abuse, Rincón, Reyes, 25 November 2015, EL PAÍS, 9 May 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with an 88% of society supporting the gay community compared to 11% who do not.WEB,weblink Global Acceptance of Homosexuality, 4 June 2013, Pew Research Center, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 November 2014, dmy-all,

Administrative divisions

The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.

Autonomous communities

{{See also|Nationalities and regions of Spain}}{{Autonomous regions of Spain|float=right}}Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "nationalities and regions of Spain".Article 143 of the 1978 Spanish Constitution in reference to Article 2 The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economical traits. This territorial organisation, based on devolution, is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies".The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.weblink" title="">Chapter 3. Autonomous Communities. 147th Article. Spanish Constitution of 1978. Retrieved 10 December 2007The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers and comprise
  • a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
  • a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;
  • a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community,WEB,weblink Estatut, es, 20 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2009, the Canary Islands,WEB,weblink Nuevo Estatuto de Autonomía de Canarias,, 30 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 January 2011, the Balearic Islands,WEB,weblink BOCAe32.QXD, ca, 20 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2009, and Aragon.WEB,weblink Estatuto de Autonomía de Aragón,, 20 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2009, dmy-all, The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the nationalities—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza, Mossos d'Esquadra and the Policía Foral respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma AndaluzaWEB,weblink Unidad de Policía de la Comunidad Autónoma de Andalucía,, 23 October 2007, es, live,weblink" title="">weblink 7 November 2007, dmy-all, in Andalusia or the BESCAM in Madrid.Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta and Melilla. These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.

Provinces and municipalities

Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.weblink" title="">Articles 140 and 141. Spanish Constitution of 1978The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division by Javier de Burgos, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.

Foreign relations

File:Cumbre del G20 en Los Cabos, México.jpg|thumb|right|Mariano Rajoy in a G-20 Summit in Mexico. Spain is a permanent guest of the G-20G-20File:Cumbre Iberoamericana 2008.jpg|thumb|The Ibero-American Summit, in San SalvadorSan SalvadorFile:Palau Reial Pedralbes (Barcelona).JPG|thumb|Palau Reial de Pedralbes, in Barcelona, headquarters of the Union for the MediterraneanUnion for the MediterraneanFile:Sede de la AECID (Madrid) 01.jpg|280px|thumbnail|right|The Spanish Agency for International Development CooperationSpanish Agency for International Development CooperationAfter the return of democracy following the death of Franco in 1975, Spain's foreign policy priorities were to break out of the diplomatic isolation of the Franco years and expand diplomatic relations, enter the European Community, and define security relations with the West.As a member of NATO since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.{{vague|date=March 2015}}Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasizes the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of "Hispanidad" or "Hispanismo", as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy."Garcia Cantalapiedra, David, and Ramon Pacheco Pardo, Contemporary Spanish Foreign Policy (Routledge, 2014). Pg. 126
Territorial disputes
Spain claims Gibraltar, a {{convert|6|km2|mi2|adj=on}} Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom in the southernmost part of the Iberian Peninsula. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles, pretender to the Spanish throne.The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British CrownWEB,weblink Tratado de Utretch – Gibraltar (Spanish), 9 August 2008,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2008, dmy-all, stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.NEWS
, Q&A: Gibraltar's referendum
, BBC News
, 8 November 2002
, 19 February 2010
, live
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 14 March 2007
, dmy-all
, UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain, both EU members, to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.WEB
, Resolution 2070: Question of Gibraltar
, 16 December 1965
, United Nations
, 19 February 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 3 May 2011
, dmy-all
, Resolution 2231: Question of Gibraltar
, 20 December 1966
, United Nations
, 19 February 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 3 May 2011
, The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law".WEB,weblink La cuestión de Gibraltar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain, January 2008, 3 January 2010, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 May 2009, dmy-all, The United Kingdom relies on de facto arguments of possession by prescription in relation to the isthmus,BOOK, Gibraltar: British or Spanish?, Peter Gold, Routledge, 2005, 978-0-415-34795-2,weblink 4, as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period".WEB, UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, 1999,weblink Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories. Appendix 1: Profiles for Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands & Gibraltar, Partnership for Progress and Prosperity: Britain and the Overseas Territories, 19 December 2005, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2005, Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands, part of Portugal. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters (12 nautical miles). On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.{{citation|url=|title=Spain's letter to the UN|publisher=UN|fdate=|date=September 2013|language=Spanish|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=25 May 2017|df=dmy-all}}"Spain disputes Portugal islands" {{webarchive|url= |date=8 September 2013 }} The Portugal News. Retrieved 9 September 2013.Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island, a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar. The island lies {{convert|250|m|ft}} just off the coast of Morocco, {{convert|8|km|mi}} from Ceuta and {{convert|13.5|km|mi}} from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla and the plazas de soberanía islets off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza which was annexed by Spain in 1801 after the War of the Oranges. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.JOURNAL, La cuestión de Olivenza, a la luz del Derecho internacional público, Fernández Liesa, Carlos R., Ayuntamiento de Olivenza, 2004, 234–235, Encuentros: Revista luso-española de investigadores en Ciencias humanas y sociales. Separatas, 4, pdf,weblink 1138-6622, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2014, dmy-all,


File:Spanish military images (1).jpg|thumb|Aircraft carrier/assault ship Juan Carlos I (L61) in Cartagena, Spain, multirole fighter Eurofighter Typhoon, Boeing CH-47 Chinook, universal tank Leopard 2Leopard 2The armed forces of Spain are known as the Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Españolas). Their Commander-in-chief is the King of Spain, Felipe VI.WEB,weblink Article 62 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Official site of the Royal Household of HM the King, 13 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 December 2007, The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches:WEB,weblink Article 8 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Official site of the Spanish Senate, 29 November 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2008, dmy-all,


{{See also|Renewable energy in Spain}}File:Vitoria 05 2012 Anillo Verde 1922.JPG|thumb|Salburua wetlands in Vitoria-GasteizVitoria-GasteizSince 1996, CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change. In the period 1880–2000 more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to Al Gore.Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented 42.8% of electricity demand coverage during 2014. The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation. Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by 2007–2010 the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity.Vitoria-Gasteiz was awarded with the European Green Capital in 2012 after implementining good practices by the Agenda 21 and recovering Salburua wetland, protected by Ramsar Convention and Natura 2000 and a part of Green Belt of Vitoria-Gasteiz, funded partially with The LIFE Programme.


File:Santander.Banco.Santander.jpg|thumb|Headquarters of Banco Santander in Santander ]]Spain's capitalist mixed economy is the 14th largest worldwide and the 5th largest in the European Union, as well as the Eurozone's 4th largest.The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro in 1999. Unemployment stood at 17.1% in June 2017,WEB, Euro area unemployment rate at 11%,weblink Eurostat, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 July 2017, dmy-all, below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. The youth unemployment rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards.WEB,weblink Youth unemployment rate in EU member states as of March 2018, Statista, Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy,BOOK, Invisible Factories: The Informal Economy and Industrial Development in Spain, SUNY Press, Lauren A. Benton, 1990, Roberto A. Ferdman, Spain's Black Market Economy Is Worth 20% of Its GDP: One million Spanish people have jobs in the underground economy {{webarchive|url= |date=11 September 2017 }}, The Atlantic (16 July 2013)Angel Alañón & M. Gómez-Antonio, [Estimating the size of the shadow economy in Spain: a structural model with latent variables], Applies Economics, Vol 37, Issue 9, pp. 1011–1025 (2005). and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK.WEB,weblink OECD report for 2006, 9 August 2008, OECD, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2008, dmy-all, File:City of Madrid (18035561592).jpg|thumb|Financial district in downtown Madrid called AZCAAZCAFile:Barcelona desde el mar - panoramio (1a).jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|A part of the 22@Barcelona22@BarcelonaBy the mid-1990s the economy had commenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India.NEWS, 30 April 2009, 14 May 2009, A good bet?, The Economist, Business, Madrid,weblink harv, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2009, dmy-all, This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets.File:BlueEurozone.svg|thumb|left|Spain is a member of the Schengen Area, the Eurozone and the European Single MarketEuropean Single MarketSpanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation (Iberdrola was the world's largest renewable energy operatorNEWS,weblink Forbes, Spain's Iberdrola signs investment accord with Gulf group Taqa, 25 May 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2010, ), technology companies like Telefónica, Abengoa, Mondragon Corporation (which is the world's largest worker-owned cooperative), Movistar, Hisdesat, Indra, train manufacturers like CAF, Talgo, global corporations such as the textile company Inditex, petroleum companies like Repsol or Cepsa and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial, Acciona, ACS, OHL and FCC.NEWS, 8 April 2009, 14 May 2009, Big in America?, The Economist, Business, Madrid,weblink harv, live,weblink" title="">weblink 12 April 2009, dmy-all, In 2005 the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Spain among the top 10 in the world.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 19 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 August 2012, dmy-all, In 2013 the same survey (now called the "Where-to-be-born index"), ranked Spain 28th in the world.WEB,weblink The lottery of life, The Economist, live,weblink" title="">weblink 20 July 2014, dmy-all, In 2010, the Basque city of Bilbao was awarded with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-02-28, Prize Laureates,, and its mayor at the time, Iñaki Azkuna, was awarded the World Mayor Prize in 2012.WEB,weblink World Mayor: The 2012 results,, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2013, dmy-all, The Basque capital city of Vitoria-Gasteiz received the European Green Capital Award in 2012.WEB,weblink European Green Capital, Europa (web portal), live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2013, dmy-all,

Automotive industry

The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.WEB,weblink Car Makers Pour Money Into Spain, Victor, Méndez-Barreira, WSJ, By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry. By 2008 the automobile industry was the 2nd most exported industryWEB,weblink >> Spain in numbers, Invest in Spain, 13 March 2013, while in 2015 about 80% of the total production was for export.German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment behind only the U.S. The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry.


Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe.File:Viñedos en Briñas.jpg|thumb|A vineyard of Rioja ]]Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40–45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn, fruit trees, and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets, potatoes, legumes, olive trees, mangos, strawberries, tomatoes, and fodder grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.Citrus fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, olive oil, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.


File:Benidorm - Playa de Poniente 26.jpg|thumb|BenidormBenidormIn 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.WEB,weblink Spain posts record number of 82 million inbound tourists in 2017, 10 January 2018, 10 February 2018, The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization are located in Madrid.Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.WEB,weblink Global Guru {{pipe, analysis |accessdate=13 August 2008 |publisher=The Global Guru |url-status=dead |archiveurl= |archivedate=6 January 2011 |df= }}WEB,weblink Bank of Spain, Economic report, 13 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2008, Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.


Spain is one of the world's leading countries in the development and production of renewable energy.WEB,weblink Renewable energies in Spain, Marisa, Olano, 25 April 2014, 6 July 2018, IDAE, Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica, Gobierno de España, In 2010 Spain became the solar power world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida, near Alvarado, Badajoz.WEB,weblink Spain Is World's Leader in Solar Energy, NPR, 15 July 2010, 4 September 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Spain becomes solar power world leader,, 14 July 2010, 4 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2010, Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy.WEB,weblink Spain's Bilbao fights to lead European wind power sector, Alvaro, Villalobos, 6 May 2018, 6 July 2018,, es, WEB,weblink Spain's Bilbao fights to lead European wind power sector, AFP, Agence France-Presse, 6 May 2018, 6 July 2018, The Local, es, In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain.WEB,weblink Spain becomes the first European wind energy producer after overcoming Germany for the first time, Eolic Energy News, 31 December 2010, 30 April 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Asociación Empresarial Eólica – Spanish Wind Energy Association – Energía Eólica, Aeeolica, dmy-all, NEWS, Méndez, Rafael,weblink La eólica supera por primera vez la mitad de la producción eléctrica, Spanish, 9 November 2009, El País, Ediciones El País, 8 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, dmy-all, On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demandWEB,weblink Wind power in Spain breaks new instantaneous power record,, 9 November 2010, 5 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2011, and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors.WEB,weblink 14 reactores nucleares movidos por el viento, El País, 9 November 2010, 5 June 2011, Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric, biomass and marine (2 power plants under construction).WEB,weblink La Fuerza del Mar,, 5 June 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2011, dmy-all, Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear (8 operative reactors), gas, coal, and oil. Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each.Energy in Sweden, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, (in Swedish: Energiläget i siffror), Table for figure 49. Source: IEA/OECD weblink. {{webarchive|url=|date=16 October 2013}}


File:RENFE Class 730 Viaducto Martin Gil.jpg|thumb|A RENFE Class 730 train on the Viaducto Martin Gil near Zamora ]]File:Port of Valencia.jpg|thumb|Port of ValenciaPort of ValenciaThe Spanish road system is mainly centralised, with six highways connecting Madrid to the Basque Country, Catalonia, Valencia, West Andalusia, Extremadura and Galicia. Additionally, there are highways along the Atlantic (Ferrol to Vigo), Cantabrian (Oviedo to San Sebastián) and Mediterranean (Girona to Cádiz) coasts. Spain aims to put one million electric cars on the road by 2014 as part of the government's plan to save energy and boost energy efficiency.WEB,weblink Algae Based Biofuels in Plain English: Why it Matters, How it Works. (algae algaebiofuels carbonsequestration valcent vertigro algaebasedbiofuels ethanol),, 30 July 2008, 19 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 May 2013, dmy-all, The former Minister of Industry Miguel Sebastián said that "the electric vehicle is the future and the engine of an industrial revolution."WEB,weblink Spain to Put 1 million Electric Cars on the Road,, 30 July 2008, 19 November 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2008, dmy-all, Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China.WEB,weblink The Need for Speed–High Speed Rail in Europe: Do You Speak Spanish? Europe on Track,, 1 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2011, WEB,weblink Spain has developed Europe's largest high-speed rail network | Olive Press Newspaper,, 1 November 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 December 2011, dmy-all, 17 November 2010, As of October 2010, Spain has a total of {{convert|3500|km|2|abbr=on}} of high-speed tracks linking Málaga, Seville, Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Valladolid, with the trains reaching speeds up to {{convert|300|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}. On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV.WEB,weblink El AVE español, el más veloz del mundo y el segundo en puntualidad, El Mundo, Spain, 10 November 2010, 5 June 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2011, dmy-all, Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.5% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen (99%).WEB,weblink Spain powers ahead with high-speed rail,, January 2010, 5 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, Should the aims of the ambitious AVE programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have {{convert|7000|km|mi|abbr=on}} of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours.There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid (Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona (El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca (23 million passengers), Málaga (13 million passengers), Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) (11 million passengers), Alicante (10 million passengers) and smaller, with the number of passengers between 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife (two airports), Valencia, Seville, Bilbao, Ibiza, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million.

Science and technology

File:Ing telescopes sunset la palma july 2001.jpg|thumb|Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Instituto de Astrofísica de CanariasInstituto de Astrofísica de CanariasIn the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment. Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. The most notable were Miguel Servet, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Narcís Monturiol, Celedonio Calatayud, Juan de la Cierva, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, Margarita Salas and Severo Ochoa.The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings.WEB,weblink Scimago Institution Rankings, 5 January 2018, Since 2006 the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona.


{{See also|List of Spanish autonomous communities by population}}In 2008 the population of Spain officially reached 46 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal (Spain's Municipal Register).WEB,weblink Instituto Nacional de Estadística (National Statistics Institute), Population Figures, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 24 May 2008, dmy-all, Spain's population density, at 91/km² (235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid, the most populated areas lie around the coast. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.Joseph Harrison, David Corkill (2004). "Spain: a modern European economy". Ashgate Publishing. p. 23. {{ISBN|0-7546-0145-5}}File:Spainpop.svg|thumb|right|Population pyramidPopulation pyramidIn 2017 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across Spain was 1.33 children born per woman,WEB,weblink Indice coyuntural de fecundidad, Instituto Nacional de Estadística, one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.11 children born per woman in 1865.{{citation|url=|title=Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries|author=Max Roser|date=2014|work=Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation}} Spain subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.1 years.{{citation|url=|title=World Factbook EUROPE : SPAIN|work=The World Factbook|date=July 12, 2018}}Native Spaniards make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4%).WEB,weblink Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Población extranjera por sexo, país de nacionalidad y edad, 13 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2008, dead, In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.WEB,weblink 700.000 inmigrantes en la mayor regularización en España, EL PAÍS, live,weblink 23 May 2018, 8 May 2005, dmy-all, In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco."EU27 Member States granted citizenship to 696 000 persons in 2008 {{webarchive|url= |date=6 September 2014 }}" (PDF). Eurostat. 6 July 2010. A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute.Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans (who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru and Mexico.WEB,weblink Migration to Latin America, Leiden University, 18 January 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2014, dmy-all, Another 450,000 left in the 17th century.JOURNAL,weblink The Columbian Mosaic in Colonial America, James, Axtell, Humanities, September–October 1991, 12, 5, 12–18, 8 October 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2008, harv, dead, The estimate between 1492–1832 is 1.86 million.Macias, Rosario Marquez, 1995 La Emigracion espanola a America 1765–1824 {{ISBN|978-84-7468-856-6}} Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina and Brazil.WEB,weblink Spain – People, Encyclopædia Britannica, 20 March 2013, 18 January 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 August 2014, dmy-all, Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.WEB,weblink Spain,, 18 January 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2009, dmy-all,


{{Largest cities of Spain}}
Metropolitan areas
(File:EspDens2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008)File:Guggenheim Bilbao 06 2012 Panorama 2680.jpg|thumb|The urban transformation of Bilbao has been hailed as an example of "(smart city]]".WEB,weblink Bilbao, un ejemplo urbanístico para el mundo, El Correo, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Azkuna: "El premio no es para mí, sino para los bilbaínos", El Correo, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 January 2013, dmy-all, WEB,weblink World Mayor: The 2012 results, live,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2013, dmy-all, )Source: "Áreas urbanas +50", Ministry of Public Works and Transport (2013)WEB, Ministry of Public Works and Transport (Spain), Ministry of Public Works and Transport, Áreas urbanas +50, 2013,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2014, dmy-all, {{electiontable}} style="background: #efefef;"!rowspan="2"| Rank!rowspan="2"| Metro area!rowspan="2"| Autonomouscommunity!colspan="2"| Population style="background: #efefef;"!Government data!Other estimations style="text-align:right;"Madrid >Community of Madrid>Madrid 6,052,247 style="text-align:left;"PUBLISHER=WENDELL COX>ACCESSDATE=10 AUGUST 2008ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110805030244/HTTP://WWW.DEMOGRAPHIA.COM/DB-WORLDUA.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision) {{webarchiveweblink >date=25 May 2017 }}, (United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007. style="text-align:right;"Barcelona >Catalonia > {{nowrapWorld Urbanization Prospects (2009 revision) {{webarchive>url= |date=25 April 2010 }}, (United Nations, 2010), Table A.12. Data for 2007.}} style="text-align:right;"Valencia >Valencian Community>Valencia 1,551,585 style="text-align:left;"TITLE=OECD TERRITORIAL REVIEWS COMPETITIVE CITIES IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMYSERIES=TABLE 1.1PUBLISHER=OECD PUBLISHING, 978-92-64-02708-4, style="text-align:right;"Seville >Andalusia > 1.2 – 1.3 m style="text-align:right;"Málaga >Andalusia > style="text-align:right;"Bilbao >Basque Country (autonomous community)>Basque Country 910,578 style="background:silver;"| style="text-align:right;"Oviedo–Gijón–Avilés >Asturias > style="text-align:right;"Zaragoza >Aragon > style="text-align:right;"Alicante–Elche >Valencian Community>Valencia 698,662 style="background:silver;"| style="text-align:right;"Murcia >Region of Murcia>Murcia 643,854 style="background:silver;"|


The Spanish Constitution of 1978, in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities—nationalities—{{efn|name=Nationalities|The term "nationality" was chosen carefully in order to avoid the more politically charged term "nation", however in recent years it has been proposed to use this term in the Constitution and officially recognise Spain as a plurinational state ("nation of nations").}} and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.Spain is de facto a plurinational state.WEB,weblink Rival nationalisms in a plurinational state: Spain, Catalonia and the Basque Country, Oxford University Press, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink España, una nación de naciones, University of Navarre, live,weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques, Catalans, Galicians, Andalusians and Valencians,WEB,weblink Nacionalidades históricas, 9 May 2016, El País, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 April 2016, dmy-all, although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.

Minority groups

{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = Ceuta desde el Monte Hacho, 2008.jpg| width1 = 154| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Vista desde Melilla la Vieja.jpg| width2 = 91| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = Ceuta and Melilla are Spanish cities in North Africa with an important minority of Moroccans}}File:Illuminated manuscript of the Pentateuch, Western Europe in the 12th century.jpg|thumb|upright=0.55|A 'carpet' page from The Burgos Hebrew Bible (also called 'Damascus Keter'), 1260. National Library of Israel, JerusalemJerusalemSpain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans, French and others.NEWS,weblink Immigration statistics, BBC, 13 August 2008, 11 December 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2013, dmy-all, The arrival of the gitanos, a Romani people, began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from 750,000 to over one million.WEB,weblink Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España,, 21 May 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink JPG, Estimations,, 21 May 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2016, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Situation of Roma in Spain, Open Society Institute, 2002, The Spanish government estimates the number of Gitanos at a maximum of 650,000., 15 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2007, Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and Professor Elspeth Guild {{webarchive|url= |date=25 May 2017 }}, pp. 87–88 (09.2010 figures)WEB,weblink The Situation of Roma in Spain, 14 August 2008, Open Society Institute,weblink" title="">weblink 26 June 2008, dead, There are also the mercheros (also quinquis), a formerly nomadic minority group. Their origin is unclear.Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture.Sephardim – Jewish Virtual Library {{webarchive|url= |date=7 September 2012 }} by Rebecca Weiner The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews.WEB,weblink El regreso de los judíos sefardíes a España, euronewses, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 September 2014, dmy-all,


(File:Distribución de la población extranjera en España (2005).png|thumb|Percentage distribution of foreign population in Spain in 2005)According to the Spanish government there were 5.7 million foreign residents in Spain in 2011, or 12% of the total population. According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian.INE {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2013 }}, 2011. Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, Bulgarian, and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses and Nigerians."weblink" title="">Financial crisis reveals vulnerability of Spain's immigrants – Feature". The Earth Times. 18 November 2009. Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.WEB,weblink Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales, 13 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2008, and WEB,weblink Spain: Immigrants Welcome, 13 August 2008, Business Week, live,weblink 6 October 2008, dmy-all, and WEB,weblink Immigrants Fuel Europe's Civilization Clash, 13 August 2008, MSNBC,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2008, dead, and WEB,weblink Spanish youth clash with immigrant gangs, 13 August 2008, International Herald Tribune, live,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2008, dmy-all, Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008.WEB,weblink Eurostat, Population in Europe in 2005, 13 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2008, The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million.Spain to increase immigration budget {{webarchive|url= |date=30 August 2008 }}, 10 October 2007Spain's Immigration System Runs Amok {{webarchive|url= |date=20 November 2008 }}, 17 September 2008 In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.NEWS,weblink Spain grants amnesty to 700,000 migrants, The Guardian, London, 9 May 2005, 20 July 2009, Giles, Tremlett, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 August 2013, dmy-all, There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.WEB,weblink Population series from 1998, Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España, INE Spanish Statistical Institute, 14 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2 November 2007, dead, In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.WEB,weblink, Europeans Favour Spain for Expat Jobs, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2008, dmy-all, In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.Plan de Retorno Voluntario {{webarchive|url= |date=18 October 2011 }} Gobierno de España The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer.Spain's Jobs Crisis Leaves Immigrants Out of Work {{webarchive|url= |date=10 July 2017 }}, The Wall Street Journal, 24 January 2009 What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain. For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners.580.000 personas se van de España {{webarchive|url= |date=15 November 2011 }}. El País. Edición Impresa. 8 October 2011


(File:Languages of Spain.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|The languages of Spain)Spain is legally multilingual,WEB,weblink Conversi, Daniele, The Smooth Transition: Spain's 1978 Constitution and the Nationalities Question, National Identities, Vol 4, No. 3, Carfax Publishing, Inc., 2002, 28 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2008, dmy-all, and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.Preamble to the Constitution WEB,weblink Spanish Constitution, Cortes Generales, 27 December 1978, Tribunal Constitucional de España, 28 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2012, Cortes Generales, Spanish (español)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian (castellano)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."Third article. WEB,weblink Spanish Constitution, Cortes Generales, 27 December 1978, Tribunal Constitucional de España, 28 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2012, Cortes Generales, The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are: As a percentage of the general population of all Spain, Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of all Spaniards. Occitan is spoken by less than 5,000 people, only in the small region of Val d'Aran.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook – 5pain,, 30 April 2011, live,weblink 3 May 2009, dmy-all, File:Glosas.02.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|In the riojan monastery of San Millán de Suso there were found the first written records of both basque and Spanish languages (Glosas EmilianensesGlosas EmilianensesOther Romance minority languages, though not official, have special recognition, such as the Astur-Leonese language (asturianu, bableWEB,weblink Junta General del Principado de Asturias, 13 August 2008, Junta General del Principado de Asturias, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2009, or llionés) and Aragonese (aragonés) in Aragon.In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla, Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.NEWS, El semanario alemán Stern retrata la cara más oscura de Mallorca,weblink 31 December 2014,, 9 August 2013, Spanish, live,weblink" title="">weblink 31 December 2014, dmy-all,


File:Concepcion Arenal 1.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Concepción Arenal, krausist and pioneer of the Asociación para la Enseñanza de la MujerAsociación para la Enseñanza de la MujerState education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación), or Fundamental Law for the Education.La Ley Orgánica 2/2006 {{webarchive|url= |date=25 May 2011 }}. Retrieved 23 September 2009 In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert (Wert Law).Ley Orgánica 8/2013 {{webarchive|url= |date=12 February 2015 }}. Retrieved 9 December 2013 Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE).De la LGE a la LOMCE: Así son las siete leyes educativas españolas de la democracia {{webarchive|url= |date=12 February 2015 }}. teinteresa.esInstitución Libre de Enseñanza was an educational project that developed in Spain for the half a century of about 1876–1936 by Francisco Giner de los Ríos and Gumersindo de Azcárate. The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism. Concepción Arenal in feminism and Santiago Ramón y Cajal in neuroscience were in the movement.


The health care system of Spain (Spanish National Health System) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization.World Health Organisation, World Health Staff, (2000), Haden, Angela; Campanini, Barbara, eds., The world health report 2000 – Health systems: improving performance (PDF), Geneva: World Health Organisation, {{ISBN|92-4-156198-X}} The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain.WEB,weblink Health care in Spain: Beneficiairies,, 24 September 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 25 May 2017, dmy-all, The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD.


{{See also|Christianity in Spain|Islam in Spain|Judaism in Spain|Hinduism in Spain|Bahá'í Faith in Spain}}File:Catedral de Santiago de Compostela agosto 2018 (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|Santiago de Compostela CathedralSantiago de Compostela CathedralRoman Catholicism, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam,Ley 26/1992 {{webarchive|url= |date=26 November 2016 }}, Documento BOE-A-1992-24855, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado Judaism,Ley 25/1992 {{webarchive|url= |date=27 December 2016 }}, Documento BOE-A-1992-24854, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado and evangelical ChristianityLey 24/1992 {{webarchive|url= |date=26 November 2016 }}, Documento BOE-A-1992-24853, Agencia Estatal Boletín Oficial del Estado is also recognised in law. According to a June 2016 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research about 70% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identify with no religion. Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. This same study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 59% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 9% some time per month and 15% every Sunday or multiple times per week. Recent polls and surveys have revealed that 20% to 27% of the Spanish population is irreligious.WEB, WVS Database,weblink World Values Survey, Institute for Comparative Survey Research, March 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2016, dmy-all, WEB, Gallup International Religiosity Index,weblink The Washington Post, WIN-Gallup International, April 2015, live,weblink 1 February 2016, dmy-all, {{bar box|title=Religions in Spain|titlebar=#ddd|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Roman Catholicism|gold|70.2}}{{bar percent|No Religion|SteelBlue|25.0}}{{bar percent|Other Faith|MediumAquaMarine|2.6}}{{bar percent|No Answer|purple|2.1}}CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES SOCIOLóGICAS (CENTRE FOR SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH)>TITLE=BARóMETRO DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 2017PAGE=41LANGUAGE=SPANISHARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170928080904/HTTP://DATOS.CIS.ES/PDF/ES3146MAR_A.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, }}The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.There have been four Spanish Popes. Damasus I, Calixtus III, Alexander VI and Benedict XIII. Spanish mysticism provided an important intellectual resource against Protestantism with Carmelites like Teresa of Ávila, a reformist nun and John of the Cross, a priest, taking the lead in their reform movement. Later, they became Doctors of the Church. The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola, whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. The Society's co-founder, Francis Xavier, was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe and Ignacio Ellacuría supported the movement of Liberation Theology.Protestant churches have about 1,200,000 members.WEB,weblink Federación de Entidades Religiosas Evangélicas de España – FEREDE,, 4 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2011, dmy-all, There are about 105,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46,000 adherents in 133 congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2007, Spain – LDS Newsroom,, 4 September 2010, dead, {{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = St Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Founder of the Jesuits.jpg| width1 = 101| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Peter Paul Rubens 138.jpg| width2 = 166| alt2 = | caption2 = | image3 = FranciscusXavier.jpg| width3 = 121| alt3 = | caption3 = Saints Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Ávila>Teresa de Jesús, and Francisco Javier were prominent figures of the Counter-Reformation.| footer_align = left}}A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain demonstrated that there were about 1,700,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain {{As of|2012|lc=y}}, accounting for 3–4% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from Morocco and other African countries. More than 514,000 (30%) of them had Spanish nationality.JOURNAL, Explotación estadística del censo de ciudadanos musulmanes en España referido a fecha 31/12/2012, Unión de Comunidades Islámicas de España, 2012, 6–9,weblink harv, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2013, dmy-all, The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Muslims.After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion.BOOK, The Spanish Inquisition: A Historical Revision, 1999, Yale University Press, Henry Kamen, Kamen, Henry, 29–31, However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour or 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled.The descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in 1492 are given the Spanish nationality if they request so.NEWS, Sanz, Juan Carlos, Spain at last welcomes back the Sephardim,weblink 22 January 2016, 26 May 2018, Tel Aviv, El País,


Spain is a Western country. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.

World Heritage Sites

{{See also|Castles in Spain|Cathedrals in Spain}}File:Naranco, Iglesia Santa Maria-PM 34664.jpg|thumb|upright= 0.9|The pre-Romanesque architecture of Santa María del NarancoSanta María del NarancoSpain has 47 World Heritage Sites. These include the landscape of Monte Perdido in the Pyrenees, which is shared with France, the Prehistoric Rock Art Sites of the Côa Valley and Siega Verde, which is shared with Portugal, the Heritage of Mercury, shared with Slovenia and the Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests, shared with other countries of Europe.WEB, Spain,weblink UNESCO Culture Sector, 14 September 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2014, dmy-all, In addition, Spain has also 14 Intangible cultural heritage, or "Human treasures".WEB, Spain – Intangible Cultural Heritage,weblink UNESCO Culture Sector, 14 September 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2014, dmy-all,


{{See also|Basque literature|Catalan literature|Galician literature|Latin American literature}}File:Corral de comedias de Almagro.JPG|thumb|Corral de comedias de Almagro, Spanish Golden Age theatre with Lope de Vega and Calderon de la BarcaCalderon de la BarcaThe earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the Kharjas (Jarchas).File:Bronze statues of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Bronze statues of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in the Plaza de España in Madrid]]During the Reconquista, the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life. The Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian is also remarkable.Other major plays from the medieval times were Mester de Juglaría, Mester de Clerecía, Coplas por la muerte de su padre or El Libro de buen amor (The Book of Good Love).During the Renaissance the major plays are La Celestina and El Lazarillo de Tormes, while many religious literature was created with poets as Luis de León, San Juan de la Cruz, Santa Teresa de Jesús, etc.The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture. We are in the times of the Spanish Empire. The famous Don Quijote de La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes was written in this time. Other writers from the period are: Francisco de Quevedo, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca or Tirso de Molina.During the Enlightenment we find names such as Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Benito Jerónimo Feijóo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos or Leandro Fernández de Moratín.{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Emilia Pardo Bazán, en Actualidades.jpg| width1 = 150| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = María Zambrano ca. 1918.JPG| width2 = 117| alt2 = | caption2 = | image3 = Rodoreda.jpg| width3 = 111| alt3 = | caption3 = | footer = Emilia Pardo Bazán, María Zambrano and Mercè Rodoreda| footer_align = left}}During the Romanticism, José Zorrilla created one of the most emblematic figures in European literature in Don Juan Tenorio. Other writers from this period are Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, José de Espronceda, Rosalía de Castro or Mariano José de Larra.In Realism we find names such as Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Concepción Arenal, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez and Menéndez Pelayo. Realism offered depictions of contemporary life and society 'as they were'. In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898 was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Ramiro de Maeztu, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98.{{multiple image| align = left| direction = horizontal| image1 = Ramón María del Valle Inclán, de Audouard.jpg| width1 = 129| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Photo of Benito Pérez Galdós.jpg| width2 = 88| alt2 = | caption2 = | image3 = Federico García Lorca. Huerta de San Vicente, Granada.jpg| width3 = 109| alt3 = | caption3 = | footer = Ramón del Valle-Inclán, Benito Pérez Galdós and Federico García Lorca| footer_align = left}}The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañón, Manuel Azaña, Maria Zambrano, Eugeni d'Ors, Clara Campoamor and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Salvador de Madariaga, another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén, Federico García Lorca, Vicente Aleixandre, Dámaso Alonso. All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.File:Miguel Delibes (década de 1960) - 4.tif|thumb|upright=0.7|Miguel Delibes (Valle de Sedano in 1960), describes the situation of rural Spain after the Rural flightRural flightThe two main writers in the second half of the 20th century were the Nobel Prize in Literature laureate Camilo José Cela and Miguel Delibes from Generation of '36. Spain is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature, and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all. The Spanish writers are: José Echegaray, Jacinto Benavente, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Vicente Aleixandre and Camilo José Cela. The Portuguese writer José Saramago, also awarded with the prize, lived for many years in Spain and spoke both Portuguese and Spanish. Saramago was also well known by his Iberist ideas.The Generation of '50 are also known as the children of the civil war. Rosa Chacel, Gloria Fuertes, Jaime Gil de Biedma, Juan Goytisolo, Carmen Martín Gaite, Ana María Matute, Juan Marsé, Blas de Otero, Gabriel Celaya, Antonio Gamoneda, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio or Ignacio Aldecoa.Premio Planeta de Novela and Miguel de Cervantes Prize are the two main awards nowadays in Spanish literature.


File:University of Salamanca Fray Luis de Leon.jpg|thumb|Façade of the University of Salamanca in which Francisco de Vitoria created the School of Salamanca and international lawinternational lawSeneca was a philosopher during the time of the Roman Empire.During Al-Andalus, Muslim, Jewish and Christian philosopher flourished. That is the case of Ibn Arabi, Averroes or Maimonides.In the Middle Ages we find Ramon Llull.Humanist Luis Vives during the Renaissance. As well as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de las Casas.Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and less strong as in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived into Spanish society. At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished particularly strong at the intellectual level, with thinkers as Francisco Pi i Margall, Ricardo Mella or Francisco Ferrer Guardia.In the first half of the 20th century the most prominent philosophers are Maria Zambrano and José Ortega y Gasset.Most contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina, creator of the term aporophobia.


{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez, from Prado in Google Earth.jpg| width1 = 126| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg| width2 = 140| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = Las Meninas, Diego Velázquez and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Pablo Picasso| footer_align = left| valign = middle}}Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements. Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish and influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia is still evident today. European influences include Italy, Germany and France, especially during the Renaissance Spanish Baroque and Neoclassical periods. There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture, Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic.During the Golden Age we find painters such as El Greco, José de Ribera, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo and Francisco Zurbarán. Also inside Baroque period Diego Velázquez created some of the most famous Spanish portraits, like Las Meninas or Las Hilanderas.Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War, the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the raise of contemporary state-nations.Joaquín Sorolla is a well-known impressionist painter and there are many important Spanish painters belonging to the modernism art movement, including Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Juan Gris and Joan Miró.


File:Chillida-peine.jpg|thumb|The Comb of the Wind of Eduardo Chillida in San SebastiánSan SebastiánThe Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete (Valladolid School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez, Diego de Siloé, Juan de Juni and Damián Forment.There were two Schools of special flair and talent: the Seville School, to which Juan Martínez Montañés belonged, whose most celebrated works are the Crucifix in the Cathedral of Seville, another in Vergara, and a Saint John; and the Granada School, to which Alonso Cano belonged, to whom an Immaculate Conception and a Virgin of Rosary, are attributed.Other notable Andalusian Baroque sculptors were Pedro de Mena, Pedro Roldán and his daughter Luisa Roldán, Juan de Mesa and Pedro Duque Cornejo. In the 20th century the most important Spanish sculptors were Julio González, Pablo Gargallo, Eduardo Chillida, and Pablo Serrano.


File:Pedro Almodovar and Penélope Cruz.jpg|thumb|upright|Pedro Almodóvar and Penélope Cruz in Oviedo (Princess of Asturias AwardsPrincess of Asturias AwardsSpanish cinema has achieved major international success including Oscars for recent films such as Pan's Labyrinth and Volver.BOOK, Jordan, Barry, Rikki, Morgan-Tamosunas, Rikki Morgan-Tamosunas, Contemporary spanish cinema, Manchester University Press, 1998, In the long history of Spanish cinema, the great filmmaker Luis Buñuel was the first to achieve world recognition, followed by Pedro Almodóvar in the 1980s (La Movida Madrileña). Mario Camus and Pilar Miró worked together in Curro Jiménez.Spanish cinema has also seen international success over the years with films by directors like Segundo de Chomón, Florián Rey, Luis García Berlanga, Carlos Saura, Julio Medem, Isabel Coixet, Alejandro Amenábar, Icíar Bollaín and brothers David Trueba and Fernando Trueba.Actresses Sara Montiel and Penélope Cruz or actor Antonio Banderas are among those who have become Hollywood stars.International Film Festivals of Valladolid and San Sebastian are the oldest and more relevant in Spain.


{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| image1 = Hemispheric - Valencia, Spain - Jan 2007.jpg| width1 = 230| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Casacolgantecuenca.jpg| width2 = 97| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = The modern Hemispheric at the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia and Hanging houses of Cuenca| footer_align = left| valign = middle}}Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era infrastructure, Córdoba became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty.BOOK, Jo, Cruz, Western Views of Islam in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Perception and Other, David R. Blanks, Michael Frassetto, New York, Saint Martin's Press, 1999, 56, Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid, which built its famed palace complex in Granada.Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century. An influential style centred in Barcelona, known as modernisme, produced a number of important architects, of which Gaudí is one. The International style was led by groups like GATEPAC. Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and (:Category:Spanish architects|Spanish architects) like Rafael Moneo, Santiago Calatrava, Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.

Music and dance

File:Belen maya.jpg|thumb|upright|Flamenco is an Andalusian artistic form that evolved from the SeguidillaSeguidillaSpanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco, a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo, José Carreras, Montserrat Caballé, Alicia de Larrocha, Alfredo Kraus, Pablo Casals, Ricardo Viñes, José Iturbi, Pablo de Sarasate, Jordi Savall and Teresa Berganza. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona, Orquesta Nacional de España and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid. Major opera houses include the Teatro Real, the Gran Teatre del Liceu, Teatro Arriaga and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía.File:Joan Manuel Serrat - Gira 100x100 Serrat.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Joan Manuel Serrat is a singer of the Nueva canciónNueva canciónThousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts.WEB,weblink Music Festivals, UK Festivals and London Festivals,, 1 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2011, dmy-all, Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones on its genre.The most popular traditional musical instrument, the guitar, originated in Spain.WEB,weblink The History of the Guitar in Spain,, 30 April 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dmy-all, Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros, mainly in Asturias and Galicia.(File:Zara Mallorca.jpg|thumb|Zara store in Palma de Mallorca.)


Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week is one of the most important fashion weeks in Europe.Zara is one of the biggest prêt-a-porter fashion companies in the world.Fashion designers as Cristóbal Balenciaga are between the most influential during the XX century.


File:Cooking a paella.jpg|thumb|Paella, a traditional Valencian dishNEWS,weblink Spain's perfect paella, 19 August 2007, Richardson, Paul, The Times, London, 6 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2010, dmy-all, ]]Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:Mediterranean Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito (fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho; and many rice-based dishes like paella from Valencia and arròs negre (black rice) from Catalonia.NEWS,weblink Spain Gain at Mercat Negre, The Village Voice, 1 December 2009, DiGregorio, Sarah, New York, 6 August 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2009, dmy-all, Inner Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup, along with substantious stews such as cocido madrileño. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham, or immersed in olive oil, like Manchego cheese.Atlantic Spain – the whole Northern coast, including Asturian, Basque, Cantabrian and Galician cuisine – vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako. Also, the lightly cured lacón ham. The best known cuisine of the northern countries often rely on ocean seafood, like the Basque-style cod, albacore or anchovy or the Galician octopus-based polbo á feira and shellfish dishes.


File:Barcelona-1992-rr-800.jpg|thumb|upright|1992 Summer Olympics1992 Summer OlympicsWhile varieties of football had been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Real Madrid C.F. and FC Barcelona are two of the most successful football clubs in the world. The country's national football team won the UEFA European Football Championship in 1964, 2008 and 2012 and the FIFA World Cup in 2010, and is the first team to ever win three back-to-back major international tournaments.Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, futsal, motorcycling and, lately, Formula One are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports, golf and skiing. In their respective regions, the games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota are populars.

Public holidays and festivals

File:Sanfermines Vaquillas Pamplona 05.jpg|thumb|upright|San Fermín festival, PamplonaPamplonaPublic holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.WEB,weblink Bank holidays in Spain,, 13 August 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink 18 September 2008, dmy-all, Spain's National Day (Fiesta Nacional de España) is 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar feast, patroness of Aragon and throughout Spain.There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals. One of the most famous is San Fermín, in Pamplona. While its most famous event is the encierro, or the running of the bulls, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 to 14 July, the week-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway, which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.Other festivals include: La Tomatina tomato festival in Buñol, Valencia, the carnivals in the Canary Islands, the Falles in Valencia or the Holy Week in Andalusia and Castile and León.

See also





Further reading

  • Carr, Raymond, ed. Spain: a history. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.
  • BOOK, Gates, David, The Spanish Ulcer: A History of the Peninsular War, Da Capo Press, 2001, 978-0-306-81083-1, 20,

External links

{{Sister project links|b=no|voy=Spain}}


  • {{wikiatlas|Spain}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|1311341}}

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