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Northeastern United States
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{{About|the geographical region|other uses of the term|Northeastern United States (disambiguation)}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2015}}File:US_Northeastern_states.svg|thumb|upright=1.45|The states shown in the two darkest red shades are included in the United States Census Bureau Northeast Region. The Bureau subdivides the Northeast into:{{legend|#800000|New England}}{{legend|#c00000|Middle Atlantic}}States in lighter shades are included in other regional definitions.]]The Northeastern United States, also referred to as simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics.WEB,weblink Census Regions and Divisions of the United States, United States Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, United States Census Bureau, Geography Division, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921053705weblink">weblink September 21, 2013, The Census Bureau–defined region has a total area of {{convert|181324|mi2|km2|abbr=on}} with {{convert|162,257|mi2|km2|abbr=on}} of that being land mass.WEB, American FactFinder, GCT-PH1-Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink 2000, Although it lacks a unified cultural identity, the Northeastern region is the nation's most economically developed, densely populated, and culturally diverse region.BOOK, World Regional Geography, Hobbs, Joseph John, Cengage Learning, 2009, 647, 9780495389507,weblink November 4, 2013, Of the nation's four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its population residing in urban areas, led by the West with 90 percent.NEWS, Census Bureau releases list of urban areas, Porterville Recorder,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130726025854weblink">weblink yes, July 26, 2013, Elkins, Rick, March 28, 2012, July 25, 2012, The Northeast is home to most of the Northeast Megalopolis, the second largest of eleven megaregions within the United States.

Composition

Geographically there has always been some debate as to where the Northeastern United States begins and ends. The vast area from central Virginia to northern Maine, and from western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh) to the Atlantic Ocean, have all been loosely grouped into the Northeast at one time or another. Much of the debate has been what the cultural, economic, and urban aspects of the Northeast are, and where they begin or end as one reaches the borders of the region.Using the Census Bureau's definition of the Northeast, the region includes nine states: they are Maine, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Pennsylvania.{{efn|The U.S. Census Bureau reorganized its administrative units, and its regional offices do not cover the Census regions (the northeastern most regional office headquartered in New York City covers New England, New York, New Jersey, and Puerto Rico).WEB, 2013 Regions of the US Census Bureau,weblink Census Bureau, July 22, 2013, }} The region is often subdivided into New England (the six states east of New York) and the Mid-Atlantic states (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania). This definition has been essentially unchanged since 1880 and is widely used as a standard for data tabulation.BOOK, 6–1, Geographic Areas Reference Manual, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink July 4, 2013, 1994, BOOK, Asking Questions: Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design, Seymour Sudman, Norman M. Bradburn, yes, 1982, Jossey-Bass, 205, The most widely used regional definitions follow those of the U.S. Bureau of the Census.,weblink 9780875895468, BOOK, Retailing, Dale M. Lewison, 1997, Prentice Hall, 384, Perhaps the most widely used regional classification system is one developed by the U.S. Census Bureau.,weblink 978-0-13-461427-4, BOOK, Food and Culture, Pamela Goyan Kittler, Kathryn P. Sucher, 2008, Cengage Learning, 475, (M)ost demographic and food consumption data are presented in this four-region format.,weblink 9780495115410, However, the Census Bureau has acknowledged the obvious limitations of this definitionBOOK, Proceedings of the National Geographic Areas Conference: putting it together for 1990, 1984, U.S. Census Bureau, 161,weblink and the potential merits of a proposal created after the 1950 census that would include changing regional boundaries to include Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia, with the Mid-Atlantic states, but ultimately decided that "the new system did not win enough overall acceptance among data users to warrant adoption as an official new set of general-purpose State groupings. The previous development of many series of statistics, arranged and issued over long periods of time on the basis of the existing State groupings, favored the retention of the summary units of the current regions and divisions."BOOK, Geographic Areas Reference Manual, Six: Statistical Groupings of States and Counties, November 1994,weblink July 31, 2013, U.S. Census Bureau, The Census Bureau confirmed in 1994 that it would continue to "review the components of the regions and divisions to ensure that they continue to represent the most useful combinations of States and State equivalents."Many organizations and reference works follow the Census Bureau's definition for the region;BOOK, Encyclopedia of Associations: Regional, State, and Local Organizations: Northeastern States, (Vol. 2: Northeastern States), 22, 2010, Gale (publisher), Gale, Verne Thompson, BOOK, 630, The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind, Macmillan Publishers, Macmillan, 2011, 9781429950855, BOOK, 220, Understanding Cultural Diversity: Culture, Curriculum, and Community in Nursing, Kelley, Mary Lebreck, Virginia Macken Fitzsimons, yes, 2000, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 9780763711061,weblink however, other entities define the Northeastern United States in significantly different ways for various purposes. The Association of American Geographers divides the Northeast into two divisions: "New England", which consists of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut; and the "Middle States", which consists of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.WEB,weblink Overview – AAG, aag.org, Similarly, the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland and the District of Columbia.WEB,weblink Geological Society of America – Northeastern Section, geosociety.org, The narrowest definitions include only the states of New England.WEB,weblink NROC Overview, Northeast Regional Ocean Council, July 11, 2013, Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, but exclude Pennsylvania and New Jersey.WEB,weblink Safety: ORA District and Headquarters Recall Coordinators, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, July 24, 2013, WEB,weblink About The Council, Department of Defense Northeast Regional Council, September 21, 2013, States beyond the Census Bureau definition are included in Northeast Region by various other entities:
  • Various organizations include: Delaware, Maryland, and District of Columbia.BOOK, Across This Land: A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada, John C. Hudson, 2002, 81 ff, 0801865670, BOOK, North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent, Thomas F. McIlwraith, Edward K. Muller, 2001, 190, 0742500195,weblink BOOK, Political Geography of the United States, Shelley, Fred M., Guilford Press, 1996, 1572300485, WEB, Region I Jurisdiction,weblink Nuclear Regulatory Commission, July 25, 2013, WEB,weblink Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007, Cynthia Nickerson, Robert Ebel, Allison Borchers, Fernando Carriazo, yes, USDA's Economic Research Service, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130730083339weblink">weblink July 30, 2013, mdy-all,
  • The US EPA and NOAA include in their Northeast Region: Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia.BOOK,weblink Chapter 4: Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change for the Northeastern United States, Barron, Eric, Cambridge University Press, Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change, 2001, National Assessment Synthesis Team, U.S. Global Change Research Program, 0-521-00075-0, March 15, 2010, WEB, Northeast Climate Region,weblink United States Environmental Protection Agency, WEB, Northeast Regional Climate Center,weblink National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
  • The National Fish and Wildlife Service includes in their Northeast Region: Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, West Virginia, and Virginia.WEB, Northeast Region,weblink United States Fish and Wildlife Service,
  • The National Park Service includes in their Northeast Region: Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia (though small parts are also in the National Capital Region).WEB, National Park Service Regions,weblink United States Department of the Interior,

History

Indigenous peoples

Anthropologists recognize the "Northeastern Woodlands" as one of the cultural regions that existed in the Western Hemisphere at the time of European colonists in the 15th and later centuries. Most did not settle in North America until the 17th century. The cultural area, known as the "Northeastern Woodlands", in addition to covering the entire Northeast U.S., also covered much of what is now Canada and others regions of what is now the eastern United States.BOOK, Eastern Woodlands Indians, Mir Tamim Ansary, 4, Capstone Classroom, 2001, 9781588104519, Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those that made up the Iroquois nations and the numerous Algonquian peoples.BOOK, A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples, Pritzker, Barry, Oxford University Press, 2000, 398, 0195138775, In the United States of the 21st century, 18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast.For the most part, the people of the Northeastern Woodlands, on whose lands European fishermen began camping to dry their codfish in the early 1600s, lived in villages, especially after being influenced by the agricultural traditions of the Ohio and Mississippi valley societies.Nash, Gary B. Red, White and Black: The Peoples of Early North America Los Angeles 2015. Chapter 1, p. 8

Colonial history

All of the states making up the Northeastern region were among the original Thirteen Colonies, though Maine, Vermont, and Delaware were part of other colonies before the United States became independent in the American Revolution. The two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories.

New England

File:Landing-Bacon.PNG|thumb|The Landing of the Pilgrims, Henry A. BaconHenry A. BaconThe first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, who landed in present-day Massachusetts in 1620.BOOK, Arenstam, Peter, Mayflower 1620: A New Look at a Pilgrim Voyage, 2007, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, Washington, D.C., 9780792262763,weblink Kemp, John, Grace, Catherine O'Neill, The Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years later, a larger group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony.WEB, A Brief History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA,weblink Cambridge Historical Commission, August 16, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120930095250weblink">weblink September 30, 2012, In 1636, colonists established Connecticut Colony and Providence Plantations.WEB, Kelly, Martin, Connecticut Colony,weblink About.com, August 16, 2012, WEB, Kelly, Martin, Rhode Island Colony,weblink About.com, August 16, 2012, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, who was banished by Massachusetts for his beliefs in freedom of religion, and it was the first colony to guarantee all citizens freedom of worship. Anne Hutchinson, who was also banished by Massachusetts, formed the town of Portsmouth. Providence, Portsmouth, and two other towns (Newport and Warwick) consolidated to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.Although the first settlers of New England were motivated by religion, in more recent history, New England has become one of the least religious parts of the United States. In a 2009 Gallup survey, less than half of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Massachusetts reported religion as an important part of their daily life.WEB, Newport, Frank, State of the States: Importance of Religion,weblink Gallup, August 17, 2012, In a 2010 Gallup survey, less than 30% of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and Massachusetts reported attending church weekly, giving them the lowest church attendance among U.S. states.WEB,weblink Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least, Gallup.com, March 17, 2012, New England played a prominent role in early American education. Starting in the 17th century, the larger towns in New England opened grammar schools, the forerunner of the modern high school.{{Citation needed|date=August 2012}} The first public school in the English colonies was the Boston Latin School, founded in 1635.BOOK, Jenks, Henry Fitch, The Boston Public Latin School. 1635-1880, 1880, M. King,weblink August 16, 2012, In 1636, the colonial legislature of Massachusetts founded Harvard College, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States.WEB, Harvard University Founded,weblink CelebrateBoston.com, August 16, 2012,

Mid-Atlantic

The first European explorer known to have explored the Atlantic shoreline of the Northeast since the Norse was Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. His ship La Dauphine explored the coast from what is now known as Florida to New Brunswick. Henry Hudson explored the area of present-day New York in 1609 and claimed it for the Netherlands. His journey stimulated Dutch interest, and the area became known as New Netherland. In 1625, the city of New Amsterdam (the location of present-day New York City) was designated the capital of the province.BOOK, Barreveld, Drs. Dirk J., From New Amsterdam to New York : the founding of New York by the Dutch in July 1625, 2001, Writers Club Press, New York, 9780595198900, The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River and, for a time, the New Sweden settlement along the Delaware River divided the English settlements in the north and the south. In 1664, Charles II of England formally annexed New Netherland and incorporated it into the English colonial empire.WEB, The Middle Colonies,weblink Radford University, August 16, 2012, The territory became the colonies of New York and New Jersey. New Jersey was originally split into East Jersey and West Jersey until the two were united as a royal colony in 1702.In 1681, William Penn, who wanted to give Quakers a land of religious freedom, founded Pennsylvania and extended freedom of religion to all citizens.WEB, Forrest, Tuomi J., William Penn – Introduction,weblink August 16, 2012, Penn strongly desired access to the sea for his Pennsylvania Province and leased what then came to be known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware"BOOK, History of Delaware, John A, Munroe, 5th, illustrated, University of Delaware Press, 2006, 0-87413-947-3, 45,weblink 3. The Lower Counties on The Delaware, from the Duke.Penn established representative government and briefly combined his two possessions under one General Assembly in 1682. However, by 1704 the Province of Pennsylvania had grown so large that their representatives wanted to make decisions without the assent of the Lower Counties and the two groups of representatives began meeting on their own, one at Philadelphia, and the other at New Castle. Penn and his heirs remained proprietors of both and always appointed the same person Governor for their Province of Pennsylvania and their territory of the Lower Counties. The fact that Delaware and Pennsylvania shared the same governor was not unique. From 1703 to 1738, New York and New Jersey shared a governor.{{Citation | last = Lurie | first = Mappen M | title = Encyclopedia of New Jersey | publisher = Rutgers University Press | year = 2004 | isbn = 0-8135-3325-2 | page = 327}}. Massachusetts and New Hampshire also shared a governor for some time.{{Citation | last = Mayo | first = LS | title = John Wentworth, Governor of New Hampshire: 1767–1775 | publisher = Harvard University Press | year = 1921 | page = 5}}.

Environment

File:High Point Monument and Lake Marcia framed.jpg|thumb|High Point Monument as seen from Lake Marcia at High Point, Sussex County, the highest elevationhighest elevationFile:Sunset on Cape Cod Bay.jpg|thumb|Cape Cod BayCape Cod BayFile:Palisades Sill from Palisades Parkway.jpg|thumb|The Palisades along the Hudson RiverHudson RiverFile:Appalachian Throughway.jpg|thumb|U.S. Route 220U.S. Route 220

Topography

While most of the Northeastern United States lie in the Appalachian Highlands physiographic region, some are also part of the Atlantic coastal plain which extends south to the southern tip of Florida. The coastal plain areas (including Cape Cod in Massachusetts, Long Island in New York, most of New Jersey, Delaware, and the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia) are generally low and flat, with sandy soil and marshy land. The highlands, including the Piedmont and the Appalachian Mountains, are generally heavily forested, ranging from rolling hills to summits greater than {{convert|6000|ft|m}}, and pocked with many lakes. The highest peak in the Northeast is Mount Washington (New Hampshire), at {{convert|6288|ft|m}}.NGS, PF0951, Mount Washington,

Land use

{{As of|2007}}, forest-use covered approximately 60% of the Northeastern states (including Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia), about twice the national average. About 12% was cropland and another 4% grassland pasture or range. There is also more urbanized land in the Northeast (11%) than any other region in the U.S.

Climate

The climate of the Northeastern United States varies from northernmost Maine to southernmost Maryland. The climate of the region is created by the position of the general west to east flow of weather in the middle latitudes that much of the USA is controlled by and the position and movement of the subtropical highs. Summers are normally warm in northern areas to hot in southern areas. In summer, the building Bermuda High pumps warm and sultry air toward the Northeast, and frequent (but brief) thundershowers are common on hot summer days. In winter the subtropical high retreats southeastward, and the polar jet stream moves south bringing colder air masses from up in Canada and more frequent storm systems to the region. Winter often brings both rain and snow as well as surges of both warm and cold air.WEB, Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment,weblink National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, January 2013, The basic climate of the Northeast can be divided into a colder and snowier interior (Pennsylvania, New York State, and New England), and a milder coast and coastal plain from southern Rhode Island southward, including, New Haven, CT, New York City, Philadelphia, Trenton, Wilmington, Baltimore...etc.). Annual mean temperatures range from the low 50s F from Maryland to southern Connecticut, to the 40s F in most of New York State, New England, and northern Pennsylvania.WEB, Climate Summaries - Northeast Overview - January 2013,weblink WEB, Climate Summaries - Northeast Overview - July 2012,weblink

Wildlife

The Northeast has 72 National Wildlife Refuges, encompassing more than {{convert|500000|acres|sqmi km2}} of habitat, and designed to protect some of the 92 different threatened and endangered species living in the region.WEB, Northeast Region Fact Sheet,weblink

Demographics

(File:Top of Rock Cropped.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|New York City, the most populous city in the Northeast and all of the United States)File:Philly skyline.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaFile:WashMonument_WhiteHouse.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Washington, D.C.Washington, D.C.File:Boston Skyline Over the Charles River.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|BostonBostonAs of the July 2013 U.S. Census Bureau estimate, the population of the region totaled 55,943,073.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013, comma-separated values, CSV, 2013 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, December 2013, April 24, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140824084354weblink">weblink August 24, 2014, With an average of 345.5 people per square mile, the Northeast is 2.5 times as densely populated as the second-most dense region, the South. Since the last century, the U.S. population has been shifting away from the Northeast (and Midwest) toward the South and West.BOOK, Demographic Trends in the 20th Century, Frank Hobbs, Nicole Stoops, yes, 18, 2002,weblink July 12, 2013, The two U.S. Census Bureau divisions in the Northeast (New England and Mid-Atlantic) rank #2 and #1 among the 9 divisions in population density according to the 2013 population estimate. The South Atlantic region (233.1) was very close behind New England (233.2). Due to the faster growth of the South Atlantic region, it will take over the #2 division rank in population density in the next estimate, dropping New England to 3rd position. New England is projected to retain the number 3 rank for many, many years, as the only other lower-ranked division with even half the population density of New England is the East North Central division (192.1) and this region's population is projected to grow slowly. {{efn|Based on U.S. Census Bureau population projections to 2030 (and assuming constant land area) the population density for the South Atlantic division will increase significantly to 294.6/mi2, New England's density will increase to 249.2/mi2 and the East North Central division will increase only slightly to 200.2/mi2. The division with the 5th highest density is projected to be the East South Central division at 111.6/mi2.WEB,weblink 2005 Interim State Population Projections - People and Households - U.S. Census Bureau, census.gov, }}{|class="wikitable sortable"!State!2017 Estimate!2010 Census!Change!Area!Density|Connecticut
invert=on3574097}}4842.35abbr=on}}3588184sqmiprec=0}}
|Maine
invert=on1328361}}30842.90abbr=on}}1335907sqmiprec=0}}
|Massachusetts
invert=on6547629}}7800.05abbr=on}}6859819sqmiprec=0}}
|New Hampshire
invert=on1316470}}8952.64abbr=on}}1342795sqmiprec=0}}
|Rhode Island
invert=on1052567}}1033.81abbr=on}}1059639sqmiprec=0}}
|Vermont
invert=on625741}}9216.65abbr=on}}623657sqmiprec=0}}
class=sortbottom style="background:#fbfbbb"|New England
invert=on14444865|bgcolour=#fbfbbb}}62688.4abbr=on}}14810001sqmiprec=0}}
|New Jersey
invert=on8791894}}7354.21abbr=on}}9005644sqmiprec=0}}
New York (state)>New Yorkinvert=on19378102}}47126.36abbr=on}}19849399sqmiprec=0}}
|Pennsylvania
invert=on12702379}}44742.67abbr=on}}12805537sqmiprec=0}}
class=sortbottom style="background:#fbfbbb"|Middle Atlantic
invert=on40872375|bgcolour=#fbfbbb}}99223.24abbr=on}}41660580sqmiprec=0}}
class=sortbottom style="background:#fbfbbb"|Total
invert=on55317240|bgcolour=#fbfbbb}}161911.64abbr=on}}56470581sqmiprec=0}}
|Delaware
invert=on897936}}1948.54abbr=on}}961939sqmiprec=0}}
|Maryland
invert=on5773785}}9707.24abbr=on}}6052177sqmiprec=0}}
Washington, D.C.>District of Columbiainvert=on601767}}61.05abbr=on}}693972sqmiprec=0}}
class=sortbottom style="background:#fbfbbb"|Total (Census + DE/MD/DC)
invert=on62590728|bgcolour=#fbfbbb}}173628.47abbr=on|}}64178669sqmiprec=0}}

Economy

{{Expand section|date=July 2013}}{{As of|2012}}, the Northeast accounts for approximately 23% of U.S. gross domestic product.WEB, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State,weblink The Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversees 34 nuclear reactors, eight for research or testing and 26 for power production in the Northeastern United States.New York City, considered a global financial center, is in the Northeast.The Federal Bureau of Prisons maintains 17 federal prisons and two affiliated private facilities in the region.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}

Transportation

The following table includes all eight airports categorized by the FAA as large hubsCalendar Year 2011 Primary Airports located in the Northeastern statesWEB,weblink ATCSCC Flight Delay Information – Northeastern States, faa.gov, (New England and Eastern regionsWEB,weblink Airports Regional & District/Development Offices, faa.gov, ):{| class="wikitable sortable"! Rank !! Metro area served !! Airportcode !! Airport name !! Largest airlineWEB,weblink RITA – BTS – Transtats, bts.gov,
1 New York align=center | JetBlue (37%)
2 New York align=center | United (49%)
3 Philadelphia align=center | American (80%)
4 Boston align=center | JetBlue (29%)
5 New York align=center | Delta (21%)
6 Baltimore/Washington align=center | Southwest (65%)
7 Washington align=center | United (41%)
8 Washington align=center | American (50%)

Culture

One geographer, Wilbur Zelinsky, asserts that the Northeast region lacks a unified cultural identity,JOURNAL, North America's Vernacular Regions, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Zelinsky, Wilbur, June 1980, 70, 1, 1, 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1980.tb01293.x, but has served as a "culture hearth" for the rest of the nation.JOURNAL, Some Problems in the Distribution of Generic Terms in the Place-Names of the Northeastern United States, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Zelinsky, Wilbur, December 1955, 45, 4, 319, 10.1111/j.1467-8306.1955.tb01491.x, Several much smaller geographical regions within the Northeast have distinct cultural identities.

Landmarks

Almost half of the National Historic Landmarks maintained by the National Park Service are located in the Northeastern United States.WEB, Northeast Region – History & Culture,weblink

Religion

According to a 2009 Gallup poll, the Northeastern states differ from most of the rest of the U.S. in religious affiliation, generally reflecting the descendants of immigration patterns of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with many Catholics arriving from Ireland, Italy, Canada, and eastern Europe. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey are the only states in the nation where Catholics outnumber Protestants and other Christian denominations. More than 20% of respondents in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont declared no religious identity.WEB, Religious Identity: States Differ Widely,weblink Compared to other U.S. regions, the Northeast, along with the Pacific Northwest, has the lowest regular religious service attendance and the fewest people for whom religion is an important part of their daily lives.JOURNAL, Twenge, Jean M., Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents' Religious Orientation, 1966–2014, PLOS One, 10, 5, e0121454,weblink October 6, 2015, 10.1371/journal.pone.0121454, 25962174, 4427319, 2015,

Sports

The Northeast region is home to numerous professional sports franchises in the "Big Four" leagues (NFL, NBA, NHL, and MLB),WEB, All Cities Are Not Created Equal,weblink with more than 100 championships collectively among them.WEB, The Northeast Region,weblink Major League Soccer features five Northeastern teams: D.C. United, New England Revolution, New York City FC, New York Red Bulls, and Philadelphia Union. The region also has three WNBA teams: Connecticut Sun, New York Liberty, and Washington Mystics.Notable golf tournaments in the Northeastern United States include the Deutsche Bank Championship, The Barclays, Quicken Loans National, and Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The US Open, held at New York City, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas the Washington Open is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series.Notable Northeastern motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover International Speedway, Pocono Raceway, New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and Lime Rock Park, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, and International Motor Sports Association races. Also, drag strips such as Englishtown, Epping, and Reading have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.The region has also been noted for the prevalence of the traditionally Northeastern sports of ice hockey and lacrosse.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States, Kirsch, George B., Othello Harris, Claire Elaine Nolte, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, 0313299110,

Health

The rate of potentially preventable hospitalizations in the Northeastern United States fell from 2005 to 2011 for overall conditions, acute conditions, and chronic conditions.WEB, Torio CM, Andrews RM, Geographic Variation in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Acute and Chronic Conditions, 2005-2011, HCUP Statistical Brief #178, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Maryland, September 2014,weblink

Politics

The Northeastern United States tended to vote Republican in federal elections through the first half of the 20th century, but the region has since the 1990s shifted to become the most Democratic in the nation. Results from a 2008 Gallup poll indicated that eight of the top ten Democratic states were located in the region, with every Northeastern state having a Democratic party affiliation advantage of at least ten points.WEB, State of the States: Political Party Affiliation,weblink The following table demonstrates Democratic support in the Northeast as compared to the remainder of the nation.BOOK, Counter Realignment: Political Change in the Northeastern United States, Reiter, Howard L., Jeffrey M. Stonecash, yes, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 1139493132, {|class=wikitable style="text-align:center"!rowspan=2|Year!colspan=2|% President vote!colspan=2|% Senate seats!colspan=2|% House seats
|Northeast|Remainder|Northeast|Remainder|Northeast|Remainder
!2000|57.6|47.5|60.0|46.3|59.6|45.7
!2002| | |60.0|45.0|58.3|44.7
!2004|57.1|47.3|60.0|40.0|59.5|43.0
!2006| | |75.0|45.0|73.8|48.3
!2008|60.7|52.0|80.0|52.5|81.0|52.9
!2010| | |75.0|47.5|67.9|38.5
The following table of United States presidential election results since 1900 illustrates that over the past six presidential elections, only three Northeastern states supported a Republican candidate (New Hampshire voted for George W. Bush in 2000; Pennsylvania and Maine's 2nd congressional district voted for Donald Trump in 2016).WEB, Historical Election Results, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration,weblink Bolded entries indicate that party's candidate also won the general election.{|class=wikitable style="text-align:center"! State! 1900! 1904! 1908! 1912! 1916! 1920
! 1924! 1928! 1932! 1936! 1940! 1944! 1948! 1952! 1956! 1960! 1964! 1968! 1972! 1976! 1980! 1984! 1988! 1992! 1996! 2000! 2004! 2008! 2012! 2016
! nowrap|CT
RRRDRRRRRDDDRRRDDDRRRRRDDDDDDD
! nowrap|DE
RRRDRRRRRDDDRRRDDRRDRRRDDDDDDD
! nowrap|DC| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 
DDDDDDDDDDDDDD
! nowrap|ME
RRRDRRRRRRRRRRRRDDRRRRRDDDDDDD (R ME-02)
! nowrap|MD
RDDDDRRRDDDDRRRDDDRDDRRDDDDDDD
! nowrap|MA
RRRDRRRDDDDDDRRDDDDDRRDDDDDDDD
! nowrap|NH
RRRDDRRRRDDDRRRRDRRRRRRDDRDDDD
! nowrap|NJ
RRRDRRRRDDDDRRRDDRRRRRRDDDDDDD
! nowrap|NY
RRRDRRRRDDDDRRRDDDRDRRDDDDDDDD
! nowrap|PA
RRRPRRRRRDDDRRRDDDRDRRRDDDDDDR
! nowrap|RI
RRRDRRRDDDDDDRRDDDRDDRDDDDDDDD
! nowrap|VT
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRDRRRRRRDDDDDDD
The following table shows the breakdown of party affiliation of governors, attorneys general, state legislative houses, and U.S. congressional delegation for the Northeastern states, {{as of|2019|lc=y}}. (Demographics reflect registration-by-party figures from that state's registered voter statistics.){|class="wikitable" align=center! State !! Governor !! Attorney General !! Upper House Majority !! Lower House Majority !! Senior U.S. Senator !! Junior U.S. Senator !! U.S. House Delegation !! Demographics
align=center! nowrap|CT
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic23-13Democratic92-59DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic5-0Democratic36-21
align=center! nowrap|DE
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic12-9Democratic26-15DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic1-0Democratic48-28
align=center! nowrap|ME
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic21-14Democratic89-57-5RepublicanIndependentDemocratic2-0Democratic32-27
align=center! nowrap|MD
RepublicanDemocraticDemocratic32-15Democratic99-42DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic7-1Democratic55-26
align=center! nowrap|MA
RepublicanDemocraticDemocratic34-6Democratic127-32DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic9-0Democratic35-11
align=center! nowrap|NH
RepublicanRepublicanDemocratic14-10Democratic234-166DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic2-0Republican30-27
align=center! nowrap|NJ
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic24-16Democratic52-28DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic11-1Democratic33-20
align=center! nowrap|NY
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic40-23Democratic106-43-1DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic23-6Democratic49-24
align=center! nowrap|PA
DemocraticDemocraticRepublican29-21Republican110-93DemocraticRepublicanTied9-9Democratic50-37
align=center! nowrap|RI
DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic33-5Democratic66-9DemocraticDemocraticDemocratic2-0Democratic42-11
align=center! nowrap|VT
RepublicanDemocraticDemocratic22-6-2Democratic95-43-7-5DemocraticIndependentDemocratic1-0Democratic47-31

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist}}{{Wikivoyage}}{{Regions of the United States}}{{coord|42|-73|region:US_dim:1000km|display=title}}

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