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{{About|the Jewish people|their religion|Judaism}}{{Redirect|Jew}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{pp-protected|reason=Persistent |small=yes}}{{short description|Ancient nation and ethnoreligious group from the Levant}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}

Israel}}| pop1 = 6,558,100–6,958,300| ref1 = United States}}| pop2 = 5,700,000–10,000,000| ref2 = France}}| pop3 = 453,000–600,000| ref3 = Canada}}| pop4 = 390,500–550,000| ref4 = {{flag|United Kingdom}}}}| pop5 = 290,000–370,000| ref5 = Argentina}}| pop6 = 180,300–330,000| ref6 = Russia}}| pop7 = 172,000–440,000| ref7 = Germany}}| pop8 = 116,000–225,000| ref8 = Australia}}| pop9 = 113,400–140,000| ref9 = Brazil}}| pop10 = 93,200–150,000| ref10 = South Africa}}| pop11 = 69,000–80,000| ref11 = Ukraine}}| pop12 = 50,000–140,000| ref12 = Hungary}}| pop13 = 47,400–100,000| ref13 = Mexico}}| pop14 = 40,000–50,000| ref14 = Netherlands}}| pop15 = 29,800–52,000| ref15 = Belgium}}| pop16 = 29,200–40,000| ref16 = Italy}}| pop17 = 27,500–41,000| ref17 = Switzerland}}| pop18 = 18,600–25,000| ref18 = Chile}}| pop19 = 18,300–26,000| ref19 = Uruguay}}| pop20 = 16,700–25,000| ref20 = Turkey}}| pop21 = 15,000–21,000| ref21 = Sweden}}| pop22 = 15,000–25,000| ref22 = }}| religions = Judaism
  • SamaritansBOOK, Genes, Polymorphisms and the Making of Societies: How Genetic Behavioral Traits Influence Human Cultures, Kiaris, Hippokratis, Universal Publishers, 2012, 978-1612330938, 1 April 2012, 21, BOOK, Digital Samaritans: Rhetorical Delivery and Engagement in the Digital Humanities, Ridolfo, Jim, University of Michigan Press, 2015, 978-0472072804, 16 September 2015, 69,
  • Other Levantines and Semitic peoples such asJOURNAL, 15300852,weblink 2004, Shen, P, Lavi, T, Kivisild, T, Chou, V, Sengun, D, Gefel, D, Shpirer, I, Woolf, E, Hillel, J, Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence variation, 24, 3, 248–60, 10.1002/humu.20077, Human Mutation, NEWS, Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity, Nicholas, Wade, 9 June 2010,weblink New York Times, JOURNAL, 10.1007/s004390000426,weblink High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews, 2000, Nebel, Almut, Filon, Dvora, Weiss, Deborah A., Weale, Michael, Faerman, Marina, Oppenheim, Ariella, Thomas, Mark G., Human Genetics, 107, 6, 630–41, 11153918, WEB,weblink Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese,, 9 May 2000, 12 April 2013, ArabsJOURNAL, 3032072, 2010, Atzmon, G, Hao, L, Pe'Er, I, Velez, C, Pearlman, A, Palamara, PF, Morrow, B, Friedman, E, Oddoux, C, Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry, 86, 6, 850–59, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015, American Journal of Human Genetics, 20560205, and Assyrians
}}}}{{Contains Hebrew text}}{{Jews and Judaism sidebar}}Jews ( ISO 259-2 {{transl|he|Yehudim}}, Israeli pronunciation {{IPA-he|jehuˈdim|}}) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the IsraelitesBOOK, Raymond P. Scheindlin, A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood,weblink 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-513941-9, 1–, Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites"BOOK, Facts On File, Incorporated, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East,weblink 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-2676-0, 337–, "The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history"BOOK, Harry Ostrer MD, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People,weblink 10 August 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-997638-6, 26–, and Hebrews"In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament." Jew at Encyclopædia Britannica"Hebrew, any member of an ancient northern Semitic people that were the ancestors of the Jews." Hebrew (People) at Encyclopædia Britannica of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated,BOOK, Eli Lederhendler, Studies in Contemporary Jewry: Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel,weblink 20 December 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-534896-5, 101–, "Historically, the religious and ethnic dimensions of Jewish identity have been closely interwoven. In fact, so closely bound are they, that the traditional Jewish lexicon hardly distinguishes between the two concepts. Jewish religious practice, by definition, was observed exclusively by the Jewish people, and notions of Jewish peoplehood, nation, and community were suffused with faith in the Jewish God, the practice of Jewish (religious) law and the study of ancient religious texts"BOOK, Tet-Lim N. Yee, Jews, Gentiles and Ethnic Reconciliation: Paul's Jewish identity and Ephesians,weblink 10 March 2005, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-44411-8, 102–, "This identification in the Jewish attitude between the ethnic group and religious identity is so close that the reception into this religion of members not belonging to its ethnic group has become impossible." as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.BOOK, Ernest Krausz, Gitta Tulea, Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at the Close of the Twentieth Century; [... International Workshop at Bar-Ilan University on the 18th and 19th of March, 1997],weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-2689-1, 90–, "A person born Jewish who refutes Judaism may continue to assert a Jewish identity, and if he or she does not convert to another religion, even religious Jews will recognize the person as a Jew"Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel.WEB,weblink Facts About Israel: History, GxMSDev, The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age).K. L. Noll, Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, A&C Black, 2012, rev.ed. pp.137ff.Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources, BRILL, 2000 pp. 275–76: 'They are rather a very specific group among the population of Palestine which bears a name that occurs here for the first time that at a much later stage in Palestine's history bears a substantially different signification.' The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population,John Day, [In Search of Pre-Exilic Israel,] Bloomsbury Publishing, 2005 pp. 47.5 p.48:'In this sense, the emergence of ancient Israel is viewed not as the cause of the demise of Canaanite culture but as its upshot'. consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'.Day, pp. 31–33, p.57.n.33. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail,(:de:Rainer Albertz|Rainer Albertz), Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E. Society of Biblical Lit, 2003 pp. 45ff: 'Since the exilic era constitutes a gaping hole in the historical narrative of the Bible, historical reconstruction of this era faces almost insurmountable difficulties. Like the premonarchic period and the late Persian period, the exilic period, though set in the bright light of Ancient Near Eastern history, remains historically obscure. Since there are very few Israelite sources, the only recourse is to try to cast some light on this darkness from the history of the surrounding empires under whose dominion Israel came in this period.' the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, and the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history, identity and memory.
  • BOOK, Marvin Perry, Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1789,weblink 1 January 2012, Cengage Learning, 1-111-83720-1, 87,
  • Botticini, Maristella and Zvi Eckstein. "From Farmers to Merchants, Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of History." pp. 18–19. August 2006. Accessed 21 November 2015. "The death toll of the Great Revolt against the Roman empire amounted to about 600,000 Jews, whereas the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 caused the death of about 500,000 Jews. Massacres account for roughly 40 percent of the decrease of the Jewish population in Palestine. Moreover, some Jews migrated to Babylon after these revolts because of the worse economic conditions. After accounting for massacres and migrations, there is an additional 30 to 40 percent of the decrease in the Jewish population in Palestine (about 1–1.3 million Jews) to be explained" (p. 19).
  • Boyarin, Daniel, and Jonathan Boyarin. 2003. Diaspora: Generation and the Ground of Jewish Diaspora. p. 714 " is crucial to recognize that the Jewish conception of the Land of Israel is similar to the discourse of the Land of many (if not nearly all) "indigenous" peoples of the world. Somehow the Jews have managed to retain a sense of being rooted somewhere in the world through twenty centuries of exile from that someplace (organic metaphors are not out of place in this discourse, for they are used within the tradition itself). It is profoundly disturbing to hear Jewish attachment to the Land decried as regressive in the same discursive situations in which the attachment of native Americans or Australians to their particular rocks, trees, and deserts is celebrated as an organic connection to the Earth that "we" have lost" p. 714.
  • Cohen, Robin. 1997. Global Diasporas: An Introduction. p. 24 London: UCL Press. "...although the word Babylon often connotes captivity and oppression, a rereading of the Babylonian period of exile can thus be shown to demonstrate the development of a new creative energy in a challenging, pluralistic context outside the natal homeland. When the Romans destroyed the Second Temple in AD 70, it was Babylon that remained as the nerve- and brain-centre for Jewish life and thought...the crushing of the revolt of the Judaeans against the Romans and the destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman general Titus in AD 70 precisely confirmed the catastrophic tradition. Once again, Jews had been unable to sustain a national homeland and were scattered to the far corners of the world" (p. 24).
  • Johnson, Paul A History of the Jews "The Bar Kochba Revolt," (HarperPerennial, 1987) pp. 158–61.: Paul Johnson analyzes Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of Book LXIX para. 13–14 (Dio's passage cited separately) among other sources: "Even if Dio's figures are somewhat exaggerated, the casualties amongst the population and the destruction inflicted on the country would have been considerable. According to Jerome, many Jews were also sold into slavery, so many, indeed, that the price of Jewish slaves at the slave market in Hebron sank drastically to a level no greater than that for a horse. The economic structure of the country was largely destroyed. The entire spiritual and economic life of the Palestinian Jews moved to Galilee. Jerusalem was now turned into a Roman colony with the official name Colonia Aelia Capitolina (Aelia after Hadrian's family name: P. Aelius Hadrianus; Capitolina after Jupiter Capitolinus). The Jews were forbidden on pain of death to set foot in the new Roman city. Aelia thus became a completely pagan city, no doubt with the corresponding public buildings and temples...We certain that a statue of Hadrian was erected in the centre of Aelia, and this was tantamount in itself to a desecration of Jewish Jerusalem." p. 159.
  • Cassius Dio's Roman History: Epitome of Book LXIX para. 13–14: "13 At first the Romans took no account of them. Soon, however, all Judaea had been stirred up, and the Jews everywhere were showing signs of disturbance, were gathering together, and giving evidence of great hostility to the Romans, partly by secret and partly by overt acts; 2 many outside nations, too, were joining them through eagerness for gain, and the whole earth, one might almost say, was being stirred up over the matter. Then, indeed, Hadrian sent against them his best generals. First of these was Julius Severus, who was dispatched from Britain, where he was governor, against the Jews. 3 Severus did not venture to attack his opponents in the open at any one point, in view of their numbers and their desperation, but by intercepting small groups, thanks to the number of his soldiers and his under-officers, and by depriving them of food and shutting them up, he was able, rather slowly, to be sure, but with comparatively little danger, to crush, exhaust and exterminate them. Very few of them in fact survived. Fifty of their most important outposts and nine hundred and eighty-five of their most famous villages were razed to the ground. Five hundred and eighty thousand men were slain in the various raids and battles, and the number of those that perished by famine, disease and fire was past finding out. 2 Thus nearly the whole of Judaea was made desolate, a result of which the people had had forewarning before the war. For the tomb of Solomon, which the Jews regard as an object of veneration, fell to pieces of itself and collapsed, and many wolves and hyenas rushed howling into their cities. 3 Many Romans, moreover, perished in this war. Therefore Hadrian in writing to the senate did not employ the opening phrase commonly affected by the emperors, 'If you and our children are in health, it is well; I and the legions are in health'" (para. 13–14).
  • Safran, William. 2005. The Jewish Diaspora in a Comparative and Theoretical Perspective. Israel Studies 10 (1): 36.{{Dead link|date=February 2016}} "...diaspora referred to a very specific case—that of the exile of the Jews from the Holy Land and their dispersal throughout several parts of the globe. Diaspora [galut] connoted deracination, legal disabilities, oppression, and an often painful adjustment to a hostland whose hospitality was unreliable and ephemeral. It also connoted the existence on foreign soil of an expatriate community that considered its presence to be transitory. Meanwhile, it developed a set of institutions, social patterns, and ethnonational and/or religious symbols that held it together. These included the language, religion, values, social norms, and narratives of the homeland. Gradually, this community adjusted to the hostland environment and became itself a center of cultural creation. All the while, however, it continued to cultivate the idea of return to the homeland." (p. 36).
  • Sheffer, Gabriel. 2005. Is the Jewish Diaspora Unique? Reflections on the Diaspora's Current Situation. Israel Studies 10 (1): pp. 3–4. "...the Jewish nation, which from its very earliest days believed and claimed that it was the "chosen people," and hence unique. This attitude has further been buttressed by the equally traditional view, which is held not only by the Jews themselves, about the exceptional historical age of this diaspora, its singular traumatic experiences its singular ability to survive pogroms, exiles, and Holocaust, as well as its "special relations" with its ancient homeland, culminating in 1948 with the nation-state that the Jewish nation has established there... First, like many other members of established diasporas, the vast majority of Jews no longer regard themselves as being in Galut [exile] in their host countries.7 Perceptually, as well as actually, Jews permanently reside in host countries of their own free will, as a result of inertia, or as a result of problematic conditions prevailing in other hostlands, or in Israel. It means that the basic perception of many Jews about their existential situation in their hostlands has changed. Consequently, there is both a much greater self- and collective-legitimatization to refrain from making serious plans concerning "return" or actually "making Aliyah" [to emigrate, or "go up"] to Israel. This is one of the results of their wider, yet still rather problematic and sometimes painful acceptance by the societies and political systems in their host countries. It means that they, and to an extent their hosts, do not regard Jewish life within the framework of diasporic formations in these hostlands as something that they should be ashamed of, hide from others, or alter by returning to the old homeland" (p. 4).
  • BOOK, The Cambridge History of Judaism: Volume 4, The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period,weblink Cambridge University Press, 1 January 1984, 9780521772488, William David, Davies, Louis, Finkelstein, Steven T., Katz, Although Dio's figure of 985 as the number of villages destroyed during the war seems hyperbolic, all Judaean villages, without exception, excavated thus far were razed following the Bar Kochba Revolt. This evidence supports the impression of total regional destruction following the war. Historical sources note the vast number of captives sold into slavery in Palestine and shipped abroad. ... The Judaean Jewish community never recovered from the Bar Kochba war. In its wake, Jews no longer formed the majority in Palestine, and the Jewish center moved to the Galilee. Jews were also subjected to a series of religious edicts promulgated by Hadrian that were designed to uproot the nationalistic elements with the Judaean Jewish community, these proclamations remained in effect until Hadrian's death in 138. An additional, more lasting punitive measure taken by the Romans involved expunging Judaea from the provincial name, changing it from Provincia Judaea to Provincia Syria Palestina. Although such name changes occurred elsewhere, never before or after was a nation's name expunged as the result of rebellion.,
  • Dalit Rom-Shiloni, Exclusive Inclusivity: Identity Conflicts Between the Exiles and the People who Remained (6th–5th Centuries BCE), A&C Black, 2013 p. xv n.3: 'it is argued that biblical texts of the Neo-Babylonian and the early Persian periods show a fierce adversarial relationship(s) between the Judean groups. We find no expressions of sympathy to the deported community for its dislocation, no empathic expressions towards the People Who Remained under Babylonian subjugation in Judah. The opposite is apparent: hostile, denigrating, and denunciating language characterizes the relationships between resident and exiled Judeans throughout the sixth and fifth centuries.' (p. xvii) Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million,WEB,weblink The Jewish Population of the World (2014), Jewish Virtual Library, 30 June 2015, , based on BOOK, American Jewish Year Book, American Jewish Committee,weblink representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. Approximately 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust.WEB, Holocaust {{!, Basic questions about the Holocaust|url =weblink|website =|access-date = 10 November 2015}}WEB, The Holocaust,weblink, 10 November 2015, Since then the population has slowly risen again, and {{as of|2018|lc=y}} was estimated at 14.6–17.8 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population.WEB,weblink Jews make up only 0.2% of mankind, ynetnews, October 2012, {{refn|group=note|The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to issues with census methodology, disputes among proponents of halakhic, secular, political, and ancestral identification factors regarding who is a Jew may affect the figure considerably depending on the source.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 March 2009, Jewish Agency: 13.2 million Jews worldwide on eve of Rosh Hashanah, 5768, 24 January 2009, Pfeffer, Anshel, 12 September 2007, Haaretz, dead, }}
The modern State of Israel is the only country where Jews form a majority of the population. It defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, (Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty|Human Dignity and Liberty) in particular, which is based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel.A 1970 amendment to Israel's Law of Return defines "Jew" as "a person who was born of a Jewish mother or has become converted to Judaism and who is not a member of another religion." WEB,weblink Law of Return, Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have significantly influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both historically and in modern times, including philosophy,WEB,weblink Maimonides – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, 26 August 2015, ethics,Sekine, Seizō. A Comparative Study of the Origins of Ethical Thought: Hellenism and Hebraism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. Print. literature,BOOK, Jonathan Daly, The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization,weblink 19 December 2013, A&C Black, 978-1-4411-1851-6, 21–, "Upon the foundation of Judaism, two civilizations centered on monotheistic religion emerged, Christianity and Islam. To these civilizations, the Jews added a leaven of astonishing creativity in business, medicine, letters, science, the arts, and a variety of other leadership roles." politics, business, fine arts and architecture, music, theatreWEB,weblink Broadway Musicals: A Jewish Legacy, DC Theatre Scene, and cinema, medicine,Roni Caryn Rabin Exhibition Traces the emergence of Jews as medical innovators, The New York Times (14 May 2012). Accessed 16 August 2015.Shatzmiller, Joseph. Doctors to Princes and Paupers: Jews, Medicine, and Medieval Society. Berkeley: U of California, 1995. Print. and science and technology, as well as religion; Jews authored the Bible,BOOK, Max I. Dimont, Jews, God, and History,weblink 1 June 2004, Penguin Publishing Group, 978-1-101-14225-7, 102–, "During the subsequent five hundred years, under Persian, Greek and Roman domination, the Jews wrote, revised, admitted and canonized all the books now comprising the Jewish Old Testament"BOOK, Julie Galambush, The Reluctant Parting: How the New Testament's Jewish Writers Created a Christian Book,weblink 14 June 2011, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-210475-5, 3–, "The fact that Jesus and his followers who wrote the New Testament were first-century Jews, then, produces as many questions as it does answers concerning their experiences, beliefs, and practices" founded Early ChristianityBOOK, John M. G. Barclay, John Philip McMurdo Sweet, Early Christian Thought in Its Jewish Context,weblink 28 June 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-46285-3, 20–, "Early Christianity began as a Jewish movement in first-century Palestine" and had a profound influence on Islam.BOOK, Dr. Andrea C. Paterson, Three Monotheistic Faiths – Judaism, Christianity, Islam: An Analysis and Brief History,weblink 21 May 2009, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4520-3049-4, 41–, "Judaism also contributed to the religion of Islam for Islam derives its ideas of holy text, the Qur'an, ultimately from Judaism. The dietary and legal codes of Islam are based on those of Judaism. The basic design of the mosque, the Islamic house of worship, comes from that of the early synagogues. The communal prayer services of Islam and their devotional routines resembles those of Judaism." Jews have also played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.Role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization, "Judaism has played a significant role in the development of Western culture because of its unique relationship with Christianity, the dominant religious force in the West". Judaism at Encyclopædia Britannica

Name and etymology

The English word "Jew" continues Middle English '. These terms derive from Old French ', earlier , which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea".Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, Facts On File Inc., Infobase Publishing, 2009, p.336 The Greek term was a loan from Aramaic {{transl|arc|Y'hūdāi}}, corresponding to Hebrew {{transl|he|Yehudi}}, originally the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob."Jew", Oxford English Dictionary. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb {{transl|he|yada}}, meaning "praise", but scholars generally agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region.BOOK, Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, G. Johannes, Botterweck, G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer, Ringgren, Helmer Ringgren, David E., Green, William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986, V,weblink 483–484, The Hebrew word for "Jew" is {{rtl-lang|he|יְהוּדִי}} {{transl|he|Yehudi}}, with the plural {{rtl-lang|he|יְהוּדִים}} {{transl|he|Yehudim}}.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Grintz, Yehoshua M., Fred Skolnik, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jew, 2d, 2007, Thomson Gale, 11, Farmington Hills, Mich., 0-02-865928-7, 253, harv, Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Ladino {{rtl-lang|lld|ג׳ודיו}} {{transl|lld|Djudio}} (plural {{rtl-lang|lld|ג׳ודיוס}}, {{transl|lld|Djudios}}) and the Yiddish {{rtl-lang|yi|ייִד}} {{transl|yi|Yid}} (plural {{rtl-lang|yi|ייִדן}} {{transl|yi|Yidn}}).The etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g., يَهُودِيّ yahūdī (sg.), al-yahūd (pl.), in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" (m.)/"Juive" (f.) in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc., but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are also in use to describe a Jew, e.g., in Italian (Ebreo), in Persian ("Ebri/Ebrani" ()) and Russian (Еврей, Yevrey).BOOK, Falk, Avner, Avner Falk, A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews, 1996, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Madison, N.J., 0-8386-3660-8, 131, The German word "Jude" is pronounced {{IPA-de|ˈjuːdə|}}, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" {{IPA-de|ˈjyːdɪʃ|}} (Jewish) is the origin of the word "Yiddish".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Yiddish, 11th, 2004, Merriam-Webster, Springfield, Massachusetts, 0-87779-809-5, 1453, harv,weblink According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition (2000),It is widely recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and highly offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility. Some people, however, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, which is unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun.BOOK, The American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style, Jew,weblink Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005, 978-0-618-60499-9, Kleinedler, Steven, Spitz, Susan, etal,

Who is a Jew?

Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation,BOOK, M. Nicholson, International Relations: A Concise Introduction,weblink 2002, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-5822-9, 19–, "The Jews are a nation and were so before there was a Jewish state of Israel"BOOK, Jacob Neusner, An Introduction to Judaism: A Textbook and Reader,weblink 1991, Westminster John Knox Press, 978-0-664-25348-6, 375–, "That there is a Jewish nation can hardly be denied after the creation of the State of Israel"BOOK, Alan Dowty, The Jewish State: A Century Later, Updated With a New Preface,weblink 30 January 1998, University of California Press, 978-0-520-92706-3, 3–, "Jews are a people, a nation (in the original sense of the word), an ethnos"WEB,weblink The Jewish Problem: How To Solve It, Louis, Brandeis, Louis Brandeis, 25 April 1915, University of Louisville School of Law, 2 April 2012, Jews are a distinctive nationality of which every Jew, whatever his country, his station or shade of belief, is necessarily a member, BOOK, Palmer, Edward Henry, Edward Henry Palmer, A History of the Jewish Nation: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day,weblink 2 April 2012, 14 October 2002, First published 1874, Gorgias Press, 978-1-931956-69-7, 51578088,weblink WEB,weblink How I Became a Zionist, Albert, Einstein, Albert Einstein, Einstein Papers Project, The Jewish nation is a living fact, 21 June 1921, Princeton University Press, 5 April 2012, an ethnicity, a religion, and a culture,BOOK, David M. Gordis, Zachary I. Heller, Jewish Secularity: The Search for Roots and the Challenges of Relevant Meaning,weblink 2012, University Press of America, 978-0-7618-5793-8, 1–, : "Judaism is a culture and a civilization which embraces the secular as well"BOOK, Seth Daniel Kunin, Themes and Issues in Judaism,weblink 8 February 2000, A&C Black, 978-0-304-33758-3, 1–, : Although culture - and Judaism is a culture (or cultures) as well as religion - can be subdivided into different analytical categories..."BOOK, Paul R. Mendes-Flohr, Divided Passions: Jewish Intellectuals and the Experience of Modernity,weblink 1991, Wayne State University Press, 0-8143-2030-9, 421–, : "Although Judaism is a culture - or rather has a culture - it is eminently more than a culture" making the definition of who is a Jew vary slightly depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.WEB,weblink What Makes a Jew Jewish?,, 2 October 2013, WEB,weblink Who is a Jew?, 6 October 2007, Weiner, Rebecca, 2007, Jewish Virtual Library, Generally, in modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage (sometimes including those who do not have strictly matrilineal descent), and people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion.BOOK, World Religions: An Introduction for Students, Fowler, Jeaneane D., 1997, Sussex Academic Press, 1-898723-48-6, 7, Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, and halakhic conversions. These definitions of who is a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral Torah into the Babylonian Talmud, around 200 CE. Interpretations of sections of the Tanakh, such as Deuteronomy 7:1–5, by Jewish sages, are used as a warning against intermarriage between Jews and Canaanites because "[the non-Jewish husband] will cause your child to turn away from Me and they will worship the gods (i.e., idols) of others." {{bibleref2|Leviticus|24:10}} says that the son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the community of Israel." This is complemented by {{bibleref2|Ezra|10:2–3}}, where Israelites returning from Babylon vow to put aside their gentile wives and their children.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 18 October 1996, What is the origin of Matrilineal Descent?, 9 January 2009, 4 September 2003,, WEB,weblink What is the source of the law that a child is Jewish only if its mother is Jewish?, 9 January 2009,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 December 2008, A popular theory is that the rape of Jewish women in captivity brought about the law of Jewish identity being inherited through the maternal line, although scholars challenge this theory citing the Talmudic establishment of the law from the pre-exile period. Another argument is that the rabbis changed the law of patrilineal descent to matrilineal descent due to the widespread rape of Jewish women by Roman soldiers.BOOK,weblink Birth, Death, and Femininity: Philosophies of Embodiment, Robin May Schott, 25 October 2010, Indiana University Press, 0-253-00482-9, 67–, Since the anti-religious Haskalah movement of the late 18th and 19th centuries, halakhic interpretations of Jewish identity have been challenged.Dosick (2007), pp. 56–57.According to historian Shaye J. D. Cohen, the status of the offspring of mixed marriages was determined patrilineally in the Bible. He brings two likely explanations for the change in Mishnaic times: first, the Mishnah may have been applying the same logic to mixed marriages as it had applied to other mixtures (Kil'ayim). Thus, a mixed marriage is forbidden as is the union of a horse and a donkey, and in both unions the offspring are judged matrilineally.BOOK, Shaye J.D. Cohen, 1999, The Beginnings of Jewishness, U. California Press, 305–06, 0-585-24643-2, Second, the Tannaim may have been influenced by Roman law, which dictated that when a parent could not contract a legal marriage, offspring would follow the mother. Rabbi Rivon Krygier follows a similar reasoning, arguing that Jewish descent had formerly passed through the patrineal descent and the law of matrilineal descent had its roots in the Roman legal system.BOOK,weblink Lost Jews: The Struggle for Identity Today, Emma Klein, 27 July 2016, Springer, 978-1-349-24319-8, 6–,



{{further|Canaan|Israelites|Origins of Judaism|History of ancient Israel and Judah}}File:A map of Canaan (8343807206).jpg|thumb|Map of CanaanCanaan{{Tribes of Israel}}A factual reconstruction for the origin of the Jews is a difficult and complex endeavor. It requires examining at least 3,000 years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety written in at least ten near Eastern languages. As archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory. The prehistory and ethnogenesis of the Jews are closely intertwined with archaeology, biology, and historical textual records, as well as religious literature and mythology. The ethnic stock to which Jews originally trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes known as the Israelites that inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.BOOK, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People, Ostrer, Harry, Oxford University Press, 2012, 978-0195379617, 8 May 2012, Modern Jews are named after and also descended from the southern Israelite Kingdom of Judah.Ann E. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity. An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines and Early Israel 1300–1100 B.C.E. (Archaeology and Biblical Studies), Society of Biblical Literature, 2005BOOK, Schama, Simon, Simon Schama, The Story of the Jews: Finding the Words 1000 BC–1492 AD,weblink 18 March 2014, HarperCollins, 978-0-06-233944-7, * "In the broader sense of the term, a Jew is any person belonging to the worldwide group that constitutes, through descent or conversion, a continuation of the ancient Jewish people, who were themselves the descendants of the Hebrews of the Old Testament."
  • "The Jewish people as a whole, initially called Hebrews (Ê¿Ivrim), were known as Israelites (Yisreʾelim) from the time of their entrance into the Holy Land to the end of the Babylonian Exile (538 BC)."
Jew at Encyclopædia BritannicaBOOK, Ostrer, Harry, Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People,weblink 19 April 2012, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0-19-970205-3, BOOK, Brenner, Michael, A Short History of the Jews,weblink 13 June 2010, Princeton University Press, 0-691-14351-X, BOOK, Adams, Hannah, The History of the Jews: From the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time,weblink 1840, London Society House, According to the Hebrew Bible narrative, Jewish ancestry is traced back to the Biblical patriarchs such as Abraham, his son Isaac, Isaac's son Jacob, and the Biblical matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel, who lived in Canaan. The Twelve Tribes are described as descending from the twelve sons of Jacob. Jacob and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Jacob's son Joseph by the Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs' descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, after which the Israelites conquered Canaan under Moses' successor Joshua, went through the period of the Biblical judges after the death of Joshua, then through the mediation of Samuel became subject to a king, Saul, who was succeeded by David and then Solomon, after whom the United Monarchy ended and was split into a separate Kingdom of Israel and a Kingdom of Judah. The Kingdom of Judah is described as comprising the Tribe of Judah, the Tribe of Benjamin, partially the Tribe of Levi, and later adding remnants of other tribes who migrated there from the Kingdom of Israel.BOOK, Broshi, Maguen, Bread, Wine, Walls and Scrolls,weblink Bloomsbury Publishing, 2001, 174, 1-84127-201-9, Israelite Refugees Found High Office in Kingdom of Judah, Seals Found in Jerusalem Show Modern Jews claim lineage from those tribes since the ten northern tribes were lost following Assyrian captivity.WEB,weblink Judah, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 1 April 2018, Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of this narrative,BOOK, Dever, William, What Did the Biblical Writers Know, and When Did They Know It?, 2001, Eerdmans, 3-927120-37-5,weblink 98–99, After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [...] archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit., with it being reframed as constituting the Israelites' inspiring national myth narrative. The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh. The growth of Yahweh-centric belief, along with a number of cultic practices, gradually gave rise to a distinct Israelite ethnic group, setting them apart from other Canaanites.Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5The Israelites become visible in the historical record as a people between 1200 and 1000 BCE.BOOK, Spielvogel, Jackson J., Western civilization, 2012, Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, Australia, 9780495913245, 8th, 33, What is generally agreed, however, is that between 1200 and 1000 B.C.E., the Israelites emerged as a distinct group of people, possibly united into tribes or a league of tribes, It is not certain if a period like that of the Biblical judges occurredFor a bibliography of scholars who doubt anything like the period of the Judges ever occurred, see BOOK, John C. Yoder, Power and Politics in the Book of Judges: Men and Women of Valor,weblink 1 May 2015, FORTRESS Press, 978-1-4514-9642-0, 5, BOOK, Marc Zvi Brettler, The Book of Judges,weblink 2002, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-16216-6, 107, BOOK, Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources,weblink 1 January 2000, BRILL, 90-04-11943-4, 96, BOOK,weblink History, Archaeology and The Bible Forty Years After "Historicity": Changing Perspectives, Routledge, 2016, 978-1-317-42815-2, Hjelm, Ingrid, 4, Thompson, Thomas L, BOOK, Philip R. Davies, In Search of "Ancient Israel": A Study in Biblical Origins,weblink 1995, A&C Black, 978-1-85075-737-5, 26, nor if there was ever a United Monarchy.BOOK, Lipschits, Oded, Berlin, Adele, Brettler, Marc Zvi, The Jewish Study Bible, Oxford University Press, 9780199978465, 2014, 2nd,weblink en, The History of Israel in the Biblical Period, BOOK, Finkelstein, Israel, Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible unearthed : archaeology's new vision of ancient Israel and the origin of its stories, 2001, Simon & Schuster, New York, 0-684-86912-8, 1st Touchstone, BOOK, Kuhrt, Amiele, The Ancient Near East, 1995, Routledge, 978-0415167628, 438,weblink WEB, Wright, Jacob L., David, King of Judah (Not Israel),weblink The Bible and Interpretation, July 2014, There is well accepted archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the Merneptah Stele, which dates to about 1200 BCE, and the Canaanites are archeologically attested in the Middle Bronze Age.Jonathan M Golden,Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, OUP USA, 2009 pp. 3–4.BOOK, Lemche, Niels Peter, 1998, The Israelites in History and Tradition, Westminster John Knox Press,weblink 35, 9780664227272, There is debate about the earliest existence of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah and their extent and power, but historians agree that a Kingdom of Israel existed by ca. 900 BCE{{rp|169–195}} and that a Kingdom of Judah existed by ca. 700 BCE.The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K. 3751), dated 734-733, are the earliest published to date." It is widely accepted that the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.The term Jew originated from the Roman "Judean" and denoted someone from the southern kingdom of Judah.BOOK,weblink Teaching Jewish History, Julia Phillips Berger, Sue Parker Gerson, Behrman House, Inc, 41, 2006, 9780867051834, The shift of ethnonym from "Israelites" to "Jews" (inhabitant of Judah), although not contained in the Torah, is made explicit in the Book of Esther (4th century BCE),The people and the faith of the Bible by André Chouraqui, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1975, p. 43 weblink a book in the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish Tanakh. In 587 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II, King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, besieged Jerusalem, destroyed the First Temple, and deported the most prominent citizens of Judah.The Hebrews: A Learning Module from Washington State University, © Richard Hooker, reprinted by permission by the Jewish Virtual Library under The Babylonian ExileAccording to the Book of Ezra, the Persian Cyrus the Great ended the Babylonian exile in 538 BCE,WEB,weblink Second Temple Period (538 BCE. to 70 CE) Persian Rule,, 15 March 2014, the year after he captured Babylon.Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. by Achtemeier, etc., Harper & Row, San Francisco, 1985, p.103 The exile ended with the return under Zerubbabel the Prince (so-called because he was a descendant of the royal line of David) and Joshua the Priest (a descendant of the line of the former High Priests of the Temple) and their construction of the Second Temple in the period 521–516 BCE. The Cyrus Cylinder, an ancient tablet on which is written a declaration in the name of Cyrus referring to restoration of temples and repatriation of exiled peoples, has often been taken as corroboration of the authenticity of the biblical decrees attributed to Cyrus,BOOK, Becking, Bob, Lipschitz, Oded, Oeming, Manfred, "We All Returned as One!": Critical Notes on the Myth of the Mass Return, Judah and the Judeans in the Persian Period,weblink 2006, Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, IN, 8, 978-1-57506-104-7, but other scholars point out that the cylinder's text is specific to Babylon and Mesopotamia and makes no mention of Judah or Jerusalem. Professor Lester L. Grabbe asserted that the "alleged decree of Cyrus" regarding Judah, "cannot be considered authentic", but that there was a "general policy of allowing deportees to return and to re-establish cult sites". He also stated that archaeology suggests that the return was a "trickle" taking place over decades, rather than a single event.BOOK, Grabbe, Lester L., A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period: Yehud - A History of the Persian Province of Judah v. 1, 2004, T & T Clark, 978-0567089984,weblink 355, As part of the Persian Empire, the former Kingdom of Judah became the province of Judah (Yehud Medinata)Yehud being the Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew Yehuda, or "Judah", and "medinata" the word for province with different borders, covering a smaller territory. The population of the province was greatly reduced from that of the kingdom, archaeological surveys showing a population of around 30,000 people in the 5th to 4th centuries BCE.{{rp|308}} The region was under control of the Achaemenids until the fall of their empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great. Jews were also politically independent during the Hasmonean dynasty spanning from 110 to 63 BCE and to some degree under the Herodian dynasty from 37 BCE to 6 CE.BOOK, Peter Fibiger Bang, Walter Scheidel, The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean,weblink 31 January 2013, OUP USA, 978-0-19-518831-8, 184–187, Since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, most Jews have lived in diaspora.Johnson (1987), p. 82.Genetic studies on Jews show that most Jews worldwide bear a common genetic heritage which originates in the Middle East, and that they share certain genetic traits with other Gentile peoples of the Fertile Crescent.WEB,weblink Who are the Jews?, Jared Diamond, 1993, 8 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, dmy-all, Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12–19.JOURNAL,weblink Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, 11 October 2012, 10.1073/pnas.100115997, 10801975, 97, 12, 18733, June 2000, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 6769–74, Hammer, MF, Redd, AJ, Wood, ET, etal, 2000PNAS...97.6769H, NEWS, Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora, Nicholas, Wade,weblink The New York Times, 9 May 2000, 10 October 2012, The genetic composition of different Jewish groups shows that Jews share a common gene pool dating back four millennia, as a marker of their common ancestral origin.JOURNAL, Tracing the Roots of Jewishness, Michael, Balter, Science (journal), Science, 3 June 2010,weblink 4 October 2018, Despite their long-term separation, Jewish communities maintained their unique commonalities, propensities, and sensibilities in culture, tradition, and language.BOOK, Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment:: Moving Beyond the Nature ...By Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health, Board on Health Sciences Policy, Institute of Medicine, Lyla M. Hernandez P:100, 2006, National Academies Press, 9780309101967,weblink en,

Babylon and Rome

{{further|History of the Jews in the Roman Empire}}After the destruction of the Second Temple, Judaism lost much of its sectarian nature.BOOK,weblink Was 70 CE a Watershed in Jewish History?: On Jews and Judaism before and after the Destruction of the Second Temple, Daniel R. Schwartz, Zeev Weiss, Jodi Magness, Sectarianism before and after 70 CE, BRILL, 2011, 9789004217447, {{rp|69}}Without a Temple, Greek-speaking Jews no longer looked to Jerusalem in the way they had before. Judaism separated into a linguistically Greek and a Hebrew / Aramaic sphere.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1, Mark Avrum Ehrlich, ABC-CLIO, 2009, 9781851098736, {{rp| 8–11}} The theology and religious texts of each community were distinctively different.{{rp| 11–13}} Hellenized Judaism never developed yeshivas to study the Oral Law. Rabbinic Judaism (centered in the Land of Israel and Babylon) almost entirely ignores the Hellenized Diaspora in its writings.{{rp| 13–14 }} Hellenized Judaism eventually disappeared as its practitioners assimilated into Greco-Roman culture, leaving a strong Rabbinic eastern Diaspora with large centers of learning in Babylon.{{rp| 14–16}}By the first century, the Jewish community in Babylonia, to which Jews were exiled after the Babylonian conquest as well as after the Bar Kokhba revolt in 135 CE, already held a speedily growingמרדכי וורמברנד ובצלאל ס רותת "עם ישראל – תולדות 4000 שנה – מימי האבות ועד חוזה השלום", ×¢"מ 95. (Translation: Mordechai Vermebrand and Betzalel S. Ruth – "The People of Israel â€“ the history of 4000 years â€“ from the days of the Forefathers to the Peace Treaty", 1981, p. 95) population of an estimated one million Jews, which increased to an estimated two millionDr. Solomon Gryazel, "History of the Jews – From the destruction of Judah in 586 BC to the present Arab Israeli conflict", p. 137 between the years 200 CE and 500 CE, both by natural growth and by immigration of more Jews from the Land of Israel, making up about one-sixth of the world Jewish population at that era. The 13th-century author Bar Hebraeus gave a figure of 6,944,000 Jews in the Roman world; Salo Wittmayer Baron considered the figure convincing.BOOK, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, by Salo Wittmayer Baron ... Volume 1 of A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Salo Wittmayer Baron, Columbia University Press, 132, 1937, The figure of seven million within and one million outside the Roman world in the mid-first century became widely accepted, including by Louis Feldman. However, contemporary scholars now accept that Bar Hebraeus based his figure on a census of total Roman citizens, the figure of 6,944,000 being recorded in Eusebius' Chronicon.BOOK,weblink Jews in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, 90, 94, 104–05, 2002, Routledge. London and New york, 9780203446348, BOOK,weblink The Hidden Heritage of Diaspora Judaism: Volume 20 of Contributions to biblical exegesis and theology, Leonard Victor Rutgers, Peeters Publishers, 202, 1998, 9789042906662, Louis Feldman, previously an active supporter of the figure, now states that he and Baron were mistaken.BOOK, Judaism And Hellenism Reconsidered, Louis H. Feldman, BRILL, 2006, {{rp| 185}} Feldman's views on active Jewish missionizing have also changed. While viewing classical Judaism as being receptive to converts, especially from the second century BCE through the first century CE, he points to a lack of either missionizing tracts or records of the names of rabbis who sought converts as evidence for the lack of active Jewish missionizing.{{rp| 205–06}} Feldman maintains that conversion to Judaism was common and the Jewish population was large both within the Land of Israel and in the Diaspora.{{rp| 183–203, 206}} Other historians believe that conversion during the Roman era was limited in number and did not account for much of the Jewish population growth, due to various factors such as the illegality of male conversion to Judaism in the Roman world from the mid-second century. Another factor that made conversion difficult in the Roman world was the halakhic requirement of circumcision, a requirement that proselytizing Christianity quickly dropped. The Fiscus Judaicus, a tax imposed on Jews in 70 CE and relaxed to exclude Christians in 96 CE, also limited Judaism's appeal.WEB,weblink The Times Literary Supplement, Secta and natio, MARTIN, GOODMAN,, 26 February 2010, 2 October 2013,



{{Judaism}}The Jewish people and the religion of Judaism are strongly interrelated. Converts to Judaism typically have a status within the Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it.WEB,weblink BBC Religions/Converting to Judaism: "A person who converts to Judaism becomes a Jew in every sense of the word, and is just as Jewish as someone born into Judaism.",, 2 October 2013, However, several converts to Judaism, as well as ex-Jews, have claimed that converts are treated as second-class Jews by many born Jews.WEB,weblink Are Converts Treated as Second Class?, InterfaithFamily, Conversion is not encouraged by mainstream Judaism, and it is considered a difficult task. A significant portion of conversions are undertaken by children of mixed marriages, or would-be or current spouses of Jews.WEB,weblink Paul Golin: The Complicated Relationship Between Intermarriage and Jewish Conversion,, 2 October 2013, The Hebrew Bible, a religious interpretation of the traditions and early history of the Jews, established the first of the Abrahamic religions, which are now practiced by 54% of the world. Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, and has been called not only a religion, but also a "way of life,"Neusner (1991) p. 64 which has made drawing a clear distinction between Judaism, Jewish culture, and Jewish identity rather difficult. Throughout history, in eras and places as diverse as the ancient Hellenic world,BOOK, Patai, Raphael, Raphael Patai, The Jewish Mind, 1996, 1977, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 0-8143-2651-X, 7, in Europe before and after The Age of Enlightenment (see Haskalah),BOOK, Johnson, Lonnie R., Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends, 1996, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0-19-510071-9, 145,weblink in Islamic Spain and Portugal,Sharot (1997), pp. 29–30. in North Africa and the Middle East, India,Sharot (1997), pp. 42–43. China,Sharot (1997), p. 42. or the contemporary United StatesBOOK, Fishman, Sylvia Barack, Jewish Life and American Culture,weblink registration, 2000, State University of New York Press, Albany, N.Y., 0-7914-4546-1, 38, and Israel,BOOK, Kimmerling, Baruch, The Israeli State and Society: Boundaries and Frontiers, 1996, State University of New York Press, Albany, N.Y., 0-88706-849-9, 169, cultural phenomena have developed that are in some sense characteristically Jewish without being at all specifically religious. Some factors in this come from within Judaism, others from the interaction of Jews or specific communities of Jews with their surroundings, and still others from the inner social and cultural dynamics of the community, as opposed to from the religion itself. This phenomenon has led to considerably different Jewish cultures unique to their own communities.BOOK, Lowenstein, Steven M., The Jewish Cultural Tapestry: International Jewish Folk Traditions, 2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0-19-513425-7, 228,


File:Page from Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-German dictionary by Elijah Levita.jpg|thumb|upright|A page from Elia Levita's (right to left) Yiddish-Hebrew-Latin-(German language|German]] dictionary (1542) contains a list of nations, including an entry for Jew: , , , )Hebrew is the liturgical language of Judaism (termed lashon ha-kodesh, "the holy tongue"), the language in which most of the Hebrew scriptures (Tanakh) were composed, and the daily speech of the Jewish people for centuries. By the 5th century BCE, Aramaic, a closely related tongue, joined Hebrew as the spoken language in Judea.JOURNAL, 10.2307/3264497, Hebrew as the Spoken and Written Language in the Last Days of the Second Temple, Jehoshua M., Grintz, Journal of Biblical Literature, 79, 1, March 1960, 32–47, The Society of Biblical Literature, 3264497, harv, By the 3rd century BCE, some Jews of the diaspora were speaking Greek.Feldman (2006), p. 54. Others, such as in the Jewish communities of Babylonia, were speaking Hebrew and Aramaic, the languages of the Babylonian Talmud. These languages were also used by the Jews of Israel at that time.{{Citation needed|date=March 2016}}For centuries, Jews worldwide have spoken the local or dominant languages of the regions they migrated to, often developing distinctive dialectal forms or branches that became independent languages. Yiddish is the Judæo-German language developed by Ashkenazi Jews who migrated to Central Europe. Ladino is the Judæo-Spanish language developed by Sephardic Jews who migrated to the Iberian peninsula. Due to many factors, including the impact of the Holocaust on European Jewry, the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, and widespread emigration from other Jewish communities around the world, ancient and distinct Jewish languages of several communities, including Judæo-Georgian, Judæo-Arabic, Judæo-Berber, Krymchak, Judæo-Malayalam and many others, have largely fallen out of use.For over sixteen centuries Hebrew was used almost exclusively as a liturgical language, and as the language in which most books had been written on Judaism, with a few speaking only Hebrew on the Sabbath.JOURNAL, Parfitt, T. V., 10.1093/jss/17.2.237, The Use Of Hebrew In Palestine 1800–1822, Journal of Semitic Studies, 17, 2, 237–52, 1972,weblink harv, Hebrew was revived as a spoken language by Eliezer ben Yehuda, who arrived in Palestine in 1881. It had not been used as a mother tongue since Tannaic times. Modern Hebrew is now one of the two official languages of the State of Israel along with Modern Standard Arabic.WEB,weblink Israel and the United States: Friends, Partners, Allies, 2 April 2012, Embassy of Israel in Washington, D.C., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 October 2011, Despite efforts to revive Hebrew as the national language of the Jewish people, knowledge of the language is not commonly possessed by Jews worldwide and English has emerged as the lingua franca of the Jewish diaspora.BOOK,weblink International Handbook of Jewish Education, Nava Nevo, Springer, 2001, 428, In contrast to other peoples who are masters of their national languages, Hebrew is not the 'common possession' of all Jewish people, and it mainly—if not exclusively—lives and breathes in Israel.... Although there are oases of Hebrew in certain schools, it has not become the Jewish lingua franca and English is rapidly taking its place as the Jewish people's language of communication. Even Hebrew-speaking Israeli representatives tend to use English in their public appearances at international Jewish conventions., 9789400703544, BOOK,weblink Prophets and Profits: Managerialism and the Restructuring of Jewish Schools in South Africa, Chaya Herman, HSRC Press, 2006, 121, It is English rather than Hebrew that emerged as the lingua franca of the Jews towards the late 20th century.... This phenomenon occurred despite efforts to make Hebrew a language of communication, and despite the fact that the teaching of Hebrew was considered the raison d'être of the Jewish day schools and the 'nerve center' of Jewish learning., 9780796921147, BOOK,weblink Negotiating Language Policy in Schools: Educators as Policymakers, Elana Shohamy, Routledge, 2010, 185, This priority given to English is related to the special relationship between Israel and the United States, and the current status of English as a lingua franca for Jews worldwide., 9781135146214, BOOK,weblink Dynamic Belonging: Contemporary Jewish Collective Identities, Elan Ezrachi, Bergahn Books, 2012, 214, As Stephen P. Cohen observes: 'English is the language of Jewish universal discourse.', 9780857452580, WEB,weblink Jewish Languages â€“ How Do We Talk To Each Other?, Jewish Agency, 5 April 2014, Only a minority of the Jewish people today can actually speak Hebrew. In order for a Jew from one country to talk to another who speaks a different language, it is more common to use English than Hebrew., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2014, Although many Jews once had sufficient knowledge of Hebrew to study the classic literature, and Jewish languages like Yiddish and Ladino were commonly used as recently as the early 20th century, most Jews lack such knowledge today and English has by and large superseded most Jewish vernaculars.The three most commonly spoken languages among Jews today are Hebrew, English, and Russian. Some Romance languages, particularly French and Spanish, are also widely used. Yiddish has been spoken by more Jews in history than any other language,Hebrew, Aramaic and the rise of Yiddish. D. Katz. (1985) ''Readings in the sociology of Jewish languages' but it is far less used today following the Holocaust and the adoption of Modern Hebrew by the Zionist movement and the State of Israel.In some places, the mother language of the Jewish community differs from that of the general population or the dominant group. For example, in Quebec, the Ashkenazic majority has adopted English, while the Sephardic minority uses French as its primary language.WEB,weblink Quebec Sephardim Make Breakthroughs –,, 12 March 2015, BOOK,weblink Contemporary Sephardic Identity in the Americas: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Edna Aizenberg, 2012, xxii, 9780815651659, BOOK,weblink Canada's Jews: A People's Journey, Gerald Tulchinsky, 447–49, 9780802093868, 2008, Similarly, South African Jews adopted English rather than Afrikaans.BOOK,weblink Institutions, Ethnicity, and Political Mobilization in South Africa, Jessica Piombo, Palgrave Macmillan, 51, 9780230623828, 3 August 2009, Due to both Czarist and Soviet policies,JOURNAL,weblink World War I and the Remaking of Jewish Vilna, 1914–1918, Andrew Noble Koss (dissertation), Stanford University, 2010, 30–31, BOOK,weblink Jewish and Non-Jewish Creators of "Jewish Languages", Paul Wexler, Chapter 38: Evaluating Soviet Yiddish Language Policy Between 1917–1950, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006, 780, 9783447054041, Russian has superseded Yiddish as the language of Russian Jews, but these policies have also affected neighboring communities.WEB,weblink Jewish Russian, Anna Verschik, Jewish Languages Research Website, 25 May 2007, Today, Russian is the first language for many Jewish communities in a number of Post-Soviet states, such as UkraineBOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1, 1007, 9781851098736, Ehrlich, Mark Avrum, 2009, BOOK, Ukraine: A History, 4th Edition, Subtelny, O., 2009, University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 978-1-4426-9728-7,weblink 12 March 2015, BOOK, Multicultural Perspectives in Working with Families, Congress, E.P., Gonzalez, M.J., 2005, Springer Publishing Company, 978-0-8261-3146-1,weblink 12 March 2015, NEWS,weblink The Jews who said 'no' to Putin, Anshel Pfeffer, Haaretz, 14 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 March 2014, and Uzbekistan,WEB,weblink Bukharan Jews | Jewish Virtual Library,, 12 March 2015, as well as for Ashkenazic Jews in Azerbaijan,BOOK,weblink Muslim Attitudes towards Jews and Israel, Moshe Ma'oz, 135, 160, 9781845195274, 2011, WEB,weblink Azerbaijan, Like many immigrant communities of the Czarist and Soviet eras in Azerbaijan, Ashkenazi Jews appear to be linguistically Russified. Most Ashkenazi Jews speak Russian as their first language with Azeri being spoken as the second., Georgia,BOOK,weblink DNA & Tradition: The Genetic Link to the Ancient Hebrews, Yaakov Kleiman, Devora Publishing, 2004, 72, The community is divided between 'native' Georgian Jews and Russian-speaking Ashkenazim who began migrating there at the beginning of the 19th century, and especially during World War II., 9781930143890, and Tajikistan.BOOK,weblink Readings in the Sociology of Jewish Languages, Joshua A. Fishman, 1985, 165, 169–74, Jews in Tadzhikistan have adopted Tajik language, Tadzhik as their first language. The number of Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazic Jews in that region is comparatively low (cf. 2,905 in 1979). Both Ashkenazic and Oriental Jews have assimilated to Russian, the number of Jews speaking Russian as their first language amounting to a total of 6,564. It is reasonable to assume that the percentage of assimilated Ashkenazim is much higher than the portion of Oriental Jews., 9004072373, BOOK,weblink Language in Ethnicity: A View of Basic Ecological Relations, Harald Haarmann, Walter de Gruyter, 1986, 70–73, 79–82, 9783110862805, Although communities in North Africa today are small and dwindling, Jews there had shifted from a multilingual group to a monolingual one (or nearly so), speaking French in Algeria,BOOK,weblink Transnational Spaces and Identities in the Francophone World, 234, 0803224656, Gafaiti, Hafid, 1 July 2009, Morocco, and the city of Tunis,BOOK,weblink Jewish Culture and Society in North Africa, 258, 270, 0253001463, Gottreich, Emily Benichou, Schroeter, Daniel J, 1 July 2011, WEB,weblink Tunisia,, 12 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 October 2013, dmy-all, while most North Africans continue to use Arabic or Berber as their mother tongue.{{Citation needed|date=March 2016}}


There is no single governing body for the Jewish community, nor a single authority with responsibility for religious doctrine.BOOK, Eisenstadt, S.N., Explorations in Jewish Historical Experience: The Civilizational Dimension, 2004, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 90-04-13693-2, 75, Instead, a variety of secular and religious institutions at the local, national, and international levels lead various parts of the Jewish community on a variety of issues.BOOK, Lewis, Hal M., From Sanctuary to Boardroom: A Jewish Approach to Leadership, 2006, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md., 0-7425-5229-2, 1, {{-}}


{{further|Jewish population by country}}

Ethnic divisions

File:Maurycy Gottlieb - Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur.jpg|thumb|upright|Ashkenazi Jews of late-19th-century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur (1878), by Maurycy GottliebMaurycy GottliebFile:1900 photo of a Sephardi couple from Sarajevo.png|thumb|upright|Sephardi Jewish couple from SarajevoSarajevoFile:Yemenite Elder Blowing Shofat, February 1, 1949.jpg|thumb|upright|Yemenite Jew blows shofarshofarWithin the world's Jewish population there are distinct ethnic divisions, most of which are primarily the result of geographic branching from an originating Israelite population, and subsequent independent evolutions. An array of Jewish communities was established by Jewish settlers in various places around the Old World, often at great distances from one another, resulting in effective and often long-term isolation. During the millennia of the Jewish diaspora the communities would develop under the influence of their local environments: political, cultural, natural, and populational. Today, manifestations of these differences among the Jews can be observed in Jewish cultural expressions of each community, including Jewish linguistic diversity, culinary preferences, liturgical practices, religious interpretations, as well as degrees and sources of genetic admixture.Dosick (2007), p. 60.Jews are often identified as belonging to one of two major groups: the Ashkenazim and the Sephardim. Ashkenazim, or "Germanics" (Ashkenaz meaning "Germany" in Hebrew), are so named denoting their German Jewish cultural and geographical origins, while Sephardim, or "Hispanics" (Sefarad meaning "Spain/Hispania" or "Iberia" in Hebrew), are so named denoting their Spanish/Portuguese Jewish cultural and geographic origins. The more common term in Israel for many of those broadly called Sephardim, is Mizrahim (lit. "Easterners", Mizrach being "East" in Hebrew), that is, in reference to the diverse collection of Middle Eastern and North African Jews who are often, as a group, referred to collectively as Sephardim (together with Sephardim proper) for liturgical reasons, although Mizrahi Jewish groups and Sephardi Jews proper are ethnically distinct.Dosick (2007), p. 59.Smaller groups include, but are not restricted to, Indian Jews such as the Bene Israel, Bnei Menashe, Cochin Jews, and Bene Ephraim; the Romaniotes of Greece; the Italian Jews ("Italkim" or "Bené Roma"); the Teimanim from Yemen; various African Jews, including most numerously the Beta Israel of Ethiopia; and Chinese Jews, most notably the Kaifeng Jews, as well as various other distinct but now almost extinct communities.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Schmelz, Usiel Oscar, Sergio Della Pergola, Fred Skolnik, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Demography, 2d, 2007, Thomson Gale, 5, Farmington Hills, Mich., 0-02-865928-7, 571, harv, The divisions between all these groups are approximate and their boundaries are not always clear. The Mizrahim for example, are a heterogeneous collection of North African, Central Asian, Caucasian, and Middle Eastern Jewish communities that are no closer related to each other than they are to any of the earlier mentioned Jewish groups. In modern usage, however, the Mizrahim are sometimes termed Sephardi due to similar styles of liturgy, despite independent development from Sephardim proper. Thus, among Mizrahim there are Egyptian Jews, Iraqi Jews, Lebanese Jews, Kurdish Jews, Moroccan Jews, Libyan Jews, Syrian Jews, Bukharian Jews, Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, Iranian Jews, Afghan Jews, and various others. The Teimanim from Yemen are sometimes included, although their style of liturgy is unique and they differ in respect to the admixture found among them to that found in Mizrahim. In addition, there is a differentiation made between Sephardi migrants who established themselves in the Middle East and North Africa after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal in the 1490s and the pre-existing Jewish communities in those regions.Ashkenazi Jews represent the bulk of modern Jewry, with at least 70% of Jews worldwide (and up to 90% prior to World War II and the Holocaust). As a result of their emigration from Europe, Ashkenazim also represent the overwhelming majority of Jews in the New World continents, in countries such as the United States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and Brazil. In France, the immigration of Jews from Algeria (Sephardim) has led them to outnumber the Ashkenazim.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Schmelz, Usiel Oscar, Sergio Della Pergola, Fred Skolnik, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Demography, 2d, 2007, Thomson Gale, 5, Farmington Hills, Mich., 0-02-865928-7, 571–2, harv, Only in Israel is the Jewish population representative of all groups, a melting pot independent of each group's proportion within the overall world Jewish population.Dosick (2007), p. 61.

Genetic studies

{{primary sources|section|date=September 2017}}Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old population whose members parted and followed different migration paths.JOURNAL, Hammer MF, Redd AJ, Wood ET, Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 12, 6769–74, June 2000, 10801975, 18733, 10.1073/pnas.100115997, 2000PNAS...97.6769H, harv, etal, In most Jewish populations, these male line ancestors appear to have been mainly Middle Eastern. For example, Ashkenazi Jews share more common paternal lineages with other Jewish and Middle Eastern groups than with non-Jewish populations in areas where Jews lived in Eastern Europe, Germany and the French Rhine Valley. This is consistent with Jewish traditions in placing most Jewish paternal origins in the region of the Middle East.JOURNAL, Nebel Almut, Filon Dvora, Brinkmann Bernd, Majumder Partha P., Faerman Marina, Oppenheim Ariella, 2001, The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 69, 5, 1095–112, 1274378, 11573163, 10.1086/324070, harv, Molecular Photofitting: Predicting Ancestry and Phenotype Using DNA by Tony Nick Frudakis P:383 weblinkConversely, the maternal lineages of Jewish populations, studied by looking at mitochondrial DNA, are generally more heterogeneous.JOURNAL, Behar DM, Metspalu E, Kivisild T, Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora, PLoS ONE, 3, 4, e2062, 2008, 18446216, 2323359, 10.1371/journal.pone.0002062, MacAulay, Vincent, 2008PLoSO...3.2062B, harv, etal, Scholars such as Harry Ostrer and Raphael Falk believe this indicates that many Jewish males found new mates from European and other communities in the places where they migrated in the diaspora after fleeing ancient Israel.JOURNAL, Lewontin, Richard, Richard Lewontin, 6 December 2012, Is There a Jewish Gene?,weblink New York Review of Books, In contrast, Behar has found evidence that about 40% of Ashkenazi Jews originate maternally from just four female founders, who were of Middle Eastern origin. The populations of Sephardi and Mizrahi Jewish communities "showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect." Subsequent studies carried out by Feder et al. confirmed the large portion of non-local maternal origin among Ashkenazi Jews. Reflecting on their findings related to the maternal origin of Ashkenazi Jews, the authors conclude "Clearly, the differences between Jews and non-Jews are far larger than those observed among the Jewish communities. Hence, differences between the Jewish communities can be overlooked when non-Jews are included in the comparisons."JOURNAL, 20560205, 2010, Atzmon, G, Hao, L, Pe'Er, I, Velez, C, Pearlman, A, Palamara, PF, Morrow, B, Friedman, E, Oddoux, C, Abraham's children in the genome era: Major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry, 86, 6, 850–59, 3032072, American Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015, JOURNAL,weblink 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201764, Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA haplogroup distribution varies among distinct subpopulations: Lessons of population substructure in a closed group, 2007, Feder, Jeanette, Ovadia, Ofer, Glaser, Benjamin, Mishmar, Dan, European Journal of Human Genetics, 15, 4, 498–500, 17245410, JOURNAL, 23052947, 2013, Ostrer, H, Skorecki, K, The population genetics of the Jewish people, 132, 2, 119–27, 10.1007/s00439-012-1235-6, 3543766, Human Genetics, A study showed that 7% of Ashkenazi Jews have the haplogroup G2c, which is mainly found in Pashtuns and on lower scales all major Jewish groups, Palestinians, Syrians, and Lebanese.WEB, Sign In, Family Tree DNA,weblink April 1, 2018, JOURNAL, Hammer, Michael F., Behar, Doron M., Karafet, Tatiana M., Mendez, Fernando L., Hallmark, Brian, Erez, Tamar, Zhivotovsky, Lev A., Rosset, Saharon, Skorecki, Karl, Extended Y chromosome haplotypes resolve multiple and unique lineages of the Jewish priesthood, Human Genetics, 126, 5, April 15, 2009, 19669163, 10.1007/s00439-009-0727-5, 2771134, Studies of autosomal DNA, which look at the entire DNA mixture, have become increasingly important as the technology develops. They show that Jewish populations have tended to form relatively closely related groups in independent communities, with most in a community sharing significant ancestry in common.WEB,weblink 10.1038/news.2010.277year=2010 last=Katsnelson, For Jewish populations of the diaspora, the genetic composition of Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews>Sephardi, and Mizrahi Jews Jewish populations show a predominant amount of shared Middle Eastern ancestry. According to Behar, the most parsimonious explanation for this shared Middle Eastern ancestry is that it is "consistent with the historical formulation of the Jewish people as descending from ancient Hebrews>Hebrew and Israelites residents of the Levant" and "the dispersion of the people of ancient Israel throughout the Old World".DORON M. BEHAR AUTHOR3=MAIT METSPALU AUTHOR5=SAHARON ROSSET AUTHOR7=SIIRI ROOTSI AUTHOR9=ILDUS KUTUEV AUTHOR11=ELZA K. KHUSNUTDINOVA AUTHOR13=OLGA BALAGANSKAYA AUTHOR15=LUISA PEREIRA AUTHOR17=DAVID GURWITZ AUTHOR19=TUDOR PARFITT AUTHOR21=KARL SKORECKI URL=HTTPS://WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PUBLICATION/44657170_THE_GENOME-WIDE_STRUCTURE_OF_THE_JEWISH_PEOPLE/FILE/79E41508A88BE7E829.PDF JOURNAL=NATURE VOLUME=466 ISSUE=7303 PMID=20531471 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20131203022557/HTTP://WWW.RESEARCHGATE.NET/PUBLICATION/44657170_THE_GENOME-WIDE_STRUCTURE_OF_THE_JEWISH_PEOPLE/FILE/79E41508A88BE7E829.PDF BIBCODE=2010NATUR.466..238B, North African, Italian Peninsula and others of Iberian Peninsula>Iberian origin show variable frequencies of admixture with non-Jewish historical host populations among the maternal lines. In the case of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews (in particular Moroccan Jews), who are closely related, the source of non-Jewish admixture is mainly southern European, while Mizrahi Jews show evidence of admixture with other Middle Eastern populations. Behar et al. have remarked on a close relationship between Ashkenazi Jews and modern Italians.BIOL DIRECT >YEAR=2010 ISSUE=57 TITLE=THE ORIGIN OF EASTERN EUROPEAN JEWS REVEALED BY AUTOSOMAL, SEX CHROMOSOMAL AND MTDNA POLYMORPHISMS LAST=ZOOSSMANN-DISKIN PMID=20925954 PAGE=57 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=16 NOVEMBER 2012, HTTP://SCIENCE.SCIENCEMAG.ORG/CONTENT/328/5984/1342>TITLE=WHO ARE THE JEWS? GENETIC STUDIES SPARK IDENTITY DEBATELAST=BALTERPUBLISHER=VOLUME=328PAGES=1342–1342DOI=10.1126/SCIENCE.328.5984.1342BIBCODE=2010SCI...328.1342B, A 2001 study found that Jews were found to be more closely related to groups of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors, the geographic distribution of whose genetic signature was found to correlate with the pattern of the Islamic conquests.11573163 > DOI=10.1086/324070 VOLUME=69 DATE=NOVEMBER 2001 PAGES=1095–112 FIRST1 = A FIRST2 = D FIRST3 = B FIRST4 = PP FIRST5 = M FIRST6 = A, HTTP://WWW.PLOSGENETICS.ORG/ARTICLE/INFO%3ADOI%2F10.1371%2FJOURNAL.PGEN.1003316> TITLE=GENOME-WIDE DIVERSITY IN THE LEVANT REVEALS RECENT STRUCTURING BY CULTURELAST1=HABERLAST2=GAUGUIERLAST3=YOUHANNALAST4=PATTERSON LAST5=MOORJANIDOI=10.1371/JOURNAL.PGEN.1003316EDITOR1-LAST=WILLIAMSLAST6=BOTIGUéLAST7=PLATTLAST8=MATISOO-SMITHLAST9=SORIA-HERNANZ DISPLAYAUTHORS = 8ISSUE=2PMID=23468648POSTSCRIPT=, The studies also show that persons of Sephardic Bnei Anusim origin (those who are descendants of the "anusim" who were forced to convert to Catholicism) throughout today's Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and Ibero-America (Hispanic America and Brazil), estimated at up to 19.8% of the modern population of Iberia and at least 10% of the modern population of Ibero-America, have Sephardic Jewish ancestry within the last few centuries. The Bene Israel and Cochin Jews of India, Beta Israel of Ethiopia, and a portion of the Lemba people of Southern Africa, meanwhile, despite more closely resembling the local populations of their native countries, also have some more remote ancient Jewish descent.WEB,weblink Jews Are a 'Race,' Genes Reveal â€“,, 12 April 2013, WEB,weblink Genetics & the Jews (it's still complicated) : Gene Expression, 10.1038/nature09103,, 10 June 2010, 12 April 2013, 2010Natur.466..238B, WEB, Begley, Sharon,weblink Genetic study offers clues to history of North Africa's Jews | Reuters,, 12 April 2013,

Population centers

Although historically, Jews have been found all over the world, in the decades since World War II and the establishment of Israel, they have increasingly concentrated in a small number of countries.Johnson (1987), pp. 529, 560–562.WEB,weblink Jews, 18 December 2012, In 2013, the United States and Israel were collectively home to more than 80% of the global Jewish population, each country having approximately 41% of the world's Jews.WEB,weblink Israel and the U.S. are Home to More Than Four-Fifths of the World's Jews, 20 March 2013, According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics there were 13,421,000 Jews worldwide in 2009, roughly 0.19% of the world's population at the time.WEB,weblink Jewish population in the world and in Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 18 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2011, dead, dmy-all, According to the 2007 estimates of The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute, the world's Jewish population is 13.2 million.NEWS, Percent of world Jewry living in Israel climbed to 41% in 2007, Anshel, Pfeffer,weblink Haaretz, 6 January 2008, 10 October 2012, cites figures ranging from 12 to 18 million.WEB,weblink Judaism, continued...,, 26 August 2015, These statistics incorporate both practicing Jews affiliated with synagogues and the Jewish community, and approximately 4.5 million unaffiliated and secular Jews.{{Citation needed|date=March 2016}}According to Sergio Della Pergola, a demographer of the Jewish population, in 2015 there were about 6.3 million Jews in Israel, 5.7 million in the United States, and 2.3 million in the rest of the world.WEB,weblink The Jewish people in 2050: 2 very different scenarios, ynet,


Israel, the Jewish nation-state, is the only country in which Jews make up a majority of the citizens.NEWS,weblink 'Iran must attack Israel by 2014', 9 February 2012, The Jerusalem Post, 3 April 2012, Israel was established as an independent democratic and Jewish state on 14 May 1948.WEB,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, 20 July 2007, 19 June 2007, Israel, Of the 120 members in its parliament, the Knesset,WEB,weblink The Knesset, 8 August 2007, The Electoral System in Israel, {{as of|2016|lc=y}}, 14 members of the Knesset are Arab citizens of Israel (not including the Druze), most representing Arab political parties. One of Israel's Supreme Court judges is also an Arab citizen of Israel.WEB,weblink Israel, Freedom in the World, Freedom House, 2009, Between 1948 and 1958, the Jewish population rose from 800,000 to two million.WEB,weblink Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 7 August 2007, 2006, Population, by Religion and Population Group, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2007, Currently, Jews account for 75.4% of the Israeli population, or 6 million people.WEB,weblink Jewish New Year: Israel's population nears 8M mark,, 20 June 1995, 12 April 2013, WEB, Harriet Sherwood in Jerusalem,weblink Israel's Jewish population passes 6 million mark, Guardian, 1 January 2013, 12 April 2013, The early years of the State of Israel were marked by the mass immigration of Holocaust survivors in the aftermath of the Holocaust and Jews fleeing Arab lands.{{harvnb|Dekmejian|1975|p=247}}. "And most [Oriental-Sephardic Jews] came... because of Arab persecution resulting from the very attempt to establish a Jewish state in Palestine." Israel also has a large population of Ethiopian Jews, many of whom were airlifted to Israel in the late 1980s and early 1990s.WEB, airlifted tens of thousands of Ethiopian Jews,weblink 7 July 2005, Between 1974 and 1979 nearly 227,258 immigrants arrived in Israel, about half being from the Soviet Union.WEB,weblink ru:История инакомыслия в СССР, Lyudmila, Alexeyeva, Lyudmila Alexeyeva, Vilnius, 1983, Russian, History of Dissident Movement in the USSR, This period also saw an increase in immigration to Israel from Western Europe, Latin America, and North America.Goldstein (1995) p. 24A trickle of immigrants from other communities has also arrived, including Indian Jews and others, as well as some descendants of Ashkenazi Holocaust survivors who had settled in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Some Jews have emigrated from Israel elsewhere, because of economic problems or disillusionment with political conditions and the continuing Arab–Israeli conflict. Jewish Israeli emigrants are known as yordim.Dosick (2007), p. 340.

Diaspora (outside Israel)

File:Happynewyearcard.jpg|thumb|upright|In this Rosh Hashana greeting card from the early 1900s, Russian Jews, packs in hand, gaze at the American relatives beckoning them to the United States. Over two million Jews fled the pogroms of the (Russian Empire]] to the safety of the U.S. between 1881 and 1924.BOOK, Gurock, Jeffrey S., East European Jews in America, 1880–1920: Immigration and Adaptation, 1998, Routledge, New York, 0-415-91924-X, 54, )File:Hanukkah sign Nicosia Republic of Cyprus.JPG|thumb|Public Hanukkah menorah in Nicosia, CyprusCyprusThe waves of immigration to the United States and elsewhere at the turn of the 19th century, the founding of Zionism and later events, including pogroms in Russia, the massacre of European Jewry during the Holocaust, and the founding of the state of Israel, with the subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, all resulted in substantial shifts in the population centers of world Jewry by the end of the 20th century.Gartner (2001), p. 213.More than half of the Jews live in the Diaspora (see Population table). Currently, the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and either the largest or second-largest Jewish community in the world, is located in the United States, with 5.2 million to 6.4 million Jews by various estimates. Elsewhere in the Americas, there are also large Jewish populations in Canada (315,000), Argentina (180,000–300,000), and Brazil (196,000–600,000), and smaller populations in Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Chile, Colombia and several other countries (see History of the Jews in Latin America).WEB, Annual Assessment,weblink 2007, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (Jewish Agency for Israel), 15, PDF, , based on BOOK, Annual Assessment 2007, American Jewish Committee,weblink 106, 2006, According to a 2010 Pew Research Center study, about 470,000 people of Jewish heritage live in Latin-America and the Caribbean.WEB,weblink Jews - Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, March 28, 2018, Demographers disagree on whether the United States has a larger Jewish population than Israel, with many maintaining that Israel surpassed the United States in Jewish population during the 2000s, while others maintain that the United States still has the largest Jewish population in the world. Currently, a major national Jewish population survey is planned to ascertain whether or not Israel has overtaken the United States in Jewish population.WEB,weblink Israel May Be Main Topic In Next National Jewish Population Survey of the U.S., Jewish Journal, 14 March 2013, 12 April 2013, Western Europe's largest Jewish community, and the third-largest Jewish community in the world, can be found in France, home to between 483,000 and 500,000 Jews, the majority of whom are immigrants or refugees from North African countries such as Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (or their descendants).Gartner (2001), pp. 410–10. The United Kingdom has a Jewish community of 292,000. In Eastern Europe, the exact figures are difficult to establish. The number of Jews in Russia varies widely according to whether a source uses census data (which requires a person to choose a single nationality among choices that include "Russian" and "Jewish") or eligibility for immigration to Israel (which requires that a person have one or more Jewish grandparents). According to the latter criteria, the heads of the Russian Jewish community assert that up to 1.5 million Russians are eligible for aliyah.WEB,weblink Исследование: Около 1,5 млн людей с еврейскими корнями проживают в России, Study: About 1.5 Million People with Jewish Roots Live in Russia, 20 October 2017, Moscow Urban News Agency, 28 October 2017, WEB,weblink Ð’ России проживает около миллиона иудеев, In Russia, There Are About a Million Jews, 26 February 2015, Interfax, 28 October 2017, In Germany, the 102,000 Jews registered with the Jewish community are a slowly declining population,Jewish community in Germany: weblink" title="">Mitgliederstatistik der jüdischen Gemeinden und Landesverbände in Deutschland für das Jahr 2012, p. 4 despite the immigration of tens of thousands of Jews from the former Soviet Union since the fall of the Berlin Wall.WEB,weblink Annual Assessment 2007, 3 July 2008, Waxman, Chaim I., 2007, PDF, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (Jewish Agency for Israel), 40–2, Thousands of Israelis also live in Germany, either permanently or temporarily, for economic reasons.WEB,weblink Israelis in Berlin, Jewish Community of Berlin, 11 October 2012, Prior to 1948, approximately 800,000 Jews were living in lands which now make up the Arab world (excluding Israel). Of these, just under two-thirds lived in the French-controlled Maghreb region, 15–20% in the Kingdom of Iraq, approximately 10% in the Kingdom of Egypt and approximately 7% in the Kingdom of Yemen. A further 200,000 lived in Pahlavi Iran and the Republic of Turkey. Today, around 26,000 Jews live in Arab countriesThe Rebirth of the Middle East, Jerry M. Rosenberg, Hamilton Books, 2009, p. 44 and around 30,000 in Iran and Turkey. A small-scale exodus had begun in many countries in the early decades of the 20th century, although the only substantial aliyah came from Yemen and Syria.Reeva S. Simon, Michael M. Laskier, Sara Reguer, The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times, 2003, p. 327="Before the 1940s only two communities, Yemen and Syria, made substantial aliyah." The exodus from Arab and Muslim countries took place primarily from 1948. The first large-scale exoduses took place in the late 1940s and early 1950s, primarily in Iraq, Yemen and Libya, with up to 90% of these communities leaving within a few years. The peak of the exodus from Egypt occurred in 1956. The exodus in the Maghreb countries peaked in the 1960s. Lebanon was the only Arab country to see a temporary increase in its Jewish population during this period, due to an influx of refugees from other Arab countries, although by the mid-1970s the Jewish community of Lebanon had also dwindled. In the aftermath of the exodus wave from Arab states, an additional migration of Iranian Jews peaked in the 1980s when around 80% of Iranian Jews left the country.{{Citation needed|date=March 2016}}Outside Europe, the Americas, the Middle East, and the rest of Asia, there are significant Jewish populations in Australia (112,500) and South Africa (70,000). There is also a 6,800-strong community in New Zealand."Community in New Zealand," World Jewish Congress, July 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018.

Demographic changes


Since at least the time of the Ancient Greeks, a proportion of Jews have assimilated into the wider non-Jewish society around them, by either choice or force, ceasing to practice Judaism and losing their Jewish identity.Johnson (1987), p. 171. Assimilation took place in all areas, and during all time periods, with some Jewish communities, for example the Kaifeng Jews of China, disappearing entirely.WEB,weblink Chinese Jews: Reverence for Ancestors, Edinger, Bernard, 15 December 2005, Shavei Israel, 2 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2012, The advent of the Jewish Enlightenment of the 18th century (see Haskalah) and the subsequent emancipation of the Jewish populations of Europe and America in the 19th century, accelerated the situation, encouraging Jews to increasingly participate in, and become part of, secular society. The result has been a growing trend of assimilation, as Jews marry non-Jewish spouses and stop participating in the Jewish community.Elazar (2003), p. 434.Rates of interreligious marriage vary widely: In the United States, it is just under 50%,WEB, NJPS: Defining and Calculating Intermarriage,weblink 2 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 August 2011, in the United Kingdom, around 53%; in France; around 30%,WEB,weblink Les juifs de France: La lente progression des mariages mixtes, Cohen, Erik H., November 2002, Akadem, French, 11 October 2012, and in Australia and Mexico, as low as 10%.WEB, Australia,weblink World Jewish Congress, 2 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 May 2012, dmy-all, WEB, The Virtual Jewish History Tour â€“ Mexico,weblink 7 July 2005, In the United States, only about a third of children from intermarriages affiliate with Jewish religious practice.WEB,weblink Annual Assessment 2007, 3 July 2008, Waxman, Chaim I., 2007, PDF, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute (Jewish Agency for Israel), 61, The result is that most countries in the Diaspora have steady or slightly declining religiously Jewish populations as Jews continue to assimilate into the countries in which they live.{{Citation needed|date=March 2016}}

War and persecution

{{further|Persecution of Jews|Antisemitism|Jewish military history}}File:The Emperor sends Vespasian with an army to destroy the Jews (f. 177v) Cropped.jpg|thumb|upright|The Roman Emperor Nero sends VespasianVespasianFile:The Jews the world over love liberty poster.jpg|thumb|upright|World War IWorld War IThe Jewish people and Judaism have experienced various persecutions throughout Jewish history. During Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages the Roman Empire (in its later phases known as the Byzantine Empire) repeatedly repressed the Jewish population, first by ejecting them from their homelands during the pagan Roman era and later by officially establishing them as second-class citizens during the Christian Roman era.Goldenberg (2007), pp. 131, 135–36.Johnson (1987), pp. 164–65.According to James Carroll, "Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors had not intervened, there would be 200 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 13 million."Carroll, James. Constantine's Sword (Houghton Mifflin, 2001) {{ISBN|0-395-77927-8}} p. 26Later in medieval Western Europe, further persecutions of Jews by Christians occurred, notably during the Crusades—when Jews all over Germany were massacred—and a series of expulsions from the Kingdom of England, Germany, France, and, in the largest expulsion of all, Spain and Portugal after the Reconquista (the Catholic Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula), where both unbaptized Sephardic Jews and the ruling Muslim Moors were expelled.In the Papal States, which existed until 1870, Jews were required to live only in specified neighborhoods called ghettos.Johnson (1987), pp. 243–44.Islam and Judaism have a complex relationship. Traditionally Jews and Christians living in Muslim lands, known as dhimmis, were allowed to practice their religions and administer their internal affairs, but they were subject to certain conditions.Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20 They had to pay the jizya (a per capita tax imposed on free adult non-Muslim males) to the Islamic state. Dhimmis had an inferior status under Islamic rule. They had several social and legal disabilities such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.Lewis (1987), pp. 9, 27 Many of the disabilities were highly symbolic. The one described by Bernard Lewis as "most degrading" was the requirement of distinctive clothing, not found in the Quran or hadith but invented in early medieval Baghdad; its enforcement was highly erratic.Lewis (1999), p.131 On the other hand, Jews rarely faced martyrdom or exile, or forced compulsion to change their religion, and they were mostly free in their choice of residence and profession.Lewis (1999), p. 131; (1984), pp. 8, 62Notable exceptions include the massacre of Jews and forcible conversion of some Jews by the rulers of the Almohad dynasty in Al-Andalus in the 12th century,Lewis (1984), p. 52; Stillman (1979), p.77 as well as in Islamic Persia,Lewis (1984), pp. 17–18, 94–95; Stillman (1979), p. 27 and the forced confinement of Moroccan Jews to walled quarters known as mellahs beginning from the 15th century and especially in the early 19th century.Lewis (1984), p. 28. In modern times, it has become commonplace for standard antisemitic themes to be conflated with anti-Zionist publications and pronouncements of Islamic movements such as Hezbollah and Hamas, in the pronouncements of various agencies of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and even in the newspapers and other publications of Turkish Refah Partisi."WEB,weblink Muslim Anti-Semitism, Bernard, Lewis, Bernard Lewis, Middle East Quarterly, Middle East Forum, June 1998, Throughout history, many rulers, empires and nations have oppressed their Jewish populations or sought to eliminate them entirely. Methods employed ranged from expulsion to outright genocide; within nations, often the threat of these extreme methods was sufficient to silence dissent. The history of antisemitism includes the First Crusade which resulted in the massacre of Jews;Johnson (1987), pp. 207–08. the Spanish Inquisition (led by Tomás de Torquemada) and the Portuguese Inquisition, with their persecution and autos-da-fé against the New Christians and Marrano Jews;Johnson (1987), pp. 226–29. the Bohdan Chmielnicki Cossack massacres in Ukraine;Johnson (1987), pp. 259–60. the Pogroms backed by the Russian Tsars;Johnson (1987), pp. 364–65. as well as expulsions from Spain, Portugal, England, France, Germany, and other countries in which the Jews had settled.Johnson (1987), pp. 213, 229–31. According to a 2008 study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics, 19.8% of the modern Iberian population has Sephardic Jewish ancestry,JOURNAL, Adams, Susan M., 2008, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 83, 6, 725–36, 0002-9297, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007, 19061982, 2668061, indicating that the number of conversos may have been much higher than originally thought.NEWS,weblink DNA study shows 20 percent of Iberian population has Jewish ancestry, The New York Times, 4 December 2008, JOURNAL,weblink The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula,, American Society of Human Genetics, December 2008, 12 November 2011, File:Bundesarchiv N 1576 Bild-006, Minsk, Juden.jpg|thumb|Jews in MinskMinskThe persecution reached a peak in Nazi Germany's Final Solution, which led to the Holocaust and the slaughter of approximately 6 million Jews.Johnson (1987), p. 512. Of the world's 15 million Jews in 1939, more than a third were murdered in the Holocaust.WEB,weblink History of the Holocaust â€“ An Introduction,, 19 April 1943, 13 November 2011, NEWS, Luke Harding in Moscow,weblink Pipeline workers find mass grave of Jews killed by Nazis, The Guardian, UK, 13 November 2011, 5 June 2007, The Holocaust—the state-led systematic persecution and genocide of European Jews (and certain communities of North African Jews in European controlled North Africa) and other minority groups of Europe during World War II by Germany and its collaborators remains the most notable modern-day persecution of Jews.Donald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p. 45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." However, the Holocaust usually includes all of the different victims who were systematically murdered. The persecution and genocide were accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II.Johnson (1987), pp. 484–88. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labour until they died of exhaustion or disease.Johnson (1987), pp. 490–92. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in Eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.NEWS, Ukrainian mass Jewish grave found,weblink BBC News Online, 5 June 2007, 10 October 2012, Jews and Roma were crammed into ghettos before being transported hundreds of miles by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were murdered in gas chambers.Johnson (1987), pp. 493–98. Virtually every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know," United States Holocaust Museum, 2006, p. 103.


{{further|Expulsions of Jews}}File:Vertreibung der Juden 1614.jpg|thumb|upright|Etching of the expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt in (Timeline of antisemitism|1614]]. The text says: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate".)(File:Jewish refugees Liverpool 1882.jpg|thumb|Jews fleeing pogroms, 1882)Throughout Jewish history, Jews have repeatedly been directly or indirectly expelled from both their original homeland, the Land of Israel, and many of the areas in which they have settled. This experience as refugees has shaped Jewish identity and religious practice in many ways, and is thus a major element of Jewish Lange (2002), pp. 41–43. The patriarch Abraham is described as a migrant to the land of Canaan from Ur of the ChaldeesJohnson (1987), p. 10. after an attempt on his life by King Nimrod.JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA, NIMROD,weblink Emil G., Hirsch, Emil G. Hirsch, Max, Seligsohn, Max Seligsohn, Wilhelm, Bacher, Wilhelm Bacher, His descendants, the Children of Israel, in the Biblical story (whose historicity is uncertain) undertook the Exodus (meaning "departure" or "exit" in Greek) from ancient Egypt, as recorded in the Book of Exodus.Johnson (1987), p. 30.Centuries later, Assyrian policy was to deport and displace conquered peoples, and it is estimated some 4,500,000 among captive populations suffered this dislocation over 3 centuries of Assyrian rule. With regard to Israel, Tiglath-Pileser III claims he deported 80% of the population of Lower Galilee, some 13,520 people.Baruch Halpern, in Jerrold S. Cooper, Glenn M. Schwartz (eds.), The Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-first Century: The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference, Eisenbrauns, 1996 p. 311. Some 27,000 Israelites, 20–25% of the population of the Kingdom of Israel, were described as being deported by Sargon II, and were replaced by other deported populations and sent into permanent exile by Assyria, initially to the Upper Mesopotamian provinces of the Assyrian Empire,Megan Bishop Moore, Brad E. Kelle, Biblical History and Israel S Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2011 p. 307.Sarah J. Dille, Mixing Metaphors: God as Mother and Father in Deutero-Isaiah, A&C Black, 2004 p. 81 Between 10,000 and 80,000 people from the Kingdom of Judah were similarly exiled by Babylonia,Daniel L. Smith-Christopher,The Religion of the Landless: The Social Context of the Babylonian Exile , Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2015 pp. 30ff. but these people were then returned to Judea by Cyrus the Great of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.Johnson (1987), pp. 85–86.Many Jews were exiled again by the Roman Empire.Johnson (1987), p. 147. The 2,000 year dispersion of the Jewish diaspora beginning under the Roman Empire,{{citation needed|date=March 2016}} as Jews were spread throughout the Roman world and, driven from land to land,{{citation needed|date=March 2016}} settled wherever they could live freely enough to practice their religion. Over the course of the diaspora the center of Jewish life moved from BabyloniaJohnson (1987), p. 163. to the Iberian PeninsulaJohnson (1987), p. 177. to PolandJohnson (1987), p. 231. to the United StatesJohnson (1987), p. 460. and, as a result of Zionism, back to Israel.Gartner (2001), p. 431.There were also many expulsions of Jews during the Middle Ages and Enlightenment in Europe, including: 1290, 16,000 Jews were expelled from England, see the (Statute of Jewry); in 1396, 100,000 from France; in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria. Many of these Jews settled in Eastern Europe, especially Poland.Gartner (2001), pp. 11–12. Following the Spanish Inquisition in 1492, the Spanish population of around 200,000 Sephardic Jews were expelled by the Spanish crown and Catholic church, followed by expulsions in 1493 in Sicily (37,000 Jews) and Portugal in 1496. The expelled Jews fled mainly to the Ottoman Empire, the Netherlands, and North Africa, others migrating to Southern Europe and the Middle East.Johnson (1987), pp. 229–31.During the 19th century, France's policies of equal citizenship regardless of religion led to the immigration of Jews (especially from Eastern and Central Europe).Johnson (1987), p. 306. This contributed to the arrival of millions of Jews in the New World. Over two million Eastern European Jews arrived in the United States from 1880 to 1925.Johnson (1987), p. 370.In summary, the pogroms in Eastern Europe,Johnson (1987), pp. 364–365. the rise of modern antisemitism,Gartner (2001), pp. 213–5. the Holocaust,Gartner (2001), pp. 357–70. and the rise of Arab nationalismJohnson (1987), pp. 529–30. all served to fuel the movements and migrations of huge segments of Jewry from land to land and continent to continent, until they arrived back in large numbers at their original historical homeland in Israel.In the latest phase of migrations, the Islamic Revolution of Iran caused many Iranian Jews to flee Iran. Most found refuge in the US (particularly Los Angeles, California and Long Island, New York) and Israel. Smaller communities of Persian Jews exist in Canada and Western Europe.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Netzer, Amnon, Fred Skolnik, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Iran, 2d, 2007, Thomson Gale, 10, Farmington Hills, Mich., 0-02-865928-7, 13, harv, Similarly, when the Soviet Union collapsed, many of the Jews in the affected territory (who had been refuseniks) were suddenly allowed to leave. This produced a wave of migration to Israel in the early 1990s.


File:Western Wall, Jerusalem, (16037897867).jpg|thumb|Praying at the Western WallWestern WallIsrael is the only country with a Jewish population that is consistently growing through natural population growth, although the Jewish populations of other countries, in Europe and North America, have recently increased through immigration. In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth.Gartner (2001), pp. 400–01.Orthodox and Conservative Judaism discourage proselytism to non-Jews, but many Jewish groups have tried to reach out to the assimilated Jewish communities of the Diaspora in order for them to reconnect to their Jewish roots. Additionally, while in principle Reform Judaism favors seeking new members for the faith, this position has not translated into active proselytism, instead taking the form of an effort to reach out to non-Jewish spouses of intermarried couples.Kaplan (2003), p. 301.There is also a trend of Orthodox movements reaching out to secular Jews in order to give them a stronger Jewish identity so there is less chance of intermarriage. As a result of the efforts by these and other Jewish groups over the past 25 years, there has been a trend (known as the Baal teshuva movement) for secular Jews to become more religiously observant, though the demographic implications of the trend are unknown.Danzger (2003), pp. 495–96. Additionally, there is also a growing rate of conversion to Jews by Choice of gentiles who make the decision to head in the direction of becoming Lange (2002), p. 220.{{-}}

Notable individuals

Jews have made a myriad of contributions to humanity in a broad and diverse range of fields, including the sciences, arts, politics, and business.BOOK, Schwartz, Richard H., Judaism and Global Survival, 2001, Lantern Books, New York, 1-930051-87-5, 153, Although Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world's population, over 20%BOOK, Shalev, Baruch, 100 Years of Nobel Prizes, 2005, 57, A striking fact... is the high number of Laureates of the Jewish faith—over 20% of the total Nobel Prizes (138); including: 17% in Chemistry, 26% in Medicine and Physics, 40% in Economics and 11% in Peace and Literature each. These numbers are especially startling in light of the fact that only some 14 million people (0.2% of the world's population) are Jewish., NEWS,weblink As the Nobel Prize marks centennial, Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates, 3 April 2012, Dobbs, Stephen Mark, 12 October 2001, j., Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population., WEB,weblink Jewish Nobel Prize Winners, 25 November 2011, BOOK, Judaism for dummies, 28, 2001, Similarly, because Jews make up less than a quarter of one percent of the world's population, it's surprising that over 20 percent of Nobel prizes have been awarded to Jews or people of Jewish descent., Ted Falcon, David Blatner, John Wiley & Sons, BOOK, The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It, Lawrence E. Harrison, 102, 2008, Oxford University Press, That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20 percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two tenths of one percent of the world's population., BOOK, The History of the Jewish People: Ancient Israel to 1880's America, 1, 2006, Behrman House, Inc., These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only .2 percent of the world's population!, Jonathan B. Krasner, Jonathan D. Sarna, of Nobel Prize laureates have been Jewish or of Jewish descent, with multiple winners in each category.

See also





  • Ethnic minorities in English law. Retrieved on 23 December 2010.
  • JOURNAL, 2573430, Jewish Ethno-Religious Involvement and Political Liberalism, Edgar Litt, Social Forces, 39, 4, 1961, 328–32, 10.2307/2573430,
  • BOOK, Craig R. Prentiss, Religion and the Creation of Race and Ethnicity: An Introduction,weblink 1 June 2003, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-6700-9, 85–,
  • BOOK, The Avraham Harman Institute of Contemporary Jewry The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Eli Lederhendler Stephen S. Wise Professor of American Jewish History and Institutions, Studies in Contemporary Jewry : Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel: Volume XVII: Who Owns Judaism? Public Religion and Private Faith in America and Israel,weblink 30 November 2001, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0-19-534896-5, 101–,
  • BOOK, Ernest Krausz, Gitta Tulea, Jewish Survival: The Identity Problem at the Close of the Twentieth Century; &91;... International Workshop at Bar-Ilan University on the 18th and 19th of March, 1997&93;,weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-2689-1, 90–,
  • BOOK, John A. Shoup III, Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia,weblink 17 October 2011, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-363-7, 133,
  • BOOK, Tet-Lim N. Yee, Jews, Gentiles and Ethnic Reconciliation: Paul's Jewish identity and Ephesians,weblink 10 March 2005, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-44411-8, 102–,

Further reading

  • Baron, Salo Wittmayer (1952). A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Volume II, Ancient Times, Part II. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.
  • BOOK, Carr, David R., Neusner, Jacob, Avery-Peck, Alan J., The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, 2003, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts, 1-57718-058-5, Judaism in Christendom,
  • BOOK, Cowling, Geoffrey, Introduction to World Religions, First Fortress Press, Singapore, 2005, 0-8006-3714-3,
  • BOOK, Danzger, M. Herbert, Neusner, Jacob, Avery-Peck, Alan J., The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, 2003, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts, 1-57718-058-5, The "Return" to Traditional Judaism at the End of the Twentieth Century: Cross-Cultural Comparisons,
  • BOOK, Dekmejian, R. Hrair, Patterns of Political Leadership: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, State University of New York Press, 1975, 0-87395-291-X, harv,
  • BOOK, de Lange, Nicholas, An Introduction to Judaism, 2002, 2000, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-46073-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Dosick, Wayne, Living Judaism,weblink registration, 2007, HarperCollins, New York, 0-06-062179-6,
  • BOOK, Elazar, Daniel J., Neusner, Jacob, Jacob Neusner, Avery-Peck, Alan J., The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, 2003, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts, 1-57718-058-5, Judaism as a Theopolitical Phenomenon,
  • BOOK, Feldman, Louis H., Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 2006, Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands, 90-04-14906-6,
  • BOOK, Gartner, Lloyd P., History of the Jews in Modern Times, 2001, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0-19-289259-2,weblink
  • BOOK, Goldenberg, Robert, The Origins of Judaism: From Canaan to the Rise of Islam, 2007, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-84453-3,
  • BOOK, Goldstein, Joseph, Jewish History in Modern Times, 1995, Sussex Academic Press, 1-898723-06-0,
  • BOOK, Gould, Allan, What did they think of the Jews?, 1991, J. Aronson, 978-0-87668-751-2,
  • BOOK, Johnson, Paul, Paul Johnson (writer), A History of the Jews, 1987, HarperCollins, New York, 0-06-091533-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Kaplan, Dana Evan, Neusner, Jacob, Avery-Peck, Alan J., The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, 2003, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts, 1-57718-058-5, Reform Judaism,
  • BOOK, Katz, Shmuel, Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, 1974, Taylor Productions, 0-929093-13-5,
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. {{ISBN|0-691-00807-8}}
  • Lewis, Bernard (1999). Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W. W. Norton & Co. {{ISBN|0-393-31839-7}}
  • JOURNAL, Littman, David, David Littman (historian), 1979, Jews Under Muslim Rule: The Case Of Persia, The Wiener Library Bulletin, XXXII, New series 49/50, harv,
  • BOOK, Neusner, Jacob, Studying Classical Judaism: A Primer, 1991, Westminster John Knox Press, 0-664-25136-6,
  • Poliakov, Leon (1974). The History of Anti-semitism. New York: The Vanguard Press.
  • Ruderman, David B. Early Modern Jewry: A New Cultural History (Princeton University Press; 2010) 326 pages. Examines print culture, religion, and other realms in a history emphasizing the links among early modern Jewish communities from Venice and Kraków to Amsterdam and Smyrna.
  • BOOK, Sharot, Stephen, Endelman, Todd M., Comparing Jewish Societies, 1997, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Mich., 0-472-06592-0, Religious Syncretism and Religious Distinctiveness: A Comparative Analysis of Pre-Modern Jewish Communities,
  • Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. {{ISBN|0-8276-0198-0}}
  • Tausch, Arno, The Effects of 'Nostra Aetate:' Comparative Analyses of Catholic Antisemitism More Than Five Decades after the Second Vatican Council (January 8, 2018). Available at SSRN:weblink
  • BOOK, Sweeney, Marvin A., Neusner, Jacob, Avery-Peck, Alan J., The Blackwell Companion to Judaism, 2003, 2000, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachusetts, 1-57718-058-5, The Religious World of Ancient Israel to 586 BCE,

External links

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