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Massachusetts
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{{About|the U.S. state}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{short description|State in the northeastern United States}}{{good article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2017}}







factoids
| motto = Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (Latin)By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty| MottoEnglish = By the sword she seeks peace under liberty| anthem = All Hail to MassachusettsPUBLISHER=THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS PUBLISHER=MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY YEAR=1877 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 10, 2015, JONES >FIRST=THOMAS TITLE=HISTORY OF NEW YORK DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR NEW-YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY >EDITOR-FIRST=EDWARD FLOYD PLACE=NEW YORK URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=PBUXATAHXMEC, June 10, 2015, | seat = Boston| LargestCity = capital| LargestMetro = Greater BostonCharlie Baker (Republican Party (United States)>R)| Lieutenant Governor = Karyn Polito (R)Massachusetts General Court>General CourtMassachusetts Senate>SenateMassachusetts House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesElizabeth Warren (Democratic Party (United States))}}{{nowrap>Ed Markey (D)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democrats| postal_code = MA| TradAbbreviation = Mass.English language>EnglishSCHWARZ >FIRST1=HUNTER URL=HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/BLOGS/GOVBEAT/WP/2014/08/12/STATES-WHERE-ENGLISH-IS-THE-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE/ WORK=THE WASHINGTON POST, August 12, 2014, English language>English 77.7%
  • Spanish 8.6%
  • Portuguese 2.8%.
  • Chinese 2.1%WEB,weblink Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over – 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, American FactFinder, February 6, 2016, | area_rank = 44th
PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 10, 2015, | area_total_km2 = 27,337 | area_land_sq_mi = 7,840| area_land_km2 = 20,306| area_water_sq_mi = 2,715| area_water_km2 = 7,032| area_water_percent = 26.1 | population_rank = 15th| 2010Pop = 6,902,149 (2018)| 2000DensityUS = 840| 2000Density = 324| population_density_rank = 3rdTITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 5th| Former = Province of Massachusetts Bay| AdmittanceOrder = 6th| AdmittanceDate = February 6, 1788Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| Latitude = 41° 14′ N to 42° 53′ N| Longitude = 69° 56′ W to 73° 30′ W| length_mi = 300| length_km = 174| width_mi = 183| width_km = 295Mount GreylockGREYLOCK RM 1 RESET, MZ1957, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 3,489| elevation_max_m = 1063.4| elevation_ft = 500| elevation_m = 150| elevation_min_point = Atlantic Ocean| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| iso_code = US-MA| website =weblink}}







factoids
wild turkeyWILD TURKEY:MASSACHUSETTS STATE GAME BIRD PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG PUBLISHER=SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, April 21, 2015, Atlantic cod>CodCOD: MASSACHUSETTS STATE FISH >URL=HTTP://WWW.STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/MASSACHUSETTS/STATE-FISH-AQUATIC-LIFE/COD ACCESSDATE=APRIL 18, 2015, Epigaea repens>MayflowerMAYFLOWER: MASSACHUSETTS STATE FLOWER >URL=HTTP://WWW.STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/MASSACHUSETTS/STATE-FLOWER/MAYFLOWER ACCESSDATE=APRIL 18, 2015, Coccinella septempunctata>LadybugLADYBUG: MASSACHUSETTS STATE INSECT >URL=HTTP://WWW.STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/MASSACHUSETTS/STATE-INSECT/LADYBUG ACCESSDATE=APRIL 18, 2015, Right whale,RIGHT WHALE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE MARINE MAMMAL PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG Morgan horse,MORGAN HORSE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE HORSE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG Tabby cat,TABBY CAT: MASSACHUSETTS STATE CAT PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG Boston TerrierBOSTON TERRIER: MASSACHUSETTS STATE DOG PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, Garter snakeGARTER SNAKE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE REPTILE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, American elmAMERICAN ELM: MASSACHUSETTS STATE TREE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, Cranberry juiceCRANBERRY JUICE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE BEVERAGE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, Square danceSQUARE DANCE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE FOLK DANCE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, Cranberry,CRANBERRY: MASSACHUSETTS STATE BERRY PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG muffin,CORN MUFFIN: MASSACHUSETTS STATE MUFFIN PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG navy bean,BAKED NAVY BEAN: MASSACHUSETTS STATE BEAN PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG Boston cream pie,BOSTON CREME PIE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE DESSERT PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG chocolate chip cookie,CHOCOLATE CHIP COOKIE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE COOKIE PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG Boston cream doughnutBOSTON CREAM DONUT: MASSACHUSETTS STATE DONUT PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 18, 2015, Dinosaur Footprints>Dinosaur TracksDINOSAUR TRACKS: MASSACHUSETTS STATE FOSSIL >URL=HTTP://WWW.STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG/SYMBOL-OFFICIAL-ITEM/MASSACHUSETTS/STATE-DINOSAUR-FOSSIL/DINOSAUR-TRACKS ACCESSDATE=APRIL 20, 2015, RhodoniteRHODONITE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE GEM PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 20, 2015, BabingtoniteBABINGTONITE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE MINERAL PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 20, 2015, "Blue Hills of Massachusetts"BLUE HILLS OF MASSACHUSETTS: MASSACHUSETTS STATE POEM PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 20, 2015, ,weblink StateSymbolsUSA.org, April 20, 2015,
New England Neptune, Neptunea lyrata decemcostataNEW ENGLAND NEPTUNE: MASSACHUSETTS STATE SHELL PUBLISHER=STATESYMBOLSUSA.ORG, April 23, 2015, | Ships = Schooner Ernestina Make It Yours,The Spirit of AmericaSTATE SLOGANS PUBLISHER=EREFERENCEDESK.COM, April 21, 2015, Paxton (soil)>PaxtonFIRST=MICHAEL DATE=AUGUST 9, 2006 THE BOSTON GLOBE >ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2012, | Route Marker = MA Route 28.svg| Quarter = 2000 MA Proof.pngPUBLISHER=THEUS50.COM, April 21, 2015, }}Massachusetts ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Massachusetts.ogg|ˌ|m|æ|s|ə|ˈ|tʃ|uː|s|ᵻ|t|s}}, {{IPAc-en|-|z|ᵻ|t|s}}), officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of the population of Massachusetts lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry.WEB, Douglas, Craig, Greater Boston gains population, remains 10th-largest region in U.S,weblink bizjournals.com, April 21, 2015, Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade,WEB, Maritime Commerce,weblink National Park Service, April 21, 2015, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution.WEB, History of Lowell, Massachusetts,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100405013026weblink">weblink dead, April 5, 2010, City of Lowell, April 21, 2015, During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services.WEB, Staying Power: The Future of Manufacturing in Massachusetts,weblink The Center for Urban and Regional Policy School of Social Science, Urban Affairs, and Public Policy Northeastern University, April 21, 2015, PDF, Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.WEB, Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries,weblink mass.gov, April 21, 2015, Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.WEB,weblink Popham Colony, October 9, 2018, Wikipedia, Plymouth was founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.WEB, The 1692 Salem Witch Trials,weblink Salem Witch Trials Museum, April 21, 2015, In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts.WEB, Springfield Armory: Technology in Transition,weblink National Park Service United States Department of the Interior, April 21, 2015, In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.WEB, Shays' Rebellion,weblink ushistory.org, April 21, 2015, In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards.WEB, The First Great Awakening – Jonathan Edwards,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20150422014428weblink">weblink dead, April 22, 2015, revival-library.org, April 21, 2015, In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"WEB, Faneuil Hall,weblink Celebrateboston.com, April 21, 2015, for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,WEB, The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts,weblink Teachushistory.org, April 21, 2015, and transcendentalistBOOK, Packer, Barbara, The Transcendentalists, University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007), 978-0820329581, 2007, movements.WEB, Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts,weblink Masshist.org, April 21, 2015, In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.WEB, Springfield College: The Birthplace of Basketball,weblink Springfieldcollege.edu, April 21, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150504211534weblink">weblink May 4, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, The International Volleyball Hall of Fame,weblink Volleyball.org, April 21, 2015, In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court.NEWS, Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage,weblink April 21, 2015, Reuters, November 18, 2003, Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,WEB, History of Harvard University,weblink Harvard University, April 21, 2015, with the largest financial endowment of any university,NEWS,weblink Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All, Tamar Lewin, The New York Times, January 28, 2015, March 6, 2015, and Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.NEWS,weblink Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee, Richard Wolf, USA Today, March 16, 2016, March 16, 2016, Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.WEB,weblink Kendall Square Initiative, MIT, December 1, 2016, NEWS,weblink When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?, Lelund Cheung, The Boston Globe, December 3, 2016, {{dead link|date=September 2019}} Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.weblink Times Higher Education. Accessed December 3, 2016. Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance,weblink Accessed January 27, 2017. and the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive.WEB,weblink Best States Overall Ranking, U.S. News & World Report, December 29, 2017,

Etymology

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, likely derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart).WEB,weblink Introduction to Wampanoag Grammar, Fermino, Jessie Little Doe, It has been translated as "near the great hill",BOOK, William Wallace, Tooker,weblink Algonquian Names of some Mountains and Hills, 1904, June 10, 2015, "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill which is located on the boundary of Milton and Canton.Salwen, Bert, 1978. Indians of Southern New England and Long Island: Early Period. In "Northeast", ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of "Handbook of North American Indians", ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 160–76. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. Quoted in: Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 401Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, p. 270 Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock (meaning "hill shaped like an arrowhead") in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, and Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621.WEB,weblink East Squantum Street (Moswetuset Hummock), 1986, Quincy, Mass. Historical and Architectural Survey, Thomas Crane Public Library, June 24, 2009, BOOK, Neal, Daniel, The history of New-England, A. Ward, London, 1747, 2, 2, 216, XIV: The Present State of New England, 8616817,weblink June 24, 2009, The official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".WEB, Part One: Concise Facts – Name, Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth, May 22, 2010,weblink While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications.WEB, Why is Massachusetts a Commonwealth?,weblink Commonwealth of Massachusetts, April 21, 2015, Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states.WEB, Kentucky as a Commonwealth, Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives, May 22, 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110131061313weblink">weblink January 31, 2011, It may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. (The "State of Massachusetts Bay" was in the first draft that had been rejected by the legislature.)NEWS,weblink Why do we call Massachusetts a 'commonwealth'? Blame John Adams, Martin, Finucane, The Boston Globe,

History

File:Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, by William Halsall.jpg|thumb|The Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882). The Pilgrims were a group of Puritans who founded Plymouth in 1620.]]

Pre-colonization

Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, and Massachusett.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=6–7}}WEB, Origin & Early Mohican History, Stockbridge-Munsee Community â€” Band of Mohican Indians, October 21, 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090912122346weblink">weblink September 12, 2009, mdy-all, While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were generally dependent on hunting, gathering and fishing for most of their food.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=6–7}} Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=7}}

Colonial period

In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and perhaps leptospirosis.BOOK, Hoxie, Frederick E, Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1996, Boston, 164, 978-0-395-66921-1, 34669430,weblink July 30, 2009, JOURNAL, 10.3201/e0di1602.090276, Marr, JS, Cathey, JT, New hypothesis for cause of an epidemic among Native Americans, New England, 1616–1619, Emerging Infectious Diseases, February 2010, 16, 2, 281–286, Between 1617 and 1619, what was possibly smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.BOOK, Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge, Kaplow, David, University of California Press, 2003, 978-0520242203, 13, The first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the MayflowerWEB, THE PILGRIMS,weblink History.com, April 21, 2015, at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people.{{Sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|pp=29–30}} This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, after the Jamestown Colony. The event known as the "First Thanksgiving" was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days. The Pilgrims were soon followed by other Puritans, who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony at present-day Boston in 1630.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=30}}The Puritans, who believed the Church of England needed to be purified and experienced harassment from English authority because of their beliefs,WEB, The New England Colonies,weblink ushistory.org, April 24, 2015, came to Massachusetts with the goal of establishing an ideal religious society.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=29}} Unlike the Plymouth colony, the bay colony was founded under a royal charter in 1629.WEB, Charter Of Massachusetts Bay 1629,weblink let.rug.nl, April 24, 2015, Both religious dissent and expansionism resulted in several new colonies being founded shortly after Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay elsewhere in New England. The Massachusetts Bay banished dissenters such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams due to religious and political disagreements. In 1636, Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island and Hutchinson joined him there several years later. Religious intolerance continued. Among those who objected to this later in the century were the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen, who were publicly flogged and imprisoned in Boston in 1676.Michael Mullett: "Curwen, Thomas (c. 1610–1680)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004) Retrieved 17 November 2015{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=30–32}}(File:ModestEnquiry.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.7|A Modest Enquiry Into the Nature of Witchcraft by John Hale (Boston, 1697))In 1641, Massachusetts expanded inland significantly, acquiring the Connecticut River Valley settlement of Springfield, which had recently disputed with, and defected from its original administrators, the Connecticut Colony.BOOK, Barrows, Charles Henry, The History of Springfield in Massachusetts for the Young: Being Also in Some Part the History of Other Towns and Cities in the County of Hampden, The Connecticut Valley Historical Society, 1911, 46–48, US 13459.5.7, This established Massachusetts's southern border in the west,William Pynchon {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130921185345weblink |date=September 21, 2013 }}. Bio.umass.edu. Retrieved September 7, 2013. though surveying problems resulted in disputed territory until 1803–04.WEB, Connecticut's "Southwick Jog",weblink Connecticut State Library, June 10, 2015, In 1691, the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth were united (along with present-day Maine, which had previously been divided between Massachusetts and New York) into the Province of Massachusetts Bay.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=66}} Shortly after the arrival of the new province's first governor, William Phips, the Salem witch trials took place, where a number of men and women were hanged for alleged witchcraft.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=50}}The most destructive earthquake yet known in New England occurred in 1755, causing considerable damage across Massachusetts.WEB, Perley, Sidney, United States Geological Survey, USGS, Historic Earthquakes, Earthquake Hazards Program, April 18, 2014,weblink February 7, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111110190706weblink">weblink November 10, 2011, NEWS, Memorandum, Boston Gazette, November 24, 1755, 1,

The Revolutionary War

File:Percy's Rescue at Lexington Detail.jpg|thumb|left|"Percey's Rescue at Lexington," an illustration of the Battles of Lexington and ConcordBattles of Lexington and ConcordMassachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great Britain; colonists in Massachusetts had long uneasy relations with the British monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New England in the 1680s.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=66}} Protests against British attempts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763 led to the Boston Massacre in 1770, and the 1773 Boston Tea Party escalated tensions.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=63–83}} In 1774, the Intolerable Acts targeted Massachusetts with punishments for the Boston Tea Party and further decreased local autonomy, increasing local dissent.WEB, The Intolerable Acts,weblink ushistory.org, April 24, 2015, Anti-Parliamentary activity by men such as Samuel Adams and John Hancock, followed by reprisals by the British government, were a primary reason for the unity of the Thirteen Colonies and the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|pp=88–90}}The Battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the American Revolutionary War and were fought in the eponymous Massachusetts towns.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|pp=95–96}} Future President George Washington took over what would become the Continental Army after the battle. His first victory was the Siege of Boston in the winter of 1775–76, after which the British were forced to evacuate the city.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|pp=96–97}} The event is still celebrated in Suffolk County as Evacuation Day.WEB, Massachusetts Legal Holidays, Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth, May 22, 2010,weblink On the coast, Salem became a center for privateering. Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 letters of marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships.WEB,weblink John Fraylor. Salem Maritime National Historic Park, National Park Service, September 3, 2012, File:Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg|thumb|right|175px|John AdamsJohn AdamsFile:Paul Revere's ride - NARA - 535721.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Paul ReverePaul Revere

Federal period

Bostonian John Adams, known as the "Atlas of Independence",WEB, The Declaration of Independence,weblink PBS, April 25, 2015, was an important figure in both the struggle for independence as well as the formation of the new United States. Adams was highly involved in the push for separation from Britain and the writing of the Constitution of Massachusetts in 1780 which, in the Elizabeth Freeman and Quock Walker cases, effectively made Massachusetts the first state to have a constitution that declared universal rights and, as interpreted by Supreme Judicial Court Chief Justice William Cushing, abolished slavery. David McCullough points out that an equally important feature was its placing for the first time the courts as a co-equal branch separate from the executive.BOOK, McCullough, David, John Adams, September 3, 2002, Simon & Schuster, 978-0743223133, 1st, (The Constitution of Vermont, adopted in 1777, represented the first partial ban on slavery. Vermont became a state in 1791 but did not fully ban slavery until 1858 with the Vermont Personal Liberty Law. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131004214250weblink">weblink October 4, 2013, Pennsylvania's Gradual Abolition Act of 1780, Explore PA history, made Pennsylvania the first state to abolish slavery by statute.) Later, Adams was active in early American foreign affairs and succeeded Washington as the second United States President. His son John Quincy Adams, also from Massachusetts,WEB, Rettig, Polly M., John Quincy Adams Birthplace, {{NHLS url, 66000128, |website=National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination |publisher=National Park Service |accessdate=April 24, 2015 |date=April 3, 1978}} would go on to become the sixth United States President.From 1786 to 1787, an armed uprising, known as Shays' Rebellion led by Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Shays wrought havoc throughout Massachusetts and ultimately attempted to seize the Federal armory. The rebellion was one of the major factors in the decision to draft a stronger national constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation. On February 6, 1788, Massachusetts became the sixth state to ratify the United States Constitution.WEB, The Ratification of the U.S. Constitution in Massachusetts, Massachusetts Historical Society, May 22, 2010,weblink

19th century

In 1820, Maine separated from Massachusetts and entered the Union as the 23rd state as a result of the ratification of the Missouri Compromise.WEB, On this day in 1820,weblink Massmoments.org, April 25, 2015, File:Mill Building (now museum), Lowell, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|Textile mills such as the Boott Mills in Lowell made Massachusetts a leader in the Industrial RevolutionIndustrial RevolutionDuring the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national leader in the American Industrial Revolution, with factories around cities such as Lowell and Boston producing textiles and shoes, and factories around Springfield producing tools, paper, and textiles.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=129}}{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=211}} The economy transformed from one based primarily on agriculture to an industrial one, initially making use of water-power and later the steam engine to power factories. Canals and railroads were used for transporting raw materials and finished goods.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=202}} At first, the new industries drew labor from Yankees on nearby subsistence farms, and later relied upon immigrant labor from Europe and Canada.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=133–36}}{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=179}}Although Massachusetts was the first slave-holding colony dating back to the early 1600s, in the years leading up to the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center of progressivist and abolitionist activity. Horace Mann made the state's school system a national model.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=251}} Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson made major contributions to American philosophy.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=254}} Members of the transcendentalist movement emphasized the importance of the natural world and emotion to humanity.{{sfn|Goldfield|Abbott|Anderson|Argersinger|1998|p=254}}Although significant opposition to abolitionism existed early on in Massachusetts, resulting in anti-abolitionist riots between 1835 and 1837,{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=185}} opposition to slavery gradually increased throughout the next few decades.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=183}}{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=187–93}} Abolitionists John Brown and Sojourner Truth lived in Springfield and Northampton, respectively, while Frederick Douglass lived in Boston and Susan B. Anthony in Adams, Massachusetts. The works of such abolitionists contributed to Massachusetts's actions during the Civil War. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a Black regiment with White officers, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment.WEB, Robert Gould Shaw and the 54th Regiment, National Park Service, October 19, 2009,weblink In 1852, Massachusetts became the first state to pass compulsory education laws.WEB, State Compulsory School Attendance Laws,weblink infoplease.com, May 5, 2015,

20th century

File:Boston CAT Project-construction view from air.jpeg|thumb|upright|Part of the "Big Dig" construction project; this portion is over the Charles RiverCharles RiverWith the exodus of several manufacturing companies, the area's industrial economy began to decline during the early 20th century. By the 1920s, competition from the South and Midwest, followed by the Great Depression, led to the collapse of the three main industries in Massachusetts: textiles, shoemaking, and precision mechanics.Brown and Tager, p. 246. This decline would continue into the later half of the century; between 1950 and 1979, the number of Massachusetts residents involved in textile manufacturing declined from 264,000 to 63,000.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=276}} The 1969 closure of the Springfield Armory, in particular, spurred an exodus of high-paying jobs from Western Massachusetts, which suffered greatly as it de-industrialized during the last 40 years of the 20th century.JOURNAL, University of Massachusetts Lowell,weblink Job Loss, Shrinking Revenues, and Grinding Decline in Springfield, Massachusetts: Is A Finance Control Board the Answer?, June 10, 2015, Massachusetts manufactured 3.4 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking tenth among the 48 states.Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.111 In Eastern Massachusetts, following World War II, the economy was transformed from one based on heavy industry into a service-based economy.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|pp=275–83}} Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. Suburbanization flourished, and by the 1970s, the Route 128 corridor was dotted with high-technology companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education.{{sfn|Brown|Tager|2000|p=284}}In 1987, the state received federal funding for the Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Commonly known as "the Big Dig", it was, at the time, the biggest federal highway project ever approved.Grunwald, Michael. Dig the Big Dig weblink The Washington Post. August 6, 2006. Retrieved May 31, 2010. The project included making the Central Artery a tunnel under downtown Boston, in addition to the re-routing of several other major highways.WEB, The Central Artery/Tunnel Project – The Big Dig,weblink Massachusetts Department of Transportation – Highway Division, April 26, 2015, {{failed verification|date=September 2019}} Often controversial, with numerous claims of graft and mismanagement, and with its initial price tag of $2.5 billion increasing to a final tally of over $15 billion, the Big Dig has nonetheless changed the face of Downtown Boston. It has connected areas that were once divided by elevated highway (much of the raised old Central Artery was replaced with the Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway), and improved traffic conditions along a number of routes. Additionally, Massachusetts has had a diplomatic relationship with the Japanese prefecture of Hokkaido since 1988.WEB, Massachusetts Hokkaido Association,weblink May 30, 2010,

Notable 20th century politicians

File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg|thumb|left|John F. KennedyJohn F. KennedyThe Kennedy family was prominent in Massachusetts politics in the 20th century. Children of businessman and ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. included John F. Kennedy, who was a senator and U.S. president before his assassination in 1963, Robert F. Kennedy, who was a senator, U.S. attorney general, and presidential candidate before his assassination in 1968, Ted Kennedy, a senator from 1962 until his death in 2009,WEB, Biography: Edward Moore Kennedy, American Experience, May 28, 2010,weblink and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, a co-founder of the Special Olympics.WEB, The Kennedys: A Family Tree, St. Petersburg Times, May 28, 2010,weblink In 1966, Massachusetts became the first state to directly elect an African American to the U.S. senate with Edward Brooke.WEB, BROOKE, Edward William, III,weblink Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, April 25, 2015, George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993) was born in Milton in 1924.WEB, George H.W. Bush Biography,weblink biography.com, April 26, 2015,

21st century

On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional. This decision was eventually superseded by the U.S. Supreme Court's affirmation of same-sex marriage in the United States in 2015.In 2004, Massachusetts senator John Kerry who won the Democratic nomination for President of the United States narrowly lost to incumbent George W. Bush. Eight years later, former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney (Republican nominee) lost to Barack Obama in 2012.(File:1st Boston Marathon blast seen from 2nd floor and a half block away.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Boston Marathon bombing)Two pressure cooker bombs exploded near the finish line of the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, at around 2:49 pm EDT. The explosions killed three civilians and injured an estimated 264 others. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) later identified the suspects as brothers Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. The ensuing manhunt ended on April 19 when thousands of law enforcement officers searched a 20-block area of nearby Watertown. Dzhokhar later said that he was motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs and learned to build explosive devices from Inspire, the online magazine of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.On November 8, 2016, Massachusetts voted in favor of The Massachusetts Marijuana Legalization Initiative, also known as Question 4.WEB,weblink Recreational Marijuana Passes In Massachusetts, Russell, Blair, It was included in the 2016 United States presidential election ballot in Massachusetts as an indirectly initiated state statute.WEB,weblink Massachusetts Marijuana Legalization, Question 4 (2016) - Ballotpedia,

Geography

File:Pioneer Valley South From Mt. Sugarloaf.jpg|thumb|right|A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland. The campus of the University of Massachusetts AmherstUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstMassachusetts is the 7th-smallest state in the United States. It is located in the New England region of the northeastern United States and has an area of {{convert|10555|sqmi|km2}}, 25.7% of which is water. Several large bays distinctly shape its coast. Boston is the largest city, at the inmost point of Massachusetts Bay, and the mouth of the Charles River.Despite its small size, Massachusetts features numerous topographically distinctive regions. The large coastal plain of the Atlantic Ocean in the eastern section of the state contains Greater Boston, along with most of the state's population, as well as the distinctive Cape Cod peninsula. To the west lies the hilly, rural region of Central Massachusetts, and beyond that, the Connecticut River Valley. Along the western border of Western Massachusetts lies the highest elevated part of the state, the Berkshires.The U.S. National Park Service administers a number of natural and historical sites in Massachusetts.WEB, Massachusetts, National Park Service, May 26, 2010,weblink Along with twelve national historic sites, areas, and corridors, the National Park Service also manages the Cape Cod National Seashore and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. In addition, the Department of Conservation and Recreation maintains a number of parks, trails, and beaches throughout Massachusetts.WEB, Mission,weblink Commonwealth of Massachusetts, April 22, 2015,

Ecology

File:Charadrius-melodus-004 edit.jpg|thumb|left|Many coastal areas in Massachusetts provide breeding areas for species such as the piping ploverpiping ploverThe primary biome of inland Massachusetts is temperate deciduous forest.BOOK, Ricklefs, Robert, The Economy of Nature, December 17, 2008, W. H. Freeman, 978-0716786979, 96, 6th,weblink April 22, 2015, Although much of Massachusetts had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of old-growth forest in isolated pockets, secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned.NEWS, Stocker, Carol, Old growth, grand specimens drive big-tree hunters,weblink The Boston Globe, November 17, 2005, October 17, 2009, Currently, forests cover around 62% of Massachusetts.WEB, Current Research â€” Working Landscapes, The Center for Rural Massachusetts â€” The University of Massachusetts Amherst, March 19, 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090226064502weblink">weblink February 26, 2009, mdy-all, The areas most affected by human development include the Greater Boston area in the east and the Springfield metropolitan area in the west, although the latter includes agricultural areas throughout the Connecticut River Valley.WEB, Northeastern Coastal Zone â€” Ecoregion Description, United States Geological Survey, October 17, 2009,weblink There are currently 219 endangered species in Massachusetts.WEB, MESA List Overview,weblink Department of Energy and Environmental Affairs, April 22, 2015, A number of species are doing well in the increasingly urbanized Massachusetts. Peregrine falcons utilize office towers in larger cities as nesting areas,WEB, Peregrine Falcon,weblink Commonwealth of Massachusetts Division of Fisheries & Wildlife, May 9, 2015, and the population of coyotes, whose diet may include garbage and roadkill, has been increasing in recent decades.WEB, Eastern Coyote,weblink Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, May 9, 2015, White-tailed deer, raccoons, wild turkeys, and eastern gray squirrels are also found throughout Massachusetts. In more rural areas in the western part of Massachusetts, larger mammals such as moose and black bears have returned, largely due to reforestation following the regional decline in agriculture.NEWS, Forests lure moose to Massachusetts,weblink The Christian Science Monitor, April 22, 2015, Massachusetts is located along the Atlantic Flyway, a major route for migratory waterfowl along the eastern coast.WEB, Atlantic Flyway,weblink National Audubon Society, May 9, 2015, Lakes in central Massachusetts provide habitat for many species of fish and waterfowl, but some species such as the common loon are becoming rare.WEB, Chasing loons: Banding the elusive birds at night on the Quabbin Reservoir,weblink masslive.com, April 23, 2015, A significant population of long-tailed ducks winter off Nantucket. Small offshore islands and beaches are home to roseate terns and are important breeding areas for the locally threatened piping plover.WEB, Coastal Waterbird Program, Mass Audubon, May 28, 2010,weblink Protected areas such as the Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge provide critical breeding habitat for shorebirds and a variety of marine wildlife including a large population of grey seals.Freshwater fish species in Massachusetts include bass, carp, catfish, and trout, while saltwater species such as Atlantic cod, haddock, and American lobster populate offshore waters.WEB, Commonly Caught Species,weblink eregulations.com, The Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries, May 9, 2015, Other marine species include Harbor seals, the endangered North Atlantic right whales, as well as humpback whales, fin whales, minke whales, and Atlantic white-sided dolphins.The European corn borer, a significant agricultural pest, was first found in North America near Boston, Massachusetts in 1917.BOOK, Details - A progress report on the investigations of the European corn borer / - Biodiversity Heritage Library, Caffrey, D. J., Worthley, L. H., en, 10.5962/bhl.title.108390, 1927,

Climate

File:MA koppen.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|Köppen climateKöppen climateMost of Massachusetts has a humid continental, with cold winters and warm summers. Far southeast coastal areas are the broad transition zone to Humid Subtropical climates. The warm to hot summers render the oceanic climate rare in this transition, only applying to exposed coastal areas such as on the peninsula of Barnstable County. The climate of Boston is quite representative for the commonwealth, characterized by summer highs of around {{convert|81|F|C}} and winter highs of {{convert|35|F|C}}, and is quite wet. Frosts are frequent all winter, even in coastal areas due to prevailing inland winds. Due to its location near the Atlantic, Massachusetts is vulnerable to nor'easters, hurricanes and tropical storms.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!July (°F)!July (°C)!January (°F)!January (°C)Boston >| 2/–5Worcester, Massachusetts>Worcester 79/61 26/16 31/17 0/–8Springfield, Massachusetts>Springfield 84/62 27/17 34/17 1/–8New Bedford, Massachusetts>New Bedford 80/65 26/18 37/23 3/–4Quincy, Massachusetts>Quincy 80/61 26/16 33/18 1/–7Plymouth, Massachusetts>Plymouth 80/61 27/16 38/20 3/–6{{Massachusetts rivers}}{{Mountains of Massachusetts}}{{Waterbodies of Massachusetts}}{{Islands and Peninsulas of Massachusetts}}

Demographics

File:Massachusetts population map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Massachusetts population density map. The centers of high-density settlement, from east to west, are Boston, Worcester, Springfield, and Pittsfield, respectively.]]{{US Census population| 1790= 378787| 1800= 422845| 1810= 472040| 1820= 523287| 1830= 610408| 1840= 737699| 1850= 994514| 1860= 1231066| 1870= 1457351| 1880= 1783085| 1890= 2238947| 1900= 2805346| 1910= 3366416| 1920= 3852356| 1930= 4249614| 1940= 4316721| 1950= 4690514| 1960= 5148578| 1970= 5689170| 1980= 5737037| 1990= 6016425| 2000= 6349097| 2010= 6547629|estimate= 6902149|estyear= 2018PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUACCESSDATE=JUNE 10, 2015, HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPULATION/CEN2000/TAB02.TXT>TITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION OF THE 50 STATES, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND PUERTO RICOUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU>YEAR=2000FORMAT=PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 5, 2019, }}The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Massachusetts was 6,902,149 on July 1, 2018, a 5.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census.As of 2014, Massachusetts was estimated to be the third-most densely populated U.S. state, with 839.4 people per square mile,WEB,weblink CSV, Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, December 23, 2015, United States Census Bureau, January 24, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151223235718weblink">weblink December 23, 2015, behind New Jersey and Rhode Island. In 2014, Massachusetts had 1,011,811 foreign-born residents or 15% of the population.Most Bay State residents live within the Boston Metropolitan Area, also known as Greater Boston, which includes Boston and its proximate surroundings but also extending to Greater Lowell and to Worcester. The Springfield metropolitan area, also known as Greater Springfield, is also a major center of population. Demographically, the center of population of Massachusetts is located in the town of Natick.WEB, Centers of Population,weblink United States Census Bureau, April 26, 2015, WEB, State Centers of Population,weblink howderfamily.com, April 26, 2015, I'll ... examine some individual state centers of population., Like the rest of the Northeastern United States, the population of Massachusetts has continued to grow in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Massachusetts is the fastest growing state in New England and the 25th fastest growing state in the United States.WEB, Miller, Joshua, Mass. population growth is tops in N.E,weblink The Boston Globe, April 26, 2015, Population growth was largely due to a relatively high quality of life and a large higher education system in the state.Foreign immigration is also a factor in the state's population growth, causing the state's population to continue to grow as of the 2010 Census (particularly in Massachusetts gateway cities where costs of living are lower).NEWS, Mishra, Raja, State's population growth on stagnant course,weblink The Boston Globe, December 22, 2006, June 5, 2010, NEWS, Bayles, Fred, Minorities account for state population growth,weblink USA Today, March 21, 2001, June 5, 2010, 40% of foreign immigrants were from Central or South America, according to a 2005 Census Bureau study, with many of the remainder from Asia. Many residents who have settled in Greater Springfield claim Puerto Rican descent. Many areas of Massachusetts showed relatively stable population trends between 2000 and 2010. Exurban Boston and coastal areas grew the most rapidly, while Berkshire County in far Western Massachusetts and Barnstable County on Cape Cod were the only counties to lose population as of the 2010 Census.By sex, 48.4% were male and 51.6% were female in 2014. In terms of age, 79.2% were over 18 years old and 14.8% were over 65 years old.

Race and ancestry

File:St. Patrick Day's Parade, Scituate MA.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.15|Saint Patrick's Day parade in Scituate, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010.WEB,weblink The most Irish town in America is named using US census data, Jane Walsh, IrishCentral, November 25, 2015, May 8, 2016, Irish AmericansIrish AmericansAs of 2014, in terms of race and ethnicity, Massachusetts was 83.2% White (73.7% Non-Hispanic White), 8.8% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American and Alaska Native, 6.3% Asian American, {hide}Geographic location
| Northwest ={{flag|Vermont{edih}
| North = {{flag|New Hampshire}}
| Northeast = {{flag|New Hampshire}}{{flag|Maine}} ({{convert|15|mi|km}} away)
| West = {{flag|New York}}
| Centre = {{flag|Massachusetts}}: Outline • Index
| East = Atlantic Ocean
| Southwest = {{flag|New Jersey}}
| South = {{flag|Connecticut}} and {{flag|Rhode Island}}
| Southeast = Cape CodMartha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island
}}{{Massachusetts|expanded}}{{Government of Massachusetts}}{{Massachusetts cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{Protected areas of Massachusetts}}{{New England}}{{Northeast US}}{{United States political divisions}}{{Coord|display=title|42.3|N|71.8|W|region:US-MA_type:adm1st_scale:3000000}}{{Authority control}}

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