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{{Short description|Largest city in Maryland, United States}}{{about|the city in Maryland|the surrounding county|Baltimore County, Maryland}}{{redirect|Baltimore City|other uses|Baltimore (disambiguation)}}{{Use American English|date = October 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}

B'more;KANEAUTHOR-LINK=GREGORY KANE (JOURNALIST) WORK=THE WASHINGTON EXAMINER DATE=JUNE 15, 2009, WORK=N. Y. TIMES>DATE=SEPTEMBER 2, 2003LAST=GETTLEMAN, Jeffrey Gettleman, | image_map = Map of Maryland highlighting Baltimore City.svg| mapsize = 250x200px| map_caption = Location within Maryland| pushpin_map = Maryland#USA#North America| pushpin_label_position = left| pushpin_map_caption = Location within Maryland39N37type:city(650000)_region:US-MD|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country| subdivision_name = United StatesU.S. state>StateIndependent city (United States)>CityColony>Historic colonyCounty (United States)>County| subdivision_name1 = Maryland| subdivision_name2 = Baltimore| subdivision_name3 = Province of MarylandIndependent city (United States)>Independent city)Town incorporation>Founded| established_date = 1729Municipal corporation>Incorporated| established_date2 = 1796–1797Independent city (United States)>Independent city| established_date3 = 1851| named_for = Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (1605–1675)Mayor–council government>Mayor–council| governing_body = Baltimore City CouncilList of mayors of Baltimore, Maryland>MayorJack Young (politician)>Jack Young (D)Baltimore City Council>City Council| leader_name1 = {{Collapsible list
|title = Council members |bullets=yes
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
|list_style= text-align:left;display:yes;
|1= Brandon M. Scott (President)
|2= Zeke Cohen (1)
|3= Vacant, as of May 6, 2019 (2)
|4= Ryan Dorsey (3)
|5= Bill Henry (4)
|6= Isaac "Yitzy" Schleifer (5)
|7= Sharon Green Middleton (6)
|8= Leon F. Pinkett, III (7)
|9= Kristerfer Burnett (8)
|10= John T. Bullock (9)
|11= Edward L. Reisinger (10)
|12= Eric Costello (11)
|13= Robert Stokes Sr. (12)
|14= Shannon Sneed (13)
|15= Mary Pat Clarke (14)
}}| unit_pref = Imperial
PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, January 2, 2019, | area_magnitude = 1 E+8| area_total_sq_mi = 92.05| area_land_sq_mi = 80.95| area_water_sq_mi = 11.10| area_water_percent = 12.1| area_urban_km2 = | area_urban_sq_mi = | area_metro_km2 = | area_metro_sq_mi = ACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 14, 2007 AT=BALTIMORE CITY ARCHIVE-URL= HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20071005233230/HTTP://WWW.MGS.MD.GOV/ESIC/FS/FS1.HTML URL-STATUS= LIVE, | elevation_m = 0–150| elevation_ft = 0–480| population_total = 6209612010 United States Census>2010PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, October 13, 2014, | population_density_sq_mi = 7556.25| population_est = 602495| pop_est_as_of = 2018| pop_est_footnotes = List of United States urban areas>19th)List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>21st)Combined statistical area>CSACombined Statistical Areas>4th)| population_blank2_title = Demonym| population_blank2 = Baltimorean| postal_code_type = ZIP Codes| postal_code = {{collapsible listTITLE=ZIP CODE LOOKUP URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2010, |frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;|list_style = text-align:center;display:none|21201–21231, 21233–21237, 21239–21241, 21244, 21250–21252, 21263–21265, 21268, 21270, 21273–21275, 21278–21290, 21297–21298}}Area codes 410, 443, and 667>410, 443, and 667| website = City of Baltimore| footnotes = | pushpin_label = BaltimoreBaltimore City Delegation>Houses of Delegates| leader_name2 = {{Collapsible list
|title = Delegates|bullets=yes
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
|list_style = text-align:left;display:yes;
|1 = Frank M. Conaway, Jr. (40) (D)
|2 = Nick Mosby (40) (D)
|3 = Melissa Wells (40) (D)
|4 = Tony Bridges (41) (D)
|5 = Dalya Attar (41) (D)
|6 = Samuel I. Rosenberg (41) (D)
|7 = Curt Anderson (43) (D)
|8 = Maggie McIntosh (43) (D)
|9 = Regina T. Boyce (43) (D)
|10 = Keith E. Haynes (44A) (D)
|11 = Talmadge Branch (45) (D)
|12 = Cheryl Glenn (45) (D)
|13 = Stephanie Smith (45) (D)
|14 = Luke Clippinger (46) (D)
|15 = Robbyn Lewis (46) (D)
|16 = Brooke Lierman (46) (D)
Baltimore City Senate Delegation>State Senate| leader_name3 = {{Collapsible list
|title = State senators|bullets=yes
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
|list_style= text-align:left;display:yes;
|1 = Antonio Hayes (40) (D)
|2 = Jill P. Carter (41) (D)
|3 = Dr. Mary Washington (43) (D)
|4 = Shirley Nathan-Pulliam (44) (D)
|5 = Cory V McCray (45) (D)
|6 = Bill Ferguson (46) (D)
United States House of Representatives>U.S. House| leader_name4 = {hide}Collapsible list
|title = Representatives|bullets=yes
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
|list_style = text-align:left;display:yes;
|1 = Dutch Ruppersberger (2) (D)
|2 = John Sarbanes (3) (D)
|3 = Elijah Cummings (7) (D)
Eastern Time Zone>EST| utc_offset = −5Eastern Time Zone>EDT| utc_offset_DST = −4Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS code| blank_info = 24-04000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID| blank1_info = 0597040| area_total_km2 = 238.41| area_land_km2 = 209.65| area_water_km2 = 28.76| population_density_km2 = 2917.48| blank2_name = Primary Airport| blank2_info = Baltimore-Washington International AirportBWI (Major/International)Interstate Highway System>Interstates20px20px20px25px25px25px25px25px|link=Interstate 895 (Maryland))| blank4_name = U.S. Routes20px20px|link=U.S. Route 40 in Maryland)}}Baltimore ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|b|ɔː|l|t|ɪ|m|ɔːr}} {{respell|BAWL|tim|or}}) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with a population of 602,495 in 2018 and also the largest such independent city in the country. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of MarylandThe form and type of government of the city is described by Article XI of the State Constitution. as an independent city in 1729. As of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.802 million, making it the 21st largest metropolitan area in the country.WEB,weblink Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Population Totals: 2010–2017, comma-separated values, CSV, 2018 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, April 2019, April 24, 2019, Baltimore is located about {{Convert|40|mi|km|abbr=out}} northeast of Washington, D.C.,ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink August 14, 2019, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Baltimore, September 6, 2019, making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area (CSA), the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2018 population of 9,797,063.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, U.S. Census, Bureau,, Baltimore is also the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic.NEWS,weblink Inland port gives Baltimore strategic shipping advantages, Hughes, Joseph R., November 16, 2006, The Washington Examiner, February 12, 2017, The city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center.WEB,weblink Baltimore Heritage Area, February 11, 2011, Maryland Historical Trust, Maryland Department of Planning, Jeffrey P. Buchheit (Director, Baltimore Heritage Area),weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2012, December 30, 2011, After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, and restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy. Johns Hopkins Hospital (founded 1889) and Johns Hopkins University (founded 1876) are the city's top two employers.WEB,weblink Major Employers | Baltimore Development Corporation,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2010, July 8, 2013, With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, Ogden Nash, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Dashiell Hammett, Upton Sinclair, Tom Clancy, Ta-Nehisi Coates, and H. L. Mencken; musicians James "Eubie" Blake, Billie Holiday, Cab Calloway, Tori Amos, Frank Zappa, Tupac Shakur, Robbie Basho, Bill Frisell, Philip Glass, and Ric Ocasek; actors and filmmakers John Waters, Barry Levinson, Divine, David Hasselhoff, Don Messick, John Kassir, Jada Pinkett Smith, and Mo'Nique; artist Jeff Koons; baseball player Babe Ruth; swimmer Michael Phelps; radio host Ira Glass; Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall; Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi; and United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry. His poem was set to music and popularized as a song; in 1931 it was designated as the American national anthem.WEB,weblink About Baltimore,, July 8, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2013, Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country,WEB,weblink Monumental City Welcomes Number Five, Babe Ruth Birthplace Foundation, Mike, Gibbons, October 21, 2011, February 6, 2016, and is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, and Mount Vernon. These were added to the National Register between 1969 and 1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U.S. city.NEWS,weblink Historic districts proliferate as city considers changes, The Baltimore Sun, Natalie, Sherman, March 14, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2017, live, NEWS, Building on Baltimore's History: The Partnership for Building Reuse,weblink July 11, 2017, Preservation Green Lab, National Trust for Historic Preservation and the Urban Land Institute Baltimore, November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2017, dead, According to FBI data from 2017, Baltimore had a per capita murder rate of 55.8 per 100,000 population.NEWS,weblink Trump suggests Baltimore 'worse than Honduras', July 31, 2019, Raidió Teilifís Éireann, August 1, 2019,


{{See also|History of Baltimore|Timeline of Baltimore}}The city has 66 National Register Historic Districts and 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives.


The city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore{{citation|title=Baltimore City, Maryland: Historical Chronology|url=|publisher=Maryland State Archives|date=February 29, 2016|access-date=April 11, 2016}}; {{citation|title=Calvert Family Tree|url=|publisher=University Libraries, University of Maryland|access-date=April 11, 2016}} of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland.{{citation|title=Maryland History Timeline|url=|publisher=Maryland Office of Tourism|access-date=April 11, 2016}}{{citation|first=Casey|last=Egan|date=November 23, 2015|title=The surprising Irish origins of Baltimore, Maryland|url=|website=IrishCentral|access-date=April 11, 2016}} Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland.BOOK, Brugger, Robert J., Maryland: A Middle Temperament, 1634–1980, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1988, 4, 978-0-8018-3399-1, Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house."

Before European settlement

The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.BOOK, American Indians in the Baltimore area, Akerson, Louise A., 1988, Baltimore Center for Urban Archaeology (Md.), Baltimore, Maryland, 18473413, 15, During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture that is called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia.BOOK, Commoners, Tribute, and Chiefs: The Development of Algonquian Culture in the Potomac Valley, Potter, Stephen R., 1993, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, Virginia, 978-0-8139-1422-0, 119, January 5, 2013,weblink In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans. The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia.WEB
, The Susquehannocks' Prosperity & Early European Contact
, Adam Youssi
, 2006
, Historical Society of Baltimore County
, April 28, 2015,
Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited primarily the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line.JOURNAL
, A Place Now Known Unto Them: The Search for Zekiah Fort
, Site Report
, 11
, Alex J. Flick
, 2012
, April 28, 2015, etal, BOOK
, Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia
, Murphree, Daniel Scott
, 2012
, Santa Barbara, California
, 978-0-313-38126-3
, 489, 494
, April 28, 2015
,weblink As depicted on a map of the Piscataway lands in Kenneth Bryson, Images of America: Accokeek (Arcadia Publishing, 2013) pp. 10–11, derived from Alice and Henry Ferguson, The Piscataway Indians of Southern Maryland (Alice Ferguson Foundation, 1960) pp. 8 (map) and 11: "By the beginning of Maryland (English) settlement, pressure from the Susquehannocks had reduced...the Piscataway 'empire' a belt bordering the Potomac south of the falls and extending up the principal tributaries. Roughly, the 'empire' covered the southern half of present Prince Georges County and all, or nearly all, of Charles County."

Colonial period

European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634.WEB,weblink St. Clements Island State Park, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, November 19, 2018, Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County.Brooks & Rockel (1979), pp. 1–3. The original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground.BOOK,weblink Laws of Maryland at Large, with Proper Indexes, Thomas, Bacon, Thomas Bacon (priest), Annapolis, Jonas Green, 1765, 75, 61, Brooks & Rockel (1979), pp. 17–18.NEWS, Charlotte and "Doc" Cronin,weblink Remembering Old Baltimore when it was near Aberdeen, The Baltimore Sun, September 19, 2014, The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled primarily from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans. In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream.WEB,weblink Carroll Museums: Making History Yours,, August 4, 2015, The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the tobacco trade. The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including a church and two taverns.WEB,weblink Baltimore History Traced in Street Names, Tom, 2014-03-10, Ghosts of Baltimore, en-US, 2019-02-24, Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east. The three settlements, covering {{Convert|60|acres|ha|abbr=out}}, became a commercial hub, and in 1768 were designated as the county seat.Brooks & Rockel (1979), pp. 29–30.Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example, King George, King, Queen, and Caroline streets.(File:Baltimore in 1752.png|thumb|left|Baltimore Town in 1752, (at "The Basin")|alt=Open green space with sparse, nice houses, ships, and clean water)Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean. The profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there.NEWS, History behind sugar trade, Chesapeake not always sweet,weblink Kent Mountford, July 1, 2003, Bay Journal, As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, and in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county. Its square was a center of community meetings and discussions.Baltimore established its public market system in 1763.WEB,weblink History, Mallika, Baltimore Public Markets Corporation,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2015, August 4, 2015, Sharan, Lexington Market, founded in 1782, is known as one of the oldest continuously operating public markets in the United States today.WEB,weblink World Famous Lexington Market, Mallika Sharan,, August 4, 2015, Lexington Market was also a center of slave trading. Slaves were sold at numerous sites through the downtown area, with sales advertised in the Baltimore Sun.WEB,weblink The secret history of city slave trade, Both tobacco and sugar cane were labor-intensive crops.Baltimore in 1774 established the first Post Office system in what became the United States,MAGAZINE,weblink Mental Floss, 25 Things You Should Know About Baltimore, Megan, Thielking, November 10, 2015, December 19, 2015, In 1774, the first post office in the United States was inaugurated in the city., and the first water company chartered in the newly independent nation (Baltimore Water Company, 1792).WEB,weblink Baltimore: A City of Firsts, Visit Baltimore, February 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Baltimore City, Maryland Historical Chronology, January 20, 2015, Maryland State Archives, December 7, 2015, Baltimore played a key part in events leading to and including the American Revolution. City leaders such as Jonathan Plowman Jr. led many residents in joining the resistance to British taxes, and merchants signed agreements to refuse to trade with Britain.BOOK,weblink Principles and Acts of the Revolution in America, Hezekiah Niles, A. S. Barnes & Co., 1876, New York, 257–258, The Second Continental Congress met in the Henry Fite House from December 1776 to February 1777, effectively making the city the capital of the United States during this period.WEB, Henry Fite's House, Baltimore,weblink U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, March 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 26, 2011, live,

Antebellum period

The Town of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point were incorporated as the City of Baltimore in 1796–1797. The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768 to 1851, after which it became an independent city.WEB,weblink Baltimore, Maryland—Government, Maryland Manual On-Line: A Guide to Maryland Government, Maryland State Archives, October 23, 2008, October 27, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2008, live, (File:Ft. Henry bombardement 1814.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Bombardment of Fort McHenry by the British. Engraved by John BowerBOOK, Maryland History in Prints 1743–1900, Laura Rich, 45, )The Battle of Baltimore against the British in 1814 inspired the composition of the USA's national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the construction of the Battle Monument which became the city's official emblem. A distinctive local culture started to take shape, and a unique skyline peppered with churches and monuments developed. Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams. At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant."NEWS,weblink Baltimore, October 17, October 23, 1827, October 27, 2008, Salem Gaz., Salem Gazette, Salem, Massachusetts, 2, subscription, NewsBank, William Harvey Hunter, "Baltimore Architecture in History"; in Dorsey & Dilts (1997), p. 7. "Both begun in 1815, the Battle Monument and the Washington Monument gave Baltimore its most famous sobriquet. In 1827, when bremoth of them were nearly finished, President John Quincy Adams at a big public dinner in Baltimore gave as his toast, 'Baltimore, the monumental city.' It was more than an idle comment: no other large city in America had even one substantial monument to show."File:Balt Battle Monument 1a.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The Battle MonumentBattle MonumentBaltimore pioneered the use of gas lighting in 1816, and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure. The construction of the federally funded National Road (which later became part of U.S. Route 40) and the private Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B. & O.) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest. By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production. These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime.Townsend (2000), pp. 62–68.Baltimore suffered one of the worst riots of the antebellum South in 1835, when bad investments led to the Baltimore bank riot.WEB,weblink The Baltimore Bank Riot, University of Illinois Press, January 5, 2010, Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington DC in 1844.(File:Harpers 8 11 1877 6th Regiment Fighting Baltimore.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Sixth Regiment fighting railroad strikers, July 20, 1877WEB,weblink The Great Strike, October 26, 2008, Catskill Archive, Timothy J. Mallery,weblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2008, live, )

Civil war and after

Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861.NEWS, Clayton, Ralph, A bitter Inner Harbor legacy: the slave trade,weblink The Baltimore Sun, July 12, 2000, July 8, 2013, BOOK, McPherson, James M., James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, December 11, 2003, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0-19-516895-2, 225, Battle Cry of Freedom (book), Another factor was the fact that the Union's capitol, Washington, was in the state of Maryland (geographically if not politically), and well situated to impede Baltimore and Maryland's communication or commerce with the Confederacy. Baltimore saw the first casualties of the war on April 19, 1861, when Union Soldiers en route from the President Street Station to Camden Yards clashed with a secessionist mob in the Pratt Street riot.In the midst of the Long Depression which followed the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad company attempted to lower its workers' wages, leading to strikes and riots in the city and beyond. Strikers clashed with the National Guard, leaving 10 dead and 25 wounded.Scharf (1879), Vol. 3, pp. 728–742.

20th century through 1968

File:Baltimore Fire 1904 - West from Pratt and Gay Streets 3a.jpg|thumb|The Great Baltimore Fire of 1904, looking west from Pratt and Gay streets]]On February 7, 1904, the Great Baltimore Fire destroyed over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours, leaving more than 70 blocks of the downtown area burned to the ground. Damages were estimated at $150 million—in 1904 dollars.PRESS RELEASE, A Howling Inferno: The Great Baltimore Fire, January 12, 2004, Johns Hopkins University,weblink March 17, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink July 19, 2011, As the city rebuilt during the next two years, lessons learned from the fire led to improvements in firefighting equipment standards.WEB,weblink Legacy of the Fire, Pete, 2009, The Fire Museum of Maryland,weblink" title="">weblink October 3, 2011, March 18, 2011, Petersen, Baltimore lawyer Milton Dashiell advocated for an ordinance to bar African-Americans from moving into the Eutaw Place neighborhood in northwest Baltimore. He proposed to recognize majority white residential blocks and majority black residential blocks, and to prevent people from moving into housing on such blocks where they would be a minority. The Baltimore Council passed the ordinance, and it became law on December 20, 1910, with Democratic Mayor J. Barry Mahool's signature.JOURNAL, Power, Garrett, Apartheid Baltimore Style: the Residential Segregation Ordinances of 1910–1913, Maryland Law Review, 42, 2,weblink 1983, 299–300, The Baltimore segregation ordinance was the first of its kind in the United States. Many other southern cities followed with their own segregation ordinances, though the US Supreme Court ruled against them in Buchanan v. Warley (1917).Power (1983), p. 289.The city grew in area by annexing new suburbs from the surrounding counties through 1918, when the city acquired portions of Baltimore County and Anne Arundel County.BOOK,weblink The annotated code of the public civil laws of Maryland, Volume 4, George P. Bagby, editor, 1918, King Bros., Printers and Publishers, 769, A state constitutional amendment, approved in 1948, required a special vote of the citizens in any proposed annexation area, effectively preventing any future expansion of the city's boundaries.NEWS, Baltimore seals its borders, Duffy, James, December 2007, Baltimore Magazine, 124–27, Streetcars enabled the development of distant neighborhoods areas such as Edmonson Village whose residents could easily commute to work downtown.Orser (1994), pp. 21–30.Driven by migration from the deep South and by white suburbanization, the relative size of the city's black population grew from 23.8% in 1950 to 46.4% in 1970.Alabaster cities: urban U.S. since 1950. John R. Short (2006). Syracuse University Press. p.142. {{ISBN|0-8156-3105-7}} Encouraged by real estate blockbusting techniques, recently settled white areas rapidly became all-black neighborhoods, in a rapid process which was nearly total by 1970.Orser (1994), pp. 84–94.

1968 and after

The Baltimore riot of 1968, coinciding with riots in other cities, followed the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968. Public order was not restored until April 12, 1968. The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated $10 million (US$ {{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|10|1968|r=0}}}} million in 2019). A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city.WEB,weblink Baltimore '68 Events Timeline, Baltimore 68: riots and Rebirth, University of Baltimore Archives, January 19, 2011, The city experienced challenges again in 1974 when teachers, municipal workers, and police officers conducted strikes.Police Chief Donald Pomerleau said, "We're in a semi-riot mode, similar to the 1968 riots." See: NEWS, Cops storm jail rebels; Baltimore in semi-riot state,weblink August 5, 2012, Chicago Tribune, July 14, 1974, UPI, Following the death of Freddie Gray in April 2015, the city experienced major protests and international media attention, as well as a clash between local youth and police which resulted in a state of emergency declaration and curfew.NEWS, Sanburn, Josh, What's Behind Baltimore's Record-Setting Rise in Homicides,weblink Time, Time Magazine, June 2, 2015, December 16, 2015, Baltimore has suffered from a high homicide rate for several decades, peaking in 1993, and again in 2015.Mary Rose Madden, "On The Watch, Part 6: Baltimore's Homicide Numbers Spike As Closure Rate Drops"; WYPR February 18, 2016.Jess Bidgood, "The Numbers Behind Baltimore's Record Year in Homicides", New York Times, January 15, 2016. These deaths have taken a severe toll, especially within the local black community.Jocelyn R. Smith, "Unequal Burdens of Loss: Examining the Frequency and Timing of Homicide Deaths Experienced by Young Black Men Across the Life Course"; American Journal of Public Health 105(53), July 2015; .

Development and promotion

By the beginning of the 1970s, Baltimore's downtown area known as the Inner Harbor had been neglected and was occupied by a collection of abandoned warehouses. The nickname "Charm City" came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation.NEWS, Sandler, Gilbert, How the city's nickname came to be,weblink August 1, 2012, Baltimore Sun, July 18, 1995, NEWS, Sandler, Gil, Where did city get its charming nickname? Baltimore Glimpses,weblink August 1, 2012, Baltimore Sun, August 18, 1998, Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center (1977), and the Baltimore Convention Center (1979). Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981. In 1995, the city opened the American Visionary Art Museum on Federal Hill. During the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department official Robert Mehl persuaded the city's mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990.NEWS, HighBeam Research, subscription, October 26, 2015,weblinkweblink dead, April 17, 2016, Moveable Feast, which gives food to HIV/AIDS, terminally ill patients, might turn away clients, The Baltimore Sun, February 28, 2007, Nicole, Fuller, NEWS, October 26, 2015,weblinkweblink dead, April 16, 2016, subscription, HighBeam Research, The Washington Post, Meals a Godsend To AIDS Patients;Md. Program Helps Ease Burden for Homebound, June 9, 1990, Retha, Hill, NEWS,weblink October 26, 2015, History of Moveable Feast, About Us, Moveable Feast, 2015, September 18, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink By 2010, the organization's region of service had expanded from merely Baltimore to include all of the Eastern Shore of Maryland.NEWS, HighBeam Research, October 26, 2015, subscription, Gay Pride events to return to University of Baltimore, June 17–18, US Fed News Service, May 27, 2010,weblinkweblink dead, April 9, 2016, In 1992, the Baltimore Orioles baseball team moved from Memorial Stadium to Oriole Park at Camden Yards, located downtown near the harbor. Pope John Paul II held an open-air mass at Camden Yards during his papal visit to the United States in October 1995. Three years later the Baltimore Ravens football team moved into M&T Bank Stadium next to Camden Yards.WEB,weblink Who We Are, Maryland Stadium Authority, October 26, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink October 18, 2008, live, Baltimore has seen the reopening of the Hippodrome Theatre in 2004,NEWS,weblink Hippodrome's first hurrahs, January 25, 2005, April 30, 2015, J. Wynn, Rousuck, Edward, Gunts, The Baltimore Sun, the opening of the Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture in 2005, and the establishment of the National Slavic Museum in 2012. On April 12, 2012, Johns Hopkins held a dedication ceremony to mark the completion of one of the United States' largest medical complexes â€“ the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore â€“ which features the Sheikh Zayed Cardiovascular and Critical Care Tower and The Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children's Center. The event, held at the entrance to the $1.1 billion 1.6 million-square-foot-facility, honored the many donors including Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, first president of the United Arab Emirates, and Michael Bloomberg.MAGAZINE,weblink UAE royal family honoured at opening of new Johns Hopkins Hospital, May 2012, Middle East Health, January 30, 2016, NEWS,weblink Photos: Johns Hopkins dedicates $1.1 billion patient towers, April 13, 2012, Baltimore Business Journal, January 30, 2016, Sarah, Gantz, On September 19, 2016 the Baltimore City Council approved a $660 million bond deal for the $5.5 billion Port Covington redevelopment project championed by Under Armour founder Kevin Plank and his real estate company Sagamore Development. Port Covington surpassed the Harbor Point development as the largest tax-increment financing deal in Baltimore's history and among the largest urban redevelopment projects in the country.NEWS,weblink Sagamore: A major opportunity that requires scrutiny equal in scale, March 24, 2016, Baltimore Sun, December 20, 2016, The waterfront development that includes the new headquarters for Under Armour, as well as shops, housing, offices, and manufacturing spaces is projected to create 26,500 permanent jobs with a $4.3 billion annual economic impact.WEB,weblink Baltimore city council approves $660 million for "Build Port Covington", Martin, Olivia, September 22, 2016,, December 20, 2016, Goldman Sachs invested $233 million into the redevelopment project.NEWS,weblink Goldman Sachs invests $233 million in Port Covington, Mirabella, Lorraine,, October 26, 2017, en-US,


Baltimore is in north-central Maryland on the Patapsco River close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay. The city is also located on the fall line between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic coastal plain, which divides Baltimore into "lower city" and "upper city". The city's elevation ranges from sea level at the harbor to {{convert|480|ft|m}} in the northwest corner near Pimlico.According to the 2010 Census, the city has a total area of {{convert|92.1|sqmi|sp=us}}, of which {{convert|80.9|sqmi|abbr=on}} is land and {{convert|11.1|sqmi|abbr=on}} is water.WEB,weblink (no title provided), 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau, Counties > Maryland, January 21, 2016, The total area is 12.1 percent water.Baltimore is almost completely surrounded by Baltimore County, but is politically independent of it. It is bordered by Anne Arundel County to the south.


{{wide image|Baltimore-sunset-pano.jpg|1100px|3=Panoramic view of Baltimore along the Inner and Outer Harbor at dusk, as seen from the HarborView Condominium.}}


Baltimore exhibits examples from each period of architecture over more than two centuries, and work from architects such as Benjamin Latrobe, George A. Frederick, John Russell Pope, Mies van der Rohe and I. M. Pei.The city is rich in architecturally significant buildings in a variety of styles. The Baltimore Basilica (1806–1821) is a neoclassical design by Benjamin Latrobe, and also the oldest Catholic cathedral in the United States. In 1813 Robert Cary Long, Sr., built for Rembrandt Peale the first substantial structure in the United States designed expressly as a museum. Restored, it is now the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, or popularly the Peale Museum.The McKim Free School was founded and endowed by John McKim, although the building was erected by his son Isaac in 1822 after a design by William Howard and William Small. It reflects the popular interest in Greece when the nation was securing its independence, as well as a scholarly interest in recently published drawings of Athenian antiquities.The Phoenix Shot Tower (1828), at {{convert|234.25|ft|m}} tall, was the tallest building in the United States until the time of the Civil War, and is one of few remaining structures of its kind.Dorsey & Dilts (1997), pp. 182–183. "Once there were three such towers in Baltimore; now there are only a few left in the world." It was constructed without the use of exterior scaffolding. The Sun Iron Building, designed by R.C. Hatfield in 1851, was the city's first iron-front building and was a model for a whole generation of downtown buildings. Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, built in 1870 in memory of financier George Brown, has stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany and has been called "one of the most significant buildings in this city, a treasure of art and architecture" by Baltimore Magazine.MAGAZINE,weblink Window to the Future, Evitts, Elizabeth, April 2003, Baltimore (magazine), Baltimore Magazine, PDF,weblink" title="">weblink September 11, 2011, May 6, 2009, Brown Memorial Presbyterian Church, NEWS, Bishop, Tricia, Illuminated by a jewel, The Baltimore Sun, April 7, 2003,weblink May 6, 2009, The 1845 Greek Revival-style Lloyd Street Synagogue is one of the oldest synagogues in the United States. The Johns Hopkins Hospital, designed by Lt. Col. John S. Billings in 1876, was a considerable achievement for its day in functional arrangement and fireproofing.I.M. Pei's World Trade Center (1977) is the tallest equilateral pentagonal building in the world at {{convert|405|ft|m}} tall.The Harbor East area has seen the addition of two new towers which have completed construction: a 24-floor tower that is the new world headquarters of Legg Mason, and a 21-floor Four Seasons Hotel complex.The streets of Baltimore are organized in a grid pattern, lined with tens of thousands of brick and formstone-faced rowhouses. In The Baltimore Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure considered the rowhouse as the architectural form defining Baltimore as "perhaps no other American city."BOOK,weblink The Baltimore Rowhouse, Mary Ellen Hayward and Charles Belfoure, Princeton Architectural Press, 1999, 978-1-56898-283-0, back cover, March 21, 2011, In the mid-1790s, developers began building entire neighborhoods of the British-style rowhouses, which became the dominant house type of the city early in the 19th century.Hayward and Belfoure, pp 17–18, 22.Formstone facings, now a common feature on Baltimore rowhouses, were an addition patented in 1937 by Albert Knight. John Waters characterized formstone as "the polyester of brick" in a 30-minute documentary film, Little Castles: A Formstone Phenomenon.WEB,weblink The Story of Formstone, Welcome to Baltimore, Hon!, Paul K. Williams, September 23, 2009, March 21, 2011, Oriole Park at Camden Yards is a Major League Baseball park, opened in 1992, which was built as a retro style baseball park. Camden Yards, along with the National Aquarium, have helped revive the Inner Harbor from what once was an industrial district full of dilapidated warehouses into a bustling commercial district full of bars, restaurants and retail establishments. Today, the Inner Harbor has some of the most desirable real estate in the Mid-Atlantic.WEB,weblink Waterfront Mansion Overlooking Inner Harbor Priced At $8.5M " CBS Baltimore,, March 11, 2013, July 8, 2013, After an international competition, the University of Baltimore School of Law awarded the German firm Behnisch Architekten 1st prize for its design, which was selected for the school's new home. After the building's opening in 2013, the design won additional honors including an ENR National "Best of the Best" Award.WEB, University of Baltimore Law School Wins ENR National "Best of the Best" Award for Design and Construction,weblink Mueller Associates, January 2, 2014, May 13, 2017, Baltimore's newly rehabilitated Everyman Theatre was honored by the Baltimore Heritage at the 2013 Preservation Awards Celebration in 2013. Everyman Theatre will receive an Adaptive Reuse and Compatible Design Award as part of Baltimore Heritage's 2013 historic preservation awards ceremony. Baltimore Heritage is Baltimore's nonprofit historic and architectural preservation organization, which works to preserve and promote Baltimore's historic buildings and neighborhoods.WEB,weblink Everyman Theatre Honored with 'Baltimore Heritage Historic Preservation Award', July 8, 2013,

Tallest buildings

{| cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 0 1em 1em 0; font-size: 90%;" style="background:#ccc;"!Rank||Building||Height||Floors||Built||Transamerica Tower (Baltimore)>Transamerica Tower (formerly the Legg Mason Building, originally built as the U.S. Fidelity and Guarantee Co. Building)HOPKINS>FIRST=JAMIE SMITHURL=HTTP://ARTICLES.BALTIMORESUN.COM/2011-10-31/BUSINESS/BS-BZ-TRANSAMERICA-MOVE-20111031_1_LEXINGTON-REALTY-TRUST-LEGG-MASON-TOWER-OBER-KALERNEWSPAPER=THE BALTIMORE SUN529m PUBLISHER=EMPORIS CORPORATION, November 1, 2007, style="background:#efefef;"525mLAST=GANTZWORK=BALTIMORESUN.COMLANGUAGE=EN-US, Bank of America Building (Baltimore)>Bank of America Building (originally built as Baltimore Trust Building, later Sullivan, Mathieson, Md. Nat. Bank, NationsBank Bldgs.) {{convertft0}} 37 1929 HTTP://WWW.EMPORIS.COM/EN/WM/BU/?ID=BANKOFAMERICABUILDING-BALTIMORE-MD-USA > TITLE=BANK OF AMERICA BUILDING ACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2007, style="background:#efefef;"William Donald Schaefer Tower (originally built as the Merritt S. & L. Tower) >493m PUBLISHER=EMPORIS CORPORATION, November 1, 2007, Commerce Place (Baltimore)>Commerce Place (Alex. Brown & Sons/Deutsche Bank Tower) {{convertft0}} 31 1992 HTTP://WWW.EMPORIS.COM/EN/WM/BU/?ID=COMMERCEPLACE-BALTIMORE-MD-USA > TITLE=COMMERCE PLACE ACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2007, style="background:#efefef;"100 East Pratt Street (originally built as the I.B.M. Building)>418m PUBLISHER=EMPORIS CORPORATION, November 1, 2007, Baltimore World Trade Center >405m PUBLISHER=EMPORIS CORPORATION, November 1, 2007, style="background:#efefef;"Tremont Plaza Hotel >395m PUBLISHER=EMPORIS CORPORATION, November 1, 2007, Charles Center>Charles Towers South {{convertft0}} 30 1969 HTTP://WWW.EMPORIS.COM/EN/WM/BU/?ID=CHARLESTOWERSSOUTHAPARTMENTS-BALTIMORE-MD-USA > TITLE=CHARLES TOWERS SOUTH APARTMENTS ACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2007, style="background:#efefef;"1 Light Street >364m PUBLISHER=THE SKYSCRAPER CENTER, December 1, 2018, style="background:#efefef;"


{{See also|List of Baltimore neighborhoods}}File:Baltimore neighborhoods map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|A map of Baltimore with the official city-designated Baltimore neighborhoods, by the Baltimore City Dept. of Planning]]Baltimore is officially divided into nine geographical regions: North, Northeast, East, Southeast, South, Southwest, West, Northwest, and Central, with each district patrolled by a respective Baltimore Police Department. Interstate 83 and Charles Street down to Hanover Street and Ritchie Highway serve as the east-west dividing line and Eastern Avenue to Route 40 as the north-south dividing line; however, Baltimore Street is north-south dividing line for the U.S. Postal Service.BOOK,weblink Insiders' Guide to Baltimore, Mary K., Globe Pequot Press, Elizabeth A. Evitts, 2008, 978-0-7627-4553-1, 5th, Insiders' Guide Series, Guilford, Connecticut, 2, 144227820, Tilghman, registration, It is not uncommon for locals to divide the city simply by East or West Baltimore, using Charles Street or I-83 as a dividing line or into North and South using Baltimore Street as a dividing line.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}

Central Baltimore

Central Baltimore, originally called the Middle District,{{citation|title=Central District|url=|website=Baltimore City Police History|access-date=April 12, 2016}} stretches north of the Inner Harbor up to the edge of Druid Hill Park. Downtown Baltimore has mainly served as a commercial district with limited residential opportunities; however, between 2000 and 2010, the downtown population grew 130 percent as old commercial properties have been replaced by residential property. Still the city's main commercial area and business district, it includes Baltimore's sports complexes: Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and the Royal Farms Arena; and the shops and attractions in the Inner Harbor: Harborplace, the Baltimore Convention Center, the National Aquarium, Maryland Science Center, Pier Six Pavilion, and Power Plant Live.The University of Maryland, Baltimore, the University of Maryland Medical Center, and Lexington Market are also in the central district, as well as the Hippodrome and many nightclubs, bars, restaurants, shopping centers and various other attractions. The northern portion of Central Baltimore, between downtown and the Druid Hill Park, is home to many of the city's cultural opportunities. Maryland Institute College of Art, the Peabody Institute (music conservatory), George Peabody Library, Enoch Pratt Free Library – Central Library, the Lyric Opera House, the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall, the Walters Art Museum, the Maryland Historical Society and its Enoch Pratt Mansion, and several galleries are located in this region.WEB,weblink Baltimore, Visit Baltimore, May 1, 2016,

North Baltimore

File:1sherwoodgardens08.JPG|alt=Park and flowers at Sherwood Gardens, Guilford, Baltimore.|thumb|Sherwood GardensSherwood GardensNorth Baltimore lies directly north of Central Baltimore and is bounded on the east by The Alameda and on the west by Pimlico Road. Loyola University Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Homewood Campus, St. Mary's Seminary and University and Notre Dame of Maryland University are located in this district. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute high school for mathematics, science and engineering, and adjacent Western High School, the oldest remaining public girls secondary school in America, share a joint campus at West Cold Spring Lane and Falls Road.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}Several historic and notable neighborhoods are in this district: Govans (1755), Roland Park (1891), Guilford (1913), Homeland (1924), Hampden, Woodberry, Old Goucher (the original campus of Goucher College), and Jones Falls. Along the York Road corridor going north are the large neighborhoods of Charles Village, Waverly, and Mount Washington. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District is also located in North Baltimore.{{citation|title=Northern District Area Guide|url=|archiveurl=|at=Neighborhood Resources|publisher=Baltimore Police Department|access-date=April 12, 2016|archivedate=April 23, 2016}}

South Baltimore

(File:Federal Hill rowhouses.jpg|alt=Brick rowhouses with flags|thumb|Rowhouses, Federal Hill neighborhood, Baltimore)South Baltimore, a mixed industrial and residential area, consists of the "Old South Baltimore" peninsula below the Inner Harbor and east of the old B&O Railroad's Camden line tracks and Russell Street downtown. It is a culturally, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse waterfront area with neighborhoods such as Locust Point and Riverside around a large park of the same name.WEB,weblink Locust Point â€“ Celebrating 300 Years of a Historic Community, Scott Sheads, Locust Point Civic Association, April 1, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2007, Just south of the Inner Harbor, the historic Federal Hill neighborhood, is home to many working professionals, pubs and restaurants. At the end of the peninsula is historic Fort McHenry, a National Park since the end of World War I, when the old U.S. Army Hospital surrounding the 1798 star-shaped battlements was torn down.WEB,weblink Discover Federal Hill, Historic Federal Hill, April 1, 2011, The area south of the Vietnam Veterans (Hanover Street) Bridge and the Patapsco River was annexed to the city in 1919 from being independent towns in Anne Arundel County.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} Across the Hanover Street Bridge are residential areas such as Cherry Hill,WEB,weblink Cherry Hill Master Plan (II. History of Cherry Hill), July 10, 2008, Baltimore City Department of Planning, 10,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2011, April 1, 2011, Cherry Hill Community Web Site, Brooklyn, and Curtis Bay, with Fort Armistead bordering the city's south side from Anne Arundel County.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}

Northeast Baltimore

Northeast is primarily a residential neighborhood, home to Morgan State University, bounded by the city line of 1919 on its northern and eastern boundaries, Sinclair Lane, Erdman Avenue, and Pulaski Highway to the south and The Alameda on to the west. Also in this wedge of the city on 33rd Street is Baltimore City College high school, third oldest active public secondary school in the United States, founded downtown in 1839.NEWS,weblink Contrasting studies, July 29, 2007, Anft, Michael, The Baltimore Sun,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2005, dead, Across Loch Raven Boulevard is the former site of the old Memorial Stadium home of the Baltimore Colts, Baltimore Orioles, and Baltimore Ravens, now replaced by a YMCA athletic and housing complex.WEB,weblink Profile of General Demographic Characteristics (2000): Hillen, Baltimore Neighborhood Indicators Alliance, Baltimore City Department of Planning, PDF,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2011, March 29, 2011, WEB,weblink Profile of General Demographic Characteristics (2000): Stonewood-Pentwood-Winston, Baltimore Neighborhoods Indicators Alliance, Baltimore City Department of Planning, PDF,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2011, March 29, 2011, Lake Montebello is in Northeast Baltimore.

East Baltimore

Located below Sinclair Lane and Erdman Avenue, above Orleans Street, East Baltimore is mainly made up of residential neighborhoods. This section of East Baltimore is home to Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine on Broadway. Notable neighborhoods include: Armistead Gardens, Broadway East, Barclay, Ellwood Park, Greenmount, and McElderry Park.This area was the on-site film location for (Homicide: Life on the Street), The Corner and The Wire.NEWS,weblink A Guided Tour of "The Wire's" East Baltimore, Baltimore City Paper, Gadi Dechter, May 24, 2006, April 1, 2011,

Southeast Baltimore

Southeast Baltimore, located below Fayette Street, bordering the Inner Harbor and the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River to the west, the city line of 1919 on its eastern boundaries and the Patapsco River to the south, is a mixed industrial and residential area. Patterson Park, the "Best Backyard in Baltimore,"{{citation|last=Collins|first=Dan|title=Patterson Park: Best backyard in Baltimore|url=|newspaper=Washington Examiner|date=December 18, 2008|access-date=March 30, 2016}} as well as the Highlandtown Arts District, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center are located in Southeast Baltimore. The Shops at Canton Crossing opened in 2013.NEWS,weblink CBS Baltimore, The Shops at Canton Crossing is Officially Open for Business, October 8, 2013, April 12, 2016, The Canton neighborhood, is located along Baltimore's prime waterfront. Other historic neighborhoods include: Fells Point, Patterson Park, Butchers Hill, Highlandtown, Greektown, Harbor East, Little Italy, and Upper Fell's Point.

Northwest Baltimore

Northwestern is bounded by the county line to the north and west, Gwynns Falls Parkway on the south and Pimlico Road on the east, is home to Pimlico Race Course, Sinai Hospital, and the headquarters of the NAACP. Its neighborhoods are mostly residential and are dissected by Northern Parkway. The area has been the center of Baltimore's Jewish community since after World War II. Notable neighborhoods include: Pimlico, Mount Washington, and Cheswolde, and Park Heights.WEB,weblink Park Heights, Live in Baltimore, April 4, 2011,

West Baltimore

West Baltimore is west of downtown and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard and is bounded by Gwynns Falls Parkway, Fremont Avenue, and West Baltimore Street. The Old West Baltimore Historic District includes the neighborhoods of Harlem Park, Sandtown-Winchester, Druid Heights, Madison Park, and Upton.{{citation|publisher=National Register of Historic Places|title=Registration form: Old West Baltimore Historic District|date=November 9, 2004||url=|access-date=May 15, 2016}} Originally a predominantly German neighborhood, by the last half of the 1800s, Old West Baltimore was home to a substantial section of the city's African American population. It became the largest neighborhood for the city's black community and its cultural, political, and economic center.{{citation|title=Baltimore City Heritage Area: Management Action Plan|authors=HRG Consultants, Inc & AB Associates|date=Sep 2001|publisher=National Park Service||url=|access-date=May 15, 2016}} Coppin State University, Mondawmin Mall, and Edmondson Village are located in this district. The area's crime problems have provided subject material for television series, such as The Wire.{{citation|title=Part 3 Unhealthy Baltimore: Distrust in the hospital room|author=Capital News Service|newspaper=The Baltimore Sun|date=May 3, 2016|url=|access-date=May 15, 2016}} Local organizations, such as the Sandtown Habitat for Humanity and the Upton Planning Committee, have been steadily transforming parts of formerly blighted areas of West Baltimore into clean, safe communities.{{citation|last=Wheeler|first=Timothy B|title=Habitat group rehabs 300th home in Sandtown|newspaper=The Baltimore Sun|date=December 11, 2011|url=|access-date=May 15, 2016}}WEB,weblink Upton, Live in Baltimore,, n.d., May 15, 2016,

Southwest Baltimore

Southwest Baltimore is bound by the Baltimore County line to the west, West Baltimore Street to the north, and Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard and Russell Street/Baltimore-Washington Parkway (Maryland Route 295) to the east. Notable neighborhoods in Southwest Baltimore include: Pigtown, Carrolton Ridge, Ridgely's Delight, Leakin Park, Violetville, Lakeland, and Morrell Park.St. Agnes Hospital on Wilkens and Caton avenues is located in this district with the neighboring Cardinal Gibbons High School, which is the former site of Babe Ruth's alma mater, St. Mary's Industrial School.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} Also through this segment of Baltimore ran the beginnings of the historic National Road, which was constructed beginning in 1806 along Old Frederick Road and continuing into the county on Frederick Road into Ellicott City, Maryland.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} Other sides in this district are: Carroll Park, one of the city's largest parks, the colonial Mount Clare Mansion, and Washington Boulevard, which dates to pre-Revolutionary War days as the prime route out of the city to Alexandria, Virginia, and Georgetown on the Potomac River.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}}File:Parkside1.jpg|Belair-EdisonFile:Woodberry07.JPG|WoodberryFile:Res Hill HD Baltimore.JPG|Reservoir HillFile:Station North Arts District Baltimore Chas St.jpg|Station NorthFile:Fells Point A.JPG|Fells PointFile:GoodwoodGardens.jpg|Roland ParkFile:Baltimorewashingtonmonument.jpg|Mount Vernon

Adjacent communities

The City of Baltimore is bordered by the following communities, all unincorporated census-designated places.{hide}columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}


The city has a humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen: Cfa).WEB,weblink Baltimore, Maryland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 2019-03-08, Its Trewartha climate classification is defined as an oceanic climate (Do), like the other major cities in the region (NYC, Philadelphia) with blizzards but without having a continental climate by technical definition.{{Citation|last=Peterson|first=Adam|title=English: Trewartha climate types for the contiguous United States|date=2016-09-22|url=|access-date=2019-03-08}}WEB,weblink Winters are warming faster than summers. These US cities could lose the most freezing days by 2050., Irfan, Umair, 2018-12-20, Vox, 2019-03-08, Baltimore is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 7b and 8a.WEB,weblink USDA Zone Map Lookup: Baltimore, MD, The Arbor Day Foundation, July 8, 2013, Winters are chilly to mild but variable, with sporadic snowfall: January has a daily average of {{convert|35.8|°F|1}}, though temperatures reach {{convert|50|°F}} rather often and drop below {{convert|20|°F}} when Arctic air masses affect the area.The average seasonal snowfall is {{convert|20.1|in|cm}},WEB
, NowData â€“ NOAA Online Weather Data
, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
, July 8, 2013, but it varies greatly depending on the winter, with some seasons seeing minimal snow while others see several major Nor'easters. {{efn|Officially, seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from {{convert|0.7|in|cm|abbr=on}} in 1949–50 to {{convert|77.0|in|cm|abbr=on}} in 2009–10. See North American blizzard of 2009#Snowfall (December 19–20, 2009), February 5–6, 2010 North American blizzard#Snowfall, and February 9–10, 2010 North American blizzard#Impact. The February storms contributed to a monthly accumulation of {{convert|50.0|in|cm|abbr=on}}, the most for any month. If no snow fell outside of February that winter, 2009–10 would still rank as 5th snowiest.WEB, Baltimore Snowfall,weblink NWS Baltimore/Washington, June 15, 2014, }} Due to lessened urban heat island (UHI) as compared to the city proper and distance from the moderating Chesapeake Bay, the outlying and inland parts of the Baltimore metro area are usually cooler, especially at night, than the city proper and the coastal towns. Thus, in the northern and western suburbs, winter snowfall is more significant, and some areas average more than {{convert|30|in|cm|0|abbr=on}} of snow per winter.WEB, Maryland Average Annual Snowfall Map,weblink National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
, It is by no means uncommon for the rain-snow line to set up in the metro area.WEB
, NWS Sterling, VA – Snowfall and Cold
, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
, June 30, 2012
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, April 18, 2012
, Freezing rain and sleet occurs a few times each winter in the area, as warm air overrides cold air at the low to mid-levels of the atmosphere. When the wind blows from the east, the cold air gets dammed against the mountains to the west and the result is freezing rain or sleet.Spring and autumn are warm, with spring being the wettest season in terms of the number of precipitation days. Summers are hot and humid with a daily average in July of {{convert|80.7|°F|1}}, and the combination of heat and humidity leads to rather frequent thunderstorms. A southeasterly bay breeze off the Chesapeake often occurs on summer afternoons when hot air rises over inland areas; prevailing winds from the southwest interacting with this breeze as well as the city proper's UHI can seriously exacerbate air quality.JOURNAL, Sanderson, Katharine, Why it's hot in the city: Heat wave in Baltimore made worse by hot air from Washington DC.,weblink Nature (journal), Nature, May 31, 2014, 10.1038/news.2009.1164, 2009, WEB, Roylance, Frank D., D.C. heat stagnates Baltimore's air,weblink Baltimore Sun, January 8, 2010, May 31, 2014, In late summer and early autumn the track of hurricanes or their remnants may cause flooding in downtown Baltimore, despite the city being far removed from the typical coastal storm surge areas.JOURNAL, Mogil, H. Michael, Seaman, Kristen L., The Climate and Weather of Delaware, Maryland, and Washington, D.C., Weatherwise, July–August 2009,weblink May 31, 2014, File:Baltimore Weather.jpg|thumb|upright=1.8|right|Humidity can contribute to dramatic lightning stormlightning stormExtreme temperatures range from {{convert|−7|°F|0}} on February 9, 1934, and February 10, 1899,{{efn|Since 1950, when the National Weather Service switched to using the suburban and generally much cooler BWI Airport as the official Baltimore climatology station, this extreme has repeated three times: January 29, 1963, January 17, 1982, and January 22, 1984.}} up to {{convert|108|°F|0}} on July 22, 2011.WEB,weblink heat index " Maryland Weather,, August 4, 2015, WEB,weblink Past Monthly Weather Data for Baltimore July 1999–2014, Weather Warehouse, August 17, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2014, dead, On average, {{convert|100|°F}}+ temperatures occur on 0.9 days annually, {{convert|90|°F}}+ on 37 days, and there are 10 days where the high fails to reach the freezing mark.{{Baltimore weatherbox}}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Baltimore!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average sea temperature °F (°C)46.0(7.8)44.4(6.9)45.1(7.3)50.4(10.2)55.9(13.3)68.2(20.1)75.6(24.2)77.4(25.2)73.4(23.0)66.0(18.9)57.2(14.0)50.7(10.4)59.2(15.1)!Mean daily daylight hours10.!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas WEB,weblink Baltimore, Maryland, USA – Monthly weather forecast and Climate data, Weather Atlas, January 24, 2019,



{{US Census population|1790= 13503|1800= 26514|1810= 46555|1820= 62738|1830= 80620|1840= 102313|1850= 169054|1860= 212418|1870= 267354|1880= 332313|1890= 434439|1900= 508957|1910= 558485|1920= 733826|1930= 804874|1940= 859100|1950= 949708|1960= 939024|1970= 905787|1980= 786741|1990= 736016|2000= 651154|2010= 620961|estyear=2018|estimate=602495ACCESSDATE=APRIL 24, 2019, PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVE-DATE=MAY 12, 2015, 1790–1960HTTP://MAPSERVER.LIB.VIRGINIA.EDU>TITLE=HISTORICAL CENSUS BROWSERACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 14, 2014, 1900–1990HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPULATION/CENCOUNTS/MD190090.TXT>TITLE=POPULATION OF COUNTIES BY DECENNIAL CENSUS: 1900 TO 1990ACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 14, 2014, 1990–2000HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPULATION/WWW/CEN2000/BRIEFS/PHC-T4/TABLES/TAB02.PDF>TITLE=CENSUS 2000 PHC-T-4. RANKING TABLES FOR COUNTIES: 1990 AND 2000ACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 14, 2014, 2010–2018STATE & COUNTY QUICKFACTS>URL=HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/TABLE/INC110214/24510ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 23, 2017, }}According to the {{as of|2010|alt=2010 Census}}, there were 620,961 people living in Baltimore City in 242,268 households. The population decreased by 4.6% since the 2000 Census. Among school-age children between 5–17 years old, there was a 23% decline.NEWS
, Sherman, Natalie, City hopes to get more families to stay,weblink Baltim. Sun, The Baltimore Sun, April 17, 2015, April 19, 2015, Baltimore's population has declined at each census since its peak in 1950.NEWS,weblink Families increasing in downtown Baltimore, Rachel Bernstein, The Daily Record, May 17, 2011, January 8, 2012,
In 2011, then-Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake said her main goal was to increase the city's population by improving city services to reduce the number of people leaving the city and by passing legislation protecting immigrants' rights to stimulate growth. For the first time in decades, in July 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau's census estimate showed the population grew by 1,100 residents, a 0.2% increase from the previous year.NEWS
, March 14, 2013, Kilar, Steve,weblink Baltimore's population up, following decades of loss, Baltim. Sun, The Baltimore Sun, July 8, 2013, Baltimore is sometimes identified as a sanctuary city.NEWS, Laura, Schwartzman,weblink Legislation would ban Takoma Park sanctuary policies, Capital News Service, March 19, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2017, The Gazette (Maryland), The Gazette, Mayor Jack Young said in 2019 that Baltimore will not assist ICE agents with immigration raids.WEB, U.S. Cities Prepare For Planned ICE Raids,weblink National Public Radio, July 13, 2019, Vanessa, Romo, Dani, Matias, September 5, 2019,
Gentrification has increased since the 2000 census, primarily in East Baltimore, downtown, and Central Baltimore.NEWS
, Litten, Kevin, This map shows the gentrification of Baltimore's neighborhoods over 20 years,weblink April 19, 2015, Baltim. Bus. J., Baltimore Business Journal, March 9, 2015, Downtown Baltimore and its surrounding neighborhoods are seeing a resurgence of young professionals and immigrants, mirroring major cities across the country.
After New York City, Baltimore was the second city in the United States to reach a population of 100,000.WEB,weblink 1840 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places, U.S. Census Bureau, March 29, 2011, WEB,weblink 1850 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places, U.S. Census Bureau, March 29, 2011, From the 1830 through 1850 U.S. censuses, Baltimore was the second most-populous city,WEB,weblink 1830 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places, U.S. Census Bureau, March 29, 2011, before being surpassed by Philadelphia in 1860.WEB,weblink 1860 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places, U.S. Census Bureau, March 29, 2011, It was among the top 10 cities in population in the United States in every census up to the 1980 census,WEB,weblink 1980 Fast Facts: 10 Largest Urban Places, U.S. Census Bureau, March 29, 2011, and after World War II had a population of nearly 1 million.


{{Further|Ethnic groups in Baltimore}}(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Baltimore (5559896701).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in Baltimore, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian Hispanic, or Other (yellow)){| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Demographic profile !! 2010WEB, Census 2010, Summary File 1. Baltimore city – Race Profile 1: Detailed Race by Hispanic/Latino Ethnicity, with Total Tallies,, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink January 22, 2017, Maryland Department of Planning, !! 1990WEB, Maryland – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink January 2, 2012,weblink August 6, 2012, dead, !! 1970 !! 1940White American>White 29.6% 39.1% 53.0% 80.6%Non-Hispanic whites >| 80.6%African American>Black or African American 63.7% 59.2% 46.4% 19.3%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 4.2% 1.0% 0.9% 0.1%Asian American>Asian 2.3% 1.1% 0.3% 0.1% According to the {{asof|2010|alt=2010 Census}}, Baltimore's population is 63.7% Black, 29.6% White, 2.3% Asian, and 0.4%, American Indian and Alaska Native. Across races, 4.2% of the population are of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin. Females made up 53.4% of the population. The median age was 35 years old, with 22.4% under 18 years old, 65.8% from 18 to 64 years old, and 11.8% 65 or older.In 2005, approximately 30,778 people (6.5%) identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.WEB,weblink Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey, Gary J. Gates, PhD, The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation, January 22, 2014, In 2012, same-sex marriage in Maryland was legalized, going into effect January 1, 2013.NEWS,weblink Voters OK gay marriage in Maine, Maryland, Alana Semuels, The Los Angeles Times, November 7, 2012, January 22, 2014,

Income and housing

In 2009, the median household income was $42,241 and the median income per capita was $25,707, compared to the national median income of $53,889 per household and $28,930 per capita. In Baltimore, 23.7% of the population lived below the poverty line, compared to 13.5% nationwide.Housing in Baltimore is relatively inexpensive for large, coastal cities of its size. The median sale price for homes in Baltimore in 2012 was $95,000.WEB, Additional Statistics for Single Family Homes and Condos in Baltimore, MD,weblink Baltimore Real Estate Market,, February 5, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 11, 2012, mdy-all, Despite the housing collapse, and along with the national trends, Baltimore residents still face slowly increasing rent (up 3% in the summer of 2010).NEWS,weblink The Baltimore Sun-news, A smaller rent increase for a wider swath of Baltimore apartments, Jamie Smith Hopkins, October 27, 2010, March 18, 2011, The homeless population in Baltimore is steadily increasing; it exceeded 4,000 people in 2011. The increase in the number of young homeless people was particularly severe.NEWS, Smith, Van, Census shows striking growth in Baltimore homelessness Population swells nearly 20 percent in two years; ranks of homeless young people increase 50 percent,weblink August 9, 2012, CityPaper, October 19, 2011, The biennial homeless censuses, which are required under federal law and are conducted on a single day—this year, Jan. 25—have trended upward since the first one in 2003 counted 2,681 homeless people in Baltimore, compared to 4,088 this year, according to the report by Morgan State's School of Architecture and Planning. Called a "point-in-time" survey, the census effort looks for homeless people living on the streets as well as those checking into shelters and hospital emergency rooms and receiving other homeless services. The count of Baltimore's young homeless people, which is evaluated separately by the Center for Adolescent Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and is undertaken over a period of weeks instead of one day, has risen 135 percent since 2007, from 272 to 640. Rather than canvassing the streets for homeless youngsters, the effort relies on data provided by cooperating service providers, including the city public-schools system., dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2012, mdy-all,

Life expectancy

As of 2015, life expectancy in Baltimore was 74 to 75 years, compared to the U.S. average of 78 to 80. Fourteen neighborhoods had lower life expectancies than North Korea. The life expectancy in Downtown/Seton Hill was comparable to that of Yemen.NEWS,weblink 14 Baltimore neighborhoods have lower life expectancies than North Korea, The Washington Post, April 30, 2015, Christopher, Ingraham, August 3, 2019,


File:Baltimore Basilica, Baltimore, Maryland.JPG|left|thumb|Baltimore BasilicaBaltimore BasilicaA little under half (47%) of people in Baltimore report affiliating with a religion. Catholicism is the largest religious affiliation, comprising 12% percent of the population, followed by the Baptist Church (7%), then Judaism (4.3%). Around 11.4% identify with other Christian denominations.WEB,weblink Baltimore Population 2013, World Population Statistics, September 2, 2013, February 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Baltimore, Maryland: Religion, Sperling's Best Places, February 6, 2016,


{{as of|2010}}, 91% (526,705) of Baltimore residents five years old and older spoke only English at home. Close to 4% (21,661) spoke Spanish. Other languages, such as African languages, French, and Chinese are spoken by less than 1% of the population.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 19, 2006, Baltimore (city) County, Maryland, Modern Language Association, August 10, 2013,


File:2016-05-11 18 45 30 Baltimore City Police Car at the intersection of Franklin Street (U.S. Route 40) and Franklintown Road in Baltimore City, Maryland.jpg|thumb|Patrol car of the Baltimore Police DepartmentBaltimore Police DepartmentCrime in Baltimore, generally concentrated in areas high in poverty, has been far above the national average for many years. Overall reported crime has dropped by 60% from the mid 1990s to the mid 2010s, but homicide rates remain high and exceed the national average. The worst years for crime in Baltimore overall were from 1993 to 1996; with 96,243 crimes reported in 1995. Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015 represented the highest homicide rate in the city's recorded history—52.5 per 100,000 people, surpassing the record set in 1993—and the second-highest for U.S. cities behind St. Louis and ahead of Detroit. To put that in perspective, New York City, a city with a 2015 population of 8,491,079, recorded a total of 339 homicides in 2015. Baltimore had a 2015 population of 621,849; which means that in 2015 Baltimore had a homicide rate 14 times higher than New York City's. Of Baltimore's 344 homicides in 2015, 321 (93.3%) of the victims were African-American.{{citation needed|date=April 2017}} Chicago, which saw 762 homicides in 2016 compared to Baltimore's 318, still had a homicide rate (27.2) that was half of Baltimore's because Chicago has a population 4 times greater than Baltimore's.{{citation needed|date=April 2017}} As of 2018, the murder rate in Baltimore was higher than that of El Salvador, Guatemala, or Honduras.NEWS,weblink WJZ-TV, Fact Check: Is Baltimore's Murder Rate Higher Than Central American Countries'?, August 1, 2019, Logan, Reigstad, August 3, 2019, Drug use and deaths by drug use (particularly drugs used intravenously, such as heroin) are a related problem which has crippled Baltimore for decades. Among cities greater than 400,000, Baltimore ranked 2nd in its opiate drug death rate in the United States behind Dayton, Ohio. The DEA reported that 10% of Baltimore's population â€“ about 64,000 people â€“ are addicted to heroin.WEB,weblink 30 Most Drug Addicted Cities in America,, WEB,weblink Violent Crime & Property Crime by County: 1975 to Present – Open Data –,, NEWS,weblink Baltimore Homicides, The Baltimore Sun, December 14, 2015, NEWS,weblink Per capita, Baltimore reaches its highest ever homicide rate, The Baltimore Sun, November 17, 2015, December 3, 2015, Kevin, Rector, Justin, Fenton, NEWS,weblink 46 slayings in 41 days push homicide rate up, The Baltimore Sun, November 11, 1994, December 3, 2015, Michael, James, 1993, the city's most murderous year ever with 353 killings, In 2011, Baltimore police reported 196 homicides, the lowest number in the city since a count of 197 homicides in 1978 and far lower than the peak homicide count of 353 slayings in 1993. City leaders at the time credited a sustained focus on repeat violent offenders and increased community engagement for the continued drop, reflecting a nationwide decline in crime.NEWS,weblink Baltimore has fewer than 200 killings for first time in decades, The Baltimore Sun, Justin Fenton, January 1, 2012, NEWS,weblink As Baltimore's homicide total climbs, D.C. murders plummet, Baltimore Brew, Mark Reutter, November 25, 2012, On August 8, 2014, Baltimore's new youth curfew law went into effect. It prohibits unaccompanied children under age 14 from being on the streets after 9 p.m. and those aged 14–16 from being out after 10 p.m. during the week and 11 p.m. on weekends and during the summer. The goal is to keep children out of dangerous places and reduce crime.WEB, Honan, Edith, Go home kids: Baltimore launches strict evening curfew for youth,weblink, The Washington Post, August 10, 2014, Crime in Baltimore reached another peak in 2015 when the year's tally of 344 homicides was second only to the record 353 in 1993, when Baltimore had about 100,000 more residents. The killings in 2015 were on pace with recent years in the early months of 2015 but skyrocketed after the unrest and rioting of late April. In five of the next eight months, killings topped 30–40 per month. Nearly 90 percent of 2015's homicides were the result of shootings, renewing calls for new gun laws. In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the Baltimore Police Department, there were 318 murders in the city.Rector, Kevin (January 3, 2017). "Baltimore police identify last homicide victim of 2016, one of first in 2017." The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved January 14, 2017. This total marked a 7.56 percent decline in homicides from 2015.In an interview in The Guardian, on November 2, 2017,Gately, Gary (November 2, 2017). " Baltimore is more murderous than Chicago. Can anyone save the city from itself?" The Guardian. David Simon, himself a former police reporter for The Baltimore Sun, ascribed the most recent surge in murders to the high-profile decision by Baltimore state's attorney, Marilyn Mosby, to charge six city police officers following the death of Freddie Gray after he fell into a coma while in police custody in April 2015. "What Mosby basically did was send a message to the Baltimore police department: 'I'm going to put you in jail for making a bad arrest.' So officers figured it out: 'I can go to jail for making the wrong arrest, so I'm not getting out of my car to clear a corner,' and that's exactly what happened post-Freddie Gray." In Baltimore arrest numbers have plummeted from more than 40,000 in 2014, the year before Freddie Gray's death and the subsequent charges against the officers, to about 18,000 in 2017 (primo November). This happened even as homicides soared from 211 in 2014 to 344 in 2015 â€“ an increase of 63%.


Once a predominantly industrial town, with an economic base focused on steel processing, shipping, auto manufacturing (General Motors Baltimore Assembly), and transportation, the city experienced deindustrialization which cost residents tens of thousands of low-skill, high-wage jobs.BOOK, Vicino, Thomas J., Transforming Race and Class in Suburbia: Decline in Metropolitan Baltimore, 2008, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 978-0-230-60545-9,weblink The city now relies on a low-wage service economy, which accounts for 31% of jobs in the city.WEB,weblink Occupational Employment and Wages in Baltimore-Towson – May 2015 : Mid–Atlantic Information Office : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,, November 22, 2016, NEWS, Hopkins, Jamie Smith, 'Next economy' envisioned for Baltimore region: Brookings study calls on leaders to reshape economy, reverse low-wage trend,weblink October 7, 2012, Baltimore Sun, April 26, 2012, Around the turn of the 20th century, Baltimore was the leading US manufacturer of rye whiskey and straw hats. It also led in refining of crude oil, brought to the city by pipeline from Pennsylvania.WEB,weblink Maryland Rye Whiskey Has Finally Returned. But What Was It in the First Place?, New York Times, March 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Baltimore Industry, March 17, 2019, WEB,weblink Baltimore's Key Industries,, August 4, 2015, {{as of|2018|March|}} the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates Baltimore's unemployment rate at 5.8%WEB,weblink the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,, September 26, 2018, while one quarter of Baltimore residents (and 37% of Baltimore children) live in poverty.NEWS, Kilar, Steve, Baltimore's poverty rate unchanged at 1 in 4 residents: More young Marylanders insured following healthcare overhaul,weblink October 7, 2012, Baltimore Sun, September 20, 2012, The 2012 closure of a major steel plant at Sparrows Point is expected to have a further impact on employment and the local economy.NEWS, Shen, Fern, Baltimore steelworkers brace for unemployment: "It's rough out there" Men and women schooled in steelmaking reflect on their future.,weblink October 7, 2012, Baltimore Brew, August 20, 2012, The Census Bureau reported in 2013 that 207,000 workers commute into Baltimore city each day.WEB,weblink Census Bureau Reports 207,000 Workers Commute into Baltimore city, Md., Each Day, March 5, 2013, May 23, 2015, U.S. Census Bureau, Downtown Baltimore is the primary economic asset within Baltimore City and the region with 29.1 million square feet of office space. The tech sector is rapidly growing as the Baltimore metro ranks 8th in the CBRE Tech Talent Report among 50 U.S. metro areas for high growth rate and number of tech professionals.WEB,weblink Demand for Tech Workers Driving Office Market Momentum, says new CBRE Report Ranking Top 50 U.S. 'Tech Talent' Markets, April 13, 2015, May 23, 2015, CBRE, Forbes ranked Baltimore fourth among America's "new tech hot spots".MAGAZINE,weblink America's New Tech Hot Spots, Forbes, January 10, 2013, May 23, 2015, {{wide image|BaltimorePano.jpg|1100px|3=Inner Harbor Panorama.}}{{wide image|Baltimore Inner Harbor Skyline Panorama.jpg|1100px|3=Panoramic view of the Baltimore Inner Harbor and Harbor Point waterfront development as seen from the Domino Sugar factory.}}The city is home to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Other large (:Category:Companies based in Baltimore|companies in Baltimore) include Under Armour,NEWS, Mirabella, Lorraine, Under Armour's growth worries some neighbors: Company plans to double size of Baltimore headquarters,weblink October 5, 2012, Baltimore Sun, October 14, 2011, BRT Laboratories, Cordish Company,WEB, Company Overview of The Cordish Company, Inc.,weblink Real Estate Management and Development, Business Week, October 5, 2012, Legg Mason, McCormick & Company, T. Rowe Price, and Royal Farms.NEWS, Best Convenience-Store Dining: Royal Farms,weblink October 5, 2012, CityPaper, September 19, 2001, A sugar refinery owned by American Sugar Refining is one of Baltimore's cultural icons. Nonprofits based in Baltimore include Lutheran Services in America and Catholic Relief Services.Almost a quarter of the jobs in the Baltimore region were in science, technology, engineering and math as of mid 2013, in part attributed to the city's extensive undergraduate and graduate schools; maintenance and repair experts were included in this count.NEWS,weblink STEM jobs account for 23% of Baltimore-area workforce, Brookings says, July 8, 2013,


The center of international commerce for the region is the World Trade Center Baltimore. It houses the Maryland Port Administration and U.S. headquarters for major shipping lines. Baltimore is ranked 9th for total dollar value of cargo and 13th for cargo tonnage for all U.S. ports. In 2014, total cargo moving through the port totaled 29.5 million tons, down from 30.3 million tons in 2013. The value of cargo traveling through the port in 2014 came to $52.5 billion, down from $52.6 billion in 2013. The Port of Baltimore generates $3 billion in annual wages and salary, as well as supporting 14,630 direct jobs and 108,000 jobs connected to port work. In 2014, the port also generated more than $300 million in taxes. It serves over 50 ocean carriers making nearly 1,800 annual visits. Among all U.S. ports, Baltimore is first in handling automobiles, light trucks, farm and construction machinery; and imported forest products, aluminum, and sugar. The port is second in coal exports. The Port of Baltimore's cruise industry, which offers year-round trips on several lines supports over 500 jobs and brings in over $90 million to Maryland's economy annually. Growth at the port continues with the Maryland Port Administration plans to turn the southern tip of the former steel mill into a marine terminal, primarily for car and truck shipments, but also for anticipated new business coming to Baltimore after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project.WEB,weblink Port of Baltimore, Maryland,, October 13, 2015,


Baltimore's history and attractions have allowed the city to become a strong tourist destination on the East Coast. In 2014, the city hosted 24.5 million visitors, who spent $5.2 billion.WEB,weblink Baltimore attracted record visits, spending in 2014 | Baltimore, MD | U.S. News Hub – 8/19/2015,, August 19, 2015, October 13, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2015, The Baltimore Visitor Center, which is operated by Visit Baltimore, is located on Light Street in the Inner Harbor. Much of the city's tourism centers around the Inner Harbor, with the National Aquarium being Maryland's top tourist destination. Baltimore Harbor's restoration has made it "a city of boats," with several historic ships and other attractions on display and open for the public to visit. The USS Constellation, the last Civil War-era vessel afloat, is docked at the head of the Inner Harbor; the USS Torsk, a submarine that holds the Navy's record for dives (more than 10,000); and the Coast Guard cutter Taney, the last surviving U.S. warship that was in Pearl Harbor during the Japanese attack on December 7, 1941, and which engaged Japanese Zero aircraft during the battle.NEWS, Stephen Blakely, Soundings, November 1, 2010, The best of Baltimore Begins at the deck of your boat,weblink Also docked is the lightship Chesapeake, which for decades marked the entrance to Chesapeake Bay; and the Seven Foot Knoll Lighthouse, the oldest surviving screw-pile lighthouse on Chesapeake Bay, which once marked the mouth of the Patapsco River and the entrance to Baltimore. All of these attractions are owned and maintained by the Historic Ships in Baltimore organization. The Inner Harbor is also the home port of Pride of Baltimore II, the state of Maryland's "goodwill ambassador" ship, a reconstruction of a famous Baltimore Clipper ship.Other tourist destinations include sporting venues such as Oriole Park at Camden Yards, M&T Bank Stadium, and Pimlico Race Course, Fort McHenry, the Mount Vernon, Federal Hill, and Fells Point neighborhoods, Lexington Market, Horseshoe Casino, and museums such as the Walters Art Museum, the Baltimore Museum of Industry, the Babe Ruth Birthplace and Museum, the Maryland Science Center, and the B&O Railroad Museum.The Baltimore Convention Center is home to BronyCon, the world's largest convention for fans of (My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic). The convention had over 6,300 attendees in 2017, and 10,011 attendees during its peak in 2015.{{citation needed|date=August 2017}}File:Baltimore Visitor Center.JPG|Baltimore Visitor Center in Inner HarborFile:Fountain@InnerHarbor Baltimore.JPG|Fountain near visitor center in Inner HarborFile:Sunset@Baltimore 1.JPG|Sunset views from Baltimore's Inner HarborFile:Sunset@Baltimore 2.JPG|File:Sunset@Baltimore 3.JPG|File:Sunset@Baltimore II.JPGFile:BaltimoreNationalAquarium.JPG|Baltimore is the home of the National Aquarium, one of the world's largest.


{{See also|List of people from Baltimore|Music of Baltimore|List of museums in Baltimore}}(File:Washington Monument (Baltimore).png|thumb|upright|The Washington Monument)Historically a working-class port town, Baltimore has sometimes been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods", with 72 designated historic districtsWEB
, Baltimore City Residents
, City of Baltimore, Maryland
, June 5, 2009
,weblink" title="">weblink
, June 21, 2009
, dead
, mdy-all
, traditionally occupied by distinct ethnic groups. Most notable today are three downtown areas along the port: the Inner Harbor, frequented by tourists due to its hotels, shops, and museums; Fells Point, once a favorite entertainment spot for sailors but now refurbished and gentrified (and featured in the movie Sleepless in Seattle); and Little Italy, located between the other two, where Baltimore's Italian-American community is based â€“ and where U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi grew up. Further inland, Mount Vernon is the traditional center of cultural and artistic life of the city; it is home to a distinctive Washington Monument, set atop a hill in a 19th-century urban square, that predates the more well-known monument in Washington, D.C. by several decades. Baltimore also has a significant German American population,WEB,weblink Germans to America â€“ Lists of Passengers Arriving at U.S. Ports 1850–1897, German Roots, July 8, 2013, and was the second largest port of immigration to the United States, behind Ellis Island in New York and New Jersey. Between 1820 and 1989, almost 2 million who were German, Polish, English, Irish, Russian, Lithuanian, French, Ukrainian, Czech, Greek and Italian came to Baltimore, most between the years 1861 to 1930. By 1913, when Baltimore was averaging forty thousand immigrants per year, World War I closed off the flow of immigrants. By 1970, Baltimore's heyday as an immigration center was a distant memory. There also was a Chinatown dating back to at least the 1880s which consisted of no more than 400 Chinese residents. A local Chinese-American association remains based there, but only one Chinese restaurant as of 2009.File:BromoSeltzertowerBaltimore.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Emerson Bromo-Seltzer TowerEmerson Bromo-Seltzer TowerBaltimore has quite a history when it comes to making beer, an art that thrived in Baltimore from the 1800s to the 1950s with over 100 old breweries in the city's past.WEB,weblink Old Baltimore Breweries, Thomas Paul,, August 4, 2015, The best remaining example of that history is the old American Brewery Building on North Gay Street and the National Brewing Company building in the Brewer's Hill neighborhood. In the 1940s the National Brewing Company introduced the nation's first six-pack. National's two most prominent brands, were National Bohemian Beer colloquially "Natty Boh" and Colt 45. Listed on the Pabst website as a "Fun Fact", Colt 45 was named after running back #45 Jerry Hill of the 1963 Baltimore Colts and not the .45 caliber handgun ammunition round. Both brands are still made today, albeit outside of Maryland, and served all around the Baltimore area at bars, as well as Orioles and Ravens games.NEWS, Maza, Erik,weblink National Bohemian beer to be served on draft again, July 6, 2012, The Baltimore Sun, January 26, 2011, The Natty Boh logo appears on all cans, bottles, and packaging; and merchandise featuring him can still easily be found in shops in Maryland, including several in Fells Point.Each year the Artscape takes place in the city in the Bolton Hill neighborhood, due to its proximity to Maryland Institute College of Art. Artscape styles itself as the "largest free arts festival in America".NEWS,weblink Artscape 2010 in Baltimore, Mike Unger, Baltimore, March 15, 2011, Each May, the Maryland Film Festival takes place in Baltimore, using all five screens of the historic Charles Theatre as its anchor venue. Many movies and television shows have been filmed in Baltimore. The Wire was set and filmed in Baltimore. House of Cards and Veep are set in Washington, D.C. but filmed in Baltimore.WEB,weblink David Zurawik, The Baltimore Sun, February 1, 2013, Spacey, Fincher build a winning 'House of Cards' for Netflix, September 17, 2014, Baltimore has cultural museums in many areas of study. The Baltimore Museum of Art, and the Walters Art Museum are internationally renowned for its collection of art. The Baltimore Museum of Art has the largest holding of works by Henri Matisse in the world.WEB,weblink About The Baltimore Museum of Art, The Baltimore Museum of Art, February 6, 2016, The National Great Blacks In Wax Museum is the first African American wax museum in the country, featuring more than 150 life-size and lifelike wax figures.


Baltimore is known for its Maryland blue crabs, crab cake, Old Bay Seasoning, pit beef, and the "chicken box." The city has many restaurants in or around the Inner Harbor. The most known and acclaimed are the Charleston, Woodberry Kitchen, and the Charm City Cakes bakery featured on the Food Network's Ace of Cakes. The Little Italy neighborhood's biggest draw is the food. Fells Point also is a foodie neighborhood for tourists and locals and is where the oldest continuously running tavern in the country, "The Horse You Came in on Saloon," is located.WEB,weblink Edgar Allen [sic] Poe Lives @ The Horse You Came in On, Math Teacher, July 31, 2008, February 6, 2016, Groundspeak, Many of the city's upscale restaurants can be found in Harbor East. Five public markets are located across the city. The Baltimore Public Market System is the oldest continuously operating public market system in the United States.WEB,weblink History, Baltimore Public Markets Corporation, February 6, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2015, Lexington Market is one of the longest-running markets in the world and longest running in the country, having been around since 1782. The market continues to stand at its original site. Baltimore is the last place in America where one can still find arabbers, vendors who sell fresh fruits and vegetables from a horse-drawn cart that goes up and down neighborhood streets.WEB,weblink Baltimore and Chesapeake Bay Travel Guide, The Travel Channel, Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern, February 6, 2016, Food- and drink-rating site Zagat ranked Baltimore second in a list of the 17 best food cities in the country in 2015.WEB,weblink The 17 best US cities for people who really like to eat, Tanza, Loudenback, Business Insider, December 30, 2015, February 6, 2016,

Local dialect

Baltimore city, along with its surrounding regions, is home to a unique local dialect. It is part of Mid-Atlantic American English and is noted to be very similar to the Philadelphia accent, albeit with more southern influences.BOOK, Labov, William, William Labov, Ash, Sharon, Boberg, Charles, 2005, The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 978-3-11-020683-8, WEB,weblink The Mid-Atlantic Dialects, Evolution Publishing, March 29, 2011, The so-called "Bawlmerese" accent is known for its characteristic pronunciation of its long "o" vowel, in which an "eh" sound is added before the long "o" sound.WEB,weblink Baltimore's Dialect: North or South, Hon?, April 18, 2018, It also adopts Philadelphia's pattern of the short "a" sound, such that the tensed vowel in words like "bath" or "ask" does not match the more relaxed one in "sad" or "act".Baltimore native John Waters parodies the city and its dialect extensively in his films. Most of them are filmed and/or set in Baltimore, including the 1972 cult classic Pink Flamingos, as well as Hairspray and its Broadway musical remake.{{See also|List of films shot in Baltimore}}

Performing arts

File:Hippodrome Baltimore.JPG|thumb|Hippodrome Baltimore ]]Baltimore has three state-designated arts and entertainment (A & E) districts. The Station North Arts and Entertainment District, Highlandtown Arts District, and the Bromo Arts & Entertainment District. The Baltimore Office of Promotion & The Arts, a non-profit organization, produces events and arts programs as well as manages several facilities. It is the official Baltimore City Arts Council. BOPA coordinates Baltimore's major events including New Year's Eve and July 4 celebrations at the Inner Harbor, Artscape which is America's largest free arts festival, Baltimore Book Festival, Baltimore Farmers' Market & Bazaar, School 33 Art Center's Open Studio Tour and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Parade.WEB,weblink About Us, Baltimore Office of Promotion and The Arts, February 6, 2016, The Baltimore Symphony Orchestra is an internationally renowned orchestra, founded in 1916 as a publicly funded municipal organization. The current Music Director is Marin Alsop, a protégé of Leonard Bernstein. Centerstage is the premier theater company in the city and a regionally well-respected group. The Lyric Opera House is the home of Lyric Opera Baltimore, which operates there as part of the Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center. The Baltimore Consort has been a leading early music ensemble for over twenty-five years. The France-Merrick Performing Arts Center, home of the restored Thomas W. Lamb-designed Hippodrome Theatre, has afforded Baltimore the opportunity to become a major regional player in the area of touring Broadway and other performing arts presentations. Renovating Baltimore's historic theatres have become widespread throughout the city such as the Everyman, Centre, Senator and most recent Parkway theatre. Other buildings have been reused such as the former Mercantile Deposit and Trust Company bank building. It is now the Chesapeake Shakespeare Company Theater.Baltimore also boasts a wide array of professional (non-touring) and community theater groups. Aside from Center Stage, resident troupes in the city include The Vagabond Players, the oldest continuously operating community theater group in the country, Everyman Theatre, Single Carrot Theatre, and Baltimore Theatre Festival. Community theaters in the city include Fells Point Community Theatre and the Arena Players Inc., which is the nation's oldest continuously operating African American community theater.WEB,weblink Baltimore's African American Heritage and Attractions Guide: Visual and Performing Arts, Visit Baltimore (affiliated with the Baltimore Convention & Tourism Board), January 5, 2010, In 2009, the Baltimore Rock Opera Society, an all-volunteer theatrical company, launched its first production.NEWS, Tales of Brotopia: The Baltimore Rock Opera Society drops Gründlehämmer, Michael Byrne,weblink Baltimore City Paper, September 30, 2009, July 7, 2011, Baltimore is home to the Pride of Baltimore Chorus, a three-time international silver medalist women's chorus, affiliated with Sweet Adelines International. The Maryland State Boychoir is located in the northeastern Baltimore neighborhood of Mayfield.Baltimore is the home of non-profit chamber music organization Vivre Musicale. VM won a 2011–2012 award for Adventurous Programming from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers and Chamber Music America.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Presenters and Ensembles Honored for Adventurous Programming of Contemporary Music, Chamber Music America, PDF, December 13, 2011, February 15, 2012, The Peabody Institute, located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood, is the oldest conservatory of music in the United States.WEB,weblink The Peabody Institute at the Johns Hopkins University â€“ The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts,, July 8, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2013, Established in 1857, it is one of the most prestigious in the world, along with Juilliard, Eastman, and the Curtis Institute. The Morgan State University Choir is also one of the nation's most prestigious university choral ensembles.NEWS,weblink Morgan State Choir Director Nathan M. Carter Dies at 68, Schudel, Matt, July 27, 2004, January 22, 2016, The Washington Post, led the Morgan State University Choir in performances all over the world while building it into one of the premier vocal groups in the nation, The city is home to the Baltimore School for the Arts, a public high school in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore. The institution is nationally recognized for its success in preparation for students entering music (vocal/instrumental), theatre (acting/theater production), dance, and visual arts.



File:CamdenYards 2005-05-08.jpg|upright=1.15|thumb|Oriole Park at Camden YardsOriole Park at Camden Yards{{Further|List of World Series champions|American League Championship Series}}Baltimore has a long and storied baseball history, including its distinction as the birthplace of Babe Ruth in 1895. The original 19th century Baltimore Orioles were one of the most successful early franchises, featuring numerous hall of famers during its years from 1882 to 1899.As one of the eight inaugural American League franchises, the Baltimore Orioles played in the AL during the 1901 and 1902 seasons. The team moved to New York City before the 1903 season and was renamed the New York Highlanders, which later became the New York Yankees.Ruth played for the minor league Baltimore Orioles team, which was active from 1903 to 1914. After playing one season in 1915 as the Richmond Climbers, the team returned the following year to Baltimore, where it played as the Orioles until 1953.WEB,weblink Baltimore Orioles (minors),, Sports Reference, LLC, April 5, 2011, The team currently known as the Baltimore Orioles has represented Major League Baseball locally since 1954 when the St. Louis Browns moved to the city of Baltimore. The Orioles advanced to the World Series in 1966, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1979 and 1983, winning three times (1966, 1970 and 1983), while making the playoffs all but one year (1972) from 1969 through 1974.In 1995, local player (and later Hall of Famer) Cal Ripken, Jr. broke Lou Gehrig's streak of 2,130 consecutive games played, for which Ripken was named Sportsman of the Year by Sports Illustrated magazine.{{citation needed|date=February 2014}} Six former Orioles players, including Ripken (2007), and two of the team's managers have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.Since 1992, the Orioles' home ballpark has been Oriole Park at Camden Yards, which has been hailed as one of the league's best since it opened.{{citation needed|date=March 2018}}


{{Further|History of the Baltimore Colts|History of the Baltimore Ravens}}File:M&T Bank Stadium DoD.jpg|thumb|M&T Bank StadiumM&T Bank StadiumPrior to an NFL team moving to Baltimore, there had been several attempts at a professional football team prior to the 1950s. Most were minor league or semi-professional teams. The first major league to base a team in Baltimore was the All-America Football Conference (AAFC), which had a team named the Baltimore Colts. The AAFC Colts played for three seasons in the AAFC (1947, 1948, and 1949), and when the AAFC folded following the 1949 season, moved to the NFL for a single year (1950) before going bankrupt. Three years later, the NFL's Dallas Texans would itself fold, and its assets and player contracts purchased by an ownership team headed by Baltimore businessman Carroll Rosenbloom, who moved the team to Baltimore, establishing a new team also named the Baltimore Colts. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Colts were one of the NFLs more successful franchises, led by Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Johnny Unitas who set a then-record of 47 consecutive games with a touchdown pass. The Colts advanced to the NFL Championship twice (1958 & 1959) and Super Bowl twice (1969 & 1971), winning all except Super Bowl III in 1969. After the 1983 season, the team left Baltimore for Indianapolis in 1984, where they became the Indianapolis Colts.The NFL returned to Baltimore when the former Cleveland Browns moved to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens in 1996. Since then, the Ravens won a Super Bowl championship in 2000 and 2012, five AFC North division championships (2003, 2006, 2011, 2012 and 2018), and appeared in four AFC Championship Games (2000, 2008, 2011 and 2012).

Other teams and events

The first professional sports organization in the United States, The Maryland Jockey Club, was formed in Baltimore in 1743. Preakness Stakes, the second race in the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing, has been held every May at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore since 1873.College lacrosse is a common sport in the spring, as the Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has won 44 national championships, the most of any program in history. In addition, Loyola University won its first men's NCAA lacrosse championship in 2012.The Baltimore Blast are a professional arena soccer team that play in the Major Arena Soccer League at the SECU Arena on the campus of Towson University. The Blast have won nine championships in various leagues, including the MASL. A previous entity of the Blast played in the Major Indoor Soccer League from 1980 to 1992, winning one championship.The FC Baltimore 1729 is a semi-professional soccer club playing for NPSL league, with the goal of bringing a community-oriented competitive soccer experience to the city of Baltimore. Their inaugural season started on May 11, 2018, and they play home games at CCBC Essex Field.The Baltimore Blues are a semi-professional rugby league club which began competition in the USA Rugby League in 2012.WEB,weblink USARL | USA Rugby League | American Rugby League " Uncategorized " USARL welcome the Blues!, USA Rugby League, December 12, 2011, January 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 9, 2012, The Baltimore Bohemians are an American soccer club. They compete in the USL Premier Development League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid. Their inaugural season started in the spring of 2012.The Baltimore Grand Prix debuted along the streets of the Inner Harbor section of the city's downtown on September 2–4, 2011. The event played host to the American Le Mans Series on Saturday and the IndyCar Series on Sunday. Support races from smaller series were also held, including Indy Lights. After three consecutive years, on September 13, 2013, it was announced that the event would not be held in 2014 or 2015 due to scheduling conflicts.NEWS,weblink Grand Prix of Baltimore canceled through 2015, and likely beyond, The Baltimore Sun, Scott Dance, September 13, 2013, The athletic equipment company, Under Armour is also based out of Baltimore. Founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a University of Maryland alumnus, the company's headquarters are located in Tide Point, adjacent to Fort McHenry and the Domino Sugar factory. The Baltimore Marathon is the flagship race of several races. The marathon begins at the Camden Yards sports complex and travels through many diverse neighborhoods of Baltimore, including the scenic Inner Harbor waterfront area, historic Federal Hill, Fells Point, and Canton, Baltimore. The race then proceeds to other important focal points of the city such as Patterson Park, Clifton Park, Lake Montebello, the Charles Village neighborhood and the western edge of downtown. After winding through 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi) of Baltimore, the race ends at virtually the same point at which it starts.The Baltimore Brigade is an Arena Football League team based in Baltimore that began in 2017, playing at Royal Farms Arena along the Inner City near the Edward A. Garmatz Courthouse.

Parks and recreation

The City of Baltimore boasts over {{convert|4900|acres|0|abbr=on}} of parkland."City Profiles: Baltimore" The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved on July 5, 2013 The Baltimore City Department of Recreation and Parks manages the majority of parks and recreational facilities in the city including Patterson Park, Federal Hill Park, and Druid Hill Park."Baltimore: Parks and Trails" {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 1, 2013 }} City of Baltimore: Department of Recreation and Parks. Retrieved on July 5, 2013. The city is also home to Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, a coastal star-shaped fort best known for its role in the War of 1812. {{As of|2015}}, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, ranks Baltimore 40th among the 75 largest U.S. cities.


Baltimore is an independent city, and not part of any county. For most governmental purposes under Maryland law, Baltimore City is treated as a county-level entity. The United States Census Bureau uses counties as the basic unit for presentation of statistical information in the United States, and treats Baltimore as a county equivalent for those purposes.Baltimore has been a Democratic stronghold for over 150 years, with Democrats dominating every level of government. In virtually all elections, the Democratic primary is the real contest.BOOK,weblink Baltimore: its history and its people, Volume 1—History, Clayton Coleman Hall, editor, Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, 1912, 372–273, March 31, 2011, No Republican has won election to the city council since 1939, and no Republican has won the mayor's race since 1963.The city hosted the first six Democratic National Conventions, from 1832 through 1852, and hosted the DNC again in 1860, 1872, and 1912.WEB, Kelly, Martin, Democratic National Conventions: List of Democratic National Conventions Since 1832,weblink American History,, October 5, 2012, dead,weblink October 6, 2012, mdy-all, NEWS, Rasmussen, Frederick N., Baltimore has been site of many national political conventions,weblink October 5, 2012, Baltimore Sun, August 2, 2012,

City government


{{for|a full list of mayors|List of Baltimore Mayors}}Jack Young is the current mayor of Baltimore. He took office on May 2, 2019 upon the resignation of Catherine Pugh. Prior to Pugh's official resignation, Young was the president of the Baltimore City Council and had been the acting mayor since April 2.NEWS,weblink Baltimore Mayor Pugh resigns amid growing children's book scandal, May 2, 2019, The Baltimore Sun, Luke, Broadwater, Ian, Duncan, Jean, Marbella, August 1, 2019, Catherine Pugh became the Democratic nominee for mayor in 2016 and won the mayoral election in 2016 with 57.1% of the vote; Pugh took office as mayor on December 6, 2016.NEWS, How does a Donald Trump administration look in Maryland? In a word, different, John, Fritze, The Baltimore Sun, November 9, 2016,weblink December 12, 2016, Pugh took a leave of absence in April 2019 due to health concerns, then officially resigned from office on May 2.NEWS,weblink Baltimore Mayor Pugh Resigns in Book-Sales Scandal, May 2, 2019, The Wall Street Journal, Scott, Calvert, Jon, Kamp, August 1, 2019, The resignation coincided with a scandal over a "self-dealing" book-sales arrangement.NEWS,weblink Baltimore mayor goes on leave as 'self-serving' book deal scandal intensifies, April 1, 2019, KMPH-TV, David, McFadden, August 1, 2019, Stephanie Rawlings-Blake assumed the office of Mayor on February 4, 2010, when predecessor Dixon's resignation became effective.WEB,weblink Rawlings-Blake sworn in as mayor, Baltimore Sun, January 8, 2018, Ben, Nuckols, Rawlings-Blake had been serving as City Council President at the time. She was elected to a full term in 2011, defeating Pugh in the primary election and receiving 84% of the vote.NEWS, Scharper, Julie,weblink Rawlings-Blake: 'We have a unique opportunity', Baltimore Sun, September 14, 2011, November 8, 2011, Sheila Dixon became the first female mayor of Baltimore on January 17, 2007. As the former City Council President, she assumed the office of Mayor when former Mayor Martin O'Malley took office as Governor of Maryland.NEWS, Dixon Takes Oath, Fritze, John, January 19, 2007, The Baltimore Sun,weblink July 8, 2013, On November 6, 2007, Dixon won the Baltimore mayoral election. Mayor Dixon's administration ended less than three years after her election, the result of a criminal investigation that began in 2006 while she was still City Council President. She was convicted on a single misdemeanor charge of embezzlement on December 1, 2009. A month later, Dixon made an Alford plea to a perjury charge and agreed to resign from office; Maryland, like most states, does not allow convicted felons to hold office.NEWS, Dixon Resigns,weblink Bykowicz, Julie, January 7, 2010, The Baltimore Sun, December 21, 2010, NEWS,weblink Baltimore Sun, Dixon convicted of embezzlement, Julie, Bykowicz, Annie Linskey, December 1, 2009, File:1city hall baltimore.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Baltimore City HallBaltimore City Hall

Baltimore City Council

Grassroots pressure for reform, voiced as Question P, restructured the city council in November 2002, against the will of the mayor, the council president, and the majority of the council. A coalition of union and community groups, organized by the Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN), backed the effort.NEWS,weblink Voters OK reshaping of City Council, The Baltimore Sun, Laura Vozzella, November 6, 2002, March 31, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, dead, The Baltimore City Council is now made up of 14 single-member districts and one elected at-large council president. Bernard C. "Jack" Young has been the council president since February 2010, when he was unanimously elected by the other council members to replace Stephanie Rawlings-Blake, who had become mayor.WEB,weblink Young unanimously elected Baltimore City Council president, Sharper, Julie, February 9, 2010, February 10, 2010, The Baltimore Sun, Edward Reisinger, the 10th district representative, is the council's current vice president.WEB,weblink District 10: Edward Reisinger, Council Vice-President, Baltimore City Council, March 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2011, mdy-all,

Law enforcement

The Baltimore City Police Department, founded 1784 as a "Night City Watch" and day Constables system and later reorganized as a City Department in 1853, with a following reorganization under State of Maryland supervision in 1859, with appointments made by the Governor of Maryland after a disturbing period of civic and elections violence with riots in the later part of the decade, is the current primary law enforcement agency serving the citizens of the City of Baltimore. Campus and building security for the city's public schools is provided by the Baltimore City Public Schools Police, established in the 1970s.In the period of 2011–2015, 120 lawsuits were brought against Baltimore police for alleged brutality and misconduct. The Freddie Gray settlement of $6.4 million exceeds the combined total settlements of the 120 lawsuits, as state law caps such payments.NEWS,weblink Baltimore to pay Freddie Gray's family $6.4 million to settle civil claims, September 8, 2015, The Baltimore Sun, July 27, 2018, Yvonne, Wenger, Mark, Puente, The Maryland Transportation Authority Police under the Maryland Department of Transportation, (originally established as the "Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Police" when opened in 1957) is the primary law enforcement agency on the Fort McHenry Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 95), the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel Thruway (Interstate 895), which go under the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco River, and Interstate 395, which has three ramp bridges crossing the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River which are under MdTA jurisdiction, the Baltimore-Washington International Airport, (BWI) and have limited concurrent jurisdiction with the Baltimore City Police Department under a "memorandum of understanding".File:1Courthouse east.JPG|thumb|Courthouse east is a historic combined post office and Federal courthouse located in Battle MonumentBattle MonumentLaw enforcement on the fleet of transit buses and transit rail systems serving Baltimore is the responsibility of the Maryland Transit Administration Police, which is part of the Maryland Transit Administration of the state Department of Transportation. The MTA Police also share jurisdiction authority with the Baltimore City Police, governed by a memorandum of understanding.WEB,weblink MTA Police Force, Maryland Transit Administration, April 5, 2011, As the enforcement arm of the Baltimore circuit and district court system, the Baltimore City Sheriff's Office, created by state constitutional amendment in 1844, is responsible for the security of city courthouses and property, service of court-ordered writs, protective and peace orders, warrants, tax levies, prisoner transportation and traffic enforcement. Deputy Sheriffs are sworn law enforcement officials, with full arrest authority granted by the constitution of Maryland, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission and the Sheriff of the City of Baltimore.WEB,weblink Baltimore CIty Sheriff's Office, City of Baltimore, January 5, 2010, The United States Coast Guard, operating out of their shipyard and facility (since 1899) at Arundel Cove on Curtis Creek, (off Pennington Avenue extending to Hawkins Point Road/Fort Smallwood Road) in the Curtis Bay section of southern Baltimore City and adjacent northern Anne Arundel County. The U.S.C.G. also operates and maintains a presence on Baltimore and Maryland waterways in the Patapsco River and Chesapeake Bay. "Sector Baltimore" is responsible for commanding law enforcement and search & rescue units as well as aids to navigation.

Baltimore City Fire Department

The city of Baltimore is protected by the over 1,800 professional firefighters of the Baltimore City Fire Department (BCFD), which was founded in December 1858 and began operating the following year. Replacing several warring independent volunteer companies since the 1770s and the confusion resulting from a riot involving the "Know-Nothing" political party two years before, the establishment of a unified professional fire fighting force was a major advance in urban governance. The BCFD operates out of 37 fire stations located throughout the city and has a long history and sets of traditions in its various houses and divisions.

State government

{{See also|Baltimore City Delegation}}Since the legislative redistricting in 2002, Baltimore has had six legislative districts located entirely within its boundaries, giving the city six seats in the 47-member Maryland Senate and 18 in the 141-member Maryland House of Delegates.WEB,weblink General Assembly Members by County: Baltimore City, Maryland Manual On-Line, Maryland State Archives, January 27, 2011, March 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2011, live, WEB,weblink 2002 Legislative District Plan, Maryland Department of Planning, March 30, 2011, During the previous 10-year period, Baltimore had four legislative districts within the city limits, but four others overlapped the Baltimore County line.WEB,weblink Legislative Election Districts 1992–2000, Maryland Manual On-Line, Maryland State Archives, June 17, 2004, March 31, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2011, live, {{as of|2011|January|}}, all of Baltimore's state senators and delegates were Democrats. Approval of the next redistricting plan is expected to become effective in time for Maryland's 2012 congressional primary election on February 14, 2012.WEB,weblink Congressional and Legislative Redistricting, Maryland Department of Planning, March 31, 2011,

State agencies

{{See also|List of state agencies headquartered in Baltimore}}

Federal government

{{Further|Maryland's 2nd congressional district|Maryland's 3rd congressional district|Maryland's 7th congressional district}}{{See also|United States Senate election in Maryland, 2006}}Three of the state's eight congressional districts include portions of Baltimore: the 2nd, represented by Dutch Ruppersberger; the 3rd, represented by John Sarbanes; and the 7th, represented by Elijah Cummings. All three are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Baltimore in Congress since John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill represented the 3rd District in 1927, and has not represented any of Baltimore since the Eastern Shore-based 1st District lost its share of Baltimore after the 2000 census; it was represented by Republican Wayne Gilchrest at the time.Maryland's senior United States Senator, Ben Cardin, is from Baltimore. He is one of three people in the last four decades to have represented the 3rd District before being elected to the United States Senate. Paul Sarbanes represented the 3rd from 1971 until 1977, when he was elected to the first of five terms in the Senate. Sarbanes was succeeded by Barbara Mikulski, who represented the 3rd from 1977 to 1987. Mikulski was succeeded by Cardin, who held the seat until handing it to John Sarbanes upon his election to the Senate in 2007.WEB,weblink Official 2006 Gubernatorial General Election results for U.S. Senator, Maryland State Board of Elections, January 5, 2010, {{Hidden begin|titlestyle = background:#ccccff;|title = Presidential elections results}}{| align="center" border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="float:right; margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"Presidential elections resultsHTTP://USELECTIONATLAS.ORG/RESULTS, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, David, Leip,, bgcolor=lightgrey! Year! Republican! Democratic! Third parties201610.5% 25,20584.7% 202,6734.8% 11,524201211.1% 28,17187.2% 221,4781.7% 4,356200811.7% 28,68187.2% 214,3851.2% 2,902200417.0% 36,23082.0% 175,0221.1% 2,311200014.1% 27,15082.5% 158,7653.4% 6,489199615.5% 28,46779.3% 145,4415.1% 9,415199216.6% 40,72575.8% 185,7537.6% 18,613198825.4% 59,08973.5% 170,8131.1% 2,465198428.2% 80,12071.2% 202,2770.6% 1,766198021.9% 57,90272.5% 191,9115.7% 14,962197631.4% 81,76268.6% 178,593197245.2% 119,48653.4% 141,3231.5% 3,843196827.7% 80,14661.6% 178,45010.8% 31,288196424.0% 76,08976.0% 240,716196036.1% 114,70563.9% 202,752195655.9% 178,24444.1% 140,603195247.6% 166,60551.0% 178,4691.4% 4,784194843.7% 110,87953.0% 134,6153.3% 8,396194440.8% 112,81759.2% 163,493194035.6% 112,36463.2% 199,7151.2% 3,917193631.5% 97,66767.9% 210,6680.6% 1,959193231.9% 78,95464.8% 160,3093.2% 7,969192851.4% 135,18247.9% 126,1060.7% 1,770192442.6% 69,58836.9% 60,22220.5% 33,442192057.0% 125,52639.4% 86,7483.6% 7,872191644.3% 49,80553.6% 60,2262.1% 2,382191215.7% 15,59748.4% 48,03035.9% 35,695190849.8% 51,52847.5% 49,1392.7% 2,756190448.6% 47,44449.1% 47,9012.3% 2,192190052.1% 58,88046.0% 51,9791.9% 2,149{{Hidden end}}The Postal Service's Baltimore Main Post Office is located at 900 East Fayette Street in the Jonestown area.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 2, 2012, Post Office Location—Baltimore, United States Postal Service / WhitePages Inc, May 5, 2009, The national headquarters for the United States Social Security Administration is located in Woodlawn, just outside of Baltimore.


{{See also|List of high schools in Maryland}}

Colleges and universities

Baltimore is the home of numerous places of higher learning, both public and private. 100,000 college students from around the country attend Baltimore City's 12 accredited two-year or four-year colleges and universities.WEB,weblink Economic Profile,, August 4, 2015, WEB,weblink About Baltimore, Maryland Institute College of Art, February 6, 2016,weblink March 19, 2016, dead, Among them are:


File:JHU-V.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Keyser Quadrangle in Spring at the Johns Hopkins UniversityJohns Hopkins UniversityFile:George-peabody-library.jpg|thumb|Interior of the George Peabody Library at the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University. It is considered one of the most beautiful libraries in the world.MAGAZINE,weblink The Most Beautiful Libraries in the World, ShortListShortList


Primary and secondary schools

The city's public schools are managed by Baltimore City Public Schools and include schools that have been well known in the area: Carver Vocational-Technical High School, the first African American vocational high school and center that was established in the state of Maryland; Digital Harbor High School, one of the secondary schools that emphasizes information technology; Lake Clifton Eastern High School, which is the largest school campus in Baltimore City of physical size; the historic Frederick Douglass High School, which is the second oldest African American high school in the United States;NEWS,weblink Film shows Baltimore school struggling despite No Child Left Behind law, June 21, 2008, Associated Press, January 24, 2009, Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in the country;NEWS,weblink School boundaries, Katz-Stone, Adam, January 28, 2000, Baltimore Business Journal, January 24, 2009, and Western High School, the oldest public all-girls school in the nation.WEB,weblink WHS Flyer, Western High School, January 24, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink February 5, 2009, dead, Baltimore City College (also known as "City") and Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (also known as "Poly") share the nation's second-oldest high school football rivalry.BOOK, Patterson, Ted, Football in Baltimore: History and Memorabilia, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2000, 7,weblink 978-0-8018-6424-7, {{See also|List of private and parochial schools in Baltimore}}


File:BaltimoreLightRail.JPG|thumb|upright=1.15|The Baltimore Light RailLink provides service to Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport and the Baltimore area. Here, a train stops at Convention Center station, just west of the Baltimore Convention Center on Pratt StreetPratt StreetThe city of Baltimore has a higher-than-average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30.7 percent of Baltimore households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 28.9 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Baltimore averaged 1.65 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.JOURNAL, Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map, Governing,weblink May 3, 2018,

Roads and highways

Baltimore's highway growth has done much to influence the development of the city and its suburbs. The first limited-access highway serving Baltimore was the Baltimore–Washington Parkway, which opened in stages between 1950 and 1954. Maintenance of it is split: the half closest to Baltimore is maintained by the state of Maryland, and the half closest to Washington by the National Park Service. Trucks are only permitted to use the northern part of the parkway. Trucks (tractor-trailers) continued to use U.S. Route 1 (US 1) until Interstate 95 (I-95) between Baltimore and Washington opened in 1971.The Interstate highways serving Baltimore are I-70, I-83 (the Jones Falls Expressway), I-95, I-395, I-695 (the Baltimore Beltway), I-795 (the Northwest Expressway), I-895 (the Harbor Tunnel Thruway), and I-97. The city's mainline Interstate highways—I-95, I-83, and I-70—do not directly connect to each other, and in the case of I-70 end at a park and ride lot just inside the city limits, because of freeway revolts in Baltimore. These revolts were led primarily by Barbara Mikulski, a former United States senator for Maryland, which resulted in the abandonment of the original plan. There are two tunnels traversing Baltimore Harbor within the city limits: the four-bore Fort McHenry Tunnel (opened in 1985 and serving I-95) and the two-bore Harbor Tunnel (opened in 1957 and serving I-895). The Baltimore Beltway crosses south of Baltimore Harbor over the Francis Scott Key Bridge.The first interstate highway built in Baltimore was I-83, called the Jones Falls Expressway (first portion built in the early 1960s). Running from the downtown toward the northwest (NNW), it was built through a natural corridor, which meant that no residents or housing were directly affected. A planned section from what is now its southern terminus to I-95 was abandoned. Its route through parkland received criticism.Planning for the Baltimore Beltway antedates the creation of the Interstate Highway System. The first portion completed was a small strip connecting the two sections of I-83, the Baltimore-Harrisburg Expressway and the Jones Falls Expressway.The only U.S. Highways in the city are US 1, which bypasses downtown, and US 40, which crosses downtown from east to west. Both run along major surface streets; however, US 40 utilizes a small section of a freeway cancelled in the 1970s in the west side of the city originally intended for Interstate 170. State routes in the city also travel along surface streets, with the exception of Maryland Route 295, which carries the Baltimore–Washington Parkway.The Baltimore City Department of Transportation (BCDOT) is responsible for several functions of the road transportation system in Baltimore, including repairing roads, sidewalks, and alleys; road signs; street lights; and managing the flow of transportation systems.WEB,weblink Home, Baltimore City Department of Transportation, January 21, 2011, In addition, the agency is in charge of vehicle towing and traffic cameras.WEB,weblink Vehicle Towing, Baltimore City Department of Transportation, January 21, 2011, WEB,weblink Traffic Cameras, Baltimore City Department of Transportation, January 21, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink January 27, 2011, live, BCDOT maintains all streets within the city of Baltimore. These include all streets that are marked as state and U.S. highways as well as the portions of I-83 and I-70 within the city limits. The only highways within the city that are not maintained by BCDOT are I-95, I-395, I-695, and I-895; those four highways are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority.WEB, Highway Location Reference: Baltimore City, Maryland State Highway Administration, 2005,weblink PDF, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2011, July 8, 2013,

Transit systems

Public transit

(File:Charm City Circulator Vanhool 1101.jpg|thumb|right|Charm City Circulator Van Hool A330 #1101 on the Orange Line)Public transit in Baltimore is mostly provided by the Maryland Transit Administration (abbreviated "MTA Maryland") and Charm City Circulator. MTA Maryland operates a comprehensive bus network, including many local, express, and commuter buses, a light rail network connecting Hunt Valley in the north to BWI Airport and Cromwell (Glen Burnie) in the south, and a subway line between Owings Mills and Johns Hopkins Hospital.WEB,weblink Maryland Transit Administration, Maryland Transit Administration, April 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2007, dead, A proposed rail line, known as the Red Line, which would link the Social Security Administration to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and perhaps the Canton and Dundalk communities, was cancelled {{as of|2015|June|lc=y}} by Governor Larry Hogan; a proposal to extend Baltimore's existing subway line to Morgan State University, known as the Green Line, is in the planning stages.WEB,weblink Baltimore Region Rail System Plan, Maryland Transit Administration, April 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2007, dead, The Charm City Circulator (CCC), a shuttle bus service operated by Veolia Transportation for the Baltimore Department of Transportation, began operating in the downtown area in January 2010. Funded partly by a 16 percent increase in the city's parking fees, the circulator provides free bus service seven days a week, picking up passengers every 15 minutes at designated stops during service hours.WEB,weblink What is the Charm City Circulator All About?, Charm City Circulator, March 31, 2011, NEWS,weblink The Charm City Circulator is more than a cool free bus, John Barry, Baltimore City Paper, July 7, 2010, March 31, 2011, The CCC's first bus line, the Orange route, travels between Hollins Market and Harbor East. Its Purple route, launched June 7, 2010, operates between Fort Avenue and 33rd St. The Green route runs between Johns Hopkins and City Hall.NEWS,weblink For the Charm City Circulator, "growing pains are inevitable", Daniel J. Sernovitz, August 26, 2010, Baltimore Business Journal, March 31, 2011, The Charm City Circulator operates a fleet of diesel and hybrid vehicles built by DesignLine, Orion, and Van Hool.Baltimore also has a water taxi service, operated by Baltimore Water Taxi. The water taxi's six routes provide service throughout the city's harbor, and was purchased by Under Armour CEO Kevin Plank's Sagamore Ventures in 2016.NEWS,weblink First of Sagamore's new water taxis hits the water, October 12, 2016, Baltimore Business Journal, June 22, 2017, Jonathan, Munshaw, In June 2017, The BaltimoreLink started operating; it is the redesign of the region's initial bus system. The BaltimoreLink runs through downtown Baltimore every 10 minutes via color-coded, high-frequency CityLink routes.NEWS,weblink Some bumps in the road for bus riders as BaltimoreLink hits city streets, Richman, Colin Campbell, Talia, The Baltimore Sun, June 22, 2017, en-US, June 19, 2017,

Intercity rail

File:Baltimore Pennsylvania Station corrected.jpg|thumb|Baltimore Pennsylvania Station ]]Baltimore is a top destination for Amtrak along the Northeast Corridor. Baltimore's Penn Station is one of the busiest in the country. In FY 2014, Penn Station was ranked the seventh-busiest rail station in the United States by number of passengers served each year.WEB, Amtrak Fact Sheet, FY2014, Maryland, Amtrak Government Affairs, November 2014,weblink PDF, May 6, 2015, The building sits on a raised "island" of sorts between two open trenches, one for the Jones Falls Expressway and the other for the tracks of the Northeast Corridor (NEC). The NEC approaches from the south through the two-track, {{Convert|7660|ft}} Baltimore and Potomac Tunnel, which opened in 1873 and whose {{convert|30|mph|abbr=on|-1}} limit, sharp curves, and steep grades make it one of the NEC's worst bottlenecks. The NEC's northern approach is the 1873 Union Tunnel, which has one single-track bore and one double-track bore.Just outside the city, Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Thurgood Marshall Airport Rail Station is another stop. Amtrak's Acela Express, Palmetto, Carolinian, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Vermonter, Crescent, and Northeast Regional trains are the scheduled passenger train services that stop in the city. Additionally, MARC commuter rail service connects the city's two main intercity rail stations, Camden Station and Penn Station, with Washington, D.C.'s Union Station as well as stops in between. The MARC consists of 3 lines; the Brunswick, Camden and Penn. On December 7, 2013 the Penn Line began weekend service.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, John, Wagner, Dana, Hedgpeth, Maryland Politics, September 5, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 18, 2013, mdy-all,


File:Kbwi.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The interior of Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall AirportBaltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall AirportBaltimore is served by two airports, both operated by the Maryland Aviation Administration, which is part of the Maryland Department of Transportation.WEB,weblink Maryland Aviation Administration, Maryland Aviation Administration, April 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2007, live, Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, generally known as "BWI," lies about {{convert|10|mi|0}} to the south of Baltimore in neighboring Anne Arundel County. The airport is named after Thurgood Marshall, a Baltimore native who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. In terms of passenger traffic, BWI is the 22nd busiest airport in the United States.WEB,weblink General Passenger Statistics, Baltimore/Washington International Airport, October 26, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2016, As of calendar year 2014, BWI is the largest, by passenger count, of three major airports serving the Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area. It is accessible by I-95 and the Baltimore–Washington Parkway via Interstate 195, the Baltimore Light Rail, and Amtrak and MARC Train at BWI Rail Station.Baltimore is also served by Martin State Airport, a general aviation facility, to the northeast in Baltimore County. Martin State Airport is linked to downtown Baltimore by Maryland Route 150 (Eastern Avenue) and by MARC Train at its own station.

Pedestrians and bicycles

Baltimore has a comprehensive system of bicycle routes in the city. These routes are not numbered, but are typically denoted with green signs displaying a silhouette of a bicycle upon an outline of the city's border, and denote the distance to destinations, much like bicycle routes in the rest of the state. The roads carrying bicycle routes are also labelled with either bike lanes, sharrows, or Share the Road signs. Many of these routes pass through the downtown area. The network of bicycle lanes in the city continues to expand, with over {{convert|140|mi}} added between 2006 and 2014.WEB,weblink Wheels of Change: Baltimore's bike crusade, The Baltimore Sun, Andrew Zaleski, January 22, 2014, September 2, 2014, Alongside bike lanes, Baltimore has also built bike boulevards, starting with Guilford Avenue in 2012.Baltimore currently has three major trail systems within the city. The Gwynns Falls Trail runs from the Inner Harbor to the I-70 Park and Ride, passing through Gwynns Falls Park and possessing numerous branches. There are also many pedestrian hiking trails traversing the park. The Jones Falls Trail currently runs from the Inner Harbor to the Cylburn Arboretum; however, it is currently undergoing expansion. Long term plans call for it to extend to the Mount Washington Light Rail Stop, and possibly as far north as the Falls Road stop to connect to the Robert E. Lee boardwalk north of the city. It will also incorporate a spur alongside Western Run. The two aforementioned trails carry sections of the East Coast Greenway through the city. There is also the Herring Run Trail, which runs from Harford Road east to its end beyond Sinclair Lane, utilizing Herring Run Park; long term plans also call for its extension to Morgan State University and north to points beyond. Other major bicycle projects include a protected cycle track installed on both Maryland Avenue and Mount Royal Avenue, expected to become the backbone of a downtown bicycle network. Installation for the cycletracks is expected in 2014 and 2016, respectively.In addition to the bicycle trails and cycletracks, Baltimore has the Stony Run Trail, a walking path that will eventually connect from the Jones Falls north to Northern Parkway, utilizing much of the old Ma and Pa Railroad corridor inside the city. In 2011, the city undertook a campaign to reconstruct many sidewalk ramps in the city, coinciding with mass resurfacing of the city's streets. A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Baltimore the 14th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.WEB,weblink 2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings, Walk Score, 2011, August 28, 2011,

Port of Baltimore

File:Baltimoreharborview.jpg|thumb|left|Eastward view Baltimore's Inner HarborInner HarborFile:Washington Monument, 1849, from Federal Hill 1a.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Baltimore harbor in 1849 with the prominent Washington Monument in the background north of the city]]File:The Francis Scott Key Bridge (Baltimore).jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Francis Scott Key Bridge over the Baltimore harbor.]]The port was founded in 1706, preceding the founding of Baltimore. The Maryland colonial legislature made the area near Locust Point as the port of entry for the tobacco trade with England. Fells Point, the deepest point in the natural harbor, soon became the colony's main ship building center, later on becoming leader in the construction of clipper ships.WEB,weblink Fells Point: The Port of Early Baltimore, Christopher T. George, Baltimore A Link to the City, March 16, 2011, After Baltimore's founding, mills were built behind the wharves. The California Gold Rush led to many orders for fast vessels; many overland pioneers also relied upon canned goods from Baltimore. After the Civil War, a coffee ship was designed here for trade with Brazil. At the end of the nineteenth century, European ship lines had terminals for immigrants. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad made the port a major transshipment point.BOOK, Stover, John F., History of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Purdue University Press, 1987, West Lafayette, IN,weblink 978-0-911198-81-2, {{rp|17,75}} Currently the port has major roll-on/roll-off facilities, as well as bulk facilities, especially steel handling.WEB,weblink Types of Cargo, Maryland Port Administration, January 19, 2011, Water taxis also operate in the Inner Harbor. Governor Ehrlich participated in naming the port after Helen Delich Bentley during the 300th anniversary of the port.WEB,weblink Governor Ehrlich Names Port of Baltimore After Helen Delich Bentley, Tesla Memorial Society of New York, January 5, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2010, live, In 2007, Duke Realty Corporation began a new development near the Port of Baltimore, named the Chesapeake Commerce Center. This new industrial park is located on the site of a former General Motors plant. The total project comprises {{convert|184|acre|km2}} in eastern Baltimore City, and the site will yield {{convert|2800000|sqft|m2}} of warehouse/distribution and office space. Chesapeake Commerce Center has direct access to two major Interstate highways (I-95 and I-895) and is located adjacent to two of the major Port of Baltimore terminals. The Port of Baltimore is one of two seaports on the U.S. East Coast with a {{convert|50|ft|m|adj=on}} dredge to accommodate the largest shipping vessels.WEB,weblink Safe Passage, Maryland Port Administration, January 19, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 20, 2011, mdy-all, Along with cargo terminals, the port also has a passenger cruise terminal, which offers year-round trips on several lines, including Royal Caribbean's Grandeur of the Seas and Carnival's Pride. Overall five cruise lines have operated out of the port to the Bahamas and the Caribbean, while some ships traveled to New England and Canada. The terminal has become an embarkation point where passengers have the opportunity to park and board next to the ship visible from Interstate 95.WEB,weblink Baltimore Port to Open Year-Round for Cruise Traffic,, October 4, 2009, October 13, 2015, Passengers from Pennsylvania, New York and New Jersey make up a third of the volume, with travelers from Maryland, Virginia, the District and even Ohio and the Carolinas making up the rest.NEWS,weblink Baltimore Port to Open Year-Round for Cruise Traffic,, October 4, 2009, October 13, 2015,


Baltimore's Inner Harbor, known for its skyline waterscape and its tourist-friendly areas, was horribly polluted. The waterway was often filled with garbage after heavy rainstorms, failing its 2014 water quality report card. The Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore took steps to remediate the waterways, in hopes that the harbor would be fishable and swimmable once again.

Trash interceptors

File:Mr. Trash Wheel--Baltimore MD.jpg|thumb|The "Mr. Trash Wheel" trash interceptor at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore's Inner HarborInner HarborInstalled in May 2014, the water wheel trash interceptor known as Mr. Trash Wheel sits at the mouth of the Jones Falls River in Baltimore's Inner Harbor. A February 2015 agreement with a local waste-to-energy plant is believed to make Baltimore the first city to use reclaimed waterway debris to generate electricity.NEWS,weblink Inner Harbor's Amazing Trash Wheel Just Got Better, Baltimore Magazine, February 11, 2015, December 22, 2015, Mr. Trash Wheel is a permanent water wheel trash interceptor to clean up the city's polluted Inner Harbor.WEB,weblink Solar-Powered Water Wheel Removes 350 Tons of Trash From Baltimore Harbor, December 17, 2015, January 24, 2016, Lorraine, Chow, EcoWatch, The Jones Falls river watershed drains {{convert|58|sqmi}} of land outside of Baltimore and is a significant source of trash that enters the harbor. Garbage collected by Mr. Trash Wheel could come from anywhere in the Jones Falls Watershed area.WEB,weblink Mr. Trash Wheel: Using the Power of Nature to Keep Our Harbor Clean, Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore, January 24, 2016, The wheel moves continuously, removing garbage and dumping it into an attached dumpster using only hydro and solar renewable power to keep its wheel turning. It has the capability to collect {{convert|50000|lb|-2}} of trash per day, and has removed more than 350 tons of litter from Baltimore's landmark and tourist attraction in its first 18 months, estimated as consisting of approximately 200,000 bottles, 173,000 potato chip bags and 6.7 million cigarette butts.WEB,weblink How a Solar-Powered Water Wheel Can Clean 50,000 Pounds of Trash Per Day From Baltimore's Inner Harbor, June 25, 2014, January 24, 2016, Brandon, Baker, EcoWatch, WEB,weblink 'Mr. Trash Wheel' Removes 6,700,000 Cigarettes from Baltimore Harbor, April 22, 2015, January 24, 2016, Danny, Clemens, Discovery, The Water Wheel has been very successful at trash removal, visibly decreasing the amount of garbage that collects in the harbor, especially after a rainfall.After the success of Mr. Trash Wheel, the Waterfront Partnership raised money to build a second Water Wheel at the end of Harris Creek, an entirely piped stream that flows beneath Baltimore's Canton neighborhood and empties into the Baltimore Harbor. Harris Creek is known to carry tons of trash every year.NEWS,weblink Baltimore Preparing a TMDL to Clean Up Trash in Its Water, June 8, 2013, January 24, 2016, Carrie, Madren, Bay Journal, WEB,weblink Canton Water Wheel, January 24, 2016, WEB,weblink This Autonomous Trash-Collecting Boat Is Making Baltimore Harbor Less Disgusting, Digital Trends, October 15, 2015, January 24, 2016, Kelly, Hodgkins, The planned new Water Wheel was inaugurated in December 2016, and dubbed "Professor Trash Wheel".NEWS, McDaniels, Andrea, 'Professor Trash Wheel' makes its debut in Canton,weblink December 5, 2016, The Baltimore Sun, December 4, 2016, Professor Trash Wheel prevents waste from exiting the Harbor and accessing the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. A number of additional projects are going on in Baltimore City and County that should result in better water quality scores. These projects include the Blue Alleys project, expanded street sweeping, and stream restoration.

Other water pollution control

In August 2010, the National Aquarium assembled, planted, and launched a floating wetland island designed by Biohabitats in Baltimore's Inner Harbor.WEB,weblink Floating Wetland Island, National Aquarium, February 6, 2016, Hundreds of years ago Baltimore's harbor shoreline would have been lined with tidal wetlands. Floating wetlands provide many environmental benefits to water quality and habitat enhancement, which is why the Waterfront Partnership of Baltimore has included them in their Healthy Harbor Initiative pilot projects.WEB,weblink The Floating Wetlands of Baltimore's Inner Harbor, March 13, 2015, Kellett, Pamela Tenner, SpinSheet, February 6, 2016, Biohabitats also developed a concept to transform a dilapidated wharf into a living pier that cleans Harbor water, provides habitat and is an aesthetic attraction. Currently under design, the top of the pier will become a constructed tidal wetland.WEB,weblink Baltimore Healthy Harbor Initiative Pilot Projects, Biohabitats, February 6, 2016,


Baltimore's main newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. It was sold by its Baltimore owners in 1986 to the Times Mirror Company,WEB,weblink The Times Mirror Company—Company History, September 25, 2008,, Funding Universe,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2008, live, which was bought by the Tribune Company in 2000.NEWS, Terence, Smith, Terence Smith (journalist), Tribune Buys Times Mirror,weblink, MacNeil/Lehrer Productions, March 21, 2000, September 25, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2008, live, The Baltimore News-American, another long-running paper that competed with the Sun, ceased publication in 1986.WEB,weblink The Baltimore News American Photograph Collection, University of Maryland: Libraries, December 18, 2009, December 31, 2009, The city is home to the Baltimore Afro-American, an influential African American newspaper founded in 1892.WEB, Newspapers: Baltimore Afro-American,weblink The Black Press: Soldiers Without Swords, PBS, October 5, 2012, NEWS, McEwen, Lauren, The Baltimore Afro-American celebrates 120 years in print,weblink October 5, 2012, Washington Post, August 28, 2012, In 2006, The Baltimore Examiner was launched to compete with The Sun. It was part of a national chain that includes The San Francisco Examiner and The Washington Examiner. In contrast to the paid subscription Sun, The Examiner was a free newspaper funded solely by advertisements. Unable to turn a profit and facing a deep recession, The Baltimore Examiner ceased publication on February 15, 2009.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}Despite being located 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C., Baltimore is a major media market in its own right, with all major English language television networks represented in the city. WJZ-TV 13 is a CBS owned and operated station, and WBFF 45 is the flagship of Sinclair Broadcast Group, the largest station owner in the country. Other major television stations in Baltimore include WMAR-TV 2 (ABC), WBAL-TV 11 (NBC), WUTB 24 (MyNetworkTV), WNUV 54 (CW), and WMPB 67 (PBS).Nielsen ranked Baltimore as the 26th-largest television market for the 2008–2009 viewing season and the 27th-largest for 2009–2010.WEB,weblink Local Television Market Universe Estimates, nielsen, March 16, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 17, 2011, dead, Arbitron's Fall 2010 rankings identified Baltimore as the 22nd largest radio market.WEB,weblinkpublisher=Arbitron archive-url=weblink" title="">weblink url-status= live,

Notable people

Sister cities

{{SisterCities|Baltimore|ten}}WEB,weblink Interactive City Directory: Baltimore, Maryland, Sister Cities International, August 5, 2019, WEB,weblink Sister City Committee, Baltimore-Luxor-Alexandria Sister City Committee, March 30, 2011, {hide}columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}Baltimore's own Sister City Committees recognize eight of these sister cities, indicated above with a "B" notation.WEB,weblink Baltimore Sister Cities, August 5, 2019, Baltimore Sister Cities,

See also

{{clear right}}






  • Brooks, Neal A. & Eric G. Rockel (1979). A History of Baltimore County. Towson, Maryland: Friends of the Towson Library.
  • Crenson, Matthew A. (2017). Baltimore: A Political History. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Dorsey, John, & James D. Dilts (1997).A Guide to Baltimore Architecture. Third Edition. Centreville, Maryland: Tidewater Publishers. (First edition published in 1973.) {{ISBN|0-87033-477-8}}.
  • Hall, Clayton Coleman (1912). Baltimore: Its History and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Vol. 1.
  • Orser, Edward W. (1994). Blockbusting in Baltimore: the Edmonston Village Story. University Press of Kentucky.
  • Scharf, J. Thomas (1879). History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day. Baltimore: John B. Piet. Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3.
  • Townsend, Camilla (2000). Tales of Two Cities: Race and Economic Culture in Early Republican North and South America: Guyaquil, Ecuador, and Baltimore, Maryland. University of Texas Press. {{ISBN|0-292-78167-9}}.

External links

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