Bob Dole

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Bob Dole
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{{short description|American politician}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}

(1961–1963){{ushr1|1st district}} (1963–1969)|term_start8 = January 3, 1961|term_end8 = January 3, 1969|predecessor8 = Wint Smith|successor8 = Keith Sebelius|birth_name = Robert Joseph Dole192322}}|birth_place = Russell, Kansas, U.S.Republican Party (United States)>RepublicanPhyllis HoldenJanuary 11, 1972Elizabeth Dole>December 6, 1975}}|children = 1 daughterUniversity of KansasUniversity of Arizona{{nowrap>Washburn University (Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws>LLB)}}|signature = Bob Dole Signature2.svgUnited States|1912}}United States Army}} |serviceyears = 1942–194822px) Title of honor Colonel (United States)>Colonel|unit = 10th Mountain Division|battles = World War II{{WIA}}Bronze Star Medal>Bronze StarPurple Heart}}Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is a retired American politician, statesman,NEWS,weblink Bob Dole To Receive Congressional Gold Medal,, January 17, 2018, en, and attorney who represented Kansas in the U.S House of Representatives from 1961 to 1969 and in the U.S. Senate from 1969 to 1996, serving as the Republican Leader of the United States Senate from 1985 until 1996. He was the Republican presidential nominee in the 1996 presidential election and the party's vice presidential nominee in the 1976 presidential election.Born in Russell, Kansas, Dole established a legal career in Russell after serving with distinction in the United States Army during World War II. After a stint as Russell County Attorney, he won election to the House of Representatives in 1960. In 1968, Dole was elected to the Senate, where he served as Chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1971 to 1973 and Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee from 1981 to 1985. He led the Senate Republicans from 1985 to his resignation in 1996, and served as Senate Majority Leader from 1985 to 1987 and from 1995 to 1996. In his role as Republican leader, he helped defeat President Bill Clinton's health care plan.
President Gerald Ford chose Dole as his running mate in the 1976 election after Vice President Nelson Rockefeller withdrew from seeking a full term. Ford was defeated by Democrat Jimmy Carter in the general election. Dole sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1980 but quickly dropped out of the race. He experienced more success in the 1988 Republican primaries but was defeated by Vice President George H. W. Bush. Dole won the Republican nomination in 1996 and selected Jack Kemp as his running mate. The Republican ticket lost in the general election to Bill Clinton, making Dole the first person to be nominated for both president and vice president by one of the current major parties without winning election to either position. He resigned from the Senate during the 1996 campaign and did not seek public office again after the election.Though he retired from public office, Dole has remained active in public life after 1996. He appeared in numerous commercials and television programs and served on various councils. In 2012, Dole unsuccessfully advocated Senate ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. He initially supported Jeb Bush in the 2016 Republican primaries, but later became the only former Republican nominee to endorse Donald Trump, after Trump clinched the Republican nomination. Dole is currently a member of the advisory council of the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation and special counsel at the Washington, D.C., office of law firm Alston & Bird.WEB,weblink National Advisory Council, Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2011, May 20, 2011, yes, On January 17, 2018, Dole was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. He is married to former U.S. Senator Elizabeth Dole of North Carolina.In 2019, the U.S. Congress unanimously passed a bill promoting the 95-year-old Dole from Captain to Colonel for his service during World War II.WEB,weblink House Unanimously Passes Bill to Promote Sen. Dole to Army Colonel, U.S House of Representatives, March 27, 2019, NEWS, Wagner, John, Trump signs bill raising Bob Dole's military rank to colonel,weblink May 11, 2019, Stars and Stripes, The Washington Post, April 8, 2019,

Early life and education

Dole was born on July 22, 1923, in Russell, Kansas, the son of Binta M. (née Talbott; 1904–1983) and Doran Ray Dole (1901–1975).WEB,weblink Ancestry of Robert Dole (b. 1923),, June 17, 2010, His father, who had moved the family to Russell shortly before Robert was born, earned money by running a small creamery. One of Dole's father's customers was the father of his future Senate colleague Arlen Specter.WEB,weblink Q&A with Senator Arlen Specter (Penn Law News & Stories),, March 3, 2011, April 8, 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 17, 2011, The Doles lived in a house at 1035 North Maple in Russell and it remained his official residence throughout his political career.NEWS,weblink Time, Campaign '96: Russell, Kansas: You Can Go Home Again, April 1, 1996, Dole graduated from Russell High School in the spring of 1941WEB,weblink Hebron High School 1914 Alumni,weblink" title="">weblink May 30, 2005, and enrolled at the University of Kansas the following fall. Dole had been a star high school athlete in Russell, and Kansas basketball coach Phog Allen traveled to Russell to recruit him to play for the Jayhawks basketball team. While at KU, Dole played for the basketball team, the track team, and the football team. In football, Dole played at the end position, earning varsity letters in 1942 and 1944. In 1942 he was a teammate of former Tennessee Titans owner Bud Adams, Adams's only season playing football at Kansas.WEB, KU Football rosters 1940-1949,weblink1940_49_Rosters.pdf?id=4066,, While in college, Dole joined the Kappa Sigma Fraternity, and in 1970 was bestowed with the Fraternity's "Man of the Year" honor.WEB,, Man of The Year, Dole's collegiate studies were interrupted by World War II, when he enlisted in the United States Army.WEB,weblink Text - H.R.3332 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Bob Dole Congressional Gold Medal Act, Lynn, Jenkins,, July 20, 2017,, en, June 6, 2018, Dole attended the University of Arizona from 1948 to 1949, before transferring to Washburn University and graduating with both undergraduate and law degrees in 1952.WEB,weblink DOLE, Robert Joseph {{!, US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives||language=en|access-date=July 10, 2018}}

World War II and recovery

In 1942, Dole joined the United States Army's Enlisted Reserve Corps to fight in World War II, becoming a second lieutenant in the Army's 10th Mountain Division.In April 1945, while engaged in combat near Castel d'Aiano in the Apennine mountains southwest of Bologna, Italy, Dole was seriously wounded by German machine gun fire, being struck in his upper back and right arm. As Lee Sandlin describes, when fellow soldiers saw the extent of his injuries, all they thought they could do was to "give him the largest dose of morphine they dared and write an 'M' for 'morphine' on his forehead in his own blood, so that nobody else who found him would give him a second, fatal dose."WEB,weblink "Losing the War" by Lee Sandlin,, June 17, 2010, Dole was transported to the United States, where his recovery was slow, interrupted by blood clots and a life-threatening infection. After large doses of penicillin were not successful, he overcame the infection with the administration of streptomycin, which at the time was still an experimental drug.Dole, B. One Soldier's Story, pp. 202–04. He remained despondent, "not ready to accept the fact that my life would be changed forever." He was encouraged to see Hampar Kelikian, an orthopedist in Chicago who had been working with veterans returning from war. Although during their first meeting Kelikian told Dole that he would never be able to recover fully, the encounter changed Dole's outlook on life, who years later wrote of Kelikian, a survivor of the Armenian Genocide, "Kelikian inspired me to focus on what I had left and what I could do with it, rather than complaining what had been lost." Dr. K, as Dole later came to affectionately call him, operated on him seven times, free of charge, and had, in Dole's words, "an impact on my life second only to my family."BOOK, Bobelian, Michael, Children of Armenia: A Forgotten Genocide and the Century-long Struggle for Justice, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2009, 164–65, 1-4165-5725-3, Dole recovered from his wounds at the Percy Jones Army Hospital. This complex of federal buildings, no longer a hospital, is now named Hart-Dole-Inouye Federal Center in honor of three patients who became United States Senators: Dole, Philip Hart and Daniel Inouye. Dole was decorated three times, receiving two Purple Hearts for his injuries, and the Bronze Star with "V" Device for valor for his attempt to assist a downed radioman. The injuries left him with limited mobility in his right arm and numbness in his left arm. He minimizes the effect in public by keeping a pen in his right hand.NEWS, Katharine Q. Seelye, War Wounds Shape Life, and Politics, for Dole, April 14, 1996, The New York Times,

Political career

Dole ran for office for the first time in 1950 and was elected to the Kansas House of Representatives, serving a two-year term.WEB, Dillard to Dyck, Kansas Legislators Past and Present, State Library of Kansas,weblink March 2, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 13, 2013, In 1952, he became the County Attorney of Russell County.WEB,weblink A Political Life: Dole's Kansas Years,, June 6, 2018, In 1960, Dole was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Kansas' 6th Congressional District.NEWS,weblink A POLITICAL LIFE: The Kansas Years;On the Kansas Prairie, the Window to Dole, Kolbert, Elizabeth, May 19, 1996, The New York Times, June 6, 2018, en-US, 0362-4331,

U.S. Senate

File:Nixon with Robert Dole - NARA - 194643.tif|thumb|Dole meeting with President Nixon in 1969. Photo by Oliver F. AtkinsOliver F. AtkinsIn 1968, Dole defeated Kansas Governor William H. Avery for the Republican nomination for the United States Senate to succeed retiring Senator Frank Carlson, subsequently being elected. Dole was re-elected in 1974, 1980, 1986, and 1992, before resigning on June 11, 1996, to focus on his Presidential campaign.NEWS,weblink Dole resigns from Senate to focus on presidential bid, June 11, 1996, POLITICO, June 6, 2018, en, While in the Senate, Dole served as chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1971–73, the ranking Republican on the Agriculture Committee from 1975–78, and the chairman of the Finance Committee from 1981–85.WEB,weblink Senator Roberts Makes History, Becoming Top Republican on Senate Agriculture Committee {{!, The United States Senate Committee On Agriculture, Nutrition & Forestry||language=en|access-date=June 6, 2018}}WEB,weblink Bob Dole: Still a Man to be Reckoned With, Eisele, Al, February 7, 2012, Huffington Post, en-US, June 6, 2018, NEWS,weblink Bob Dole elected Senate Republican leader, Nov. 28, 1984, POLITICO, June 6, 2018, en, File:U.S. SENATOR FROM KANSAS ROBERT DOLE, STANDS ON A PICK-UP TRUCK BED WHICH IS ONE OF THE PARADE UNITS IN COTTONWOOD... - NARA - 557059.jpg|thumb|left|Dole in Emporia, Kansas, 1974. Photo by Patricia DuBose DuncanPatricia DuBose DuncanOver time in the Senate, Dole was seen by some as having a moderate voting record.NEWS,weblink From soldier to statesman: Bob Dole's life of public service, NBC News, June 6, 2018, en-US, During the 1970s, he partnered with Senator George McGovern to help pass legislation making food stamps more accessible.NEWS,weblink Opinion {{!, Food Stamp Politics|last=Samuels|first=Dorothy|date=May 20, 2013|work=The New York Times|access-date=June 6, 2018|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}} In 1982, The New York Times referred to Dole as changing from "hard-line conservative" to "mainstream Republicanism".NEWS,weblink THE CLOUT OF THE 'NEW' BOB DOLE, Clark, Timothy B., June 6, 2018, en, In a January 3, 1996 Briefing Room address, amid the ongoing United States federal government shutdowns of 1995–1996, President Clinton noted Dole as a lawmaker that was "working together in good faith" to reopen the government.WEB, Remarks on the Impact of the Budget Impasse and an Exchange With Reporters,weblink January 3, 1996, Bill, Clinton, Bill Clinton, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States,

Presidential politics

File:1976 Republican National Convention.jpg|thumb|left|Bob Dole (far left) at the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City with (from left) Nancy Reagan, Ronald Reagan, President Gerald Ford, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, Susan Ford and 187x187pxFile:1988RepublicanPresidentialPrimaries.svg|thumb|During 1988 primaries Dole won Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Wyoming and home state Kansas{{legend|#a59400|George H. W. Bush}}{{legend|#73638c|Bob Dole}}{{legend|#668c63|Pat RobertsonPat RobertsonIn 1976, Dole ran unsuccessfully for Vice President on a ticket headed by President Gerald Ford. Incumbent Vice President Nelson Rockefeller had announced the previous November his retirement from politics rather than run for a full term as vice president, and Dole was chosen as Ford's running mate. Dole stated during the Vice Presidential debate with Walter Mondale, "I figured it up the other day: If we added up the killed and wounded in Democrat wars in this century, it would be about 1.6 million Americans â€” enough to fill the city of Detroit".WEB,weblink Online NewsHour: Previous Vice Presidential Debates Lend Perspective to Edwards, Cheney Face-Off, October 5, 2004,, June 17, 2010, Dole ran for the 1980 Republican presidential nomination, eventually won by Ronald Reagan. Despite Dole's national exposure from the '76 campaign, he finished behind Reagan, George H.W. Bush and four others in Iowa and New Hampshire, receiving only 2.5% and 0.4% of votes cast in those contests, respectively.NEWS,weblink 1980: Reagan begins his sweep {{!, New Hampshire||access-date=June 6, 2018|language=en}} Dole ceased campaigning after New Hampshire and announced his formal withdrawal from the race on March 15th, instead being re-elected to his third term as Senator that yearweblink

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