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Al Gore
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{{short description|45th Vice President of the United States}}{{About|the former U.S. Vice President|other uses}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Good article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2016}}







factoids
|term_start2 = January 3, 1983|term_end2 = January 3, 1985|predecessor2 = Robin Beard|successor2 = Bart Gordon|state3 = TennesseeTN4th}}|term_start3 = January 3, 1977|term_end3 = January 3, 1983|predecessor3 = Joe L. Evins|successor3 = Jim Cooper|birth_name = Albert Arnold Gore Jr.194831}}|birth_place = Washington, D.C., U.S.|death_date = |death_place = Democratic Party (United States)>DemocraticTipper Gore>1970end={{abbrseparated}}}}Karenna Gore>Karenna, KristinAlbert Gore Sr.Pauline LaFon Gore>Pauline LaFonHarvard University (Bachelor of Arts>AB)Vanderbilt University|awards = Nobel Peace Prize (2007)|signature = Al Gore Signature 3.svgalgore.com|Official website}}United States}}United States}}|serviceyears = 1969–197120px) Private20th Engineer Brigade (United States)>20th Engineer Brigade|battles = Vietnam War|mawards = National Defense Service Medal}}{{Al Gore series}}Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their successful campaign in 1992, and the pair was re-elected in 1996. Near the end of Clinton's second term, Gore was selected as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election but lost the election in a very close race after a Florida recount. After his term as vice-president ended in 2001, Gore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him (jointly with the IPCC) the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007.Gore was an elected official for 24 years. He was a representative from Tennessee (1977–1985) and from 1985 to 1993 served as a senator from that state. He served as vice president during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001. The 2000 presidential election was one of the closest presidential races in history. Gore won the popular vote, but after a controversial election dispute over a Florida recount (settled by the U.S. Supreme Court, which ruled 5–4 in favor of Bush), he lost the election to Republican opponent George W. Bush in the Electoral College.Gore is the founder and current chair of the The Climate Reality Project, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management and the now-defunct Current TV network, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc., and a senior adviser to Google.WEB,weblink Al's Bio, August 13, 2019, Gore, Al, AlGore.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100623070846weblink">weblink June 23, 2010, no, Gore is also a partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins, heading its climate change solutions group.NEWS,weblink Gore joins Valley's Kleiner Perkins to push green business, June 26, 2010, Coile, Zachary, November 13, 2007, San Francisco Chronicle, WEB,weblink Partner bio at Kleiner Perkins, June 26, 2010, Kleiner Perkins,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100722110249weblink">weblink July 22, 2010, yes, mdy, He has served as a visiting professor at Middle Tennessee State University, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, and the University of California, Los Angeles.WEB,weblink Office of Public Affairs, Former Vice President Al Gore to Teach at Columbia's School of Journalism, June 26, 2010, January 25, 2001, Columbia News: the Public Affairs and Record Home Page, Columbia University, NEWS,weblink Al Gore To Teach At Fisk University—Brief Article, June 26, 2010, Jet staff, February 19, 2001, Jet (magazine), Jet, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080126231735weblink">weblink January 26, 2008, WEB,weblink Training the Next Community Builders:Gore taps faculty expertise, August 20, 2008, Lee, Cynthia, Ko, Amy, 2001, UCLA Today, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110516011432weblink">weblink May 16, 2011, mdy, He served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute.WEB,weblink Al Gore, World Resources Institute, May 20, 2015, Gore has received a number of awards that include the Nobel Peace Prize (joint award with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007), a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album (2009) for his book An Inconvenient Truth,WEB,weblink The 51st Annual Grammy Awards Winners List, Category 79: Best Spoken Word Album, June 26, 2010, 2008, National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, July 4, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100704080423weblink">weblink mdy, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV (2007), and a Webby Award (2005). Gore was also the subject of the Academy Award-winning (2007) documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, he was named a runner-up for Time{{'s}} 2007 Person of the Year.NEWS,weblink Time Person of the Year 2007 Runners-Up: Al Gore, June 26, 2010, Bono, Bono, Time, December 19, 2007,

Early life and education

Gore was born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.C.,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Al Gore, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr., a U.S. Representative who later served for 18 years as a U.S. Senator from Tennessee, and Pauline (LaFon) Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. Gore is a descendant of Scots-Irish immigrants who first settled in Virginia in the mid-17th-century and moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War.Turque, Inventing Al Gore, p. 5. His older sister Nancy LaFon Gore died of lung cancer.WEB, Gore Chronology,weblink Frontline, Choice 2000, June 26, 2010, Public Broadcasting Service, PBS, During the school year he lived with his family in The Fairfax Hotel in the Embassy Row section in Washington D.C.NEWS,weblink Al Gore, Growing Up in Two Worlds, June 28, 2010, Maraniss, David, Nakashima, Ellen, October 10, 1999, The Washington Post, During the summer months, he worked on the family farm in Carthage, Tennessee, where the Gores grew tobacco and hayNEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, Growing Up, June 28, 2010, The Tennessean (photo), December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, Growing Up, June 28, 2010, Associated Press (photo), December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, and raised cattle.BOOK, Bob, Zelnick, Al Gore: A Political Life, Regnery Publishing, 1999, 0-89526-326-2,weblink Gore attended St. Albans School, an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in Washington, D.C., from 1956 to 1965, a prestigious feeder school for the Ivy League.NEWS,weblink Gore's Grades Belie Image of Studiousness, Maraniss, David, Nakashima, Ellen, March 18, 2000, The Washington Post, June 29, 2010, NEWS,weblink On Campus Torn by 60's, Agonizing Over the Path, June 22, 2008, Henneberger, Melinda, June 21, 2000, The New York Times, He was the captain of the football team, threw discus for the track and field team, and participated in basketball, art, and government.NEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, Growing Up, June 28, 2010, St. Albans Class of 1965 (photo), December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, He graduated 25th in a class of 51, applied to Harvard and was accepted.

Personal life

Gore met Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson at his St. Albans senior prom in 1965. She was from the nearby St. Agnes School. Tipper followed Gore to Boston to attend college, and they married at the Washington National Cathedral on May 19, 1970.NEWS,weblink Sen. Albert Gore and Pauline Gore share words with their son Al Jr. and his bride, June 28, 2010, Family photo, The Life of Al Gore, Path to Politics, December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, Growing up, June 28, 2010, Family photo, December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink Next First Lady Will Recast Role – Tipper Gore and Laura Bush, June 28, 2010, Howd, Aimee, August 23, 1999, Insight on the News, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130808014007weblink">weblink August 8, 2013, They have four children—Karenna Gore (b. 1973), Kristin Carlson Gore (b. 1977), Sarah LaFon Gore (b. 1979), and Albert Arnold Gore III (b. 1982).In June 2010 (shortly after purchasing a new home),NEWS,weblink Al Gore, Tipper Gore snap up Montecito-area villa: The Italian-style home has an ocean view, fountains, six fireplaces, five bedrooms and nine bathrooms, April 28, 2010, Beale, Lauren, Los Angeles Times, June 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100701152831weblink">weblink July 1, 2010, no, the Gores announced in an e-mail to friends that after "long and careful consideration", they had made a mutual decision to separate.NEWS, After 40 years of marriage, Tipper and Al Gore part ways,weblink Associated Press, Christian Science Monitor, June 1, 2010, December 30, 2013, Erik, Schelzig, NEWS, Al and Tipper Gore to separate after 40 years,weblink Associated Press, Nashville, TN, Yahoo News, June 1, 2010, June 28, 2010, Erik, Schelzig,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100618040857weblink">weblink June 18, 2010, no, mdy, In May 2012, it was reported that Gore started dating Elizabeth Keadle of California.NEWS,weblink May 17, 2012, Al Gore has a girlfriend: California donor and activist Elizabeth Keadle, The Washington Post,

Harvard, the Vietnam War, journalism, and Vanderbilt (1965–76)

Harvard

Gore enrolled in Harvard College in 1965; he initially planned to major in English and write novels but later decided to major in government. On his second day on campus, he began campaigning for the freshman student government council and was elected its president.Gore was an avid reader who fell in love with scientific and mathematical theories, but he did not do well in science classes and avoided taking math. During his first two years, his grades placed him in the lower one-fifth of his class. During his sophomore year, he reportedly spent much of his time watching television, shooting pool, and occasionally smoking marijuana. In his junior and senior years, he became more involved with his studies, earning As and Bs. In his senior year, he took a class with oceanographer and global warming theorist Roger Revelle, who sparked Gore's interest in global warming and other environmental issues.Turque, Inventing Al Gore, p. 59. Gore earned an A on his thesis, "The Impact of Television on the Conduct of the Presidency, 1947–1969", and graduated with an A.B. cum laude in June 1969.Turque, Inventing Al Gore, p. 388.File:Albert Gore Sr. speaking at the 1968 DNC.jpg|thumb|Albert Gore Sr. delivering a speech to the 1968 Democratic National Convention1968 Democratic National ConventionGore was in college during the era of anti-Vietnam War protests. He was against that war, but he disagreed with the tactics of the student protest movement. He thought that it was silly and juvenile to use a private university as a venue to vent anger at the war. He and his friends did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot ... We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country."NEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, The Path to Politics, June 28, 2010, December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, Gore helped his father write an anti-war address to the Democratic National Convention of 1968 but stayed with his parents in their hotel room during the violent protests.

Military service

File:Al Gore wedding.jpg|thumb|upright|Tipper and Al Gore on their wedding day, May 19, 1970, at the Washington National CathedralWashington National CathedralFile:AlGoreVietnam.png|thumb|left|upright|Gore with the 20th Engineer Brigade in Bien HoaBien HoaWhen Gore graduated in 1969, he immediately became eligible for the military draft. His father, a vocal anti–Vietnam War critic, was facing a reelection in 1970. Gore eventually decided that enlisting in the Army would be the best way that he could contribute to the anti-war effort. This would also improve his father's reelection prospects.WEB,weblink Albert A. Gore, Jr., 45th Vice President (1993–2001), June 29, 2010, Senate Historical Office staff, Special Collections, U.S. Senate Historical Office,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611162512weblink">weblink June 11, 2010, no, Although nearly all of his Harvard classmates avoided the draft and service in Vietnam,NEWS,weblink Gore: To Serve or Not to Serve (The Life of Al Gore, Sixth in a series), June 29, 2010, David Maraniss, Maraniss, David, Nakashima, Ellen, December 29, 1999, The Washington Post, {{dead link|date=June 2012}} Gore believed if he found a way around military service, he would be handing an issue to his father's Republican opponent. According to Gore's Senate biography, "He appeared in uniform in his father's campaign commercials, one of which ended with his father advising: 'Son, always love your country'." Despite this, Gore Sr. lost the election.Gore has said that his other reason for enlisting was that he did not want someone with fewer options than him to go in his place.NEWS,weblink Campaign Portrait, Al Gore:Trying to Set Himself Apart, Talbott, Strobe, Strobe Talbott, October 19, 1987, Time, July 7, 2010, Actor Tommy Lee Jones, a former college housemate, recalled Gore saying that "if he found a fancy way of not going, someone else would have to go in his place".NEWS,weblink The 2000 Campaign: The Vice President; Gore Tells Fellow Veterans He Is Dedicated to Military, June 29, 2010, Sack, Kevin, August 23, 2000, The New York Times, His Harvard advisor, Richard Neustadt, also stated that Gore decided, "that he would have to go as an enlisted man because, he said, 'In Tennessee, that's what most people have to do.{{'"}} In addition, Michael Roche, Gore's editor for The Castle Courier, stated that "anybody who knew Al Gore in Vietnam knows he could have sat on his butt and he didn't."NEWS,weblink For Gore, Army Years Mixed Vietnam and Family Politics, June 29, 2010, Henneberger, Melinda, July 11, 2000, The New York Times, After enlisting in August 1969, Gore returned to the anti-war Harvard campus in his military uniform to say goodbye to his adviser and was "jeered" at by students. He later said he was astonished by the "emotional field of negativity and disapproval and piercing glances that ... certainly felt like real hatred".Gore had basic training at Fort Dix from August to October, and then was assigned to be a journalist at Fort Rucker, Alabama. In April 1970, he was named Rucker's "Soldier of the Month".His orders to be sent to Vietnam were "held up" for some time, and the Gore family suspected that this was due to a fear by the Nixon administration that if something happened to him, his father would gain sympathy votes. He was finally shipped to Vietnam on January 2, 1971, after his father had lost his seat in the Senate during the 1970 Senate election, becoming one "of only about a dozen of the 1,115 Harvard graduates in the Class of '69 who went to Vietnam."NEWS,weblink A Political Father Who Chose the High Road and Unpopular Stands, June 29, 2010, Henneberger, Melinda, May 22, 2000, The New York Times, Gore was stationed with the 20th Engineer Brigade in Bien Hoa and was a journalist with The Castle Courier.NEWS,weblink The Life of Al Gore, The Path To Politics, June 28, 2010, H. Alan Leo (photo), December 31, 1999, The Washington Post, He received an honorable discharge from the Army in May 1971.Of his time in the Army, Gore later stated, "I didn't do the most, or run the gravest danger. But I was proud to wear my country's uniform." He also later stated that his experience in Vietnam}}

Vanderbilt and journalism

Gore was "dispirited" after his return from Vietnam. NashvillePost.com noted that, "his father's defeat made service in a conflict he deeply opposed even more abhorrent to Gore. His experiences in the war zone don't seem to have been deeply traumatic in themselves; although the engineers were sometimes fired upon, Gore has said he didn't see full-scale combat. Still, he felt that his participation in the war was wrong."Although his parents wanted him to go to law school, Gore first attended Vanderbilt University Divinity School (1971–72) on a Rockefeller Foundation scholarship for people planning secular careers. He later said he went there in order to explore "spiritual issues",NEWS,weblink Biography: Gore's road from Tennessee to the White House, CNN staff, June 29, 2010, June 16, 1999, CNN, and that "he had hoped to make sense of the social injustices that seemed to challenge his religious beliefs."NEWS,weblink Julie, Leiblich, On the Question of Faith: Born Again Gore Takes Open Minded Tack, July 10, 2000, 3A, Eugene Register-Guard, Associated Press, June 29, 2010, In 1971, Gore also began to work the night shift for The Tennessean as an investigative reporter.WEB,weblink Gore, Albert Arnold, Jr., (1948– ), June 29, 2010, Biographic Directory of the U.S. Congress, U.S. Congress, Office of History and Preservation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100711071155weblink">weblink July 11, 2010, no, His investigations of corruption among members of Nashville's Metro Council resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two councilmen for separate offenses.WEB,weblink Al Gore, boy reporter, June 29, 2010, Wood, E. Thomas, September 17, 1992, Nashville Post,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081122022413weblink">weblink November 22, 2008, In 1974, he took a leave of absence from The Tennessean to attend Vanderbilt University Law School. His decision to become an attorney was a partial result of his time as a journalist, as he realized that, while he could expose corruption, he could not change it. Gore did not complete law school, deciding abruptly, in 1976, to run for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives when he found out that his father's former seat in the House was about to be vacated.

Congress (1977–1993)

{{See also|Al Gore and information technology|Environmental activism of Al Gore}}Gore began serving in the U.S. Congress at the age of 28 and stayed there for the next 16 years, serving in both the House (1977–85) and the Senate (1985–93). Gore spent many weekends in Tennessee, working with his constituents.

House and Senate

At the end of February 1976, U.S. Representative Joe L. Evins unexpectedly announced his retirement from Congress, making Tennessee's 4th congressional district seat, to which he had succeeded Albert Gore Sr. in 1953 open. Within hours after The Tennessean publisher John Seigenthaler Sr. called him to tell him the announcement was forthcoming,NEWS,weblinkaccessdate=June 29, 2010date=February 29, 2008archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081011194100weblink October 11, 2008, Gore decided to quit law school and run for the House of Representatives:s photo lab and was working on a master's degree in psychology, but she joined in her husband's campaign (with assurance that she could get her job at The Tennessean back if he lost). By contrast, Gore asked his father to stay out of his campaign: "I must become my own man," he explained. "I must not be your candidate."}}Gore won the 1976 Democratic primary for the district with "32 percent of the vote, three percentage points more than his nearest rival", and was opposed only by an independent candidate in the election, recording 94 percent of the overall vote.NEWS,weblink Gore as Candidate: Traveler Between 2 Worlds, June 29, 2010, Weaver, Warren Jr., January 21, 19881978 United States House of Representatives elections>1978, 1980 United States House of Representatives elections, and 1982 United States House of Representatives elections>1982, where "he was unopposed twice and won 79 percent of the vote the other time". 1984 United States Senate election in Tennessee, Gore successfully ran for a seat in the List of United States Senators from Tennessee>U.S. Senate, which had been vacated by Republican Party leaders of the United States Senate Howard Baker. He was "unopposed in the Democratic Senatorial primary and won the general election going away", despite the fact that Republican President Ronald Reagan swept Tennessee in his 1984 United States presidential election>reelection campaign the same year. Gore defeated Republican senatorial nominee Victor Ashe, subsequently the List of mayors of Knoxville, Tennessee of Knoxville, Tennessee>Knoxville, and the Republican-turned-Independent (politics), Ed McAteer, founder of the Christian right Religious Roundtable organization that had worked to elect Reagan as president in 1980.HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2004/10/10/OBITUARIES/US/EDWARD-E-MCATEER-78-EMPOWERED-CHRISTIAN-RIGHT.HTML AUTHOR=MARGALIT FOXWORK=THE NEW YORK TIMES, May 26, 2016, (File:Sengore.jpg|thumb|upright|Gore during his congressional years)During his time in Congress, Gore was considered a "moderate" (he once referred to himself as a "raging moderate")NEWS,weblink Profiles In Caution, June 29, 2010, Stengel, Richard, Holmes, Steven, Talbott, Strobe, March 21, 1988, Time, opposing federal funding of abortion, voting in favor of a bill which supported a moment in silence in schools, and voting against a ban on interstate sales of guns.NEWS,weblink The longest shot; measuring Al Gore Jr. for the White House – Albert Gore Jr, June 29, 2010, Eisendrath, John, November 1986, Washington Monthly, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130808013824weblink">weblink August 8, 2013, In 1981, Gore was quoted as saying with regard to homosexuality, "I think it is wrong", and "I don't pretend to understand it, but it is not just another normal optional life style." In his 1984 Senate race, Gore said when discussing homosexuality, "I do not believe it is simply an acceptable alternative that society should affirm." He also said that he would not take campaign funds from gay rights groups.Birnbaum, Jeffrey H.. (July 10, 2000) What Does Al Gore Believe? Everyone knows he has brains. But does he have any convictions? He has been on both sides of almost every major issue. Where will he be in November? – July 10, 2000 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131203062523weblink |date=December 3, 2013 }}. Money.cnn.com. Retrieved on November 29, 2013. Although he maintained a position against homosexuality and gay marriage in the 1980s, Gore said in 2008 that he thinks "gay men and women ought to have the same rights as heterosexual men and women...to join together in marriage."WEB,weblink Gore Defends Same Sex Marriage, Alexovich, Ariel, January 23, 2008, NY Times, July 8, 2014, His position as a moderate (and on policies related to that label) shifted later in life after he became Vice President and ran for president in 2000.WEB,weblink 'Centrist' Gore Endorses 'Insurgent' Dean, June 29, 2010, Grindlay, Sean, December 17, 2003, Accuracy in Media, During his time in the House, Gore sat on the Energy and Commerce and the Science and Technology committees, chairing the Science Committee's Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations for four years. He also sat on the House Intelligence Committee and, in 1982, introduced the Gore Plan for arms control, to "reduce chances of a nuclear first strike by cutting multiple warheads and deploying single-warhead mobile launchers." While in the Senate, he sat on the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Rules and Administration, and the Armed Services Committees. In 1991, Gore was one of ten Democrats who supported the Gulf War.Gore was one of the Atari Democrats who were given this name due to their "passion for technological issues, from biomedical research and genetic engineering to the environmental impact of the "greenhouse effect." On March 19, 1979, he became the first member of Congress to appear on C-SPAN.WEB,weblink House History: Speaker Joe Martin's Television Debut:The House of Representatives and Television, June 29, 2010, Office of the Clerk, Electronic Technology in the House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100708185140weblink">weblink July 8, 2010, yes, mdy-all, During this time, Gore co-chaired the Congressional Clearinghouse on the Future with Newt Gingrich.NEWS,weblink The Making of The President 2000, Heilemann, John, Wired, December 1995, June 29, 2010, In addition, he has been described as having been a "genuine nerd, with a geek reputation running back to his days as a futurist Atari Democrat in the House. Before computers were comprehensible, let alone sexy, the poker-faced Gore struggled to explain artificial intelligence and fiber-optic networks to sleepy colleagues."NEWS,weblink A Man, a Plan, a Challenge, June 29, 2010, Miles, Sarah, January 30, 1998, Wired, Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn noted that,Gore introduced the Supercomputer Network Study Act of 1986.Roads and Crossroads of Internet History {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160824135203weblink |date=August 24, 2016 }} by Gregory Gromov He also sponsored hearings on how advanced technologies might be put to use in areas like coordinating the response of government agencies to natural disasters and other crises."As a Senator, Gore began to craft the High Performance Computing Act of 1991 (commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill") after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science, Leonard Kleinrock, one of the central creators of the ARPANET (the ARPANET, first deployed by Kleinrock and others in 1969, is the predecessor of the Internet).NEWS,weblink Computer History Museum Exhibits:1991, Computer History Museum, June 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070710170917weblink">weblink July 10, 2007, WEB, Kleinrock, Leonard, Kahn, Bob, Clark, David, Toward a National Research Network, 1988,weblink June 29, 2010, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., WEB, Kleinrock, Leonard, Cerf, Vint, Kahn, Bob, A Brief History of the Internet, Transition to Widespread Infrastructure, December 10, 2003,weblink July 5, 2010, Internet Society,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100620212109weblink">weblink June 20, 2010, no, The bill was passed on December 9, 1991, and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which Gore referred to as the "information superhighway."JOURNAL, Chapman, Gary, Rotenberg, Marc, Johnson, Deborah G., Nissanbaum, Helen, Computers, Ethics, & Social Values, 1995,weblink The National Information Infrastructure:A Public Interest Opportunity, 628–644, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall, After joining the House of Representatives, Gore held the "first congressional hearings on the climate change, and co-sponsor[ed] hearings on toxic waste and global warming."NEWS,weblink Timeline: Al Gore: The life and career of Al Gore, Aldred, Jessica, Goodchild, Lauren, June 29, 2010, October 12, 2007, The Guardian, London, WEB,weblink Gore Warms Up, June 29, 2010, Corn, David, May 25, 2006, The Nation, He continued to speak on the topic throughout the 1980s.NEWS,weblink A Green Tipping Point, June 29, 2010, Walsh, Bryan, October 12, 2007, Time, NEWS,weblink Greening of Democrats: An 80's Mix of Idealism And Shrewd Politics, Aug 14, 2013, Dionne, E. J., E.J. Dionne, June 14, 1989, Washington Talk, In 1990, Senator Gore presided over a three-day conference with legislators from over 42 countries which sought to create a Global Marshall Plan, "under which industrial nations would help less developed countries grow economically while still protecting the environment."NEWS, World's Legislators Urge 'Marshall Plan' For the Environment,weblink May 3, 1990, June 29, 2010, The New York Times, Shabecoff, Philip,

Son's 1989 accident and first book

On April 3, 1989, Al, Tipper and their six-year-old son Albert were leaving a baseball game. Albert ran across the street to see his friend and was hit by a car. He was thrown {{convert|30|ft|sigfig=1}} and then traveled along the pavement for another {{convert|20|ft|sigfig=1}}. Gore later recalled: "I ran to his side and held him and called his name, but he was motionless, limp and still, without breath or pulse.... His eyes were open with the nothingness stare of death, and we prayed, the two of us, there in the gutter, with only my voice." Albert was tended to by two nurses who happened to be present during the accident. The Gores spent the next month in the hospital with Albert. Gore also commented: "Our lives were consumed with the struggle to restore his body and spirit."NEWS,weblink Democratic Convention: The Women Who Made Al Gore, June 29, 2010, Tumulty, Karen, August 21, 2000, Time, This event was "a trauma so shattering that [Gore] views it as a moment of personal rebirth", a "key moment in his life" which "changed everything."In August 1991, Gore announced that his son's accident was a factor in his decision not to run for president during the 1992 presidential election.NEWS,weblink Gore Won't Run for President in 1992, June 29, 2010, Ifill, Gwen, Gwen Ifill, August 22, 1991, The New York Times, Gore stated: "I would like to be President.... But I am also a father, and I feel deeply about my responsibility to my children.... I didn't feel right about tearing myself away from my family to the extent that is necessary in a Presidential campaign." During this time, Gore wrote Earth in the Balance, a text which became the first book written by a sitting U.S. Senator to make The New York Times Best Seller list since John F. Kennedy's Profiles in Courage.

First presidential run (1988)

Gore campaigned for the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States against Joe Biden, Gary Hart, Dick Gephardt, Paul Simon, Jesse Jackson, and Michael Dukakis (who eventually won the Democratic nomination). Gore carried seven states in the primaries, finishing third overall.Although Gore initially denied that he intended to run, his candidacy was the subject of speculation: "National analysts make Sen. Gore a long-shot for the Presidential nomination, but many believe he could provide a natural complement for any of the other candidates: a young, attractive, moderate Vice Presidential nominee from the South. He currently denies any interest, but he carefully does not reject the idea out of hand." At the time, he was 39 years old, making him the "youngest serious Presidential candidate since John F. Kennedy."CNN noted that, "in 1988, for the first time, 12 Southern states would hold their primaries on the same day, dubbed "Super Tuesday". Gore thought he would be the only serious Southern contender; he had not counted on Jesse Jackson."NEWS,weblink The first presidential run, July 1, 2008, 2000, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070101160034weblink">weblink January 1, 2007, Jackson defeated Gore in the South Carolina Primary, winning, "more than half the total vote, three times that of his closest rival here, Senator Albert Gore Jr. of Tennessee."NEWS,weblink Jackson's Triumph in South Carolina Illustrates Dramatic Change Since Vote in '84, June 29, 2010, Berke, Richard, March 14, 1988, The New York Times, Gore next placed great hope on Super Tuesday where they split the Southern vote: Jackson winning Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi and Virginia; Gore winning Arkansas, North Carolina, Kentucky, Nevada, Tennessee, and Oklahoma.WEB,weblink The First Super Tuesday (Transcript), June 29, 2010, Berke, Richard, March 9, 1988, Online News Hour, Public Broadcasting Service, PBS,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100608131916weblink">weblink June 8, 2010, no, Gore was later endorsed by New York City Mayor Ed Koch who made statements in favor of Israel and against Jackson. These statements cast Gore in a negative light, leading voters away from Gore who received only 10% of the vote in the New York Primary. Gore then dropped out of the race. The New York Times said that Gore also lost support due to his attacks against Jackson, Dukakis, and others.NEWS,weblink This Gore Campaign, and the Next, June 29, 2009, ((NYT editors)), Opinion, April 22, 1988, The New York Times, Gore was eventually able to mend fences with Jackson, who supported the Clinton-Gore ticket in 1992 and 1996, and campaigned for the Gore-Lieberman ticket during the 2000 presidential election.NEWS,weblink Jesse Jackson endorses Gore for president, June 29, 2010, CNN staff, March 1, 2000, CNN, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090424004451weblink">weblink April 24, 2009, WEB
,weblink
, God bless Jesse Jackson
, June 29, 2010
, Sweeney, Kevin
, December 1, 2000
, Salon
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090622065457weblink">weblink
, June 22, 2009
,
, Gore's policies changed substantially in 2000, reflecting his eight years as Vice President.WEB,weblink Who Cares Who Wins?, June 29, 2010, Spencer, Jane, September 20, 2000, A NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Special for Students, PBS,

1992 presidential election

Gore was initially hesitant to be Bill Clinton's running mate for the 1992 United States presidential election, but after clashing with the George H. W. Bush administration over global warming issues, he decided to accept the offer. Clinton stated that he chose Gore due to his foreign policy experience, work with the environment, and commitment to his family.NEWS,weblink The 1992 Campaign: their own words; excerpts from Clinton's and Gore's remarks on the ticket, June 29, 2010, Ifill, Gwen, July 10, 1992, The New York Times, Clinton's choice was criticized as unconventional because rather than picking a running mate who would diversify the ticket, Clinton chose a fellow Southerner who shared his political ideologies and who was nearly the same age as Clinton.NEWS,weblink The 1992 Campaign: Democrats; Clinton selects senator Gore of Tennessee as running mate, June 29, 2010, Ifill, Gwen, July 10, 1992, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink The Democrats Ticket: Sons of the South; Presidential Ticket Sprouts From Soil of 2 Tiny Farm Towns 450 Miles Apart, June 29, 2010, DeParle, Jason, July 17, 1992, The New York Times, The Washington Bureau Chief for The Baltimore Sun, Paul West, later suggested that, "Al Gore revolutionized the way Vice Presidents are made. When he joined Bill Clinton's ticket, it violated the old rules. Regional diversity? Not with two Southerners from neighboring states. Ideological balance? A couple of left-of-center moderates. ... And yet, Gore has come to be regarded by strategists in both parties as the best vice presidential pick in at least 20 years."WEB,weblink Picking a No. 2: the 'wow' factor, July 5, 2010, West, Paul, July 6, 2008, Collections – Element Of Surprise, The Baltimore Sun, Clinton and Gore accepted the nomination at the Democratic National Convention on July 17, 1992.NEWS,weblink In Their Own Words; Transcript of Speech by Clinton Accepting Democratic Nomination, June 30, 2010, Clinton, William, July 17, 1992, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink In Their Own Words; Excerpts From Speech By Gore at Convention, June 30, 2010, Gore, Al, July 17, 1992, The New York Times, Known as the Baby Boomer Ticket and the Fortysomething Team, The New York Times noted that if elected, Clinton and Gore, at ages 45 and 44 respectively, would be the "youngest team to make it to the White House in the country's history."NEWS,weblink The Campaign; 2 Baby Boomers on 1 ticket: A First, But Will It Work?, June 30, 2010, Dowd, Maureen, Maureen Dowd, July 13, 1992, The New York Times, Theirs was the first ticket since 1972 to try to capture the youth vote. Gore called the ticket "a new generation of leadership".NEWS,weblink The 1992 campaign: The youth vote; Democrats court youngest voters, June 30, 2010, Suro, Roberto, October 30, 1992, The New York Times, The ticket increased in popularity after the candidates traveled with their wives, Hillary and Tipper, on a "six-day, 1,000-mile bus ride, from New York to St. Louis."NEWS,weblink The 1992 Campaign: The Democrats; Clinton-Gore Caravan Refuels With Spirit From Adoring Crowds, June 30, 2010, Ifill, Gwen, July 19, 1992, The New York Times, Gore also debated the other vice presidential candidates, Dan Quayle, and James Stockdale. The Clinton-Gore ticket beat the Bush-Quayle ticket, 43%–38%.

Vice Presidency (1993–2001)

{{See also|Al Gore and information technology|Environmental activism of Al Gore}}File:1993 Clinton Inauguration.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Clintons and the Gores as Chelsea Clinton rings a replica of the Liberty BellLiberty BellAl Gore served as Vice President during the Clinton Administration. Clinton and Gore were inaugurated on January 20, 1993. At the beginning of the first term, they developed a "two-page agreement outlining their relationship". Clinton committed himself to regular lunch meetings; he recognized Gore as a principal adviser on nominations and appointed some of Gore's chief advisers to key White House staff positions. Clinton involved Gore in decision-making to an unprecedented degree for a Vice President. Through their weekly lunches and daily conversations, Gore became the president's "indisputable chief adviser".However, Gore had to compete with First Lady Hillary for President Clinton's influence, starting when she was appointed to the health-care task force without Gore's consultation. Vanity Fair wrote that President Clinton's "failure to confide in his vice president was a telling sign of the real pecking order", and reported "it was an open secret that some of Hillary's advisers...nurtured dreams that Hillary, not Gore, would follow Bill in the presidency".WEB,weblink White House Civil War, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, 2016-11-11, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161007095712weblink">weblink October 7, 2016, mdy, NEWS, Darren, Samuelsohn,weblink Why Al Gore won't endorse Hillary Clinton, 2016-11-11, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161204000204weblink">weblink December 4, 2016, mdy, Gore had a particular interest in reducing "waste, fraud, and abuse in the federal government and advocated trimming the size of the bureaucracy and the number of regulations." During the Clinton Administration, the U.S. economy expanded, according to David Greenberg (professor of history and media studies at Rutgers University) who said that "by the end of the Clinton presidency, the numbers were uniformly impressive. Besides the record-high surpluses and the record-low poverty rates, the economy could boast the longest economic expansion in history; the lowest unemployment since the early 1970s; and the lowest poverty rates for single mothers, black Americans, and the aged."WEB,weblink Memo to Obama Fans: Clinton's presidency was not a failure, Greenberg, David, Aug 14, 2013, The History Behind Current Events, According to Leslie Budd, author of E-economy: Rhetoric or Business Reality, this economic success was due, in part, to Gore's continued role as an Atari Democrat, promoting the development of information technology, which led to the dot-com boom (c. 1995–2001).BOOK,weblink The puzzle of India's governance: culture, context and comparative theory, July 10, 2010, Mitra, Subrata K., January 13, 2006, Routledge, 978-0-415-34861-4, Clinton and Gore entered office planning to finance research that would "flood the economy with innovative goods and services, lifting the general level of prosperity and strengthening American industry."NEWS,weblink William, Broad, Clinton to Promote High Technology, With Gore in Charge, November 10, 1992, The New York Times, June 29, 2010, Their overall aim was to fund the development of, "robotics, smart roads, biotechnology, machine tools, magnetic-levitation trains, fiber-optic communications and national computer networks. Also earmarked [were] a raft of basic technologies like digital imaging and data storage." Critics claimed that the initiatives would "backfire, bloating Congressional pork and creating whole new categories of Federal waste."During the election and his term as Vice President, Gore popularized the term Information Superhighway, which became synonymous with the Internet, and he was involved in the creation of the National Information Infrastructure. Gore first discussed his plans to emphasize information technology at UCLA on January 11, 1994, in a speech at The Superhighway Summit. He was involved in a number of projects including NetDay'96 and 24 Hours in Cyberspace. The Clinton–Gore administration also launched the first official White House website in 1994 and subsequent versions through 2000.WEB,weblink White House Websites, August 12, 2008, Clinton, William, William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park, William J. Clinton Presidential Library and Museum,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080521215338weblink">weblink May 21, 2008, yes, mdy, The Clipper Chip, which "Clinton inherited from a multi-year National Security Agency effort", was a method of hardware encryption with a government backdoor.JOURNAL, Rheingold, Howard, Afterword to the 1994 Edition, The Virtual Community, 398–399, 2000, It met with strong opposition from civil liberty groups and was abandoned by 1996.JOURNAL, Rheingold, Howard, Afterword to the 1994 Edition, The Virtual Community, 395, 2000, WEB,weblink Rendering Unto CESA: Clinton's contradictory encryption policy, July 5, 2010, May 2000, Godwin, Mike, Reason Magazine, File:Phoc96v1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|President Bill Clinton installing computer cables with Vice President Al Gore on NetDay at Ygnacio Valley High SchoolYgnacio Valley High SchoolFile:Al Gore Glenn.jpg|thumb|Glenn T. SeaborgGlenn T. SeaborgGore was also involved in environmental initiatives. He launched the GLOBE program on Earth Day '94, an education and science activity that, according to Forbes magazine, "made extensive use of the Internet to increase student awareness of their environment".NEWS,weblink Gore Really Does Get The Web, Faces in the News, June 30, 2010, Noon, Chris, September 21, 2006, Forbes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100605131012weblink">weblink June 5, 2010, no, In 1998, Gore began promoting a NASA satellite (Deep Space Climate Observatory) that would provide a constant view of the Earth, marking the first time such an image would have been made since The Blue Marble photo from the 1972 Apollo 17 mission.WEB,weblink Earth-Viewing Satellite Would Focus On Educational, Scientific Benefits, June 29, 2010, Science Daily staff, March 17, 1998, Science Daily, During this time, he also became associated with Digital Earth.WEB,weblink Digital Earth History, The 5th International Symposium on Digital Earth, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080209225424weblink">weblink February 9, 2008, Gore negotiated and strongly supported the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gasses, but said upon his return that the administration would not submit the treaty to the Senate for ratification until it was amended to include "meaningful participation by key developing nations",John M. Broder, "The Climate Accord: The Overview; Clinton Adamant On 3d World Role In Climate Accord" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160717053332weblink |date=July 17, 2016 }}, The New York Times, December 12, 1997.WEB,weblink Remarks By Al Gore, Climate Change Conference, Kyoto, Japan, June 29, 2010, Gore, Al, December 8, 1997, Gore/Lieberman,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20001207090900weblink">weblink December 7, 2000, WEB,weblink Vice President Gore: strong environmental leadership for the new millennium, June 29, 2010, Gore, Al, 1997, The Vice President's Environment Initiatives, The Clinton White House,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528031451weblink">weblink May 28, 2010, yes, mdy-all, The Senate had previously passed unanimously (95–0) the Byrd–Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98), which declared opposition to any greenhouse gas treaty which would limit US emissions without similar limits on third-world countries such as China.WEB,weblink U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 105th Congress—1st Session:S.Res. 98, July 25, 1997, June 29, 2010,weblink May 28, 2010, no, WEB,weblink Text of the Byrd–Hagel Resolution, July 25, 1997, June 29, 2010, NationalCenter.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100626110143weblink">weblink June 26, 2010, yes, mdy-all, The Clinton administration left office three years later without having submitted the treaty for ratification.The U.S. Department of Justice investigation into the fund-raising activities had uncovered evidence that Chinese agents sought to direct contributions from foreign sources to the Democratic National Committee (DNC) before the 1996 presidential campaign. The Chinese embassy in Washington, D.C. was used for coordinating contributions to the DNC.Woodward, Bob and Duffy, Brian, "Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed", Washington Post, February 13, 1997NEWS, Findings Link Clinton Allies to Chinese Intelligence,weblink The Washington Post, February 11, 1998, FBI agents were denied the opportunity to ask President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore questions during Justice Department interviews in 1997 and 1998 and were only allowed to take notes."Justice's Clinton, Gore inquiry criticized", Associated Press, December 16, 1999In 1996, Gore became involved in a "Chinagate" campaign finance controversy over his attendance at an event at the Buddhist Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California. In an interview on NBC's Today the following year, Gore said, "I did not know that it was a fund-raiser. I knew it was a political event, and I knew there were finance people that were going to be present, and so that alone should have told me, 'This is inappropriate and this is a mistake; don't do this.' And I take responsibility for that. It was a mistake."NEWS,weblink Gore Admits Temple Fund-Raiser Was A 'Mistake', June 30, 2010, January 24, 1997, AllPolitics, CNN, In March 1997, Gore had to explain phone calls which he made to solicit funds for Democratic Party for the 1996 election.NEWS,weblink Fund-Raising Questions Focus On Gore, June 29, 2010, CNN staff, March 2, 1997, AllPolitics, CNN, In a news conference, Gore stated that, "all calls that I made were charged to the Democratic National Committee. I was advised there was nothing wrong with that. My counsel tells me there is no controlling legal authority that says that is any violation of any law."WEB,weblink The Money Trail, June 29, 2010, March 6, 1997, Online NewsHour, PBS, The phrase "no controlling legal authority" was criticized by columnist Charles Krauthammer, who stated: "Whatever other legacies Al Gore leaves behind between now and retirement, he forever bequeaths this newest weasel word to the lexicon of American political corruption."NEWS,weblink Opinion, Gore's Meltdown, June 29, 2010, Krauthammer, Charles, Charles Krauthammer, March 7, 1997, The Washington Post, Robert Conrad Jr. was the head of a Justice Department task force appointed by Attorney General Janet Reno to investigate Gore's fund-raising controversies. In Spring 2000, Conrad asked Reno to appoint an independent counsel to continue the investigation. After looking into the matter, Reno judged that the appointment of an independent counsel was unwarranted.WEB,weblink Fund-raising Investigation, Transcript, June 29, 2010, June 23, 2000, Online NewsHour, PBS, (File:1997 Clinton Inaugural Ball- Vice President and Mrs. Gore Dancing.jpg|thumb|upright|Vice President Gore and Tipper Gore, 1997)During the 1990s, Gore spoke out on a number of issues. In a 1992 speech on the Gulf War, Gore stated that he twice attempted to get the U.S. government to pull the plug on support to Saddam Hussein, citing Hussein's use of poison gas, support of terrorism, and his burgeoning nuclear program, but was opposed both times by the Reagan and Bush administrations.WEB,weblink Clinton Campaign Event, June 22, 2008, Gore, Al, September 29, 1992, CSPAN, In the wake of the Al-Anfal Campaign, during which Hussein staged deadly mustard and nerve gas attacks on Kurdish Iraqis, Gore cosponsored the Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988, which would have cut all assistance to Iraq. The bill was defeated in part due to intense lobbying of Congress by the Reagan-Bush White House and a veto threat from President Reagan. In 1998, at a conference of APEC hosted by Malaysia, Gore objected to the indictment, arrest and jailing of Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad's longtime second-in-command Anwar Ibrahim, a move which received a negative response from leaders there.NEWS,weblink Gore Gets Scolding From APEC, Business Leaders, June 29, 2010, Drogin, Bob, November 18, 1998, collections, Ten years later, Gore again protested when Ibrahim was arrested a second time, a decision condemned by Malaysian foreign minister Datuk Seri Dr Rais Yatim.WEB,weblink US State Department summons Malaysian envoy, August 12, 2008, August 9, 2008, Malaysia Today,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080812012634weblink">weblink August 12, 2008, Soon afterward, Gore also had to contend with the Lewinsky scandal, which involved an affair between President Clinton and a White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. Gore initially defended Clinton, whom he believed to be innocent, stating, "He is the president of the country! He is my friend ... I want to ask you now, every single one of you, to join me in supporting him." After Clinton was impeached, Gore continued to defend him stating, "I've defined my job in exactly the same way for six years now ... to do everything I can to help him be the best president possible."

Second presidential run (2000)

{{See also|Bush v. Gore|Florida election recount|Al Gore and information technology}}There was talk of a potential run in the 2000 presidential race by Gore as early as January 1998.NEWS,weblink Al Gore: Waiting in the wings, June 30, 2010, BBC News staff, January 27, 1998, Clinton: Under Investigation, BBC, Gore discussed the possibility of running during a March 9, 1999, interview with CNN's Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer. In response to Wolf Blitzer's question: "Why should Democrats, looking at the Democratic nomination process, support you instead of Bill Bradley", Gore responded:}}{{anchor|I invented the Internet}}File:Algoreexecmanchester.jpg|thumb|upright|In Manchester, New Hampshire, campaigning for President of the United StatesPresident of the United StatesFormer UCLA professor of information studies Philip E. Agre and journalist Eric Boehlert argued that three articles in Wired News led to the creation of the widely spread urban legend that Gore claimed to have "invented the Internet", which followed this interview.NEWS, Philip, Agre,weblink Who Invented 'Invented'? Tracing the Real Story of the 'Al Gore Invented the Internet' Hoax, UCSD, October 17, 2000, August 22, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040603092645weblink">weblink June 3, 2004, WEB,weblink Did Gore invent the Internet?, June 30, 2010, Rosenberg, Scott, October 5, 2000, Salon (website), Salon, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080724051106weblink">weblink July 24, 2008, NEWS, Eric, Boehlert,weblink Wired Owes Al Gore an Apology, Huffington Post, April 28, 2006, June 30, 2010, WEB,weblink Internet of Lies, March 12, 2014, Snopes.com, In addition, computer professionals and congressional colleagues argued in his defense. Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn stated that "we don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he 'invented' the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet."WEB,weblink Al Gore and the Internet, June 30, 2010, Kahn, Robert, Cerf, Vinton, October 2, 2000, The Register, Cerf would later state: "Al Gore had seen what happened with the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which his father introduced as a military bill. It was very powerful. Housing went up, suburban boom happened, everybody became mobile. Al was attuned to the power of networking much more than any of his elective colleagues. His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve credit."WEB,weblink What I've Learned: Vint Cerf, Creator of the Internet, 64, McLean, Virginia, June 30, 2010, Fussman, Cal, April 24, 2008, Esquire (magazine), Esquire, In a speech to the American Political Science Association, former Republican Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich also stated: "In all fairness, it's something Gore had worked on a long time. Gore is not the Father of the Internet, but in all fairness, Gore is the person who, in the Congress, most systematically worked to make sure that we got to an Internet, and the truth is—and I worked with him starting in 1978 when I got [to Congress], we were both part of a "futures group"—the fact is, in the Clinton administration, the world we had talked about in the '80s began to actually happen."Atlanta Journal-Constitution: Al Gore in 'Internet Hall of Fame'. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120701133117weblink |date=July 1, 2012 }} April 24, 2012. Finally, Wolf Blitzer (who conducted the original 1999 interview) stated in 2008 that: "I didn't ask him about the Internet. I asked him about the differences he had with Bill Bradley ... Honestly, at the time, when he said it, it didn't dawn on me that this was going to have the impact that it wound up having, because it was distorted to a certain degree and people said they took what he said, which was a carefully phrased comment about taking the initiative and creating the Internet to—I invented the Internet. And that was the sort of shorthand, the way his enemies projected it and it wound up being a devastating setback to him and it hurt him, as I'm sure he acknowledges to this very day."NEWS,weblink CNN Late edition with Wolf Blitzer: 10th Anniversary Special, Transcript, June 30, 2010, July 6, 2008, CNN, Gore himself would later poke fun at the controversy. In 2000, while on the Late Show with David Letterman he read Letterman's Top 10 List (which for this show was called, "Top Ten Rejected Gore – Lieberman Campaign Slogans") to the audience. Number nine on the list was: "Remember, America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it away!"NEWS,weblink Gore Does Dave, CBS News, September 14, 2000, June 30, 2010, In 2005 when Gore was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award "for three decades of contributions to the Internet" at the Webby AwardsNEWS,weblink Webby Awards not laughing at Gore's contribution to Net Former Vice President of the United States, June 30, 2010, Associated Press, May 5, 2005, USA Today, NEWS,weblink Accepting a Webby? Brevity, Please, June 30, 2010, Carr, David, June 8, 2005, Arts, he joked in his acceptance speech (limited to five words according to Webby Awards rules): "Please don't recount this vote." He was introduced by Vint Cerf who used the same format to joke: "We all invented the Internet." Gore, who was then asked to add a few more words to his speech, stated: "It is time to reinvent the Internet for all of us to make it more robust and much more accessible and use it to reinvigorate our democracy."During a speech that he gave on June 16, 1999, in Carthage, Tennessee, Gore formally announced his candidacy for president. His major theme was the need to strengthen the American family.NEWS,weblink Gore launches presidential campaign, June 30, 2010, CNN staff, June 16, 1999, CNN, He was introduced by his eldest daughter, Karenna Gore Schiff. In making the speech, Gore also distanced himself from Bill Clinton, who he stated had lied to him. Gore was "briefly interrupted" by AIDS protesters claiming Gore was working with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent access to generic medicines for poor nations and chanting "Gore's greed kills." Additional speeches were also interrupted by the protesters. Gore responded, "I love this country. I love the First Amendment ... Let me say in response to those who may have chosen an inappropriate way to make their point, that actually the crisis of AIDS in Africa is one that should command the attention of people in the United States and around the world." Gore also issued a statement saying that he supported efforts to lower the cost of the AIDS drugs, provided that they "are done in a way consistent with international agreements."NEWS,weblink AIDS Activists Badger Gore Again, June 30, 2010, Babcock, Charles R., Connolly, Cici, June 18, 1999, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink Political Briefing; Gore Is Followed By AIDS Protesters, June 30, 2010, Ayres, B. Drummond Jr., July 2, 1999, The New York Times, While Bill Clinton's job-approval ratings were around 60%, an April 1999 study by the Pew Research Center for the People found that respondents suffered from "Clinton fatigue" where they were "tired of all the problems associated with the Clinton administration" including the Lewinsky scandal and impeachment. Texas Governor and likely Republican presidential nominee George W. Bush was leading Gore 54% to 41% in polls during that time. Gore's advisers believed that the "Lewinsky scandal and Bill's past womanizing...alienated independent voters—especially the soccer moms, who stood for traditional values". Consequently, Gore's presidential campaign "veered too far in differentiating himself from Bill and his record and had difficulty taking advantage of the Clinton administration's legitimate successes". In addition, Hillary's candidacy for the open Senate seat in New York exacerbated the "three-way tensions evident in the White House since 1993", as "not only was Hillary unavailable as a campaigner, she was poaching top Democratic fund-raisers and donors who would normally concentrate on the vice president". In one instance "Hillary insisted on being invited [to a Los Angeles fundraiser for the vice president]—over the objections of the event's organizers", where the First Lady "shocked the vice president's supporters by soliciting donations for herself in front of Tipper".Gore faced an early challenge by former New Jersey senator Bill Bradley. Bradley was the only candidate to oppose Gore and was considered a "fresh face" for the White House.NEWS,weblink Bradley returns to boyhood home to launch fall campaign, July 5, 2010, September 8, 1999, AllPolitics, CNN, NEWS,weblink Republicans Express a Joint Fear: Of Bradley, Not Gore, June 30, 2010, Berke, Richard, September 19, 1999, The New York Times, Gore challenged Bradley to a series of debates which took the form of "town hall" meetings.NEWS,weblink Bradley Accepts Gore's Offer, And 7 Debates Will Be Held, June 30, 2010, Dao, James, October 20, 1999, The New York Times, Gore went on the offensive during these debates leading to a drop in the polls for Bradley.NEWS,weblink Gore Takes Another Swing at Bradley, June 30, 2010, Balz, Dan, Connolly, Ceci, October 10, 1999, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink Little time left on Bradley clock, June 30, 2010, Benedetto, Richard, Richard Benedetto, March 8, 2000, Opinion, USA Today, In the Iowa caucus the unions pledged their support to Gore, despite Bradley spending heavily in that state, and Bradley was much embarrassed by his two to one defeat there. Gore went on to capture the New Hampshire primary 53-47%, which had been a must-win state for Bradley. Gore then swept all of the primaries on Super Tuesday while Bradley finished a distant second in each state. On March 9, 2000, after failing to win any of the first 20 primaries and caucuses in the election process, Bradley withdrew his campaign and endorsed Gore. Gore eventually went on to win every primary and caucus and, in March 2000 even won the first primary election ever held over the Internet, the Arizona Presidential Primary.NEWS,weblink Gore rolls up delegates in Michigan, Minnesota, Arizona, Thomsen, Scott, Associated Press, March 12, 2000, Boston Globe, June 30, 2010, By then, he secured the Democratic nomination.WEB,weblink Bradley, McCain Drop Out of Race, Colby, Edward B., March 10, 2000, Harvard Crimson, June 30, 2010, On August 13, 2000, Gore announced that he had selected Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut as his vice presidential running mate. Lieberman became "the first person of the Jewish faith to run for the nation's second-highest office." Many pundits saw Gore's choice of Lieberman as further distancing him from the scandals of the Clinton White House.NEWS,weblink The 2000 campaign: The Vice President; Gore and Lieberman Make Tolerance the Centerpiece, June 30, 2010, Sack, Kevin, August 9, 2000, The New York Times, Gore's daughter, Karenna, together with her father's former Harvard roommate Tommy Lee Jones,NEWS,weblink Joe Lieberman, Karenna Gore Schiff Speak to the Democratic National Convention, June 30, 2010, August 16, 2000, Transcript, CNN, officially nominated Gore as the Democratic presidential candidate during the 2000 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, California.NEWS,weblink Democrats nominate Gore for presidency, June 30, 2010, CNN staff, August 17, 2000, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070228090402weblink">weblink February 28, 2007, Gore accepted his party's nomination and spoke about the major themes of his campaign, stating in particular his plan to extend Medicare to pay for prescription drugs and to work for a sensible universal health-care system. Soon after the convention, Gore hit the campaign trail with running mate Joe Lieberman. Gore and Bush were deadlocked in the polls.NEWS,weblink Bush, Gore kick off fall campaign season with appeal to working families, June 30, 2010, Ferullo, Mike, September 4, 2000, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829193532weblink">weblink August 29, 2013, They participated in three televised debates. While both sides claimed victory after each, Gore was critiqued as either too stiff, too reticent, or too aggressive in contrast to Bush.NEWS,weblink Stuart Rothenberg: Gore, Bush hope third debate is the charm, June 30, 2010, Rothenberg, Stuart, October 16, 2000, CNN, NEWS,weblink Robert Novak: Big win eludes Gore in final presidential debate, June 30, 2010, Novak, Robert, October 18, 2000, CNN,

Recount

On election night, news networks first called Florida for Gore, later retracted the projection, and then called Florida for Bush, before finally retracting that projection as well.WEB,weblink Election Night: A Media Watch Special Report, June 30, 2010, November 7, 2000, Public Broadcasting Service, PBS,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100731000517weblink">weblink July 31, 2010, no, Florida's Republican Secretary of State, Katherine Harris, eventually certified Florida's vote count.NEWS,weblink Bush begins transition, urges Gore not to contest, June 30, 2010, CNN staff, November 26, 2000, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070302031248weblink">weblink March 2, 2007, This led to the Florida election recount, a move to further examine the Florida results.NEWS,weblink Transcript: Gore remarks on Florida vote certification, June 30, 2010, November 27, 2000, Transcript, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829191634weblink">weblink August 29, 2013, The Florida recount was stopped a few weeks later by the U.S. Supreme Court. In the ruling, Bush v. Gore, the Justices held that the Florida recount was unconstitutional and that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline, effectively ending the recounts. This 7–2 vote ruled that the standards the Florida Supreme Court provided for a recount were unconstitutional due to violations of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and further ruled 5–4 that no constitutionally valid recount could be completed by the December 12 deadline. This case ordered an end to recounting underway in selected Florida counties, effectively giving George W. Bush a 537Official Results {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120912083944weblink |date=September 12, 2012 }}, Federal Election Commission, updated December 2001. vote victory in Florida and consequently Florida's 25 electoral votes and the presidency.WEB,weblink George W. Bush, et al., Petitioners v. Albert Gore, Jr., et al., 531 U.S. 98 (2000), June 26, 2010, Supreme Court of the US, December 12, 2000, Cornell Law School, The results of the decision led to Gore winning the popular vote by approximately 500,000 votes nationwide, but receiving 266 electoral votes to Bush's 271 (one District of Columbia elector abstained).NEWS,weblink It's a Mess, But We've Been Through It Before, Aug 15, 2013, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., September 6, 2006, Time, On December 13, 2000, Gore conceded the election.NEWS,weblink Gore concedes presidential election, June 30, 2010, CNN staff, December 13, 2000, AllPolitics, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100706220233weblink">weblink July 6, 2010, yes, Gore strongly disagreed with the Court's decision, but in his concession speech stated that, "for the sake of our unity as a people and the strength of our democracy, I offer my concession."NEWS,weblink Vice President Al Gore delivers remarks, July 18, 2008, Gore, Al, December 13, 2000, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070315202134weblink">weblink March 15, 2007,

Post-Vice Presidency (2001–present)

(File:Vice President Al Gore.jpg|thumb|upright|Gore in 2000)Bill Clinton and Gore had maintained an informal public distance for eight years, but they reunited for the media in August 2009. Clinton had arranged for the release of two female journalists who were being held hostage in North Korea. The women were employees of Gore's Current TV.NEWS,weblink Clinton and Gore, Together Again, June 30, 2009, Nagourney, Adam, Adam Nagourney, August 5, 2009, The New York Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513033434weblink">weblink May 13, 2011, no, In May 2018, he was included as a member of the Indian Government committee to coordinate year long celebrations of Mahatma Gandhi's 150th birth anniversary from October 2, 2019.WEB,weblink Gandhi's Birth Anniversary To Mark India's Resolve For Just Society: Kovind, May 2, 2018, india,

Criticism of Bush

Beginning in 2002, Gore began to publicly criticize the Bush administration. In a September 23 speech that he gave before the Commonwealth Club of California, Gore criticized Bush and Congress for the rush to war prior to the outbreak of hostilities in Iraq. He compared this decision to the Persian Gulf War (which Gore had voted for) stating, "Back in 1991, I was one of a handful of Democrats in the United States Senate to vote in favor of the resolution endorsing the Persian Gulf War ... But look at the differences between the resolution that was voted on in 1991 and the one this administration is proposing that the Congress vote on in 2002. The circumstances are really completely different. To review a few of them briefly: in 1991, Iraq had crossed an international border, invaded a neighboring sovereign nation and annexed its territory. Now by contrast in 2002, there has been no such invasion."WEB,weblink Iraq and the War on Terrorism, Gore, Al, Text of speech given by Al Gore, September 23, 2002, June 30, 2010, CommonwealthClub.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100531150207weblink">weblink May 31, 2010, yes, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Gore challenges Bush Iraqi policy: Questions the timing of a military strike, June 30, 2010, Mercurio, John, September 23, 2002, AllPolitics, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130822013217weblink">weblink August 22, 2013, In a speech given in 2004, during the presidential election, Gore accused George W. Bush of betraying the country by using the 9/11 attacks as a justification for the invasion of Iraq.NEWS,weblink Gore Says Bush Betrayed the U.S. by Using 9/11 as a Reason for War in Iraq, June 30, 2010, Seelye, Katharine Q., February 9, 2004, The New York Times, The next year, Gore gave a speech which covered many topics, including what he called "religious zealots" who claim special knowledge of God's will in American politics. Gore stated: "They even claim that those of us who disagree with their point of view are waging war against people of faith."WEB,weblink An American Heresy, April 27, 2005, June 30, 2010, Gore, Al, Remarks as prepared by Al Gore, MoveOn.org, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100707025402weblink">weblink July 7, 2010, After Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Gore chartered two planes to evacuate 270 people from New Orleans and criticized the Bush administration's response to the hurricane.WEB,weblink Al Gore airlifts Katrina victims out of New Orleans, July 18, 2008, Mansfield, Duncan, September 9, 2005, Ocala Star-Banner, In 2006, Gore criticized Bush's use of domestic wiretaps without a warrant.NEWS,weblink Transcript: Former Vice President Gore's Speech on Constitutional Issues, The Washington Post, January 16, 2006, June 30, 2010, One month later, in a speech given at the Jeddah Economic Forum, Gore criticized the treatment of Arabs in the U.S. after 9/11 stating, "Unfortunately there have been terrible abuses and it's wrong ... I do want you to know that it does not represent the desires or wishes or feelings of the majority of the citizens of my country."NEWS,weblink U.S. Abuses Were Wrong, Gore Tells Saudis, June 30, 2010, Associated Press, Reading Eagle (Reading, PA)date=February 13, 2006, Gore's 2007 book, The Assault on Reason, is an analysis of what Gore refers to as the "emptying out of the marketplace of ideas" in civic discourse during the Bush administration. He attributes this phenomenon to the influence of television and argues that it endangers American democracy. By contrast, Gore argues, the Internet can revitalize and ultimately "redeem the integrity of representative democracy."AL>LAST=GOREYEAR=2007PLACE=PENGUIN PRESS, In 2008, Gore argued against the ban of same-sex marriage on his Current TV website, stating, "I think that gay men and women ought to have the same rights as heterosexual men and women to make contracts, have hospital visiting rights, and join together in marriage."HTTP://CURRENT.COM/ITEMS/88817757_GAY_MEN_AND_WOMEN_SHOULD_HAVE_THE_SAME_RIGHTSACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=JANUARY 17, 2008ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20081108040021/HTTP://CURRENT.COM/ITEMS/88817757_GAY_MEN_AND_WOMEN_SHOULD_HAVE_THE_SAME_RIGHTSDEAD-URL=YESCNN, Gore commented on former Vice President Dick Cheney's criticism of the Obama administration. Referring to his own previous criticism of the Bush administrations, Gore stated: "I waited two years after I left office to make statements that were critical, and then of the policy ... You know, you talk about somebody that shouldn't be talking about making the country less safe, invading a country that did not attack us and posed no serious threat to us at all."HTTP://POLITICALTICKER.BLOGS.CNN.COM/2009/05/15/GORE-TAKES-AIM-AT-CHENEY/?FBID=49EUQHUQDUPACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=MAY 15, 2009PUBLISHER=CNN, While Gore has criticized Bush for his Katrina response, he has not spoken publicly about his part in the evacuation of 270 patients on September 3 & 4, 2005, from Charity Hospital in New Orleans to Tennessee. On September 1, Gore was contacted by Charity Hospital's Neurosurgeon Dr. David Kline, who had operated on his son Albert, through Greg Simon of FasterCures. Kline informed Gore and Simon of the desperate conditions at the hospital and asked Gore and Simon to arrange relief. On Gore's personal financial commitment, two airlines each provided a plane with one flight latter underwritten by Larry Flax. The flights were flown by volunteer airline crews and medically staffed by Gore's cousin, retired Col. Dar LaFon, and family physician Dr. Anderson Spickard and were accompanied by Gore and Albert III. Gore used his political influence to expedite landing rights in New Orleans.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130302155144weblink">weblink yes, March 2, 2013, Gore at NOLA: – People For Change Forums, Peopleforchange.net, February 23, 2012, WEB,weblink Wayback Machine, August 10, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120810125641weblink">weblink August 10, 2012, mdy-all,

Presidential run speculation

File:Al Gore - Ohhh, you aren't going to get me on this one.jpg|thumb|(Chris Anderson (TED)|Chris Anderson]] asks: "Will you run again?"Gore replies, "Ohh, you aren't going to get me on this one!")People were speculating that Gore would be a candidate for the 2004 presidential election (a bumper sticker, "Re-elect Gore in 2004!" was popular).NEWS,weblink Calling the Great Mentioner, September 19, 2013, The New York Times, December 2000, On December 16, 2002, however, Gore announced that he would not run in 2004.NEWS,weblink Gore Says He Won't Run in 2004, June 30, 2010, CNN staff, December 16, 2002, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130821180841weblink">weblink August 21, 2013, Despite Gore taking himself out of the race, a handful of his supporters formed a national campaign to draft him into running. One observer concluded it was "Al Gore who has the best chance to defeat the incumbent president", noting that "of the 43 Presidents, only three have been direct descendants of former Presidents:" John Quincy Adams, Benjamin Harrison, and George W. Bush, that "all three won the office only after... anomalies in the Electoral College", that the first two were defeated for re-election in a populist backlash, and finally that "the men who first lost to the presidential progeny and then beat them" (i.e. Andrew Jackson and Grover Cleveland) "each won a sort of immortality—having his image placed on a unit of US currency", and that Gore should answer this call of history.Woolley, Peter J. (August 7, 2003) "Black Hole of History", Scripps-Howard News Service in: Cincinnati Post, Sacramento Bee, Modesto Bee, Naples Daily News, Tri-City Herald, Marietta Daily Journal, Rock Hill Herald, Henderson Gleaner, Bakersfield Californian, Birmingham Post-Herald, Fresno Bee, Raleigh News and Observer, Tacoma News-Tribune; Woolley, Peter J. (Sept.-Dec. 2003) "A Pity for me and Al Gore", Journal of Irreproducible Results, pp. 61–62. The draft movement, however, failed to convince Gore to run.NEWS,weblink Oaklander leads effort to draft Gore in '04, July 18, 2008, Richman, Josh, March 31, 2003, Oakland Tribune, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130808013425weblink">weblink August 8, 2013, The prospect of a Gore candidacy arose again between 2006 and early 2008 in light of the upcoming 2008 presidential election. Although Gore frequently stated that he had "no plans to run", he did not reject the possibility of future involvement in politics which led to speculation that he might run.NEWS,weblink Gore Leaves the Door Open, June 30, 2010, Alexovich, Ariel, December 10, 2007, The New York Times, WEB,weblink Why Isn't Gore Running?, June 30, 2010, Hirsh, Michael, December 13, 2007, Newsweek, NEWS,weblink The Last Temptation Of Al Gore, June 30, 2010, May 28, 2007, Cover,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100623070948weblink">weblink June 23, 2010, no, This was due in part to his increased popularity after the release of the 2006 documentary, An Inconvenient Truth.NEWS,weblink Al Gore's coming back—but how far?author=Breznican, Anthonydate=May 21, 2006Davis Guggenheim, stated that after the release of the film, "Everywhere I go with him, they treat him like a rock star."HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/WP-DYN/CONTENT/ARTICLE/2007/02/24/AR2007022401586_PF.HTMLACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=FEBRUARY 25, 2007An Inconvenient Truth was nominated for an Academy Award, Donna Brazile (Gore's campaign chairwoman from his 2000 campaign) speculated that Gore might announce a possible presidential candidacy during the Oscars.HTTP://THECAUCUS.BLOGS.NYTIMES.COM/2007/02/02/2008-DEMOCRATS-IN-TOWN/ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=FEBRUARY 2, 200779th Academy Awards ceremony, Gore and actor Leonardo DiCaprio shared the stage to speak about the "greening" of the ceremony itself. Gore began to give a speech that appeared to be leading up to an announcement that he would run for president. However, background music drowned him out and he was escorted offstage, implying that it was a rehearsed gag, which he later acknowledged.HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/2/HI/AMERICAS/6401865.STMACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=FEBRUARY 28, 2007ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=FEBRUARY 26, 2007PUBLISHER=ABC NEWS, After An Inconvenient Truth won the Academy Award for Documentary Feature#2000s, speculation increased about a possible presidential run.HTTP://WWW.CBSNEWS.COM/STORIES/2007/02/26/POLITICS/MAIN2517329.SHTMLAUTHOR=MIKE ALLENDATE=FEBRUARY 26, 2007ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010, Gore's popularity was indicated in polls which showed that even without running, he was coming in second or third among possible Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and John Edwards.HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/WORLD/2007/JUN/29/USELECTIONS2008.SIMONTISDALL>TITLE=POLL OF DEMOCRATS REVEALS GORE COULD STILL STEAL THE SHOWAUTHOR=TISDALL, SIMONWORK=THE GUARDIANGrassroots Political draft>draft campaigns also developed with the hope that they could encourage Gore to run.HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2007/10/11/US/POLITICS/11GORE.HTML>TITLE=GORE SUPPORTERS' MOVEMENT LACKS A CANDIDATEAUTHOR=RUTENBERG, JIMDATE=OCTOBER 11, 2007ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100922034523/HTTP://ALGORE.ORG/DEAD-URL=YESACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100704140825/HTTP://WWW.DRAFTGORE.COM/ DEADURL=YES ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010AUTHOR=KILGANNON, COREYWORK=THE NEW YORK TIMES, Interest in having Gore run for the 2016 presidential election arose in 2014 and again in 2015, although he did not declare any intention to do so.WEB,weblink Mark Halperin Is Dead Serious About Al Gore In 2016 (VIDEO), Thompson, Catherine, July 3, 2014, Talking Points Memo, WEB,weblink Al Gore is the single-issue candidate we need, Rozsa, Matthew, July 19, 2014Salon (website)>Salon,

Involvement in presidential campaigns

File:Al Gore DNC 2008 (cropped3).jpg|thumb|Gore speaks during the final day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, ColoradoDenver, ColoradoAfter announcing he would not run in the 2004 U.S. presidential election, Gore endorsed Vermont governor Howard Dean in December 2003, weeks before the first primary of the election cycle.NEWS,weblink Al Gore endorses Howard Dean, July 5, 2010, King, John, Wallace, Kelly, December 10, 2003, CNN, He was criticized for this endorsement by eight Democratic contenders particularly since he did not endorse his former running mate Joe Lieberman (Gore preferred Dean over Lieberman because Lieberman supported the Iraq War and Gore did not).NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20031211094625weblink">weblink December 11, 2003, Gore's endorsement stirs debatedate=December 10, 2003, CNN, WEB
,weblink
, Look Who's Back: It's Gore and Lieberman in '08
, June 30, 2010
, Kornacki, Steve
, June 20, 2008
, The New York Observer
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511224245weblink">weblink
, May 11, 2011
, mdy
, Dean's campaign soon became a target of attacks and eventually failed, with Gore's early endorsement being credited as a factor. In The New York Times, Dean stated: "I actually do think the endorsement of Al Gore began the decline." The Times further noted that "Dean instantly amplified his statement to indicate that the endorsement from Mr. Gore, a powerhouse of the establishment, so threatened the other Democratic candidates that they began the attacks on his candidacy that helped derail it."NEWS,weblink Endorsement From Gore Became a Dubious Prize, July 5, 2010, Bumiller, Elisabeth, February 8, 2004, Political Memo, Dean's former campaign manager, Joe Trippi, also stated that after Gore's endorsement of Dean, "alarm bells went off in every newsroom in the country, in every other campaign in the country", indicating that if something did not change, Dean would be the nominee.NEWS,weblink Trippi: Net Politics Here to Stay, June 30, 2010, Shachtman, Noah, February 10, 2004, Wired, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100910113311weblink">weblink September 10, 2010, mdy, Later, in March 2004, Gore endorsed John Kerry and gave Kerry $6 million in funds left over from his own unsuccessful 2000 bid.HTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2004/04/29/POLITICS/CAMPAIGN/29GORE.HTML>TITLE=GORE GIVING LEFTOVER CASH OF $6 MILLION TO BACK KERRYAUTHOR=JUSTICE, GLENDATE=APRIL 29, 20042004 Democratic National Convention.HTTPS://WWW.PBS.ORG/NEWSHOUR/VOTE2004/DEMCONVENTION/SPEECHES/GORE.HTMLACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010WORK=ONLINE NEWSHOURFIRST=ALPUBLIC BROADCASTING SERVICE>PBS, During the 2008 primaries, Gore remained neutral toward all of the candidatesNEWS,weblink Gore says undecided on U.S. candidate endorsement, June 30, 2010, Jeffrey Heller, Avida Landu, May 20, 2008, Reuters, which led to speculation that he would come out of a brokered 2008 Democratic National Convention as a "compromise candidate" if the party decided it could not nominate one.NEWS,weblink Is Al Gore the Answer?, June 30, 2010, Klein, Joe, March 26, 2008, Time,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100708062935weblink">weblink July 8, 2010, no, WEB,weblink Al Gore to the Rescue?, June 30, 2010, Clift, Eleanor, February 15, 2008, Newsweek, Gore responded by stating that these events would not take place because a candidate would be nominated through the primary process.NEWS,weblink Al Gore's New Campaign, June 30, 2010, CBS News staff, March 30, 2008, 60 Minutes, CBS News, WEB,weblink Al Gore: 'Assault on Reason' Endangers Democracy, June 30, 2010, May 6, 2008, Excerpt, NPR, Senator Ted Kennedy had urged Gore to endorse Senator Barack Obama though Gore declined. When Obama became the presumptive Democratic nominee for president on June 3, 2008, speculation began that Gore might be tapped for the vice presidency.WEB,weblink Al Gore for Vice President?, June 16, 2008, June 5, 2008, Yahoo News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080608204153weblink">weblink June 8, 2008, NEWS,weblink Gore for VP, again?, June 30, 2010, Rhee, Foon, June 11, 2008, Political Intelligence, On June 16, 2008, one week after Hillary Clinton had suspended her campaign, Gore endorsed Obama in a speech given in Detroit, MichiganWEB,weblink Al's Journal: Monday Night, June 30, 2010, June 18, 2008, AlGore.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100822030832weblink">weblink August 22, 2010, NEWS,weblink Former Vice President Al Gore Endorses Sen. Obama, June 30, 2010, Transcript, June 17, 2008, The Washington Post, WEB,weblink Al's Journal: My Endorsement, June 16, 2008, Gore, Al, June 30, 2010, AlGore.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080617102014weblink">weblink/2008/0/my_endorsement.html, June 17, 2008, which renewed speculation of an Obama-Gore ticket.NEWS, http:www.theage.com.au/us-election-2008/gore-backing-for-obama-revives-joint-ticket-talk-20080617-2s5w.html?page=-1, Gore backing for Obama revives joint ticket talk, June 30, 2010, Kornblut, Anne, June 17, 2008, The Age (Australia), Melbourne, Gore stated, however, that he was not interested in being Vice President again.NEWS,weblink Al Gore: Energy Crisis Can Be Fixed (transcript), July 30, 2010, Couric, Katie, July 17, 2008, CBS, HTTP://POLITICALTICKER.BLOGS.CNN.COM/2008/07/18/NO-OBAMA-GORE-TICKET/>TITLE=NO OBAMA-GORE TICKETAUTHOR=ALEXANDER MOONEYPUBLISHER=CNNARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 20, 2010 ACCESSDATE=JULY 30, 2010AUTHOR2=VARGAS, JOSE ANTONIOWORK=THE TRAIL, HTTPS://BLOGS.WSJ.COM/WASHWIRE/2008/07/19/GORE-WORKING-IN-AN-OBAMA-ADMINISTRATION-NOT-THE-BEST-IDEA/>TITLE=GORE: WORKING IN AN OBAMA ADMINISTRATION NOT THE 'BEST IDEA'AUTHOR=DAVIS, SUSANWORK=THE WALL STREET JOURNAL, On the timing and nature of Gore's endorsement, some argued that Gore waited because he did not want to repeat his calamitous early endorsement of Howard Dean during the 2004 United States presidential election.HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/POLITICS/2008/JUN/16/ALGORE.BARACKOBAMAACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=JUNE 16, 2008LOCATION=LONDONARCHIVEDATE=JULY 7, 2010 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=JUNE 17, 2008Schedule for 2008 Democratic National Convention>2008 Democratic National Convention, shortly before Obama delivered his acceptance address, Gore gave a speech offering his full support.HTTP://BLOG.ALGORE.COM/2008/08/MY_REMARKS_AT_THE_DEMOCRATIC_N.HTML >TITLE=REMARKS AT THE DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION AUTHOR=GORE, AL PUBLISHER=ALGORE.COM ARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 23, 2010 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010WORK=ELECTIONCENTER2008ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100610092038/HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/2008/POLITICS/08/28/GORE.SPEECH/INDEX.HTMLDEADURL=NO, Such support led to new speculation after Obama was elected President during the 2008 United States presidential election that Gore would be named a member of the Obama administration. This speculation was enhanced by a meeting held between Obama, Gore, and Joe Biden in Chicago on December 9, 2008. However, Democratic officials and Gore's spokeswoman stated that during the meeting the only subject under discussion was the climate crisis, and Gore would not be joining the Obama administration.HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/2008/POLITICS/12/09/OBAMA.GORE/ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010DATE=DECEMBER 9, 2008PUBLISHER=CNN, HTTP://WWW.SFGATE.COM/CGI-BIN/ARTICLE.CGI?F=/C/A/2008/12/10/MN2H14L3QN.DTL>TITLE=GORE HAS OBAMA'S EAR ON CLIMATE CHANGEAUTHOR=ZITO, KELLYWORK=SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE, On December 19, 2008, Gore described Obama's environmental administrative choices of Carol Browner, Steven Chu, and Lisa P. Jackson as "an exceptional team to lead the fight against the climate crisis."HTTP://BLOG.ALGORE.COM/2008/12/BARACK_OBAMAS_TEAM.HTML ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2010 PUBLISHER=ALGORE.COM ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101205062403/HTTP://BLOG.ALGORE.COM/2008/12/BARACK_OBAMAS_TEAM.HTML DF=, Gore repeated his neutrality eight years later during the Democratic presidential primaries of 2016 until endorsing Hillary Clinton on July 25, 2016, the first day of that year's Democratic National Convention.NEWS,weblink Al Gore endorses Hillary Clinton, July 25, 2016, CNN, Theodore, Schleifer, Gore appeared with her at a rally on Miami Dade College's Kendall Campus on October 11, 2016.WEB,weblink Gore and Clinton Hold a Wonkfest, 2016-11-11, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161112080555weblink">weblink November 12, 2016, mdy, WEB,weblink Al Gore Returns to Florida for Hillary Clinton, 2016-11-11, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161112143102weblink">weblink November 12, 2016, mdy,

Environmentalism

File:Al gore nobel.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Gore receives the Nobel Peace Prize in the city hall of OsloOsloFile:20071126-7 d-0653-515h.jpg|thumb|President George W. BushGeorge W. BushGore has been involved with environmental issues since 1976, when as a freshman congressman, he held the "first congressional hearings on the climate change, and co-sponsor[ed] hearings on toxic waste and global warming." He continued to speak on the topic throughout the 1980s, and is still prevalent in the environmental community. He was known as one of the Atari Democrats, later called the "Democrats' Greens, politicians who see issues like clean air, clean water and global warming as the key to future victories for their party."WEB,weblink Albert A. Gore, Jr., 45th Vice President (1993–2001), July 30, 2010, Senate.gov,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100804175459weblink">weblink August 4, 2010, no, In 1990, Senator Gore presided over a three-day conference with legislators from over 42 countries which sought to create a Global Marshall Plan, "under which industrial nations would help less developed countries grow economically while still protecting the environment."NEWS, World's Legislators Urge 'Marshall Plan' For the Environment,weblink May 3, 1990, June 30, 2010, The New York Times, Shabecoff, Philip, In the late 1990s, Gore strongly pushed for the passage of the Kyoto Protocol, which called for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.NEWS,weblink Remarks By Al Gore Climate Change Conference Kyoto, Japan, December 8, 1997, June 30, 2010, AlGore.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20001207090900weblink">weblink December 7, 2000, NEWS,weblink Vice President Gore: Strong Environmental Leadership for the New Millennium, June 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528031451weblink">weblink May 28, 2010, yes, mdy-all, He was opposed by the Senate, which passed unanimously (95–0) the Byrd–Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98), which stated the sense of the Senate was that the United States should not be a signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and timetables for developing as well as industrialized nations or "would result in serious harm to the economy of the United States".WEB,weblink Text of the Byrd-Hagel Resolution, July 25, 1997, June 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100702225536weblink">weblink July 2, 2010, yes, mdy-all, In 2004, he co-launched Generation Investment Management, a company for which he serves as Chair. A few years later, Gore also founded The Alliance for Climate Protection, an organization which eventually founded the We Campaign. Gore also became a partner in the venture capital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading that firm's climate change solutions group. He also helped to organize the Live Earth benefit concerts.WEB,weblink Partners: The Climate Project, Live Earth, April 18, 2010, June 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100619165409weblink">weblink June 19, 2010, yes, File:Al gore presentation.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Gore's speech on Global Warming at the University of MiamiUniversity of MiamiIn 2013, Gore became a vegan.NEWS,weblink Al Gore goes vegan, with little fanfare, The Washington Post, November 26, 2013, He had earlier admitted that "it's absolutely correct that the growing meat intensity of diets across the world is one of the issues connected to this global crisis – not only because of the [carbon dioxide] involved, but also because of the water consumed in the process"NEWS,weblink Al Gore Goes Vegan, Huffington Post, November 26, 2013, Ashley, Alman, November 25, 2013, and some speculate that his adoption of the new diet is related to his environmentalist stance. In a 2014 interview, Gore said "Over a year ago I changed my diet to a vegan diet, really just to experiment to see what it was like. ... I felt better, so I've continued with it and I'm likely to continue it for the rest of my life."INTERVIEW, Gore, Al, Al Gore, Eric Topol, Al Gore on Medicine's Inconvenient Truths,weblink Medscape, March 7, 2014, March 14, 2014, Over a year ago I changed my diet to a vegan diet, really just to experiment to see what it was like. ... I felt better, so I've continued with it and I'm likely to continue it for the rest of my life., Gore's (An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power), a sequel to his 2006 film, An Inconvenient Truth, premiered at the 2017 Sundance Film Festival. The film documents his continuing efforts to battle climate change.NEWS, Chang, Justin,weblink Sundance: 'An Inconvenient Sequel' marks a welcome return to the spotlight for Al Gore, Los Angeles Times, 2017-01-20, 2017-01-21, A "Climate and Health Summit" which was originally going to be held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was cancelled without warning in late January, 2017.WEB,weblink CDC abruptly cancels long-planned conference on climate change and health, Washington Post, May 18, 2017, A few days later, Gore revived the summit, which he will hold without the CDC.WEB,weblink CDC's canceled climate change conference is back on — thanks to Al Gore, Washington Post, May 18, 2017, In August 2017 during an interview with LADbible, Al Gore continued to show his support in the fight against climate change saying "Young people have the key role. This climate movement change is in the tradition of other great morally based movements that have advanced the cause of human-kind".NEWS,weblink Al Gore Talks Climate Change, Trump And 'An Inconvenient Sequel', 2017-08-17, LADbible, 2017-08-21, en, During the same interview he also said Donald Trump should 'resign' when asked what advice he would give him.NEWS,weblink Al Gore has one piece of advice for Donald Trump – 'resign', 2017-08-18, The Independent, 2017-08-21, en-GB,

Criticism against Gore

A conservative Washington, D.C. think tank and a Republican member of Congress, among others, have claimed that Gore has a conflict-of-interest for advocating for taxpayer subsidies of green-energy technologies in which he has a personal investment.NEWS,weblink Al Gore 'profiting' from climate change agenda, November 5, 2009, November 3, 2009, The Daily Telegraph (UK), London, Nick, Allen,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091105204458weblink">weblink November 5, 2009, WEB,weblink Al Gore's Carbon Empire: Cashing in on Climate Change, Lucas, Fred, July 24, 2008, Capital Research Center,weblink February 15, 2012, Additionally, he has been criticized for his above-average energy consumption in using private jets, and in owning multiple, very large homes,NEWS,weblink Indisputable: Gore buys Montecito villa, Los Angeles Times, May 8, 2010, July 1, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100619014628weblink">weblink June 19, 2010, no, one of which was reported in 2007 as using high amounts of electricity.NEWS,weblink War on Warming Begins at (Al Gore's) Home, July 5, 2010, Cillizza, Chris, Mosk, Matthew, March 1, 2007, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink Al Gore's electricity bill goes through the (insulated) roof, July 5, 2010, Leonard, Tom, June 18, 2008, The Telegraph (UK), London, Gore's spokesperson responded by stating that the Gores use renewable energy which is more expensive than regular energy and that the Tennessee house in question has been retrofitted to make it more energy-efficient.FactCheck.org: Al Gore's Mansion {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161014020737weblink |date=October 14, 2016 }}. June 21, 2009.NEWS,weblink Gore Makes Nashville Home more 'Green', July 18, 2008, July 12, 2007, CNN, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Data in An Inconvenient Truth have been questioned. In a 2007 court case, a British judge said that while he had "no doubt ...the film was broadly accurate" and its "four main scientific hypotheses ...are supported by a vast quantity of research",BAILII, ew, Dimmock v Secretary of State for Education & Skills, EWHC, Admin, 2007, 2288, October 10, 2007, – full text of judgment he upheld nine of a "long schedule" of alleged errors presented to the court. He ruled that the film could be shown to schoolchildren in the UK if guidance notes given to teachers were amended to balance out the film's one-sided political views. Gore's spokeswoman responded in 2007 that the court had upheld the film's fundamental thesis and its use as an educational tool.NEWS,weblink An Inconvenient Verdict for Al Gore, Baram, Marcus, October 12, 2007, June 28, 2010, ABC News, In 2009, Gore described the British court ruling as being "in my favor."WEB,weblink Al Gore urges Australia to move on carbon emissions trading, Heather Ewart, reporter, Interview transcript, The 730 Report, June 30, 2010, July 13, 2009, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, In the late 1980s and 1990s, Gore was criticized for his involvement in asking the EPA for less strict pollution controls for the Pigeon River.WEB,weblink Gore's Pollution Problem, Michael, Isikoff, Newsweek, November 23, 1997, July 20, 2015, subscription, Organizations including People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) criticized Gore in 2010 for not advocating vegetarianism as a way for individuals to reduce their carbon footprint.WEB,weblink Urge Gore to Add Going Vegetarian to the Global Warming Pledge, June 30, 2010, n.d., PETA, Gore agreed that meat production contributes to increased carbon emissions, but did not want to "go quite as far as ... saying everybody should become a vegetarian". He said that although he was not a vegetarian, he had "cut back sharply" on his consumption of meat.NEWS,weblink Turn vego to save planet: Gore, AAP, June 30, 2010, November 11, 2009, The Age, Australia,

Meeting with Ivanka and Donald Trump

President Donald Trump's daughter Ivanka reported that she intended to make climate change one of her signature issues while her father served as President of the United States. She therefore contacted Al Gore, and he met with her and her father on December 5, 2016, at Trump Tower.WEB,weblink Ivanka Trump Meets with Al Gore to Discuss Climate Issues, 2016-12-05, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220230114weblink">weblink December 20, 2016, mdy, Following his visit, Gore spoke briefly to the media standing outside the elevator of Trump Tower. Gore related that: "I had a lengthy and very productive session with the president-elect. It was a sincere search for areas of common ground. I had a meeting beforehand with Ivanka Trump. The bulk of the time was with the president-elect, Donald Trump. I found it an extremely interesting conversation, and to be continued, and I'm just going to leave it at that."NEWS,weblink Donald Trump meets with Al Gore on climate change, CNN, Tal, Kopan, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, This was a significant milestone, as Trump once tweeted that "[t]he concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive."NEWS,weblink Yes, Donald Trump did call climate change a Chinese hoax, PolitiFact, Louis, Jacobson, June 3, 2016, December 5, 2016,

Awards and honors

Gore is the recipient of a number of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize (together with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) in 2007,WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Peace 2007: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Al Gore, 2007, June 30, 2010, NobelPrize.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100725194753weblink">weblink July 25, 2010, no, WEB,weblink Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech, June 30, 2010, Gore, Al, December 10, 2007, AlGore.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101205080339weblink">weblink December 5, 2010, WEB,weblink Peace Prize winners issue urgent calls for action, July 30, 2010, December 10, 2007, Aftenposten,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070804040547weblink">weblink August 4, 2007, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV in 2007, a Webby Award in 2005 and the Prince of Asturias Award in 2007 for International Cooperation. He also starred in the 2006 documentary An Inconvenient Truth, which won an Academy Award for Best Documentary in 2007 and wrote the book (An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It), which won a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 2009.NEWS,weblink Gore Wins Hollywood in a Landslide, June 30, 2010, Nagourney, Adam, February 25, 2007, The Caucus,

Selected publications

Books

  • BOOK, The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change, 2013, Random House, 978-0812992946,weblink
  • Know Climate Change and 101 Q and A on Climate Change from 'Save Planet Earth Series', 2008 (children's books)
  • BOOK, The Assault on Reason, 2007, New York: Penguin, 1-59420-122-6,
  • BOOK, The Spirit of Family (with Tipper Gore), 2002, 0-8050-6894-5, H. Holt, New York,weblink
  • BOOK, Earth in the Balance: Forging a New Common Purpose, Earthscan, 1992, 0-618-05664-5,
  • Putting People First: How We Can All Change America. (with William J. Clinton). New York: Times Books, 1992 .

Articles

Notes

{{Reflist|25em}}

References

External links

{{Sister project links|author=yes}}
  • {{Official website|1=http://www.algore.com/}}
  • {{IMDb name|0330722}}
  • {{CongLinks | congbio=G000321 | votesmart= | fec=P80000912 | congress= }}
  • {{TED speaker}}
  • {{C-SPAN|Albert Gore}}
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