San Francisco

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San Francisco
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{{About|the city and county in California}}{{pp-pc1}}{{short description|Consolidated city-county in California, US}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2019}}{{use American English|date=September 2019}}

| subdivision_type = CountryUnited States|size=23px}}U.S. state>StateCombined Statistical Area>CSAMetropolitan statistical area>MetroCalifornia}}San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area>San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland| subdivision_name3 = San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward| established_title = Mission| established_date = June 29, 1776Municipal incorporation>IncorporatedARCHIVE-DATE = MARCH 16, 2012PUBLISHER = SFGOV.ORGQUOTE = SAN FRANCISCO WAS INCORPORATED AS A CITY ON APRIL 15TH, 1850 BY ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE., | founder = José Joaquín MoragaFrancisco PalóuFrancis of Assisi>St. Francis of AssisiMayor–council government>Mayor-councilSan Francisco Board of Supervisors>Board of SupervisorsMayor of San Francisco>MayorLondon Breed (California Democratic Party>D)HTTP://SFMAYOR.ORG/>TITLE = OFFICE OF THE MAYOR : HOMEACCESSDATE = JULY 11, 2018, San Francisco Board of Supervisors>SupervisorsBOARD OF SUPERVISORS>URL = HTTP://WWW.SFBOS.ORG/ACCESSDATE = JANUARY 28, 2017, | leader_name1 = {hide}Collapsible list
|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
|list_style = text-align:left;
|1 = Sandra Lee Fewer (D)
|2 = Catherine Stefani (D)
|3 = Aaron Peskin (D)
|4 = Gordon Mar (D)
|5 = Vallie Brown (D)
|6 = Matt Haney (D)
|7 = Norman Yee (D)
|8 = Rafael Mandelman (D)
|9 = Hillary Ronen (D)
|10 = Shamann Walton (D)
|11 = Ahsha Safaí (D)
{edih}| total_type = City and county| unit_pref = Imperial
PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, June 28, 2017, | area_total_km2 = 600.59| area_total_sq_mi = 231.89| area_land_km2 = 121.46| area_land_sq_mi = 46.89| area_water_km2 = 479.14| area_water_sq_mi = 185.00| area_water_percent = 80.00| area_metro_sq_mi = 3524.4| area_note = 277593, San Francisco, | elevation_ft = 52| elevation_min_ft = 0PUBLISHER=US GEOLOGICAL SURVEYACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 29, 2014, | elevation_min_footnotes = | population_total = 883305| population_as_of = 2018PUBLISHER=US CENSUS BUREAU, April 22, 2019, | population_density_km2 = 7272| population_density_sq_mi = 18838DATE=AUGUST 15, 2017 PUBLISHER=U.S. CENSUS BUREAU, List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>12th)List of largest California cities by population>4th in California13th in United StatesCombined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>5th)| population_demonym = San FranciscanSan Francisqueño/a| blank2_name = GDPZIP CodesHTTPS://TOOLS.USPS.COM/GO/ZIPLOOKUPACTION!INPUT.ACTIONPUBLISHER = UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, November 9, 2014, | postal_code = {{Collapsible list |94102–94105|94107–94112|94114–94134|94137|94139–94147|94151|94158–94161|94163–94164|94172|94177|94188}}Area codes 415 and 628>415/628HTTP://WWW.NANPA.COM/ENAS/NPA_CITY_QUERY.DO >TITLE = NPA CITY REPORT ACCESSDATE = NOVEMBER 5, 2014, North American Numbering Plan>Area}}| footnotes = California State Assembly>Assembly membersHTTP://WEDRAWTHELINES.CA.GOV/DOWNLOADS/MEETING_HANDOUTS_072011/HANDOUTS_20110729_Q2_AD_FINALDRAFT_SPLITS.ZIP>TITLE = COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST – CITYACCESSDATE = SEPTEMBER 23, 2014ARCHIVE-DATE = OCTOBER 23, 2015DF = MDY-ALL, HTTP://ASSEMBLY.CA.GOV/ASSEMBLYMEMBERS>TITLE = MEMBERS ASSEMBLYACCESSDATE = SEPTEMBER 23, 2014, caadfmt=sleader}}{{Representative19|fmt=sleader}}California's 11th State Senate district>State senatorcasdfmt=sleader}}HTTP://STATEWIDEDATABASE.ORG/GIS/GIS2011/INDEX_2011.HTML >TITLE=STATEWIDE DATABASEACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 21, 2014, United States House of Representatives>United States RepresentativesHTTP://WEDRAWTHELINES.CA.GOV/DOWNLOADS/MEETING_HANDOUTS_072011/HANDOUTS_20110729_Q2_CD_FINALDRAFT_SPLITS.ZIP>TITLE = COMMUNITIES OF INTEREST – CITYACCESSDATE = SEPTEMBER 23, 2014ARCHIVE-DATE = SEPTEMBER 30, 2013DF = MDY-ALL, HTTP://WWW.HOUSE.GOV/REPRESENTATIVES/#STATE_CA>TITLE = DIRECTORY OF REPRESENTATIVES, U.S. House of Representatives, cacdfmt=usleader}}{{Representative14|fmt=usleader}}| elevation_max_ft = 934| timezone = Pacific Time Zone| utc_offset = −8| timezone_DST = Pacific Daylight Time| utc_offset_DST = −7Federal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code| blank_info_sec1 = 06-67000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature IDs277593}}, {{GNIS 4|2411786}}}}San Francisco ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|æ|n|_|f|r|ə|n|ˈ|s|ɪ|s|k|oʊ|,_|f|r|æ|n|-}}, {{IPA-es|sam fɾanˈsisko|lang}}; ), officially City and County of San Francisco and colloquially known as SF, San Fran, or "The City",WEB, Brinklow, Adam, Is it ever okay to use "San Fran?",weblink Curbed, 31 August 2019,weblink live, May 13, 2019, January 26, 2018, WEB, The Best Nicknames For San Francisco,weblink dead, The Culture Trip, August 21, 2019,weblink August 12, 2019, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th most populous city in the United States, and the fourth most populous in California, with 883,305 residents as of 2018. It covers an area of about {{convert|46.89|sqmi|km2}}, mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is the 12th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States, with 4,729,484 people in 2018. With San Jose, it forms the fifth most populous combined statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area (9.67 million residents in 2018).As of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868.WEB,weblink Bureau of Economic Analysis, Analysis, US Department of Commerce, BEA, Bureau of Economic,, EN-US, November 22, 2017, As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, and a GDP per capita of $178,479.WEB,weblink GDP by County {{!, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)||access-date=2018-12-13}}WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Bureau, U. S. Census,, en, 2018-12-13, The CSA San Francisco shares with San Jose and Oakland was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.WEB,weblink GDP by Metropolitan Area {{!, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)||language=en|access-date=2018-08-16}} Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the U.S., this CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 16th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of March 2019.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 25, March 2019, May 22, 2019, San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi.WEB
, Edward F. O'Day
, The Founding of San Francisco
, October 1926
, February 14, 2009
, San Francisco Water
, Spring Valley Water Authority
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, July 27, 2010
, The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856.BOOK, Coy, Owen Cochran, Guide to the County Archives of California, California Historical Survey Commission, 1919, Sacramento, California, 409, San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper.WEB, Schroeder, Jonathan P., 2016-08-10, Historical Population Estimates for 2010 U.S. States, Counties and Metro/Micro Areas, 1790–2010,weblink en, 10.13020/D6XW2H, 11299/181605, Data Repository for the University of Minnesota (DRUM), Data Set, After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. It then became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945.WEB,weblink Charter of the United Nations {{!, United Nations||access-date=December 29, 2016|date=2015-08-10}}WEB,weblink History of the United Nations {{!, United Nations||access-date=December 29, 2016|date=2015-08-21}}NEWS,weblink San Francisco – the birthplace of the United Nations, San Francisco Chronicle, December 29, 2016, After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, and other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines.A popular tourist destination,Top U.S. Destinations for International Visitors. The Hotel Price Index. Retrieved April 12, 2014. San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, and its Chinatown district. San Francisco is also the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co., Gap Inc., Fitbit,, Dropbox, Reddit, Square, Inc., Dolby, Airbnb, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Yelp, Pinterest, Twitter, Uber, Lyft, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, Craigslist, and Weather Underground. The city, and the surrounding Bay Area, is a global center of the sciences and artsWEB, Top 200 Science cities,weblink August 17, 2019, WEB, The Global Creative Economy Is Big Business,weblink August 17, 2019, and is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco (USF), University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco State University (SFSU), the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the SFJAZZ Center, and the California Academy of Sciences.{{As of|2019}}, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings.WEB, Quality of Living City Ranking – 2019,weblink Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer, April 6, 2019,


{{see also|History of San Francisco|Timeline of San Francisco}}
Spanish Empire 1776–1821{{flagicon image
First Mexican Empire 1821–1823{{flagicon>MEX}} United Mexican States 1823–1848{{flag1848}} 1848–present| align = left| width = 22em| fontsize = 90%| bgcolor = #B0C4DE}}File:Mission San Francisco de Asis old.jpg|thumb|left(File:Yelamu_map.svg|thumb|Yelamu villages in San Francisco)The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC.WEB,weblink Archaeological Research Issues for the Point Reyes National Seashore – Golden Gate National Recreation Area, June 12, 2008, Stewart, Suzanne B., November 2003, Sonoma State University – Anthropological Studies Center, The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay.WEB, Visitors: San Francisco Historical Information,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 1, 2006, n.d., June 10, 2008, City and County of San Francisco, Seven years later, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís (Mission Dolores), established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza.(File:View of San Francisco 1846-7.jpg|thumb|View of San Francisco 1846–47)File:1853 U.S.C.S. Map of San Francisco, California ^ Vicinity - Geographicus - SanFrancisco3-uscs-1853.jpg|1853 thumb|rightUpon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead,WEB
, The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
, From the 1820s to the Gold Rush
, July 16, 2004
, June 13, 2008
, The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, October 22, 2009
, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, and Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000 pages = 4–5, 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, (File:Francis Samuel Marryat, San Francisco, lithograph.jpg|thumb|left|Francis Samuel Marryat, Hilltop of San Francisco, California, Looking toward the Bay, 1849. M.& N. Hanhart Chromolithograph)File:SanFranciscoharbor1851c sharp.jpg|thumb|leftThe California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers (known as "forty-niners", as in "1849"). With their sourdough bread in tow,Sourdough bread was a staple of western explorers and miners of the 19th century. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today.JOURNAL, Tamony, Peter, Sourdough and French Bread, Western Folklore, 32, 4, 265–270, October 1973, 10.2307/1498306, 1498306, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia,WEB, San Francisco's First Brick Building, The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, July 16, 2004,weblink June 13, 2008, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.BOOK, Richards, Rand, Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide, Heritage House, 1992, 978-1-879367-00-5, 214330849,weblink The promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.HARRIS >FIRST = RON, Crews Unearth Shipwreck on San Francisco Condo Project, Associated Press, November 14, 2005,weblink September 4, 2006, Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons and hotels; many were left to rot and some were sunk to establish title to the underwater lot. By 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land. Buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings.WEB
, Buried Ships
, Filion
, Ron S.
, SFgenealogy
, April 19, 2016
, California was quickly granted statehood in 1850, and the U.S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate and a fort on Alcatraz Island to secure the San Francisco Bay. Silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000 pages = 31–33, 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling."The miners came in forty-nine, / The whores in fifty-one, / And when they got together / They produced the native son." WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000, New Yorkoclc = 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of Wells Fargo in 1852 and the Bank of California in 1864. Development of the Port of San Francisco and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed Pacific Railroad (the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped supportConstruction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the (:File:Pacific RR Bond SF 1865.jpeg|City and County of San Francisco Pacific Railroad Bond issue) under the provisions of "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto." approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the "Compromise Act of 1864" approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 ("The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco" 25 Cal 635) and 1865 ("The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs. The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk" 27 Cal 655)) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, Levi Strauss opened a dry goods business and Domingo Ghirardelli began manufacturing chocolate. Immigrant laborers made the city a polyglot culture, with Chinese Railroad Workers, drawn to "Old Gold Mountain", creating the city's Chinatown quarter. In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population.WEB, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places in the United States, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink December 18, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2012, The first cable cars carried San Franciscans up Clay Street in 1873. The city's sea of Victorian houses began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for Golden Gate Park. San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The Presidio developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast.UNDER THREE FLAGS >WORK=GOLDEN GATE NATIONAL RECREATION AREA BROCHURES, US Department of the Interior, November 2004weblink >accessdate =June 22, 2011, By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the eighth-largest city in the United States at the time. Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on Nob Hill, and a thriving arts scene.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000 pages = 44–55, 44313415San Francisco plague of 1900–1904.KALISCH TITLE=THE BLACK DEATH IN CHINATOWN: PLAGUE AND POLITICS IN SAN FRANCISCO 1900–1904 VOLUME=14 PAGES=113–136 ISSUE=2, At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco and northern California. As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines ignited fires that spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. With water mains out of service, the Presidio Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks.WEB, 1906 Earthquake: Fire Fighting, Golden Gate National Recreation Areadate = December 24, 2003,weblink June 13, 2008, More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core.MONTAGNE >FIRST = RENéE, Remembering the 1906 San Francisco Earthquakepublisher=NPR, April 11, 2006,weblink June 13, 2008, Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands.WEB, Casualties and Damage after the 1906 earthquake, Earthquake Hazards Program – Northern California, US Geological Survey, January 25, 2008,weblink June 13, 2008, More than half of the city's population of 400,000 was left homeless.WEB, 1906 Earthquake and the Army, Golden Gate National Recreation Areadate =August 25, 2004,weblink June 13, 2008, Refugees settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. Many fled permanently to the East Bay.{{Wide image|San francisco fire 1906.jpg|936px|align-cap=center|"Not in history has a modern imperial city been so completely destroyed. San Francisco is gone." –Jack London after the 1906 earthquake and fireWEB,weblink Jack London Writes of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire,, May 5, 1906, June 15, 2013, ||center}}File:PalaceofFineArts1915.jpg|thumb|left|The Palace of Fine Arts at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition ]]Rebuilding was rapid and performed on a grand scale. Rejecting calls to completely remake the street grid, San Franciscans opted for speed.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000, New Yorkoclc = 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, Amadeo Giannini's Bank of Italy, later to become Bank of America, provided loans for many of those whose livelihoods had been devastated. The influential San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association or SPUR was founded in 1910 to address the quality of housing after the earthquake.WEB, SPUR Our Mission and History,weblink March 26, 2013, The earthquake hastened development of western neighborhoods that survived the fire, including Pacific Heights, where many of the city's wealthy rebuilt their homes.O'BRIEN >FIRST = TRICIA, San Francisco's Pacific Heights and Presidio Heightsyear = 2008 isbn = 978-0-7385-5980-3, 7weblink In turn, the destroyed mansions of Nob Hill became grand hotels. San Francisco City Hall>City Hall rose again in splendid Beaux-Arts architecture style, and the city celebrated its rebirth at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915)>Panama-Pacific International Exposition in 1915.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000 oclc = 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, 9, It was during this period San Francisco built some of its most important infrastructure. Civil Engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy was hired by San Francisco Mayor James Rolph as chief engineer for the city in September 1912 to supervise the construction of the Twin Peaks Reservoir, the Stockton Street Tunnel, the Twin Peaks Tunnel, the San Francisco Municipal Railway, the Auxiliary Water Supply System, and new sewers. San Francisco's streetcar system, of which the J, K, L, M, and N lines survive today, was pushed to completion by O'Shaughnessy between 1915 and 1927. It was the O'Shaughnessy Dam, Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct that would have the largest effect on San Francisco.WEB, Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco – M.M. O'Shaughnessy Employed as City Engineer,weblink March 16, 2013, An abundant water supply enabled San Francisco to develop into the city it has become today.File:SF-Oakland-Bay-Bridge-Construction.jpg|thumb|right|The Bay Bridge, under construction in 1935, took forty months to complete.]]In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital; in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed.WEB, San Francisco Gold Rush Banking – 1849, The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, June 24, 2004,weblink June 13, 2008, Indeed, it was at the height of the Great Depression that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, completing them in 1936 and 1937, respectively. It was in this period that the island of Alcatraz, a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as Al Capone, and Robert Franklin Stroud, the Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a World's fair, the Golden Gate International Exposition in 1939–40, creating Treasure Island in the middle of the bay to house it.File:USS San Francisco (CA-38) enters San Francisco Bay, December 1942.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The USS San Francisco steams under the Golden Gate BridgeGolden Gate BridgeDuring World War II, the Hunters Point Naval Shipyard became a hub of activity, and Fort Mason became the primary port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater of Operations.WEB, Port of Embarkation Essay—World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area, A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerarydate = August 28, 2007,weblink June 22, 2011, The explosion of jobs drew many people, especially African Americans from the South, to the area. After the end of the war, many military personnel returning from service abroad and civilians who had originally come to work decided to stay. The United Nations Charter creating the United Nations was drafted and signed in San Francisco in 1945 and, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco officially ended the war with Japan.Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by citizen-led opposition.NEWS
, Fang
, Eric
, Urban Renewal Revisited: A Design Critique
, SPUR Newsletter
, San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association
, February 1999
, August 3, 2009
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, October 11, 2009
, The onset of containerization made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger Port of Oakland.JOURNAL, Rubin, Jasper, The Decline of the Port – A look at the transformation of the Port of San Francisco, SPUR Newsletter, November 1999,weblink The final, insurmountable decline in San Francisco's shipping activity was heralded in 1958 by the departure of the first containerized freighter from San Francisco Bay., January 5, 2013, The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy.JOURNAL, Terplan, Egon, Organizing for Economic Growth – A new approach to business attraction and retention in San Francisco, SPUR Report, June 7, 2010,weblink During the 1960s and 1970s San Francisco's historic maritime industry relocated to Oakland. ... San Francisco remained a center for business and professional services (such as consulting, law, accounting and finance) and also successfully developed its tourism sector, which became the leading local industry., January 5, 2013, The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of immigration from Asia and Latin America.WILLIS >FIRST = JAMESAUTHOR3= BRITTAN, JEREMY, San Francisco Planning Department Census Data Analysis, San Francisco State University, April 19, 2004,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 18, 2011accessdate =June 13, 2008, MINTON >FIRST = TORRI, Race Through Time, San Francisco Chronicle, SC-4, Hearst Communications, September 20, 1998,weblink September 11, 2013, From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population.Over this period, San Francisco became a magnet for America's counterculture. Beat Generation writers fueled the San Francisco Renaissance and centered on the North Beach neighborhood in the 1950s.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000, New Yorkoclc = 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, Hippies flocked to Haight-Ashbury in the 1960s, reaching a peak with the 1967 Summer of Love.WEB,weblink American Experience: Summer of Love: Film Description, June 17, 2008, March 14, 2007, Website for American Experience documentary on the Summer of Love, PBS, In 1974, the Zebra murders left at least 16 people dead.NEWS,weblink Fear in the Streets of San Francisco, April 29, 1974, Time, August 28, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2008, dead, In the 1970s, the city became a center of the gay rights movement, with the emergence of The Castro as an urban gay village, the election of Harvey Milk to the Board of Supervisors, and his assassination, along with that of Mayor George Moscone, in 1978.WEB
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, July 18, 2001
, San Francisco History: The 1970s and 1980s: Gay Rights
, June 17, 2008
, Destinations: San Francisco
, Bank of America completed 555 California Street in 1969 and the Transamerica Pyramid was completed in 1972,PYRAMID FACTS AND FIGURES >WORK=COMPANY PROFILE, Transamerica Insurance and Investment Group,weblink June 13, 2008, igniting a wave of "Manhattanization" that lasted until the late 1980s, a period of extensive high-rise development downtown.WILEY >FIRST = PETER BOOTH, National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelersyear = 2000, New Yorkoclc = 44313415, 978-0-471-19120-9, The 1980s also saw a dramatic increase in the number of homeless people in the city, an issue that remains today, despite many attempts to address it.NEWS,weblink S.F.'s Homeless Aging on the Street / Chronic health problems on the rise as median age nears 50, San Francisco Chronicle, Fagan, Kevin, August 4, 2006, March 6, 2012, The findings support what many social workers have long suspected – that there was a "big bang" homeless population explosion as federal housing programs were slashed and the closing of mental hospitals hit home in the mid-1980s and that this core group constitutes the bulk of the street population., The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake caused destruction and loss of life throughout the Bay Area. In San Francisco, the quake severely damaged structures in the Marina and South of Market districts and precipitated the demolition of the damaged Embarcadero Freeway and much of the damaged Central Freeway, allowing the city to reclaim The Embarcadero as its historic downtown waterfront and revitalizing the Hayes Valley neighborhood.Two recent decades have seen two booms driven by the internet industry. First was the dot-com boom of the late 1990s, startup companies invigorated the San Francisco economy. Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly gentrified.NEWS,weblink Mission District Fights Case of Dot-Com Fever, The New York Times, November 5, 2000, Nieves, Evelyn, March 5, 2012, Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time in the South of Market district.NEWS,weblink High-rises are a sign of the times in changing San Francisco, San Francisco Chronicle, January 2, 2008, Nolte, Carl, July 9, 2012, By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy. By the mid-2000s (decade), the social media boom had begun, with San Francisco becoming a popular location for tech offices and a common place to live for people employed in Silicon Valley companies such as Apple and Google.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2009, City and County of San Francisco: An Overview of San Francisco's Recent Economic Performance, June 19, 2008, Ted Egan, April 3, 2006, Report prepared for Mayor's Office of Economic and Workforce Development, ICF Consulting, Another positive trend for the future is San Francisco's highly entrepreneurial, flexible and innovative economy...San Francisco's very high reliance on small business and self-employment is typical of other dynamic, fast-growing, high-technology areas across the country., The Ferry Station Post Office Building, Armour & Co. Building, Atherton House, and YMCA Hotel are historic buildings among dozens of historical landmarks in the city according to the National Register of Historic Places listings in San Francisco.


(File:SanFranciscoFromTheISS(Cropped).jpg|right|upright|thumb|The San Francisco Peninsula)San Francisco is located on the West Coast of the United States at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula and includes significant stretches of the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay within its boundaries. Several picturesque islands—Alcatraz, Treasure Island and the adjacent Yerba Buena Island, and small portions of Alameda Island, Red Rock Island, and Angel Island—are part of the city. Also included are the uninhabited Farallon Islands, {{convert|27|mi|km}} offshore in the Pacific Ocean. The mainland within the city limits roughly forms a "seven-by-seven-mile square", a common local colloquialism referring to the city's shape, though its total area, including water, is nearly {{convert|232|sqmi|km2}}.File:Lombardst.jpeg|thumb|upright|left|Cars navigate Lombard Street to descend Russian Hill.]]There are more than 50 hills within the city limits.GRAHAM >FIRST = TOM, Peak Experience, San Francisco Chronicle, PK-23, Hearst Communications, November 7, 2004,weblink June 13, 2008, Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including Nob Hill, Potrero Hill, and Russian Hill.Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. Twin Peaks, a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms an overlook spot. San Francisco's tallest hill, Mount Davidson, is {{convert|928|ft|m|0}} high and is capped with a {{convert|103|foot|m|0|adj=on}} tall cross built in 1934.HENRY K. >LAST = LEE, Mount Davidson Cross Called Landmark by Panel,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, January 16, 1997, June 17, 2008, Dominating this area is Sutro Tower, a large red and white radio and television transmission tower.The nearby San Andreas and Hayward Faults are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. The city constructed an auxiliary water supply system and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction.CHARLES >LAST = SMITH, What San Francisco didn't learn from the '06 quake,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, April 15, 2006, June 30, 2008, However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage.ROBERT >LAST = SELNA, S.F. leaders ignore weak buildings' quake risk,weblinkwork=San Francisco Chronicle, June 29, 2008, June 30, 2008, USGS has released the California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California.California Earthquake forecast – UCERF3 – USGS Factsheet (non-technical) Mar, 2015. predicts Earthquake risk for 30 years in California, California earthquake forecast.San Francisco's shoreline has grown beyond its natural limits. Entire neighborhoods such as the Marina, Mission Bay, and Hunters Point, as well as large sections of the Embarcadero, sit on areas of landfill. Treasure Island was constructed from material dredged from the bay as well as material resulting from the excavation of the Yerba Buena Tunnel through Yerba Buena Island during the construction of the Bay Bridge. Such land tends to be unstable during earthquakes. The resulting soil liquefaction causes extensive damage to property built upon it, as was evidenced in the Marina district during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.WEB, Liquefaction Damage in the Marina District during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, California Geological Survey,weblinkIslais Creek and Mission Creek, have been culverted and built over, although the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission>Public Utilities Commission is studying proposals to daylight or restore some creeks.WEB, The Lure of the Creeks Buried Beneath San Francisco's Streets, Streetsblog San Francisco, Matt Baume,weblink April 14, 2010, January 31, 2013, {{clear}}


{{Wide image|SanFrancisco from TwinPeaks dusk MC.jpg|1680px|align-cap=center|Downtown San Francisco, seen from Twin Peaks, in October 2006}}{{Wide image|Sf twinpeaks sunset.jpg|2000px|align-cap=center|Downtown San Francisco, seen from Twin Peaks at dusk, in December 2009}}{{Wide image|San Francisco aerial.jpg|700px|align-cap=center|Aerial view from the west in April 2018. San Francisco is seen in the foreground, with Oakland in the background.}}


File:SF Chinatown CA.jpg|thumb|upright|left|San Francisco's Chinatown is the oldest and one of the largest in North America.]]{{See also|List of tallest buildings in San Francisco}}The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by Market Street and the waterfront. It is here that the Financial District is centered, with Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the Tenderloin nearby. Cable cars carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of Nob Hill, once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of Fisherman's Wharf, and Pier 39, where many restaurants feature Dungeness crab from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are Russian Hill, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked Lombard Street; North Beach, the city's Little Italy and the former center of the Beat Generation; and Telegraph Hill, which features Coit Tower. Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's Chinatown, the oldest Chinatown in North America.The Official San Francisco Chinatown Website. Retrieved February 16, 2012.Depicting Otherness: Images of San Francisco's Chinatown. College Street Journal (October 11, 2002). Retrieved February 16, 2012.Bacon, Daniel: Walking the Barbary Coast Trail 2nd ed., pp. 52–53, Quicksilver Press, 1997WEB,weblink Chinatown/Grant Avenue, August 31, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2011, . San Francisco Days The South of Market, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of Oracle Park and an infusion of startup companies. New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in Mission Bay area, a former railroad yard, which now has a second campus of the University of California, San Francisco, and where the new Warriors arena will be built.WEB, S.F. supervisors OK Warriors arena for Mission Bay,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, February 8, 2016, December 9, 2015, West of downtown, across Van Ness Avenue, lies the large Western Addition neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after World War II. The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including Hayes Valley, the Fillmore, and Japantown, which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its Japanese American residents were forcibly removed and interned during World War II. The Western Addition survived the 1906 earthquake with its Victorians largely intact, including the famous "Painted Ladies", standing alongside Alamo Square. To the south, near the geographic center of the city is Haight-Ashbury, famously associated with 1960s hippie culture. The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiquesNEWS, The Haight, The San Francisco Chronicle,weblink August 3, 2009, and a few controversial chain stores,NEWS, Katherine, Bishop, Haight-Ashbury Journal; Love and Hate Linger in Ex-Hippie District,weblink The New York Times, October 13, 1988, August 3, 2009, although it still retains some bohemian character.(File:San Francisco towers and angles.jpg|thumb|right|Skyscrapers are common in northeast San Francisco, the city's downtown)North of the Western Addition is Pacific Heights, an affluent neighborhood that features the homes built by wealthy San Franciscans in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the Marina, a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay.NEWS, The Marina, SFGate San Francisco Neighborhood Guide,weblink August 20, 2013, October 27, 2011, File:SF Transamerica full CA.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The Transamerica Pyramid was the tallest building in San Francisco until 2016, when Salesforce TowerSalesforce TowerIn the south-east quadrant of the city is the Mission District—populated in the 19th century by Californios and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from Mexico began to predominate.WEB,weblink Quality of Life (film website), Mission District History, Morgan, Benjamin (Director), 2007, July 25, 2010, In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to twenty-something professionals. Noe Valley to the southwest and Bernal Heights to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the Potrero Hill neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as Eureka Valley, now popularly called the Castro, was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first gay village, and is now the center of gay life in the city.NEWS, The Castro, The San Francisco Chronicle,weblink August 3, 2009, Located near the city's southern border, the Excelsior District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominantly African American Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial urban renewal projects.The construction of the Twin Peaks Tunnel in 1918 connected southwest neighborhoods to downtown via streetcar, hastening the development of West Portal, and nearby affluent Forest Hill and St. Francis Wood. Further west, stretching all the way to the Pacific Ocean and north to Golden Gate Park lies the vast Sunset District, a large middle class area with a predominantly Asian population.CHOW >FIRST = ANDREW, Dismal APA Turnout at First Redistricting Meetings, Asian Week, March 22, 2002, The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the Richmond, also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. Together, these areas are known as The Avenues. These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace.


San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers.Climate of San Francisco: Narrative Description Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved September 5, 2006. San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the cool currents of the Pacific Ocean on the west side of the city, and the water of San Francisco Bay to the north and east. This moderates temperature swings and produces a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation.File:San francisco in fog with rays.jpg|upright|thumb|left|Fog is a regular feature of San Francisco summers.]]Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coolest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August.WEB,weblink Coolest US Cities in Summer, Osborn, Liz, Weather Extremes, Current Results Nexus, July 25, 2010weblink" title="">weblink >archivedate = July 24, 2010, live, During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the North Pacific High through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's characteristic cool winds and fog.JOURNAL, Gilliam, Harold, Harold Gilliam, Cutting Through the Fog: Demystifying the Summer Spectacle, Bay Nature, July–September 2002,weblink The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall. As a result, the year's warmest month, on average, is September, and on average, October is warmer than July, especially in daytime.Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the Sunset District; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year.Temperatures reach or exceed {{convert|80|°F|abbr=on}} on an average of only 21 and 23 days a year at downtown and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), respectively. The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with the normal monthly mean temperature peaking in September at {{convert|62.7|°F|abbr=on}}. The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with the normal monthly mean temperature reaching its lowest in January at {{convert|51.3|°F|abbr=on}}. On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages {{convert|23.65|in|mm|0}}. Variation in precipitation from year to year is high. Above average rain years are often associated with warm El Niño conditions in the Pacific while dry years often occur in cold water La Niña periods. In 2013 (a "La Niña" year), a record low {{convert|5.59|in|mm|abbr=on}} of rainfall was recorded at downtown San Francisco, where records have been kept since 1849. Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to {{convert|5|in}} fell on Twin Peaks.Climate of San Francisco: Snowfall Golden Gate Weather Services. Retrieved December 3, 2006.NEWS,weblink Blizzard of awesome: The San Francisco snowfall of 1976, Peter Hartlaub, San Francisco Chronicle, November 29, 2012, February 1, 2013, The highest recorded temperature at the official National Weather Service downtown observation station (currently at the United States Mint building) was {{convert|106|F|C}} on September 1, 2017.NEWS, Ruberstein, Steve, Asimov, Nanette, Lyons, Jenna, San Francisco hits 106 degrees – shatters all-time record,weblink September 1, 2017, San Francisco Chronicle, September 2, 2017, The lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|27|F|C}} on December 11, 1932.WEB,weblink San Fran Mission Dolore, California (047772) Period of Record General Climate Summary – Temperature, Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute, 2010archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink url-status=live, (Main page) The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aidHTTP://WWW.WRH.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/YEARDISP.PHP?WFO=MTR&STN=KSFO&SUBMIT=YEARLY+CHARTS>TITLE=SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA / MONTEREY, graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.San Francisco falls under the USDA 10b Plant Hardiness zone.WEB
, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map
, Agricultural Research Center, PRISM Climate Group Oregon State University
, February 24, 2014
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, WEB,weblink California Interactive USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, December 19, 2016,
{{San Francisco weatherbox}}


{{Historical populations|type= USA1000250003477656802149473233959298997342782416912506676634394634536775357740316715674678974723959776733805235883305PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOVTITLE = POPULATION OF THE 100 LARGEST CITIES AND OTHER URBAN PLACES IN THE UNITED STATES: 1790 TO 1990DATE=JUNE 1998,weblink Official 1850 census results were destroyed by fire. This 1852 figure is from a state Census. weblink.{{See also|:File:SFPopulation.svg|l1=Population Graph}}}}The U.S. Census Bureau estimates San Francisco's population to be 883,305 as of July 1, 2018, with a population density of 18,838/sq mi. With nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, San Francisco is the second-most densely populated large American city, behind only New York City among cities greater than 200,000 population, and the fifth-most densely populated U.S. county, following only four of the five New York City boroughs.After New York City, only for cities with greater than 200,000 population. Otherwise it is not 2nd.WEB, 2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density,weblink Demographia, August 23, 2007, San Francisco forms part of the five-county San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 4.7 million people, and has served as its traditional demographic focal point. It is also part of the greater 14-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, whose population is over 9.6 million, making it the fifth-largest in the United States as of 2018.

Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages

San Francisco has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940.As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 whites (48%), 267,915 Asians (33%), 48,870 African Americans (6%), and others. There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos of any race (15%).In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos (5%) and Vietnamese (2%).WEB, QT-P3 – Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010,weblink 2010 United States Census Summary File 1, United States Census Bureau, July 11, 2011, The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, Sunset District, and Richmond District, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the Crocker-Amazon (which is contiguous with the Filipino community of Daly City, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in SoMa.WEB,weblink Training and Education /PET, April 28, 2012, Filipino-American Law Enforcement Officers Association, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2013, The Tenderloin District is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon.The principal Hispanic groups in the city were those of Mexican (7%) and Salvadoran (2%) ancestry. The Hispanic population is most heavily concentrated in the Mission District, Tenderloin District, and Excelsior District. The city's percentage of Hispanic residents is less than half of that of the state.The population of African Americans in San Francisco is 6% of the city's population.WEB
, QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California
, United States Census Bureau
, July 11, 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, July 13, 2011
, The percentage of African Americans in San Francisco is similar to that of California. The majority of the city's black population reside within the neighborhoods of Bayview-Hunters Point, Visitacion Valley, and in the Fillmore District.NEWS, Interactive: Mapping the censusurl =weblink February 9, 2012, (File:Race and ethnicity 2010- San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley (5560477152).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in San Francisco Bay Area, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow)){|{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;text-align: left;font-size: 90%;"! Demographic profileWEB,weblink San Francisco (city), California, State & County QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, WEB, San Francisco City and County,weblink Bay Area Census, October 18, 2015, WEB, California – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2012, ! 2010! 2000! 1990! 1970! 1940White Americans >|95.0%Non-Hispanic whites >|92.5%Asian Americans >|4.2%African Americans or African American >|0.8%Native Americans in the United States and Alaska Natives>Alaska Native 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% –Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islands Americans>Pacific Islander 0.4% 0.5% 0.5% – –Some other race 6.6% 6.5% 5.9% 1.5% -Two or more races 4.7% 4.0% - - -Hispanic and Latino Americans (of any race) >|2.5%Source: US CensusAccording to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, the largest religious groupings in San Francisco's metropolitan area are Christians (48%), followed by those of no religion (35%), Hindus (5%), Jews (3%), Buddhists (2%), Muslims (1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. According to the same study by the Pew Research Center, about 20% of residents in the area are Protestant, and 25% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. Meanwhile, 10% of the residents in metropolitan San Francisco identifies as agnostics, while 5% identifies as atheists.Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research CenterWEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, May 12, 2015, {{As of|2010}}, 55% (411,728) of San Francisco residents spoke only English at home, while 19% (140,302) spoke a variety of Chinese (mostly Taishanese and CantoneseWEB,weblink Chung: Chinese 'peasant' dialect redeemed – The Mercury News, December 19, 2016, 2007-12-22, WEB,weblink Chinatown Decoded: What Language Is Everybody Speaking?, December 19, 2016, ), 12% (88,147) Spanish, 3% (25,767) Tagalog, and 2% (14,017) Russian. In total, 45% (342,693) of San Francisco's population spoke a language at home other than English.WEB,weblink San Francisco County, California, Modern Language Association, August 6, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2013, {|{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;text-align: right;font-size: 90%;"! Demographic profileWEB,,weblink 2010 Census Interactive Population Search – CA – San Francisco city, ! 2010 Total Population 805,235 – 100% Hispanic or Latino 121,774 – 15.1% White 390,387 – 48.5% African American 48,870 – 6.1% Asian 267,915 – 33.3% American Indian and Alaska Native 4,024 – 0.5% Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 3,359 – 0.4% Other 53,021 – 6.6% Two or more races 37,659 – 4.7%

Ethnic clustering

San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown and the Mission District. Research collected on the immigrant clusters in the city show that more than half of the Asian population in San Francisco is either Chinese born (40.3%) or Philippine born (13.1%), and of the Mexican population 21% were Mexican born, meaning these are people who recently immigrated to the United States. Between the years of 1990 and 2000, the number foreign born residents increased from 33% to nearly 40%, During this same time period, the San Francisco Metropolitan area received 850,000 immigrants, ranking third in the United States after Los Angeles and New York.

Education, households, and income

Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only Seattle. Over 44% of adults have a bachelor's or higher degree.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2006, The brainpower of America's largest cities, August 5, 2010, 2006, (data interpreted from U.S. Census), San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's {{convert|46.7|sqmi|km2}}.WINTER >FIRST = MICHAEL,weblink New measure ranks San Francisco the 'smartest' U.S. city, USA Today, August 5, 2010, June 9, 2010, San Francisco has the highest percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15%.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 2, 2007, Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Surveyfirst=Gary, July 10, 2008, October 2006, The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law, San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area.WEB, Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Households,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 13, 2008, August 26, 2006, Human Rights Campaign, {|class="wikitable" style="float: right; clear: both;"! colspan="6" |Income in 2011! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Per capita incomeU.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19301. American FactFinder. Retrieved October 21, 2013.$46,777! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Median household incomeU.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013. American FactFinder. Retrieved October 21, 2013.$72,947! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Median family incomeU.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19113. American FactFinder. Retrieved October 21, 2013.$87,329San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household incomeWEB
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
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, Median Household Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars) (Place Level)
, June 23, 2009
, August 22, 2007
, U.S. Census Bureau
, with a 2007 value of $65,519. Median family income is $81,136.An emigration of middle-class families has left the city with a lower proportion of children than any other large American city,AARON>LAST=SANKIN,weblink Families Flee San Francisco: City Has Lowest Percentage Of Kids Of Any Major U.S. City, August 8, 2018, March 9, 2012, HuffPost, with the dog population cited as exceeding the child population of 115,000, in 2018.HENDRIX >FIRST = MICHAEL,weblink Young Americans' loneliness sets the table for Friendsgiving, Washington Post, November 21, 2018, November 21, 2018, The city's poverty rate is 12%, lower than the national average.WEB
,weblink" title="">weblink
, January 3, 2011
, Economic Characteristics
, January 9, 2015
, 2007
, 2005–2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates – Data Profile Highlights
, U.S. Census Bureau
, dead
, Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco since the early 1970s.WEB,weblink PBS, Deinstitutionalization: A Psychiatric 'Titanic', August 9, 2014,weblink July 20, 2014, The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city.WEB
, San Francisco Program Combats Homelessness with Innovation
, April 5, 2005
, September 6, 2007
, dead
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, mdy-all
, NEWS, Pratt, Timothy, Critics say regional plan won't solve the problem, Las Vegas Sun, August 12, 2006,weblink August 30, 2006, There are 345,811 households in the city, out of which: 133,366 households (39%) were individuals, 109,437 (32%) were opposite-sex married couples, 63,577 (18%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,677 (6%) were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 10,384 (3%) were same-sex married couples or partnerships. The average household size was 2.26; the average family size was 3.11. 452,986 people (56%) lived in rental housing units, and 327,985 people (41%) lived in owner-occupied housing units.The median age of the city population is 38 years.San Francisco "declared itself a sanctuary city in 1989, and city officials strengthened the stance in 2013 with its 'Due Process for All' ordinance. The law declared local authorities could not hold immigrants for immigration officials if they had no violent felonies on their records and did not currently face charges."Cindy Carcamo, Kate Mather & Dakota Smith, Trump's crackdown on illegal immigration leaves a lot unanswered for sanctuary cities like L.A., Los Angeles Times (November 15, 2016). The city issues a Resident ID Card regardless of the applicant's immigration status.NEWS, Buchanan, Wyatt, S.F. supervisors approve ID cards for residents, San Francisco Chronicle, 14 November 2007,weblink 17 April 2019,


{{See also|Homelessness in the San Francisco Bay Area}}Homelessness, historically, has been a major problem in the city and remains a growing problem in modern times.WEB, Saunders, Debra,weblink San Francisco's summer of urine and drug-addicted homeless, San Francisco Gate, March 17, 2017, August 9, 2015, In 2017, 7,500 homeless people were officially counted in the city, two-thirds of whom were dealing with serious health issues like mental illness or HIV.NEWS,weblink San Francisco or Mumbai? UN envoy encounters homeless life in California, Alastair Gee, The Guardian, January 22, 2018, August 6, 2018, NEWS,weblink San Francisco 2017 Homeless Point-In-Time Count and Survey – Executive Summary, September 27, 2010, April 14, 2019, San Francisco City Government, The city of San Francisco has been dramatically increasing expenditure directed to alleviate the homelessness crisis: spending jumped by $241 million in 2016–17 to total $275 million, compared to a budget of just $34 million the previous year. In 2017–18 the budget for combatting homelessness, much of which is directed towards the building of new shelters and expanding capacity, stood at $305 million.ARTICLE,weblink UN expert on San Francisco homelessness: 'I couldn't help but be completely shocked', Amy Graff,, January 24, 2018, August 6, 2018, In January 2018 a United Nations special rapporteur on homelessness, Leilani Farha, stated that she was "completely shocked" by San Francisco's homelessness crisis during a visit to the city. She compared the "deplorable conditions" of the homeless camps she witnessed on San Francisco's streets to those she had seen in Mumbai.


{{See also|List of companies based in San Francisco}}According to academic Rob Wilson, San Francisco is a global city, a status that pre-dated the city's popularity during the California Gold Rush.JOURNAL, Wilson, Rob, November 2008, Spectral city: San Francisco as Pacific Rim city and counter-cultural contado, Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 9, 4, 583–597, 10.1080/14649370802386503, Such cities are characterized by their ethnic clustering, network of international connectivity, and convergence of technological innovation.JOURNAL, Pamuk, Ayse, Fall 2017, Geography of immigrant clusters in global cities: a case study of San Francisco, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28, 2, 287–307, 10.1111/j.0309-1317.2004.00520.x, Global cities, such as San Francisco, are considered to be complex and require a high level of talent as well as large masses of low wage workers. A divide is created within the city of ethnic, typically lower-class neighborhoods, and expensive ones with newly developed buildings. This in turn creates a population of highly educated, white-collar individuals as well as blue-collar workers, many of whom are immigrants, and who both are drawn to the increasing number of opportunities available.JOURNAL, Sassen, Saskia, Fall 2017, The Global City: Enabling Economic Intermediation and Bearing Its Costs, City & Community, 15, 2, 97–108, 10.1111/cico.12175, Competition for these opportunities pushes growth and adaptation in world centers.San Francisco has a diversified service economy, with employment spread across a wide range of professional services, including financial services, tourism, and (increasingly) high technology.WEB,weblink Industry Employment & Labor Force – by Annual Average for San Francisco County, 2016, California Employment Development Department, In 2016, approximately 27% of workers were employed in professional business services; 14% in leisure and hospitality; 13% in government services; 12% in education and health care; 11% in trade, transportation, and utilities; and 8% in financial activities. In 2017, GDP in the five-county San Francisco metropolitan area grew 3.4% to $501 billion.WEB,weblink GDP by Metropolitan Area {{!, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)||language=en|access-date=2018-09-19}} Additionally, in 2017 the 14-county San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland combined statistical area had a GDP of $907 billion,NEWS,weblink Gross Domestic Product by Metropolitan Area, 2016, September 30, 2017, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 8, 2017,weblink December 8, 2017, dead, ranking 3rd among CSAs, and ahead of all but 16 countries. As of 2017, San Francisco County was the 7th highest-income county in the United States (among 3,142), with a per capita personal income of $119,868. Marin County, directly to the north over the Golden Gate Bridge, and San Mateo County, directly to the south on the Peninsula, were the 5th and 9th highest-income counties respectively.(File:SF California Street USA.jpg|thumb|left|upright|California Street in the Financial District)The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast in the early twentieth century.BOOK, Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration of Northern California, San Francisco in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City by the Bay,weblink 2011, University of California Press, 978-0-520-26880-7, 114, Montgomery Street in the Financial District became known as the "Wall Street of the West", home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, the Wells Fargo corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange. Bank of America, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions,WEB, San Francisco: Economy,,weblink June 15, 2008, six Fortune 500 companies,NEWS, Fortune 500, Fortune magazine, Time Inc, 2013,weblink April 6, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2014, dead, and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture and design—San Francisco is designated as an Alpha(-) World City.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2012, Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network, Loughborough University, January 25, 2014, The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index ranked San Francisco as the sixth most competitive financial center in the world.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 21, March 2017, China Development Institute, September 4, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2018, dead, File:Alcatraz Island 1, SF, CA, jjron 25.03.2012.jpg|thumb|right|Alcatraz receives 1.5 million annual visitors.GONZALES >FIRST = RICHARD, New Parts of Alcatraz Revealed to Public, People and Places, NPR, May 22, 2006,weblink June 15, 2008, ]]Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, biotechnology, and medical research. Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013.NEWS, Forecasting San Francisco's Economic Fortuneslast = Warburg, February 27, 2014, SPUR,weblink April 6, 2014, San Francisco became an epicenter of Internet start-up companies during the dot-com bubble of the 1990s and the subsequent social media boom of the late 2000s (decade).SELNA >FIRST = ROBERT, New jobs, houses spur S.F. population in 2007page = B-1, Hearst Communications, May 15, 2008,weblink June 14, 2008, Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby Silicon Valley, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013.NEWS,weblink As Bay Area Investment Shifts North, Institutional Venture Partners Opens San Francisco Office, February 27, 2014, Russ, Garland, The Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2014, WEB,weblink Startup City: The Urban Shift in Venture Capital and High Technology, March 31, 2014, April 6, 2014, Martin Prosperity Institute, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2014, NEWS,weblink San Francisco's urban tech boom, Richard, Florida, San Francisco Chronicle, September 8, 2012, April 6, 2014, In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companiesNEWS,weblink S.F. extends biotech payroll tax exemption, May 4, 2010, Eric, Young, San Francisco Business Times, April 6, 2014, to foster growth in the Mission Bay neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Mission Bay hosts the UCSF Medical Center, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, and Gladstone Institutes,PRESS RELEASE,weblink Life Sciences & Biotech, San Francisco Center for Economic Development, April 6, 2014, as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies.WEB,weblink Mayor Lee Announces New Biotech Incubator in Mission Bay, September 10, 2013, Office of the Mayor, City and County of San Francisco, April 6, 2014, File:San Francisco from Pier 7 September 2013 panorama edit.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Ships docked at Pier 3, with w:Financial District, San Francisco|Financial District]] skyscrapers in the background.]]The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.6% (31,000+ people) of the city's workforce, followed by UCSF with over 25,000 employees.WEB,weblink City and County of San Francisco, California Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, for the Year ended June 30, 2018, 243, May 10, 2019, The largest private-sector employer is Salesforce, with 8,500 employees, as of 2018.NEWS,weblink Salesforce to house 1,500 more workers in second Transbay tower, Roland, Li, November 14, 2018, May 10, 2019, San Francisco Chronicle, Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments,TAN >FIRST = ALDRICH M., San Francisco is gateway city for immigrants and Silicon Valley Technology,, April 12, 2006,weblink June 15, 2008, and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977. The growth of national big box and formula retail chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy,NEWS, Main Street Fights Chain Street, Said, Carolyn, November 29, 2005,weblinkwork=San Francisco Chronicle, and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop,NEWS,weblink Hetter, Katia, March 21, 2004, Supervisors OK limits on chain-store expansion, January 19, 2007, San Francisco Chronicle, an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters.WEB,weblink Proposition G: Limitations on Formula Retail Stores, City of San Francisco, January 19, 2007,, However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey.WEB,weblink Nevada, Thumbtack (website), Thumbtack, October 21, 2016, Like many U.S. cities, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s.NEWS,weblink Made in San Francisco: Manufacturing a comebacklast=Frojo, February 14, 20142014}}, San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. The city's largest manufacturing employer is Anchor Brewing Company, and the largest by revenue is Timbuk2.


San Francisco became a hub for technological driven economic growth during the internet boom of the 1990s, and still holds an important position in the world city network today.JOURNAL, Aranya, Rolee, Fall 2017, A Global 'Urban Roller Coaster'? Connectivity Changes in the World City Network, 2000–2004, Regional Studies, 42, 1–16, 10.1080/00343400601145202,weblink Intense redevelopment towards the "new economy" makes business more technologically minded. Between the years of 1999 and 2000, the job growth rate was 4.9%, creating over 50,000 jobs in technology firms and internet content production.In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple, Google, Facebook and Twitter to base their tech offices and for their employees to live.WEB,weblink City and County of San Francisco: An Overview of San Francisco's Recent Economic Performance, Egan, April 3, 2006, Report prepared for Mayor's Office of Economic and Workforce Development, ICF Consulting,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2009, dead, December 6, 2017, Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley's 30% growth rate over the same period.JOURNAL, Stehlin, John, 2016, The Post-Industrial "Shop Floor": Emerging Forms of Gentrification in San Francisco's Innovation Economy, Antipode, 48, 2, 474–493, 10.1111/anti.12199,weblink The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe. San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups.JOURNAL, McNeill, Donald, 2016, Governing a city of unicorns: technology capital and the urban politics of San Francisco, Urban Geography, 37, 4, 494–513, 10.1080/02723638.2016.1139868, A recent high of 7 billion dollars in venture capital was invested in the region. These startup companies hire a high concentration of well educated individuals looking to work in the tech industry, and creates a city population of highly concentrated levels of education. Over 50% of San Franciscans have a 4-year university degree, ranking the city among the highest levels of education in the country and world.

Tourism and conventions

{{See also|Port of San Francisco}}Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city.NEWS,weblink Biotech Jobs Germinate as San Francisco Diversifies Economy, Rob, Waters, May 15, 2009, Bloomberg, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 23, 2015, FLINN >FIRST = RYAN, S.F. tourism picks up, but spending stays flatpage= D-1, September 3, 2010,weblink February 4, 2012, The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States.WEB, Overseas Visitors to Select U.S. Cities 2015–2016, National Travel and Tourism Office, International Trade Administration, US Department of Commerce, 2016,weblink February 22, 2018, More than 25 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2016, adding US$9.96 billion to the economy.PRESS RELEASE, San Francisco Travel Reports Record-Breaking Tourism in 2016, San Francisco Travel Association, January 18, 2017,weblink December 8, 2017, With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.NEWS,weblink San Francisco Visitor Industry Statistics, 2013, San Francisco Travel Association, April 5, 2014, File:Lombard St.jpg|thumb|left|Lombard Street is a popular tourist destination in San Francisco, known for its “crookedness”]]Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the Golden Gate Bridge and Alamo Square Park, which is home to the famous "Painted Ladies". Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom Full House. There is also Lombard Street, known for its "crookedness" and extensive views. Tourists also visit Pier 39, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous Alcatraz Island.WEB,weblink Alcatraz Island : Explore Sensational San Francisco :, Travel Channel, November 9, 2016, San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods.NEWS,weblink Top 20 Attractions in San Francisco, San Francisco Travel, November 9, 2016, File:FerryBuildingEmbarcaderoBayBridge.JPG|thumb|right|The Ferry Building along the Embarcadero ]]The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 opened September 25, 2014 as a replacement for the old Pier 35.WEB, SFPort – James R. Herman Cruise Terminal Project at Pier 27,weblink March 16, 2013, Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico.A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms; by 1970, the number was nine thousand; and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand."BOOK, City for sale: The transformation of San Francisco, Chester, Hartman, University of California Press, 2002, The commodification of the Castro District has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy.JOURNAL, San Francisco's Castro district: from gay liberation to tourist destination, Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 237–248, 9, 3, 10.1080/14766825.2011.620122, Nan Alamilla, Boyd, 2011,

Culture and contemporary life

{{See also|San Francisco in popular culture}}File:Fillmore-sidewalk-1.jpg|thumb|right|Boutiques along Fillmore Street in Pacific Heights ]]Although the Financial District, Union Square, and Fisherman's Wharf are well known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by,weblink Most Walkable Cities in the U.S., March 28, 2014,, Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow, 24th Street in Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the Mission, Grant Avenue in North Beach, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.WACH >FIRST = BONNIE, Fog City rises from the funkpublisher=Gannett Company, Inc., October 3, 2003,weblinkarchiveurl= May 15, 2006, File:South of Market, San Francisco.jpg|thumb|left|High-rises surround Yerba Buena GardensYerba Buena GardensSince the 1990s, the demand for skilled information technology workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley has attracted white-collar workers from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco.SCHWARZER >FIRST = MICHELLE, San Francisco by the Numbers: Planning After the 2000 Censuspublisher=San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association, July 2001,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2005, July 25, 2010, Many neighborhoods that were once blue-collar, middle, and lower class have been gentrifying, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the Embarcadero, including the neighborhoods South Beach and Mission Bay. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation,SADOVI >FIRST = MAURA WEBBER, San Francisco's Home Prices Remain Among the Highest in U.S., The Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 1, 2007, June 14, 2008, WEB
, Median Family Income (In 2003 Inflation-adjusted Dollars)
, American Community Survey
, US Census Bureau
, August 22, 2007
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead
, October 13, 2004
, June 14, 2008
, HAWN >FIRST = CARLEEN, It may not feel like it, but your shot at the good life is getting better. Here's whypublisher=Modern Luxury, March 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 24, 2007, June 14, 2008, creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the highest quality of living of any U.S. city."WEB, 2014 Quality of Living worldwide city rankings – Mercer survey, Mercer Consulting, February 2014,weblink November 4, 2015, However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley.HENDRICKS >FIRST = TYCHE, Rich City Poor City: Middle-class neighborhoods are disappearing from the nation's cities, leaving only high- and low-income districts, new study says., San Francisco Chronicle, A-1, Hearst Communications, June 22, 2006,weblinkAUTHOR=ANNA MARIE ERWERTWORK=ON THE BLOCK, The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction."Hot in the City." The Economist April 2, 2016: 71. print.The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas,EGAN >FIRST = TED, An Overview of San Francisco's Recent Economic Performance – Executive Summary, ICF Consulting, April 3, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2007, June 14, 2008, San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which accelerated beginning in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade into the largest event of its kind outside China.NEWS
, Lam
, Eric
, San Francisco Chinese New Year Parade Embroiled in Controversy
, The Epoch Times
, December 22, 2005
, June 14, 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, May 11, 2009
, With the arrival of the "beat" writers and artists of the 1950s and societal changes culminating in the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury district during the 1960s, San Francisco became a center of liberal activism and of the counterculture that arose at that time. The Democrats and to a lesser extent the Green Party have dominated city politics since the late 1970s, after the last serious Republican challenger for city office lost the 1975 mayoral election by a narrow margin. San Francisco has not voted more than 20% for a Republican presidential or senatorial candidate since 1988.LEIP >FIRST = DAVE, Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, Dave Leip, June 4, 2008,weblink June 14, 2008, In 2007, the city expanded its Medicaid and other indigent medical programs into the Healthy San Francisco program,Reform Law Could Curb Healthy San Francisco's Enrollment by Up to 60% – California Healthline. Retrieved February 16, 2012. which subsidizes certain medical services for eligible residents."San Francisco's Latest Innovation: Universal Health Care", by Laura A. Locke, Time, June 23, 2006"Participant Costs" {{webarchive|url= |date=March 27, 2010 }}, Retrieved April 10, 2010."Universal Health Care Plan Approved in San Francisco", Insurance Journal, July 20, 2006.San Francisco also has had a very active environmental community. Starting with the founding of the Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding the environment.WEB, About the Sierra Club,weblink March 26, 2013, WEB, Friends of the Urban Forest – About us,weblink March 26, 2013, The 1980 San Francisco Recycling Program was one of the earliest curbside recycling programs.WEB, Recology Residential Service Program,weblink March 26, 2013, The city's GoSolarSF incentive promotes solar installations and the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission is rolling out the CleanPowerSF program to sell electricity from local renewable sources.WEB, SFPUC GoSolarSF,weblink March 26, 2013, WEB, About Clean Power SF,weblink February 21, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2015, SF Greasecycle is a program to recycle used cooking oil for conversion to biodiesel.WEB, SFPUC Greasecycle,weblink March 26, 2013, The Sunset Reservoir Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010.PRESS RELEASE, Mayor Newsom Praises SFPUC For Approving New Five Megawatt Solar Project at Sunset Reservoir,weblink Office of the Mayor, San Francisco, December 12, 2008, September 29, 2009, NEWS,weblink SF gets new way to generate renewable energy, Leigh Glaser, December 7, 2010, KGO ABC7 News,


File:Castro Rainbow Flag.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The rainbow flag, symbol of LGBT pride, originated in San Francisco; banners like this one decorate streets in The Castro.]]San Francisco has long had an LGBT-friendly history. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, Daughters of Bilitis; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, José Sarria; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., Mary C. Morgan; and the first transgender police commissioner, Theresa Sparks. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life. Survey data released in 2015 by Gallup place the proportion of the San Francisco metro area at 6.2%, which is the highest such proportion observed of the 50 most populous metropolitan areas as measured by the polling organization.WEB, San Francisco Metro Area Ranks Highest in LGBT Percentage,weblink One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride, one of the largest and oldest pride parades. San Francisco Pride events have been held continuously since 1972. The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year.WEB, Court victories boost gay pride parades,weblink USA Today,


File:SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE BUILDING.jpg|thumb|San Francisco ChronicleSan Francisco ChronicleThe major daily newspaper in San Francisco is the San Francisco Chronicle, which is currently Northern California's most widely circulated newspaper.WEB,weblink Top 200 Newspapers by Largest Reported Circulation, March 31, 2007, Audit Bureau of Circulations,weblink" title="">weblink August 13, 2007, June 14, 2008, The Chronicle is most famous for a former columnist, the late Herb Caen, whose daily musings attracted critical acclaim and represented the "voice of San Francisco". The San Francisco Examiner, once the cornerstone of William Randolph Hearst's media empire and the home of Ambrose Bierce, declined in circulation over the years and now takes the form of a free daily tabloid, under new ownership.NEWS,weblink The San Francisco Examiner, 1887–2000, Rosenberg, Scott, March 21, 2000, Salon, June 15, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 27, 2009, NEWS,weblink Examiner Staff Ends an Era With Tears, Newsroom Tales, Nolte, Carl, November 22, 2000, San Francisco Chronicle, June 15, 2008, Hearst Communications, A-1, Sing Tao Daily claims to be the largest of several Chinese language dailies that serve the Bay Area.NEWS,weblink Newspaper war in the Bay Area: Ming Pao becomes 6th Chinese-language daily, Hua, Vanessa, August 3, 2004, San Francisco Chronicle, June 14, 2008, Hearst Communications, B-1, SF Weekly is the city's alternative weekly newspaper. San Francisco and 7x7 are major glossy magazines about San Francisco. The national newsmagazine Mother Jones is also based in San Francisco.The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest television marketWEB,weblink Local Television Market Universe Estimates, September 22, 2007, XLS,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, June 15, 2008, and the fourth-largest radio marketWEB,weblink Arbitron Radio Market Rankings: Spring 2008, April 16, 2008, Arbitron,weblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2007, live, June 14, 2008, in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, KCBS, began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. KALW was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. The city's first television station was KPIX, which began broadcasting in 1948.All major U.S. television networks have affiliates serving the region, with most of them based in the city. CNN, MSNBC, BBC, Al Jazeera America, Russia Today, and CCTV America also have regional news bureaus in San Francisco. Bloomberg West was launched in 2011 from a studio on the Embarcadero and CNBC broadcasts from One Market Plaza since 2015. ESPN uses the local ABC studio for their broadcasting. The regional sports network, Comcast SportsNet Bay Area and its sister station Comcast SportsNet California, are both located in San Francisco. The Pac-12 Network is also based in San Francisco.Public broadcasting outlets include both a television station and a radio station, both broadcasting under the call letters KQED from a facility near the Potrero Hill neighborhood. KQED-FM is the most-listened-to National Public Radio affiliate in the country.WEB,weblink Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers – Winter 2004 Arbitron, June 17, 2004, Radio Research Consortium, Arbitron Media Research,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2005, June 14, 2008, Another local broadcaster, KPOO, is an independent, African-American owned and operated noncommercial radio station established in 1971.WEB,weblink About Us, CNET, founded 1994, and, 1995, are based in San Francisco.San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope with which to view his recordings. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, Philo Farnsworth's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.


San Francisco has several nicknames, including "The City by the Bay", "Golden Gate City",WEB,weblink The odd nicknames of California cities, Mike Moffitt, April 4, 2014,, July 22, 2017, "Frisco", "SF", "San Fran", and "Fog City", as well as older ones like "The City that Knows How", "Baghdad by the Bay", "The Paris of the West", or, as locals call it, "The City".WEB,weblink Don't Call It Frisco: The History of San Francisco's Nicknames, Garling, Caleb, June 30, 2013, The Bold Italic, June 18, 2016,

Entertainment and recreation

Performing arts

File:SFWMOHLobbySouth.jpg|thumb|left|The lobby of the War Memorial Opera House, one of the last buildings erected in Beaux Arts style in the United States]]San Francisco's War Memorial and Performing Arts Center hosts some of the most enduring performing-arts companies in the country. The War Memorial Opera House houses the San Francisco Opera, the second-largest opera company in North AmericaThe San Francisco Opera is second in size only to New York City's Metropolitan Opera as well as the San Francisco Ballet, while the San Francisco Symphony plays in Davies Symphony Hall. Opened in 2013, the SFJAZZ Center hosts jazz performances year round.The Fillmore is a music venue located in the Western Addition. It is the second incarnation of the historic venue that gained fame in the 1960s, housing the stage where now-famous musicians such as the Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, Led Zeppelin and Jefferson Airplane first performed, fostering the San Francisco Sound.San Francisco has a large number of theaters and live performance venues. Local theater companies have been noted for risk taking and innovation.Liang, Evelyn. "Stage Left: San Francisco's Theater History. 7x7 The Tony Award-winning non-profit American Conservatory Theater (A.C.T.) is a member of the national League of Resident Theatres. Other local winners of the Regional Theatre Tony Award include the San Francisco Mime Troupe.Jones, Chad. "Tonys By the Bay". Theatre Bay Area Magazine, May/June 2014.San Francisco theaters frequently host pre-Broadway engagements and tryout runs,Sanders, Adrienne, "S.F. Raises Curtain For Broadway Hits" San Francisco Business Times, April 3, 2005 weblink and some original San Francisco productions have later moved to Broadway.Jones, Chad. "Tonys By the Bay". Theatre Bay Area Magazine, May/June 2014. weblink


The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually.WEB, Corporate Sponsorship – Why Sponsor, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art,weblink June 14, 2008weblink" title="">weblink >archivedate = December 29, 2007, SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by Snøhetta (company), that has doubled the museum's size.HTTP://FUTURE.SFMOMA.ORG/#TRANSFORMATION-EXPANDED-HOME, Future SFMOMA, The Palace of the Legion of Honor holds primarily European antiquities and works of art at its Lincoln Park building modeled after its Parisian namesake. The de Young Museum in Golden Gate Park features American decorative pieces and anthropological holdings from Africa, Oceania and the Americas, while Asian art is housed in the Asian Art Museum. Opposite the de Young stands the California Academy of Sciences, a natural history museum that also hosts the Morrison Planetarium and Steinhart Aquarium. Located on Pier 15 on the Embarcadero, the Exploratorium is an interactive science museum. The Contemporary Jewish Museum is a non-collecting institution that hosts a broad array of temporary exhibitions. On Nob Hill, the Cable Car Museum is a working museum featuring the cable car power house, which drives the cables.WEB,weblink Museums in San Francisco,, November 15, 2015,

Beaches and parks

{{See also|List of parks in San Francisco}}File:Cliff House from Ocean Beach.jpg|thumbnail|left|Ocean Beach, San Francisco with a view of the Cliff House ]]File:San-francisco-strawberry-hill.jpg|thumb|Golden Gate ParkGolden Gate ParkSeveral of San Francisco's parks and nearly all of its beaches form part of the regional Golden Gate National Recreation Area, one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States with over 13 million visitors a year. Among the GGNRA's attractions within the city are Ocean Beach, which runs along the Pacific Ocean shoreline and is frequented by a vibrant surfing community, and Baker Beach, which is located in a cove west of the Golden Gate and part of the Presidio, a former military base. Also within the Presidio is Crissy Field, a former airfield that was restored to its natural salt marsh ecosystem. The GGNRA also administers Fort Funston, Lands End, Fort Mason, and Alcatraz. The National Park Service separately administers the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around Aquatic Park.File:Alamo Square with Painted Ladies, SF, CA, jjron 26.03.2012.jpg|thumbnail|left|Alamo SquareAlamo SquareThere are more than 220 parks maintained by the San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department.WEB
, Facility Listings
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,weblink" title="">weblink
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, The largest and best-known city park is Golden Gate Park,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2009, The Most Visited City Parks, June 17, 2008, October 11, 2007, Center for City Park Excellence, The Trust for Public Land
, which stretches from the center of the city west to the Pacific Ocean. Once covered in native grasses and sand dunes, the park was conceived in the 1860s and was created by the extensive planting of thousands of non-native trees and plants. The large park is rich with cultural and natural attractions such as the Conservatory of Flowers, Japanese Tea Garden and San Francisco Botanical Garden. Lake Merced is a fresh-water lake surrounded by parkland and near the San Francisco Zoo, a city-owned park that houses more than 250 animal species, many of which are endangered.WEB, What to See at the Zoo, San Francisco Zoo,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 19, 2011, June 14, 2008, The only park managed by the California State Park system located principally in San Francisco, Candlestick Point was the state's first urban recreation area.WEB, Candlestick Point SRA, California State Parks Department,weblink January 27, 2009, San Francisco is the first city in the U.S. to have a park within a 10-Minute Walk of every resident.NEWS,weblink SF 1st city in nation with a park 10-minute walk from every home, San Francisco Chronicle, May 23, 2018, NEWS,weblink In San Francisco, Everyone Lives Within A 10-Minute Walk of a Park, May 16, 2017, CBS SF Bay Area, May 23, 2018, en, It also ranks fifth in the U.S. for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land.WEB,weblink ParkScore,, en-US, May 23, 2018,


File:AT&T Park July 24, 2016.jpg|thumb|right|Oracle ParkOracle ParkMajor League Baseball's San Francisco Giants have played in San Francisco since moving from New York in 1958. The Giants play at Oracle Park, which opened in 2000.WEB, Federal Brownfields Tax Incentive: SBC Park, Brownfields, US Environmental Protection Agency, May 2005,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2006, June 15, 2008, The Giants won World Series titles in 2010, 2012, and in 2014. The Giants have boasted such stars as Willie Mays, Willie McCovey and Barry Bonds. In 2012, San Francisco was ranked No. 1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.WEB, Sperling, Bert, Best Baseball Cities,weblink October 29, 2012, The San Francisco 49ers of the National Football League (NFL) were the longest-tenured major professional sports franchise in the city until moving in 2013. The team began play in 1946 as an All-America Football Conference (AAFC) league charter member, moved to the NFL in 1950 and into Candlestick Park in 1971. The team began playing its home games at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara in 2014, closer to the city of San Jose.NEWS,weblink SAN FRANCISCO / 49ers say they are moving to Santa Clara, San Francisco Chronicle, November 9, 2006, March 28, 2012, Phillip, Matier, Andrew, Ross, WEB,weblink San Francisco mayor: 49ers move to Santa Clara all but assured,, December 6, 2011, March 28, 2012, The 49ers won five Super Bowl titles in the 1980s and 1990s.The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962–1971, before being renamed the Golden State Warriors prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of California.WEB,weblink Behind The Name – Warriors {{!, THE OFFICIAL SITE OF THE GOLDEN STATE WARRIORS||access-date=November 9, 2016}} The Warrior's arena, Chase Center, is currently located in San Francisco.WEB,weblink Golden State Warriors {{!, Oracle Arena and Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum|last=Coliseum|first=Oracle Arena and Oakland-Alameda County||access-date=November 9, 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=December 9, 2016|url-status=dead}} They have won 6 championships,WEB,weblink Warriors History Index, Golden State Warriors, November 9, 2016, including three of the last four.At the collegiate level, the San Francisco Dons compete in NCAA Division I. Bill Russell led the Don's basketball team to NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. There is also the San Francisco State Gators, who compete in NCAA Division II.WEB,weblink Athletics and Sports – San Francisco State University Bulletin 2013 – 2014,, November 9, 2016, Oracle Park hosted the annual Fight Hunger Bowl college football game from 2002 through 2013 before it moved to Santa Clara.File:Olympic Club, San Francisco.jpg|thumb|right|The Olympic ClubOlympic ClubThe Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit.WEB
, About Us – History
, ING Bay to Breakers
, ING Group
, March 11, 2008
, July 25, 2010
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, The San Francisco Marathon attracts more than 21,000 participants.BULWA >FIRST = DEMIAN, S.F. Marathon: 26.2 miles of feel-good painNews release>Press Release, July 27, 2009,weblink September 7, 2010, The Escape from Alcatraz triathlon has, since 1980, attracted 2,000 top professional and amateur triathletes for its annual race.WEB
, Fact Sheet
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, Accenture Escape from Alcatraz Triathlon
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, January 19, 2009
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, The Olympic Club, founded in 1860, is the oldest athletic club in the United States. Its private golf course has hosted the U.S. Open on five occasions. San Francisco hosted the 2013 America's Cup yacht racing competition.COTE >FIRST = JOHN, San Francisco selected to host America's Cuppublisher=Hearst Communications, 2010,weblink September 11, 2013, With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than {{convert|200|mi|km}} of bicycle paths, lanes and bike routes in the city.WEB, Bicycle Network Facilities, Commuting and Resources, SF Municipal Transportation Authority, May 12, 2008,weblink June 15, 2008weblink >archivedate=April 4, 2013, dead, San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country.HüBLER >FIRST = ERIC, The Fittest and Fattest Cities in Americayear = 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2008, June 15, 2008, Golden Gate Park has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a golf course and disc golf course.Boating, sailing, windsurfing and kitesurfing are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District.

Law and government

San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now San Mateo County. It is the only such consolidation in California.WEB
, Board of Supervisors – Does San Francisco have a City Council?
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, The mayor is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors acts as the city council. The government of San Francisco is a charter city and is constituted of two co-equal branches: the executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service; the 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives to pass legislation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Board of Supervisors – Does San Francisco have a City Council?, October 28, 2015, August 26, 2008, dead, File:San Francisco City Hall September 2013 panorama 3.jpg|thumb|left|San Francisco City HallSan Francisco City HallThe members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city.WEB, Board of Supervisors District Information,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2007, City and County of San Francisco, Board of Supervisors, January 29, 2006, Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. In 2011, Edwin M. Lee was selected by the board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom, who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California.NEWS,weblink The San Francisco Chronicle, John, Coté, Ed Lee becomes the city's first Chinese American mayor, January 11, 2011, Lee (who won 2 elections to remain mayor) was temporarily replaced by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President London Breed after he died on December 12, 2017. Supervisor Mark Farrell was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to finish Lee's term on January 23, 2018.Because of its unique city-county status, local government exercises jurisdiction over property that would otherwise be located outside of its corporation limit. San Francisco International Airport, though located in San Mateo County, is owned and operated by the City and County of San Francisco. San Francisco also has a county jail complex located in San Mateo County, in an unincorporated area adjacent to San Bruno. San Francisco was also granted a perpetual leasehold over the Hetch Hetchy Valley and watershed in Yosemite National Park by the Raker Act in 1913.San Francisco serves as the regional hub for many arms of the federal bureaucracy, including the U.S. Court of Appeals, the Federal Reserve Bank, and the U.S. Mint. Until decommissioning in the early 1990s, the city had major military installations at the Presidio, Treasure Island, and Hunters Point—a legacy still reflected in the annual celebration of Fleet Week. The State of California uses San Francisco as the home of the state supreme court and other state agencies. Foreign governments maintain more than seventy consulates in San Francisco.WEB
, Foreign Consular Offices in the United States, 2007
, December 12, 2008
, United States Department of State
, mdy-all
, The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billionweblink and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States.NEWS,weblink's_largest_cities, Analysis of spending in America's largest cities – Ballotpedia, March 16, 2017, en, The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015–2016. The city employs around 27,000 workers.NEWS, Gordon, Rachel, 1 in 3 San Francisco employees earned $100,000,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, April 26, 2010, March 7, 2012, In the United States House of Representatives, San Francisco is split between California's 12th and 14th districts.

Public safety


The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.{|class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! colspan="3" |Population and crime rates (2012)! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |PopulationUnited States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime in the United States, 2012, Table 8. Retrieved November 15, 2013.820,363! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Violent crime|7.04! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter|0.08! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Forcible rape|0.13! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Robbery|4.25! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Aggravated assault|2.58! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Property crime|47.42! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Burglary|6.48! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Larceny-theft|34.43! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |  Motor vehicle theft|6.51! scope="row" style="text-align: left;" |Arson|0.25File:CHP Police Interceptor Utility Vehicle.jpg|thumb|left|CHP officers enforce the California Vehicle Code, pursue fugitives spotted on the highways, and attend to all significant obstructions and accidents within their jurisdiction.]]In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people.NEWS, Demian Bulwa,weblink Through hard times, S.F. killings at historic lows, San Francisco Chronicle, January 5, 2012, July 29, 2013, There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts.WEB,weblink San Francisco crime rates and statistics, NeighborhoodScout, July 29, 2013, The Tenderloin area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. The Tenderloin also sees high rates of drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution.WEB,weblink The Tenderloin, FoundSF, July 29, 2013, Another area with high crime rates is the Bayview-Hunters Point area. In the first six months of 2015 there were 25 murders compared to 14 in the first six months of 2014. However, the murder rate is still much lower than in past decades.WEB,weblink Bay Area homicide rates remain low, Vivian Ho, July 4, 2015, San Francisco Chronicle, That rate, though, did rise again by the close of 2016. According to the San Francisco Police Department, there were 59 murders in the city in 2016, an annual total that marked a 13.5% increase in the number of homicides (52) from 2015.Bodley, Michael (January 4, 2017). "SF cops say they notch 2 arrests in last 2 homicides of 2016." SFGate. Retrieved January 17, 2017.


Several street gangs operate in the city, including MS-13,WEB,weblink La Mara Salvatrucha Street Gang – San Francisco,, July 29, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 26, 2013, the Sureños and Norteños in the Mission District,.NEWS, Bulwa, Demian,weblink SAN FRANCISCO / Sureño gang's threat growing in Bay Area / Widow's apartment is at heart of group's Mission District turf, San Francisco Chronicle, May 27, 2005, March 29, 2014, African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the Crips, have struggled to establish footholds in San Francisco,NEWS, Albert Samaha,weblink Crip-less: S.F.'s Dislike of Franchises Extends to Street Gangs – Page 1 – News – San Francisco, SF Weekly, September 26, 2012, July 29, 2013, while police and prosecutors have been accused of liberally labeling young African-American males as gang members.NEWS, Chris Roberts,weblink Mario Woods and Gang Injunctions, SF Weekly, December 2015, September 5, 2016, Criminal gangs with shotcallers in China, including Triad groups such as the Wo Hop To, have been reported active in San Francisco.NEWS, Mary Spicuzza,weblink Enter The Dragon, SF Weekly, August 1, 2007, September 5, 2016, In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. None of the victims in this attack were gang members. Five members of the Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime.NEWS, Vanessa Hua,weblink Golden Dragon Closes and owes a million, San Francisco Chronicle, October 7, 2006, December 6, 2011, In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown.NEWS, Jim Herron Zamora,weblink S.F. Chinatown Shootings May Be Tied to Gangdate=May 15, 1990 TITLE=BOY, 16, ARRESTED IN S.F. CHINATOWN SHOOTING RAMPAGE / SUSPECT WAS AT SCENE BUT DIDN'T FIRE GUN, COPS SAY DATE=JUNE 20, 1998, September 16, 2012,

Peace Officers

The San Francisco Police Department was founded in 1849.WEB,weblink SFPD History, San Francisco Police Department, February 28, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 1, 2017, dead, The portions of Golden Gate National Recreation Area located within the city, including the Presidio and Ocean Beach, are patrolled by the United States Park Police.The San Francisco Fire Department provides both fire suppression and emergency medical services to the city.WEB,weblink Fire Commission Response to Grand Jury Report, San Francisco Fire Department, February 12, 2017, The city operates 22 public "pit stop" toilets.NEWS, Knight, Heather, August 14, 2018, It's no laughing matter — SF forming Poop Patrol to keep sidewalks clean,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, August 15, 2018,

International relations

San Francisco participates in the Sister Cities program.WEB,weblink San Francisco Sister Cities, February 1, 2017, A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.WEB,weblink REGISTER OF FOREIGN CONSULATES IN SAN FRANCISCO,weblink" title="">weblink November 23, 2014, March 11, 2013,


Colleges and universities

File:Lone Mountain Campus.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Lone Mountain Campus of the University of San FranciscoUniversity of San Francisco{{See also|List of colleges and universities in San Francisco}}File:SFSU Campus JPL Library Nov2012.JPG|thumb|San Francisco State UniversitySan Francisco State UniversityThe University of California, San Francisco is the sole campus of the University of California system entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United StatesMAGAZINE
, America's Best Graduate Schools: Best Medical Schools
, July 25, 2010
, 2010
, U.S. News & World Report
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, April 21, 2010
, and operates the UCSF Medical Center, which ranks as the number one hospital in California and the number 5 in the country.MAGAZINE,weblink Best Hospitals 2011–12: the Honor Roll, U.S. News & World Report, Comarow, Avery, July 14, 2010, July 25, 2010, UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government.WEB,weblink San Francisco Business Information: Largest Employers in San Francisco, June 9, 2008, San Francisco Business Times Book of Lists, 2007, Microsoft Word, San Francisco Center for Economic Developmentweblink" title="">weblink>archivedate = August 17, 2007, NEWS, UCSF packs a $6B punch for economy, San Francisco Business Times, Leuty, Ron, June 11, 2010,weblink July 26, 2010weblink" title="">weblink >archivedate = June 16, 2010, live, WEB,weblink Employment & Economic Stimulus, July 26, 2010, 2010 Economic Impact Report, University of California, San Franciscoweblink" title="">weblink >archivedate = July 1, 201043haMission Bay, San Francisco>Mission Bay campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise.WEB,weblink New UCSF Mission Bay campus: country's largest biomedical university expansion, Wallace Ravven, June 9, 2008, UCSF, July 22, 2003, All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco.WEB,weblink Locations, UCSF, February 21, 2015, 2015, The University of California, Hastings College of the Law, founded in Civic Center in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution.WEB,weblink Hastings Quick Facts, August 30, 2006, University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy.WEB,weblink UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium, June 2, 2013, University of California, Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco State University is part of the California State University system and is located near Lake Merced.WEB,weblink SF State Facts 2008–2009, March 7, 2009, SFSU, The school has approximately 30,000 students and awards undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in more than 100 disciplines. The City College of San Francisco, with its main facility in the Ingleside district, is one of the largest two-year community colleges in the country. It has an enrollment of about 100,000 students and offers an extensive continuing education program.WEB,weblink City College of San Francisco Fact Sheet, June 16, 2008, April 2008, PDF, City College of San Francisco, Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco, a private Jesuit university located on Lone Mountain, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River.WEB,weblink University of San Francisco Fact Book and Almanac 2007, December 31, 2007, University of San Francisco,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2008, July 25, 2010, Golden Gate University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District.With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the Academy of Art University is the largest institute of art and design in the nation.WEB,weblink Who We Are, February 18, 2009, Academy of Art University, 2008, Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute is the oldest art school west of the Mississippi.BOOK,weblink Let's Go: Roadtripping USA, February 18, 2009, 489, MacMillan, 2007, 9780312361822, The California College of the Arts, located north of Potrero Hill, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing.WEB,weblink Oakland & San Francisco Campuses, May 23, 2012, California College of the Arts, 2012, The San Francisco Conservatory of Music, the only independent music school on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The California Culinary Academy, associated with the Le Cordon Bleu program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management.California Institute of Integral Studies, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation.

Primary and secondary schools

{{see also|List of high schools in California#San Francisco County}}Public schools are run by the San Francisco Unified School District as well as the State Board of Education for some charter schools. Lowell High School, the oldest public high school in the U.S. west of the Mississippi,WEB, The Oldest Public High School West of the Mississippi, About Lowell: Lowell History, San Francisco Unified School District, February 22, 2002,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2002, July 25, 2010, and the smaller School of the Arts High School are two of San Francisco's magnet schools at the secondary level. Public school students attend schools based on an assignment system rather than neighborhood proximity.WEB,weblink S.F. board sticks with school-assignment system, Jill Tucker, June 10, 2015, San Francisco Chronicle, Just under 30% of the city's school-age population attends one of San Francisco's more than 100 private or parochial schools, compared to a 10% rate nationwide.KNIGHT >FIRST = HEATHER, Many reluctantly chose private schoolspage = A-1, Hearst Communications, May 31, 2006,weblink June 16, 2008, Nearly 40 of those schools are Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of San Francisco.WEB, School Directory August 2010, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco, August 2010,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 27, 2010, January 23, 2011,

Early education

San Francisco has nearly 300 preschool programs primarily operated by Head Start, San Francisco Unified School District, private for-profit, private non-profit and family child care providers.WEB, Preschools in San Francisco, Winnie, May 18, 2017,weblink All 4-year-old children living in San Francisco are offered universal access to preschool through the Preschool for All program.WEB
, Preschool for All
, San Francisco Office of Early Care and Education
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{{see also|Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area}}File:San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge at night.jpg|right|thumb|The Bay Bridge offers the only direct automobile connection to the East Bay]]

Freeways and roads

Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts of the late 1950s,GORDON >FIRST = RACHEL, Boulevard of dreams, the premierepage = B-1, Hearst Communications, September 8, 2005,weblink June 16, 2008, Interstate 80 begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. U.S. Route 101 connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley. Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the Golden Gate Bridge, the only direct automobile link to Marin County and the North Bay.File:Golden Gate Bridge 1926.jpg|left|thumb|The Golden Gate BridgeGolden Gate BridgeState Route 1 also enters San Francisco from the north via the Golden Gate Bridge and bisects the city as the 19th Avenue arterial thoroughfare, joining with Interstate 280 at the city's southern border. Interstate 280 continues south from San Francisco, and also turns to the east along the southern edge of the city, terminating just south of the Bay Bridge in the South of Market neighborhood. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, city leaders demolished the Embarcadero Freeway and a portion of the Central Freeway, converting them into street-level boulevards.State Route 35 enters the city from the south as Skyline Boulevard and terminates at its intersection with Highway 1. State Route 82 enters San Francisco from the south as Mission Street, and terminates shortly thereafter at its junction with 280.The Western Terminus of the historic transcontinental Lincoln Highway, the first road across America, is in San Francisco's Lincoln Park.

Public transportation

{{See also|San Francisco Municipal Railway}}File:Cable Car No. 1 and Alcatraz Island.jpg|thumb|right|upright|A cable car ascending Hyde St, with AlcatrazAlcatraz32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation for their daily commute to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States.NEWS,weblink New Yorkers are Top Transit Users, August 20, 2008, Les Christie, June 29, 2007,, The San Francisco Municipal Railway, known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006.WEB,weblink Fiscal Year 2008 Short Range Transit Plan: Chapter 4, San Francisco Metropolitan Transportation Agency, May 6, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2009, The system operates a combined light rail and subway system, the Muni Metro, as well as large bus and trolley coach networks.NEWS, Bay Area Traveler: Transportation Information, San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst Communications Inc, March 2007,weblink June 16, 2008archiveurl= F Market>historic streetcar line, which runs on Market Street from The Castro to Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco>Fisherman's Wharf. It also operates the famous cable cars, which have been designated as a National Historic Landmark and are a major tourist attraction.WEB, Report on San Francisco's Cable Cars, San Francisco Beautiful, May 2007,weblink June 16, 2008, Bay Area Rapid Transit, a regional Rapid Transit system, connects San Francisco with the East Bay through the underwater Transbay Tube. The line runs under Market Street to Civic Center where it turns south to the Mission District, the southern part of the city, and through northern San Mateo County, to the San Francisco International Airport, and Millbrae.Another commuter rail system, Caltrain, runs from San Francisco along the San Francisco Peninsula to San Jose. Historically, trains operated by Southern Pacific Lines ran from San Francisco to Los Angeles, via Palo Alto and San Jose.Amtrak California Thruway Motorcoach runs a shuttle bus from three locations in San Francisco to its station across the bay in Emeryville.WEB
, Emeryville Station (EMY)
, Amtrak
, July 25, 2010, Additionally, BART offers connections to San Francisco from Amtrak's stations in Emeryville, Oakland and Richmond, and Caltrain offers connections in San Jose and Santa Clara. Thruway service also runs south to San Luis Obispo with connection to the Pacific Surfliner.
File:GGT ferry Del Norte.JPG|thumb|left|The Golden Gate Ferry M/V Del Norte docked at the Ferry Building]]San Francisco Bay Ferry operates from the Ferry Building and Pier 39 to points in Oakland, Alameda, Bay Farm Island, South San Francisco, and north to Vallejo in Solano County.WEB, San Francisco Bay Ferry,weblink March 26, 2013, The Golden Gate Ferry is the other ferry operator with service between San Francisco and Marin County.WEB, Golden Gate Ferry,weblink March 26, 2013, SolTrans runs supplemental bus service between the Ferry Building and Vallejo.San Francisco was an early adopter of carsharing in America. The non-profit City CarShare opened in 2001.WEB, City CarShare Out Mission,weblink March 26, 2013, Zipcar closely followed.WEB, Zipcar Our Mission,weblink March 26, 2013, To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the Silicon Valley daily, companies like Google and Apple have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations to the tech start-up hotspot. These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as protesters claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses.NEWS,weblink Google bus blocked in San Francisco protest vs gentrification, December 9, 2016, Reuters, November 9, 2016,


(File:SFOApril2005.JPG|thumbnail|San Francisco International Airport is the primary airport of San Francisco and the Bay Area)Though located {{convert|13|mi|km}} south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for United AirlinesYOUNG >FIRST = ERIC, Pact keeps United from flying awaypublisher=American City Business Journalsurl =weblink June 16, 2008, and Alaska Airlines.WEB,weblink Alaska Air Group closes acquisition of Virgin America, becomes the 5th largest U.S. airline, December 14, 2016, February 24, 2019, SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America.WEB, Fact Sheet: International Terminal, San Francisco International Airport, May 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 7, 2013, June 16, 2008, dead, In 2011, SFO was the eighth-busiest airport in the U.S. and the 22nd-busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers.WEB, Preliminary World Airport Traffic 2011 (Table 2 – TOTAL PASSENGER TRAFFIC 2011), Airports Council International, March 27, 2012,weblink April 22, 2012, Located across the bay, Oakland International Airport is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across San Francisco Bay, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.

Cycling and walking

Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco. 75,000 residents commute by bicycle per day.NEWS, 2011 Bicycle Count Report, SFMTA, City of San Francisco, December 2011,weblink May 17, 2012, Ford GoBike, previously named Bay Area Bike Share at inception, launched in August 2013 with 700 bikes in downtown San Francisco, selected cities in the East Bay, and San Jose. The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency and Bay Area Air Quality Management District are responsible for the operation with management provided by Motivate.WEB, Bialick, Aaron, Ford GoBike Launches, Bringing Bike-Share to New SF Neighborhoods,weblink June 29, 2017, SFMTA: Municipal Transportation Agency, April 30, 2018, A major expansion started in 2017 along with a rebranding as Ford GoBike.WEB, Grab an ebike and go,weblink Ford GoBike, April 30, 2018, Pedestrian traffic is a major mode of transport. In 2015, Walk Score ranked San Francisco the second-most walkable city in the United States.NEWS,weblink S.F., Oakland in top 10 most walkable U.S. cities, San Francisco Chronicle, July 20, 2011, Carolyn, Said, July 20, 2011, WEB,weblink The 10 most walkable U.S. cities, MarketWatch, 2011, July 20, 2011, WEB, Walk Score Ranks The Most Walkable Cities of 2015 – @Redfin,weblink September 25, 2015, April 7, 2015, San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001,NEWS, Sabatini, Joshua, Lee unveils push for pedestrian safety,weblink January 19, 2014, SF Examiner, January 16, 2014, which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5 deaths per 100,000 population.WEB, Traffic Safety Facts, 2012 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview,weblink National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, January 19, 2014, Cycling is growing in San Francisco. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA) in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts.WEB,weblink City of San Francisco 2010 Bicycle Count Report, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2010, p. 3, In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips.WEB
, 2008 San Francisco State of Cycling Report
, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency
, 2008
, 9
, October 1, 2014,
Since 2002, improvements in cycling infrastructure in recent years, including additional bike lanes and parking racks, have made cycling in San Francisco safer and more convenient.REPORT
, 2012 San Francisco State of Cycling Report
, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency
, 2012
, 2
, October 24, 2015,
Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists.JOURNAL
, Bicycle Friendly America 2010
, 2010
, 17
, American Bicyclist
, October 24, 2015,

See also

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  • BOOK, De La Perouse, Jean Francois, Yamane, Linda Gonsalves, Margolin, Malcolm, Life in a California Mission: Monterey in 1786: The Journals of Jean Francois De La Perouse, 1989, Heyday Books, 978-0-930588-39-7, 20368802,weblink
  • BOOK, Hansen, Gladys, Gladys Hansen, San Francisco Almanac: Everything you want to know about the city, Chronicle Books, 1995, 978-0-8118-0841-5, 30702907,weblink
  • JOURNAL, London, Jack, The Story of an Eyewitness by Jack London, Collier's, the National Weekly, May 5, 1906,
  • BOOK, Richards, Rand, Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide, Heritage House, 1991, 978-1-879367-00-5, 214330849,weblink
  • BOOK, Ungaretti, Lorri, San Francisco's Richmond District, Arcadia Publishing, 2005, 978-0-7385-3053-6, 62249656,
  • BOOK, Wiley, Peter Booth, National trust guide San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2000, 978-0-471-19120-9, 44313415,

Further reading

  • BOOK, 1989, Dorset Press, The Barbary Coast: An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld, Asbury, Hubert, 978-0-88029-428-7, 22719465,
  • BOOK, Bronson, William, The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned, Chronicle Books, 2006, 978-0-8118-5047-6, 65223734,
  • BOOK, 1987, Square Books, Spanning the Gate, Cassady, Stephen, 978-0-916290-36-8, 15229396,
  • BOOK, 1998, Celestial Arts (Reissue edition), High Steel: Building the Bridges Across San Francisco Bay, Dillon, Richard H., 978-0-88029-428-7, 22719465,
  • BOOK, Literary San Francisco: A pictorial history from its beginnings to the present day, Ferlinghetti, Lawrence, 978-0-06-250325-1, 1980, Harper & Row, 6683688,weblink
  • BOOK, 2002, University of California Press, City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco, Hartman, Chester, 978-0-520-08605-0, 48579085,
  • BOOK, 1997, University of Illinois Press, San Francisco, 1846–1856: From Hamlet to City, Lotchin, Roger W., 978-0-252-06631-3, 35650934,
  • BOOK, 1981, Heydey Books, The Ohlone Way: Indian Life in the San Francisco-Monterey Bay Area, Margolin, Malcolm, 978-0-930588-01-4, 4628382,weblink
  • BOOK, 1978, Harper Collins, Tales of the City, Maupin, Armistead, 978-0-06-096404-7, 29847673,weblink
  • Solnit, Rebecca. Infinite City: A San Francisco Atlas (University of California Press, 2010). 144 pp. {{ISBN|978-0-520-26250-8}}; online review
  • BOOK, 1971, Stein and Day, The San Francisco Earthquake, Thomas, Gordon, Witts, Max Morgan, yes, 978-0-8128-1360-9, 154735,weblink
  • Winfield, P.H., The Charter of San Francisco (The fortnightly review Vol. 157–58:2 (1945), p. 69–75)
  • San Francisco (article) (1870) The Overland Monthly, January 1870 Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 9–23. San Francisco: A. Roman & Co., Publishers
  • Bay Watched – How San Francisco's New Entrepreneurial Culture is Changing the Country (article) (October 2013), Nathan Heller, The New Yorker

External links

{{Geographic location|Center = San FranciscoSausalito, California>SausalitoMarin CountyRichmond, California>RichmondContra Costa County, CaliforniaBerkeley, California>BerkeleyAlameda CountyAlameda, California>Alameda, Oakland, CaliforniaAlameda County, California>Alameda CountySan Leandro, California>San LeandroAlameda CountyBrisbane, California>Brisbane, Daly City, CaliforniaSan Mateo County, California>San Mateo County|Southwest =|West = Pacific Ocean|Northwest = Marin Headlands}}{{San Francisco}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles relating to the City and County of San Francisco|list ={{San Francisco attractions}}{{Streets in San Francisco}}{{Neighborhoods of San Francisco}}{{San Francisco Peninsula}}{{SF Bay Area}}{{California cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{California county seats}}{{California}}{{USLargestMetros}}{{Western U.S. majority-minority counties}}{{Caltrain}}}}{{Subject bar|portal1= San Francisco Bay Area|portal2= California |portal3= United States|commons=yes|wikt=yes|n=yes|n-search=Category:San Francisco|q=yes|s=yes|b=yes|voy=yes|v=yes|d=yes|d-search=Q62}}{{Featured article}}{{Authority control}}

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