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George H. W. Bush
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{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{about|the 41st president of the United States|his son, the 43rd president|George W. Bush|other people|George Bush (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Short description|41st president of the United States}}













factoids
image George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped).jpg| order = 41st| office = President of the United States| vicepresident = Dan Quayle| term_start = January 20, 1989| term_end = January 20, 1993| predecessor = Ronald Reagan| successor = Bill Clinton| order1 = 43rd| office1 = Vice President of the United States| term_start1 = January 20, 1981| term_end1 = January 20, 1989| president1 = Ronald Reagan| predecessor1 = Walter Mondale| successor1 = Dan Quayle| order2 = 11th| office2 = Director of Central Intelligence| president2 = Gerald Ford| deputy2 = {{unbulleted list
| term_start2 = January 30, 1976| term_end2 = January 20, 1977| predecessor2 = William Colby| successor2 = Stansfield Turner| order3 = 2nd| office3 = List of ambassadors of the United States to China#List of Chiefs of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing{{!}}Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China| president3 = Gerald Ford| term_start3 = September 26, 1974| term_end3 = December 7, 1975| predecessor3 = David K. E. Bruce| successor3 = Thomas S. Gates Jr.| office4 = Chair of the Republican National Committee| term_start4 = January 19, 1973| term_end4 = September 16, 1974| predecessor4 = Bob Dole! Year !! School and location !! Degree
Mary Louise Smith (Republican Party leader)>Mary Smith| order5 = 10th| office5 = United States Ambassador to the United Nations| president5 = Richard Nixon| term_start5 = March 1, 1971| term_end5 = January 18, 1973| predecessor5 = Charles Yost| successor5 = John A. Scali| state6 = TexasTX7th}}| term_start6 = January 3, 1967| term_end6 = January 3, 1971| predecessor6 = John Dowdy| successor6 = Bill Archer| birth_name = George Herbert Walker Bush192412}}| birth_place = Milton, Massachusetts, U.S.2018306|12}}| death_place = Houston, Texas, U.S.| restingplace = George Bush Presidential LibraryRepublican Party (United States)>RepublicanBarbara Bush>1945end=died}}George W. Bush>Pauline Robinson Bush>Jeb Bush>Neil Bush>Marvin Bush>Dorothy}}| relatives = Bush family| parents = Prescott Bush (father)Yale University (Bachelor of Arts>BA)| signature = George HW Bush Signature.svg| signature_alt = Cursive signature in inkbushlibrary.tamu.edu|Presidential Library}}|nickname = "Skin"United States}}United States Navy}}| serviceyears = 1942–1945USNO3Lieutenant (junior grade)>Lieutenant| unit = Fast Carrier Task Force| battles = World War II }}{{George H. W. Bush series}}George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924{{spaced ndash}}November 30, 2018) was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, ambassador, and CIA director. Until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was usually known simply as George Bush.Bush postponed his university studies after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, enlisted in the Navy on his 18th birthday, and became one of its youngest aviators. He served until September 1945, and then attended Yale University, graduating in 1948. He moved his family to West Texas where he entered the oil business and became a millionaire by the age of 40 in 1964. After founding his own oil company, Bush was defeated in his first run for the United States Senate in 1964, but won election to the House of Representatives from {{ushr|TX|7}} in 1966. He was reelected in 1968 but was defeated for election to the Senate in 1970. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Bush as Ambassador to the United Nations, and he became Chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The following year, President Gerald Ford appointed him Chief of the Liaison Office in China and later made him the director of Central Intelligence. Bush ran for president in 1980, was defeated in the Republican primary by Ronald Reagan, and then as Reagan's running mate Bush became vice-president after the ticket's election. During his eight-year tenure as vice president, Bush headed task forces on deregulation and the war on drugs.Bush in 1988 defeated Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis, becoming the first incumbent vice president to be elected president in 152 years. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency; military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf, the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Bush also signed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which created a trade bloc consisting of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Domestically, Bush reneged on (Read my lips: no new taxes|a 1988 campaign promise) and signed a bill to increase taxes. He lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton following an economic recession and the decreased importance of foreign policy in a post–Cold War political climate.After leaving office in 1993, Bush was active in humanitarian activities, often alongside Clinton, his former opponent. With George W. Bush's victory in the 2000 presidential election, Bush and his son became the second father–son pair to serve as President, following John Adams and John Quincy Adams. At the time of his death, he was the longest-lived president in U.S. history, a record surpassed by Jimmy Carter on March 22, 2019.{{TOC limit|3}}

Early life and education

{{See also|Bush family}}(File:George H W Bush at Age One and One-Half, ca 1925.gif|thumb|left|upright|George H. W. Bush, c. 1925)George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, MassachusettsWEB,weblink Presidential Avenue: George Bush, March 29, 2008, Presidential Avenue,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071008144507weblink">weblink October 8, 2007, yes, on June 12, 1924 to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy (Walker) Bush. The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, Connecticut shortly after his birth. Bush was named after his maternal grandfather George Herbert Walker, who was known as "Pop", and young Bush was called "Poppy" as a tribute to his namesake.WEB, Eun Kyung Kim,weblink Jenna Bush Hager welcomes second daughter â€” named after George H.W. Bush, Today (U.S. TV program), Today, August 14, 2015, The new bundle of joy is named after Jenna's grandfather and former President George H.W. Bush, whose nickname growing up was "Poppy.", Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School, then attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts beginning in 1938, where he held a number of leadership positions which included president of the senior class, secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of the varsity baseball and soccer teams.WEB,weblink Former President George Bush honored at his 60th reunion at Phillips Academy, Andover, June 8, 2002, March 29, 2008, Phillips Academy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080401131455weblink">weblink April 1, 2008, yes,

World War II

(File:George Bush being rescued by the submarine, the U.S.S. Finback, after being shot down while on a bombing run of the... - NARA - 186382.tif|thumb|upright|Crewmen of the submarine USS Finback rescue Bush)Six months after the United States entered World War II following Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Bush enlisted in the U.S. NavyWEB,weblink George Herbert Walker Bush, December 1, 2018, December 2, 2018, Navy History and Heritage Command, immediately after he graduated from Phillips Academy on his 18th birthday.WEB, George H. W. Bush Biography and Interview, www.achievement.org, American Academy of Achievement,weblink He became a naval aviator, taking training for aircraft carrier operations aboard USS Sable.WEB, The Greater Buffalo & The U.S.S. Sable, WNY Heritage Press, 2005,weblink July 25, 2017, After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the Naval Reserve at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him one of the youngest aviators in the Navy.{{refn|group=nb|For decades, Bush was considered the youngest naval aviator at the time.NEWS, Boyd, Gerald M., A Victor Free to Set His Own Course,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 1988, However, a claim to be the youngest must be proven by examining the records of all other naval aviators. Such claims are now regarded as speculation, and supporters say only that it is "likely" to be true.NEWS, Siegel, Rachel, For George H.W. Bush, Pearl Harbor changed everything, and World War II made him a hero,weblink The Washington Post, December 1, 2018, en, His official Navy biography called him "the youngest" in 2001,WEB,weblink Lieutenant Junior Grade George Bush, USNR, April 6, 2001, Naval Historical Center, yes,weblink April 10, 2010, but it has been edited by 2018 to say "one of the youngest".}}In September 1943, he was assigned to Torpedo Squadron 51 (VT-51) as the photographic officer. The following year, his squadron was based in {{USS|San Jacinto|CVL-30|6}} as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname "Skin".NEWS,weblink San Jacinto veterans reunite, recall the one they called 'Skin', Adams, Kathy, January 10, 2009, The Virginian-Pilot, Landmark Communications, January 10, 2009, During this time, the task force was victorious at the Battle of the Philippine Sea, one of the largest air battles of World War II.(File:George H.W. Bush seated in a Grumman TBM Avenger, circa 1944 (H069-13).jpg|thumb|right|upright|Bush in his Grumman TBM Avenger aboard USS San Jacinto in 1944)Bush was promoted to lieutenant (junior grade) on August 1, 1944, and San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. He piloted one of the four Grumman TBM Avengers of VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima"Story of George H. W. Bush World War II Experience". CNN. December 20, 2003. on September 2, 1944. His crew included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lt.(jg) William White. His aircraft was hit by flak during the attack, but Bush successfully released bombs and scored several hits. With his engine ablaze, he flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member bailed out; the other man's parachute did not open. Bush spent four hours in his inflated liferaft, protected by fighter aircraft circling above, until the submarine {{USS|Finback|SS-230|6}} came to his rescue. He remained in Finback for the next month and participated in the rescue of other aviators. Several of those shot down during the attack were executed, and their livers were eaten by their captors.BOOK, Bradley, James, James Bradley (author), Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, 2003, Little, Brown and Company, 978-0-316-10584-2, Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, This experience shaped Bush profoundly, leading him to ask, "Why had I been spared and what did God have for me?"WEB,weblink The Faith of George HW Bush, www.christianpost.com, In November 1944, Bush returned to San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. By 1944 he had flown 58 combat missionsWEB,weblink History's Youngest Naval Aviator: George H. W. Bush, Mid-Atlantic Air Museum, March 29, 2008, for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to San Jacinto. He was then reassigned to a training wing for torpedo bomber crews at Norfolk Navy Base, Virginia. His final assignment was to the new torpedo squadron VT-153 based at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, Michigan. He was honorably discharged from the Navy in September 1945, one month after the surrender of Japan.WEB, George H. W. Bush: Life Before the Presidency, Knott, Stephen,weblink Miller Center, the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, April 24, 2018, October 4, 2016,

Marriage and college years

(File:Entire Bush family.jpg|thumb|left|Bush, top right, surrounded by his family, mid 1960s)When Bush was still in the Navy, he married Barbara Pierce (1925–2018) in Rye, New York, on January 6, 1945.WEB, Markovich, Jeremy,weblink George H.W. Bush and Barbara Pierce are wed: Jan. 6, 1945, Politico, January 6, 2017, November 17, 2017, The marriage produced six children: George W. (b. 1946), Robin (1949–1953), Jeb (b. 1953), Neil (b. 1955), Marvin (b. 1956), and Doro (b. 1959). At the time of his wife's death on April 17, 2018, George H. W. had been married to Barbara for 73 years; theirs was the longest presidential marriage in American history.NEWS, Siegel, Rachel, April 22, 2018, 'You were the reason': Barbara and George Bush's love story remembered at her funeral,weblink The Washington Post, November 30, 2018, They had become the longest-married presidential couple in 2000 when their marriage surpassed the 54-year (1764–1818) marriage of John and Abigail Adams.NEWS, Camia, Catalina, January 6, 2015, George and Barbara Bush celebrate 70th anniversary,weblink USA Today, November 30, 2018, After Bush received his military discharge, he enrolled at Yale University. He earned an undergraduate degree in economics on an accelerated program that enabled him to graduate in two and a half years, rather than the usual four. He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected its president.NEWS,weblink Love Flows, President to President, The New York Times, November 11, 2014, Michiko, Kakutani, November 14, 2014, He also captained the Yale baseball team and played in the first two College World Series as a left-handed first baseman.WEB, School House to White House: The Education of the Presidents,weblink Spring 2007, National Archives, Washington, D.C., March 29, 2008, Bush was the team captain during his senior year in 1948, and he met Babe Ruth before a game; the event took place only weeks before Ruth's death. Like his father, he was also a member of the Yale cheerleading squad.NEWS,weblink Cheerleading of the '20s: Epitome of masculinity, Yale Daily News, Simone, Berkower, July 30, 2016, Late in his junior year, he was initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society; his father Prescott Bush had been initiated into the same society in 1917. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa when he graduated from Yale in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics.NEWS,weblink George Herbert Walker Bush, CNN, March 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080308132103weblink">weblink March 8, 2008, yes,

Business career

After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. His father's business connections proved useful as he ventured into the oil business, starting as an oil field equipment salesmanNEWS,weblink Two Future Presidents Slept Here â€” latimes, Articles.latimes.com, October 11, 2005, May 17, 2017, Los Angeles Times, Chawkins, Steve, for Dresser Industries, a subsidiary of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., where Prescott Bush had served on the board of directors for 22 years.WEB,weblink Bush, George Herbert Walker, March 29, 2008, Scholastic Library Publishing, Inc,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080615195838weblink">weblink June 15, 2008, yes, While working for Dresser, Bush lived in various places with his family: Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas.WEB,weblink George Bush Collection, George Bush Presidential Library and Museum, July 30, 2016, According to eldest son George W. Bush, then age two, the family lived in one of the few duplexes in Odessa with an indoor bathroom, which they "shared with a couple of hookers".George W. Bush interview with Bob Schieffer on Face the Nation (aired November 9, 2014) Bush started the Bush-Overbey Oil Development company in 1951 and in 1953 co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company that drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas.WEB,weblink George Herbert Walker Bush, Net Industries, March 29, 2008, In 1954, he was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling.NEWS, Perin, Monica, April 25, 1999, Adios, Zapata!,weblink American City Business Journals, Houston Business Journal, November 30, 2018, Shortly after the subsidiary became independent in 1959, Bush moved the company and his family from Midland to Houston.Bush, George W. 41: A Portrait of My Father. Crown Publishers, 2014, p. 64.Beginning in 1960 or 1961, Bush was a clandestine employee or agent of the United States Central Intelligence Agency using as cover his work in the petroleum production business. In that role, he appears to have been associated with CIA-affiliated anti-Castro Cubans who had been involved in the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion.The Nation, December 4, 2018, "George H.W. Bush, Icon of the WASP Establishment—and of Brutal US Repression in the Third World"The Nation, July 1988 "The Man Who Wasn't There: 'George Bush' CIA Operative"A detailed discussion of Bush's family and"Skull and Bones" secret college fraternity involvement with the CIA is provided in Kevin Phillips, "American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush" (New York: Penguin Books, 2004) When confronted with a 1963 Federal Bureau of Investigation memorandum evidencing his being a CIA operative, Bush issued a non-denial denial.NEWS,weblink The Man Who Wasn't There: 'GEORGE BUSH,' C.I.A. OPERATIVE, The Nation, July 1988, www.cia.gov,
Bush continued serving as president of the company until 1964, and later chairman until 1966, when he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives. By that time, Bush had become a millionaire.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink George Herbert Walker Bush, March 29, 2008, MSN Encarta, November 1, 2009,weblink yes,

Early political career

Congressional years (1967–1971)

(File:George H. W. Bush 91st Congress.jpg|thumb|upright|Bush in 1969)Bush's career in politics began on February 20, 1963 when he was elected chairman of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party.WEB,weblink Early Political Years, The following year, he ran against incumbent Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough in the U.S. Senate race. He was a young Conservative Republican in contrast to the aging liberal Democrat Yarborough, and campaigned against pending civil rights legislation, believing it gave too much power to the federal government.BOOK, Naftali, Timothy, 2007, George H. W. Bush, The American Presidents Series, Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M., Wilentz, Sean,weblink 978-0-8050-6966-2, Times Books, Henry Holt and Company, New York City, April 20, 2018, Bush lost the election 56% to 44%,BOOK, Meacham, Jon, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush,weblink 2015, Random House, 117–122, 978-0-8129-9820-7, though he did outpoll Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater, who lost by an overwhelming margin to Lyndon B. Johnson.Bush and the Harris County Republicans played a role in the development of the new Republican Party of the late 20th century. Bush worked to absorb the John Birch Society members, who were trying to take over the Party. Also, as a result of the civil rights movement, Democrats in the South who were committed to segregation left their party, and though these "country club Republicans" had differing ideological beliefs, they found common ground in hoping to expel the Democrats from power.WEB,weblink Program Transcript. George H. W. Bush. WGBH, American Experience, PBS, August 13, 2012, File:George Herbert Walker Bush and Eisenhower 1.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Former President Dwight D. EisenhowerDwight D. EisenhowerIn 1966, Bush was elected to a seat in the United States House of Representatives from the 7th District of Texas; he won 57 percent of the ballots cast in a race against Democrat Frank Briscoe, the district attorney of Harris County.WEB,weblink TX District 07, Our Campaigns, March 19, 2008, WEB,weblink Ex-DA Frank Briscoe, legal heavyweight for decades, dies at 84, January 5, 2011, Houston Chronicle, March 9, 2014, January 5, 2011, Bush was the first House Republican to represent his Houston district, including his residence in the Tanglewood;Hickey, Elisabeth. "Bushes' lot: No room for real estate". The Washington Times. Thursday November 19, 1992. Part E Life E1. Accessed on LexisNexis.NEWS, Feldman, Claudia,weblink Moving back to the 'hood .../CITIZEN BUSH, Houston Chronicle, December 13, 1992, Lifestyle p. 1, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20121208154849weblink">weblink December 8, 2012, His voting record in the House was generally conservative: Bush voted for the Civil Rights Act of 1968, although it was generally unpopular in his district. He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control, which he supported. Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful United States House Committee on Ways and Means, where he voted to abolish the military draft. He was elected to a second term in 1968.WEB,weblink TX District 7, Our Campaigns, March 19, 2008, In 1970, Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat in order to run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, who was a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert J. Morris by a margin of 87.6% to 12.4%.WEB,weblink TX US Senate – R Primary, Our Campaigns, March 19, 2008, Nixon went to Longview, Texas, to campaign for Bush and gubernatorial candidate Paul Eggers, a Dallas lawyer who was a close friend of U.S. Senator John G. Tower.WEB,weblink "Richard Nixon: Remarks at Longview, Texas", October 28, 1970, presidency.ucsb.edu, November 29, 2009, Former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission in south Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary. Yarborough endorsed Bentsen, who went on to defeat Bush, 53.4 to 46.6%.WEB,weblink TX US Senate, Our Campaigns, March 19, 2008,

Ambassador to the United Nations (1971–1973)

(File:George Bush as United Nations Representative, 1971-72 - NARA - 186386.tif|thumb|Bush as ambassador to the United Nations, 1971)Following his 1970 loss, Bush was well known as a prominent Republican businessman from the southern Sun Belt. Nixon appreciated the sacrifice Bush had made of his Congressional position and nominated him United States Ambassador to the United Nations. He was confirmed unanimously by the Senate in 1971 and served for two years.His ambassadorship was marked by a defeat on the China question. On October 25, 1971, the General Assembly voted to expel the Republic of China and replace it with the People's Republic of China.NEWS, Austin, Anthony, Crushing Defeat for the U.S., or A Blessing In Disguise?,weblink The New York Times, October 31, 1971, Many delegates hissed at Bush when he got up to speak, and then cheered and danced after defeating his motion to require a two-thirds supermajority. The resolution then won a two-thirds supermajority anyway, as the United States lost the support of every NATO country. Although Bush condemned the "gladiatorial ugliness" of the debate, he advocated friendly relations with the Chinese delegation.NEWS, Szulc, Tad, Correct but Relaxed Dealings With Chinese Urged by Bush,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 1971, Two months later, Bush even placed himself in the position of depending on a Chinese veto in the 1971 Secretary-General selection. However he did not tell the Chinese, who unexpectedly abstained and allowed Kurt Waldheim to be selected as the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.ENCYCLOPEDIA, United Nations, 1969–1972, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969–1976, Volume V, Duncan, Evan M., 2004, Washington, United States Government Printing Office, Telegram From the Mission to the United Nations to the Department of State, December 22, 1971, 0356Z,weblink

Chairman of the Republican National Committee (1973–1974)

After Bob Dole resigned as chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1972, Nixon named Bush to the position.NEWS, Charlton, Linda, Dole Quits as G.O.P. Head; Bush Named as Successor,weblink The New York Times, December 12, 1972, Bush took over in January 1973 and held this position as the Watergate scandal grew more damaging to Nixon.WEB,weblink The President (Richard Nixon), Richard Nixon Presidential Library, March 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080327035848weblink">weblink March 27, 2008, yes, He initially defended Nixon steadfastly, but as Nixon's complicity became clear he focused more on defending the Republican Party. As chairman, Bush formally requested that Nixon eventually resign for the good of the party. When Nixon did this on August 9, 1974, Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died... The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon—a kick or two at the press—enormous strains. One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame... [President Gerald Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift."NEWS,weblink George HW on Nixon resignation, July 16, 2006, March 29, 2008, US News and World Report, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080624230333weblink">weblink June 24, 2008,

Head of U.S. Liaison Office in China (1974–1975)

(File:George Bush as United States Liaison to China, 1974-1975 - NARA - 186378.tif|thumb|upright=0.7|left|Bush as U.S. Liaison to China, circa 1975)President Gerald Ford appointed Bush to be Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China. Since the United States maintained diplomatic relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan) instead of the People's Republic of China, Bush did not hold the diplomatic rank of ambassador. However, Bush performed as an ambassador, ignoring instructions from Henry Kissinger to stay away from diplomatic functions.BOOK, Bush, George H. W., Engel, Jeffrey A., The China Diary of George H.W. Bush: The Making of a Global President, 2011, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-2961-3, 36, The 14 months that he spent in China were seen as beneficial for China–United States relations.After Ford assumed the presidency, Bush was under serious consideration for being nominated as vice president. Ford eventually narrowed his list to Nelson Rockefeller and Bush. White House Chief of Staff Donald Rumsfeld reportedly preferred Rockefeller over Bush. Rockefeller was finally named and confirmed.WEB,weblink PDF, Vice Presidents of the United States: George H. W. Bush (1981–1989), U.S. Government Printing Office, Hatfield, Mark (with the Senate Historical Office), Washington, D.C., 1997, November 4, 2015, Ford again passed over Bush when he chose Bob Dole to replace Rockefeller on the 1976 presidential ticket.NEWS, Dowd, Maureen, November 28, 1988, Will Bush and Dole End Their Grand Old Rivalry?, A1,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018,

Director of Central Intelligence (1976–1977)

File:CIA Director George H.W. Bush listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut, 1976 - NARA - 7064954.jpg|thumb|Bush, as CIA Director, listens at a meeting following the assassinations in Beirut of Francis E. Meloy Jr. and Robert O. WaringRobert O. WaringIn 1976 Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), replacing William Colby.AV MEDIA, Carl Colby (director), September 2011, The Man Nobody Knew: In Search of My Father, CIA Spymaster William Colby,weblink Motion picture, Act 4 Entertainment, New York City, October 10, 2011, September 15, 2011, He served in this role for 357 days, from January 30, 1976, to January 20, 1977.WEB,weblink The George Bush Center for Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, April 5, 2007, September 5, 2011, The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had been rocked by a series of revelations, including those based on investigations by the Church Committee regarding illegal and unauthorized activities by the CIA, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency's morale.WEB,weblink Presidents: George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States, U-S-History.com, March 29, 2008, In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as president-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration,WEB,weblink CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates; Chapter 5: In-Depth Discussions With Carter, Central Intelligence Agency: Center for the Study of Intelligence, October 11, 2007, but did not do so. He was succeeded by Deputy Director of Central Intelligence E. Henry Knoche, who served as acting Director of Central Intelligence until Stansfield Turner was confirmed.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, T. Rees, Shapiro, E. Henry Knoche, 85; a key player in the intelligence game, August 29, 2010, During Bush's year in charge of the CIA, the U.S. national security apparatus actively supported Operation Condor operations and right-wing military dictatorships in Latin America.NEWS, Where Gerald Ford Went Wrong,weblink The Baltimore Chronicle, 2007, NEWS, FIFA's Dirty Wars,weblink The New Republic, December 15, 2017, NEWS, Quand Pinochet tuait hors du Chili,weblink L'Express, October 30, 1999, In 1999, the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia, was named George Bush Center for Intelligence in his honor.WEB,weblink Former President Bush honored at emotional ceremony renaming CIA headquarters, Paul, Courson, April 26, 1999, CNN,

Other positions (1977–1981)

After Democrat Jimmy Carter took power in 1977, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston.WEB,weblink July 30, 2016, Presidential Timeline of the Twentieth Century, George H. W. Bush,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080503064357weblink">weblink May 3, 2008, He later spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University's Jones School of Business beginning in 1978, the year it opened; Bush said of his time there, "I loved my brief time in the world of academia."WEB,weblink President George H. W. Bush: Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, May 21, 2004, March 29, 2008, Ukrainian Embassy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080519115716weblink">weblink May 19, 2008, yes, Between 1977 and 1979, he was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy organization.WEB,weblink The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 – Historical Roster of Directors and Officers,

1980 presidential campaign

{{See also|1980 United States presidential election}}(File:Bush80.gif|thumb|right|1980 campaign logo)Bush decided in the late 1970s that he was going to run for president in 1980; in 1979, he attended 850 political events ("cattle calls") and traveled more than {{convert|250000|mi|km}} to campaign for the nation's highest office. In the contest for the Republican Party nomination, Bush stressed his wide range of government experience, while competing against rivals Senator Howard Baker of Tennessee, Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, Congressman John Anderson of Illinois (who would later run as an independent), Congressman Phil Crane, also of Illinois, former Governor John Connally of Texas, former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen, and the front-runner Ronald Reagan, a noted former actor and the former Governor of California.(File:Reagan-Bush Nashua 1980 debate.jpg|thumb|left|Ronald Reagan, moderator John Breen, and Bush participate in the Nashua, New Hampshire Presidential Debate, 1980)At the outset of the 1980 primary race, Bush focused heavily on winning the January 21 Iowa caucuses, including 31 visits to the state; five months earlier he had won the Iowa Straw Poll.NEWS, Noble, Jason, November 30, 2018, George H.W. Bush in Iowa: The family campaign,weblink The Des Moines Register, December 1, 2018, Reagan, however, far ahead in the polls, campaigned little. Bush represented the centrist wing in the GOP, whereas Reagan represented conservatives. Bush famously labeled Reagan's supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cuts "voodoo economics".NEWS, Neikirk, William R., March 13, 1988, Bush conjures up voodoo economics,weblink Chicago Tribune, December 1, 2018, His strategy proved useful, to some degree, as he won in Iowa with 31.5% to Reagan's 29.4%. After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or "the Big Mo".NEWS, Quinn, Ken, January 18, 2004, Caucus-goers gave Bush 'Big Mo', A15, Des Moines Register,weblink Newspapers.com, December 1, 2018, {{free access}}As a result of the loss, Reagan replaced his campaign manager, reorganized his staff, and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. The two men agreed to a debate in the state, organized by The Nashua Telegraph, but paid for by the Reagan campaign. Reagan invited the other four candidates as well, but Bush refused to debate them, and eventually they left. The debate proved to be a pivotal moment in the campaign; when the moderator, John Breen, ordered Reagan's microphone turned off, his angry response, "I am paying for this microphone," struck a chord with the public. Bush ended up losing New Hampshire's primary with 23% to Reagan's 50%. Bush lost most of the remaining primaries as well, and formally dropped out of the race in May of that year.With his political future in doubt, Bush sold his house in Houston and bought his grandfather's estate in Kennebunkport, Maine, known as "Walker's Point".NEWS,weblink The New York Times, April 2, 2008, July 8, 2002, Bumiller, Elisabeth, White House Letter; At Parents' Home, Bush Resumes Role of Son, At the Republican Convention, Reagan made the last-minute decision to select Bush as his vice presidential nominee, placing him on the winning Republican presidential ticket of 1980.NEWS, Allen, Richard V., July 30, 2000, George Herbert Walker Bush; The Accidental Vice President,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, NEWS, Cannon, Lou, Broder, David S., July 17, 1980, Reagan Nominated, Picks Bush,weblink The Washington Post, December 1, 2018,

Vice presidency

{{See also|Presidency of Ronald Reagan}}

First term (1981–1985)

As vice president, Bush generally maintained a low profile, recognizing the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way. As had become customary, he and his wife moved into the Vice President's residence at Number One Observatory Circle, about two miles from the White House. After selling their house in Tanglewood, the Bushes declared a room in The Houstonian Hotel in Houston as their official voting address. The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, "George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan." As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.(File:Vice President George H. W. Bush portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Vice President Bush, official portrait (1981))On March 30, 1981 (early into the administration), Reagan was shot and seriously wounded by John Hinckley Jr. in Washington, D.C. Bush was in Fort Worth, Texas, and immediately flew back to Washington D.C. because he was next in line to the presidency. Reagan's cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the "nuclear football". When Bush's plane landed, he was advised by his aides to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack. Bush rejected the idea, responding, "Only the president lands on the South Lawn." This made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.NEWS, Bumiller, Elisabeth, June 9, 2004, The 40th President: Between 2 First Families, A Complicated Rapport,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, File:Photograph of the Official Portrait of President Reagan and Vice-President Bush - NARA - 198518.jpg|thumb|President Ronald ReaganRonald ReaganIn November 1982, Bush toured Africa, the first instance of a high United States government official visiting the continent since the Reagan administration began. Bush told reporters that while he would allow for heads of state to dictate how each meeting would transpire, there was an expectation on his part for discussions on the independence of Namibia, adding that the United States was going to retain the position of no settlement in Namibia until Cuban troops in Angola were withdrawn.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush, acting as the president's personal..., Jim, Anderson, November 10, 1982, UPI, On November 15, Bush met with United States Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Yuri Andropov in Moscow, Russia, to discuss human rights and arms reductions. Bush later said, "The meeting was frank, cordial and substantive. It gave both sides the opportunity to exchange views on the state of their relations."NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush and Secretary of State George..., Steven R., Reed, November 15, 1982, UPI, At the end of January 1983, Bush began a seven-day tour of Western Europe intended to promote the arms reduction commitment being advocated for by the Reagan administration.NEWS,weblink Bush Starts 7-Nation Trip In Bonn; Aim Is To Reassure Allies On Arms, January 31, 1983, James M., Markham, The New York Times, During a February 8 news conference in Paris, Bush said the United States' invitations for the Soviet Union to consent to a reduction in medium-range missiles were supported by Western Europe, which he stated had also consented to the deployment of new American missiles starting in the latter part of the year.NEWS,weblink Bush, In Paris, Says Allies' Commitment On Missiles Remains Firm, John, Vinocur, The New York Times, The following day, Bush defended American nuclear arms policy when answering British Secretary General of the Committee on Nuclear Disarmament Bruce Kent.NEWS,weblink Bush, In London, Challenged By Nuclear Foe, John, Vinocur, The New York Times, File:C17903-4.jpg|thumb|left|Reagan and Bush in a meeting to discuss the United States' invasion of Grenada with a group of bipartisan members of Congress in October 1983]]In September 1983, Bush met with President of Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu, insisting during the meeting that President Reagan intended to push for arms reductions at the Geneva talks with the Soviet Union.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush met Sunday with President Nicholae..., Cathy, Booth, September 18, 1983, UPI, Shortly thereafter, Bush said the United States wanted better relations with all countries within the Eastern Bloc, though he stressed that NATO would retaliate in the event of any threatening of European military stability by the Soviets,NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush Monday praised Communist Hungary's human..., Ruth E., Gruber, UPI, and he assailed the Soviet Union for the Berlin Wall and destroying the Korean Air Lines jetliner.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush today accused the Soviet Union..., Ruth E., Gruber, September 21, 1983, UPI, In December 1983 Bush flew to El Salvador and warned that country's military leaders to end their death squads and hold fully free elections or face the loss of U.S. aid. "It is not just the President, it is not just me or the Congress. If these death-squad murders continue, you will lose the support of the American people and that would indeed be a tragedy."NEWS,weblink In Salvador, Bush Assails Death Squads, Lydia, Chavez, December 12, 1983, The New York Times, Bush's aides feared for his safety and thought about calling the meeting off when they discovered apparent blood stains on the floor of the presidential palace of Álvaro Magaña. Bush was never told of the aides' concerns and a tense meeting was held in which some of Magaña's personnel brandished semiautomatic weapons and refused requests to take them outside.WEB, Solomon, John,weblink A Wimp He Wasn't, Newsweek, March 20, 2011, May 22, 2011, On June 14, 1984, Bush cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate in favor of the 10-warhead MX missile system.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush cast a dramatic, tie-breaking vote..., Eliot, Brenner, June 14, 1984, UPI, Bush was assigned by Reagan to chair two special task forces, on deregulation and international drug smuggling. The deregulation task force reviewed hundreds of rules, making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. The drug smuggling task force coordinated federal efforts to reduce the quantity of drugs entering the United States. Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work.According to journalist Seymour Hersh, Bush set up a covert military team which bypassed the CIA and congressional oversight. The team was led by Vice-Admiral Arthur S. Moreau Jr. and carried out operations against terrorists, drug traffickers and Soviet spies.WEB,weblink The Vice President’s Men, Hersh, Seymour M., January 24, 2019, London Review of Books, LRB Limited, January 17, 2019,

Second term (1985–1989)

File:Photograph of President Reagan and Vice-President Bush meeting with General Secretary Gorbachev on Governor's Island... - NARA - 198596.jpg|thumb|International policy with the Soviet Union was a critical component of the political landscape in the late 1980s. Vice President Bush can be seen here standing with President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail GorbachevMikhail GorbachevReagan and Bush ran for reelection in 1984. Their Democratic opponent, Walter Mondale, made history by choosing a woman, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro, as his running mate. She and Bush squared off in a single televised vice presidential debate.WEB,weblink Bush-Ferraro Vice-Presidential Debate, October 11, 1984, April 3, 2008, The American Presidency Project,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080617164446weblink">weblink June 17, 2008, yes, Ferraro represented a blue-collar district in Queens, New York, serving as a contrast to the Ivy-League educated Bush. This distinction and her popularity among female journalists left Bush at a disadvantage. Regardless, the Reagan-Bush ticket won in a landslide against the Mondale-Ferraro ticket. Early into his second term as vice president, Bush and his aides were planning a run for the presidency in 1988. By the end of 1985, a committee had been established, and over two million dollars were raised for Bush.On July 13, 1985, Bush became the first vice president to serve as acting president when Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon; Bush served as the acting president for approximately eight hours.NEWS, Boyd, Gerald M., July 14, 1985, Reagan Transfers Power to Bush For 8-Hour Period of 'Incapacity', A1,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, File:Margaret Thatcher George H.W. Bush 1986.jpg|thumb|British Prime Minister Margaret ThatcherMargaret ThatcherIn 1986, the Reagan administration was shaken by a scandal when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran during the Iran–Iraq War. The officials had used the proceeds to fund the anti-communist Contras in Nicaragua, which was a direct violation of law. The scandal became known as the Iran–Contra affair. When news of the public embarrassment broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds,NEWS,weblink Transcript, The New York Times, June 30, 1997, April 2, 2008, fee required, although this was later questioned.WEB,weblink The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On, November 20, 2006, April 3, 2008, George Washington University, Bush began keeping a diary in late 1986, when the scandal was being investigated, and wrote several fake entries. However, his diaries also stated "I'm one of the few people that know fully the details" and as a result of six pardons by Bush, the independent counsel's final report on the Iran–Contra affair pointedly noted: "The criminal investigation of Bush was regrettably incomplete."WEB,weblink The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On, Gwu.edu, January 16, 2012, In the Nicaragua v. United States case, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled that the U.S. had violated international law by supporting the Contras in their rebellion against the Nicaraguan government.NEWS, US dismisses World Court ruling on contras,weblink The Guardian, June 28, 1986, In March 1986, Bush outlined the government's policy on the combating of terrorism. In an interagency task force report presented to President Reagan, Bush publicly stated that the strategy of the federal government was to retaliate without "wantonly" terminating human lives.NEWS,weblink Bush, Issuing Terror Report, Affirms Current U.S. Policies, The New York Times, March 7, 1986, In May 1986, Bush underwent a procedure to remove a malignant growth from his left cheek. His spokesman, Marlin Fitzwater, said that doctors had found the growth weeks earlier.NEWS,weblink Bush Has Malignancy Removed From Cheek, May 18, 1986, The New York Times, In September 1987, Bush embarked on a month long trip to Poland and European allied countries.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush announced Tuesday he will travel..., August 18, 1987, UPI, On September 22, Bush cast a tie breaking vote in the Senate to save the Strategic Defense Initiative from receiving an 800 million cut in funding.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush cast a rare tie-breaking vote..., September 22, 1987, UPI, On September 28, Bush delivered a televised address pledging that the US would forever be aligned with Poland.NEWS,weblink Vice President George Bush engaged in an extraordinary public..., Norman D., Sandler, UPI, September 28, 1987, On July 3, 1988, the guided missile cruiser {{USS|Vincennes|CG-49|6}} accidentally shot down Iran Air Flight 655, killing 290 passengers. Bush said that he would "never apologize for the United States of America. Ever. I don't care what the facts are."NEWS,weblink When should a president say he's sorry?, The Washington Post, November 8, 2013, Scott, Wilson,

1988 presidential campaign

(File:Bushquayle1988.gif|thumb|Campaign logo)File:Gwbush1988stl.jpg|thumb|John AshcroftJohn AshcroftAs early as 1985, Bush had been planning a presidential run; he entered the Republican primaries for President of the United States in October 1987. His challengers for the Republican presidential nomination included U.S. Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, U.S. Representative Jack Kemp of New York, former Governor Pete du Pont of Delaware, and conservative Christian televangelist Pat Robertson.NEWS, Shogan, Robert, February 9, 1988, Politics 88 : Dole, Gephardt Win; Bush Third : Robertson Is a Surprise 2nd in GOP Polling,weblink Los Angeles Times, November 30, 2018, NEWS, Dionne Jr., E. J., February 9, 1988, Dole Wins in Iowa, With Robertson Next, A1,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, Bush was considered the early frontrunner for the nomination, but he came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind winner Dole and runner-up Robertson.NEWS,weblink Bush and Simon Seen as Hobbled by Iowa's Voting, February 10, 1988, April 4, 2008, The New York Times, R. W., Apple Jr., R. W. Apple Jr., Much as Reagan had done in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. With Dole ahead in New Hampshire, Bush ran television commercials portraying the senator as a tax raiserWEB,weblink New Hampshire: Picking a President, The History Channel,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080424102704weblink">weblink April 24, 2008, yes, and rebounded to win the state's primary. Following the primary, Bush and Dole had a joint media appearance; when the interviewer asked Dole if he had anything to say to Bush, Dole said, in response to the ads, "yeah, stop lying about my record!" in an angry tone. This is thought to have hurt Dole's campaign to Bush's benefit. Bush continued seeing victory, winning many Southern primaries as well. Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush's organizational strength and fundraising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, and the nomination was his.As the 1988 Republican National Convention approached, there was much speculation over whom Bush would choose as his running mate. He selected little-known U.S. Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana, who was favored by conservatives. Despite Reagan's popularity, Bush trailed Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis, then Governor of Massachusetts, in most polls.WEB,weblink 1988: George H. W. Bush Gives the 'Speech of his Life', NPR, 2000, April 4, 2008, Bush was occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan, but he delivered a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention. Known as the "thousand points of light" speech, the presentation described Bush's vision of America. He endorsed the Pledge of Allegiance, capital punishment, and gun rights, and drew upon his long-standing Christian beliefs to support both prayer in schools and oppose abortion. The speech at the convention included Bush's famous pledge: "(Read my lips: no new taxes)."NEWS, BBC News,weblink 1988: Bush wins with 'no new taxes' promise, April 4, 2008, November 9, 1988,

General election

(File:ElectoralCollege1988.svg|thumb|left|The 1988 presidential electoral votes by state)The general election campaign between Bush and Dukakis was described in 2008 as one of the dirtiest in modern times. Bush pinned blame on Dukakis for the pollution of Boston Harbor, as the governor of Massachusetts. Bush also pointed out that Dukakis was opposed to a law that would require all students to say the Pledge of Allegiance, a topic highlighted in Bush's nomination acceptance speech.Dukakis' unconditional opposition to capital punishment led to a pointed question during the presidential debates: moderator Bernard Shaw asked Dukakis hypothetically if he would support the death penalty if his wife, Kitty, were raped and murdered.WEB,weblink The Second Bush-Dukakis Presidential Debate, October 13, 1988, Commission on Presidential Debates,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406032116weblink">weblink April 6, 2008, yes, Dukakis's response of "no" played into Bush's characterization of Dukakis as "soft on crime", a theme the Bush campaign exploited with a provocative, racially-charged television commercial about convicted felon Willie Horton.Bush defeated Dukakis and his running mate, Lloyd Bentsen, in the Electoral College, by 426 to 111, with Bentsen receiving one vote from a faithless elector. In the nationwide popular vote, Bush took 53.4% of the ballots cast while Dukakis received 45.6%. Bush became the first serving vice president to be elected president since Martin Van Buren in 1836, as well as the first person to succeed someone from his own party to the presidency via election to the office in his own right since Herbert Hoover in 1929.

Presidency (1989–1993)

File:George H. W. Bush inauguration.jpg|thumb|Chief Justice William Rehnquist administers the Presidential Oath of Office to George H. W. Bush during his inauguration ceremony at the United States CapitolUnited States CapitolBush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. He entered office at a period of change in the world; the fall of the Berlin Wall came early in his presidency, and the collapse of the Soviet Union came in 1991.BOOK, Freidel, Frank, Sidey, Hugh, The Presidents of the United States of America, 2006, White House Historical Association,weblink February 15, 2017, George H. W. Bush, He ordered military operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf, and, at one point, was recorded as having a record-high approval rating of 89%.Gallup, George W.The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1991, Published 1992, Rowman & LittlefieldIn his inaugural address, Bush said:}}

Domestic policy

Economy









factoids
Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with leftover deficits spawned during the Reagan years. At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had tripled since 1980. Bush was dedicated to curbing the deficit, believing that America could not continue to be a leader in the world without doing so. He began an effort to persuade the Democratic controlled Congress to act on the budget; with Republicans believing that the best way was to cut government spending, and Democrats convinced that the only way would be to raise taxes, Bush faced problems when it came to consensus building.In the wake of a struggle with Congress, Bush was forced by the Democratic majority to raise tax revenues; as a result, many Republicans felt betrayed because Bush had promised "no new taxes" in his 1988 campaign. Perceiving a means of revenge, Republican congressmen defeated Bush's proposal, which would enact spending cuts and tax increases that would reduce the deficit by $500 billion over five years. Scrambling, Bush accepted the Democrats' demands for higher taxes and more spending, which alienated him from Republicans and gave way to a sharp decrease in popularity. Bush later said that he wished that he had never signed the bill. Near the end of the 101st Congress, the president and congressional members reached a compromise on a budget package that increased the marginal tax rate and phased out exemptions for high-income taxpayers. Although he originally demanded a reduction in the capital gains tax, Bush relented on this issue as well. This agreement with the Democratic leadership in Congress proved to be a turning point in the Bush presidency; his popularity among Republicans never fully recovered.Coming at around the same time as the budget deal, America entered into a mild recession, which lasted for six months. Many government programs, such as welfare, increased. As the unemployment rate edged upward in 1991, Bush signed a bill providing additional benefits for unemployed workers. The year 1991 was marked by many corporate reorganizations, which laid off a substantial number of workers. Many now unemployed were Republicans and independents, who had believed that their jobs were secure.NEWS, Locin, Mitchell, Thomas, Karen M., October 2, 1991, As politicians fight, jobless get angrier,weblink Chicago Tribune, December 1, 2018, By his second year in office, Bush was told by his economic advisors to stop dealing with the economy, as they believed that he had done everything necessary to ensure his reelection. By 1992, interest and inflation rates were the lowest in years, but by midyear the unemployment rate reached 7.8%, the highest since 1984. In September 1992, the Census Bureau reported that 14.2% of all Americans lived in poverty. At a press conference in 1990, Bush told reporters that he found foreign policy more enjoyable.

Education

On April 5, 1989, Bush submitted to Congress the Educational Excellence Act of 1989, a seven-program education legislative proposal with the intent of achieving "a better-educated America."WEB,weblink Message to the Congress Transmitting Proposed Legislation on Educational Excellence, April 5, 1989, George H. W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, NEWS,weblink Bush honors teacher, sends Congress education package, UPI, April 5, 1989, Tamara, Henry, The proposal was opposed by Republicans seeking to shrink government's role in education and met with a lack of enthusiasm by Democrats.BOOK, Greene, John Robert, The Presidency of George Bush, 2005, 2nd, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 978-0-7006-2079-1, 83–86, A week after submitting the proposal, Bush said his administration was seeking to provide waivers on "some regulations for poorer communities" and create "a kind of performance-driven partial deregulation of education" that would grant federal funding when schools showed high levels of accountability coupled with academic performance.WEB,weblink Public Papers â€” George Bush Library and Museum, bush41library.tamu.edu, NEWS,weblink President journeys to New Jersey to address his education proposals, April 13, 1989, Lori, Santos, UPI, Later in the year, from September 27 to 28, Bush held a summit with American governors dedicated solely to education reform at the University of Virginia, the group forming a consensus to overhaul the American education system for the country's students to be closer in test scores in science, mathematics, and literacy.NEWS,weblink Summit Targets Gaps in Education : Bush, Governors Agree on Need to Revamp U.S. Approach, September 28, 1989, Los Angeles Times, (File:Bush I approval rating.png|thumb|left|Bush's approval ratings (red) compared to his disapproval ratings (blue) for his four-year presidency)In his 1990 State of the Union Address, Bush revealed that his administration would spearhead an increase in American high school graduation rates to 90%, along with making American students "first in the world" in the subjects of math and science by 2000.NEWS,weblink Highlights of President Bush's State of the Union speech, January 31, 2006, UPI, NEWS,weblink Bush urges deeper troop cuts in State of the Union, Norman D., Sandler, January 31, 1990, UPI, In a speech in the White House East Room on April 18, 1991, Bush called for both public and private citizens to become involved with education reform: "To those who want to see real improvement in American education, I say there will be no renaissance without revolution. It's time we held our schools, and ourselves, accountable for results."NEWS,weblink Bush presents education reform package, Janet, Bass, April 19, 1991, UPI, On June 3, Bush advocated for community participation in reforming the national education system and insisting America 2000 would fail "if we try to do it from Washington itself."WEB,weblink Remarks to Education Leaders, So, what we talk about in the America 2000 strategy, you put into action. And the ideas for implementing a lot of our strategy has got to come from you all and thousands like you across this country. It can't succeed -- we cannot dictate from Washington. I am not anti-Washington. I am not antibureaucracy. We've got some wonderful people who have given their lives in these Departments, but this program, America 2000, cannot succeed if we try to do it from Washington itself., June 3, 1991, On October 4, Bush met with representatives of the New American Schools Development Corp. at Camp David as the organization sought US$200 million for education reform to aid with the forming of "new learning environments".NEWS,weblink Bush Meets With Group Seeking to Improve Educational System, Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1991, In a November 25 appearance in Columbus, Ohio, Bush joined Governor of Ohio George Voinovich in formally announcing a state version of his education policy, "Ohio 2000". Bush concurrently declared he would be involved with a reform of troubled schools and accused the Democrat-controlled Congress of "fighting tooth and nail against our most important reforms".NEWS,weblink Bush makes plug for troubled schools, Thomas, Ferraro, UPI, November 25, 1991, On July 23, 1992, Bush signed the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, a resumption of "many programs in the Higher Education Act of 1965."WEB,weblink Statement on Signing the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, George H. W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, July 23, 1992,

Major initiatives

{{See also|Environmental policy of the United States#The George H. W. Bush Administration (1989–1993)}}During a speech to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing, Bush announced a vision to complete Space Station Freedom, resume exploration of the moon and begin exploration of Mars.WEB,weblink George Bush: Remarks on the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing, Presidency.ucsb.edu, July 16, 1969, May 22, 2011, Although a space station was eventually constructed (work on the International Space Station began in 1998), other projects were quashed due to NASA budgetary issues. In 1998, Bush received the Rotary National Award for Space Achievement's National Space Trophy for his pioneering leadership of the U.S. space program.WEB, 1988 National Space Trophy Recipient: President George H.W. Bush,weblink RNASA, November 30, 2018, File:President Bush participates in a full cabinet meeting in the cabinet room - NARA - 186454.tif|thumb|President Bush participates in a full cabinet meeting in the Cabinet Room in July 1992]]During his presidency, Bush signed a number of major bills into law, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; this was one of the most pro-civil rights bills in decades. He was also the only president to successfully veto a civil rights act, the job-discrimination protection Civil Rights Act of 1990.Devroy, Ann. "Bush Vetoes Civil Rights Bill; Measure Said to Encourage Job Quotas; Women, Minorities Sharply Critical". The Washington Post October 23, 1990, Print. (Andrew Johnson and Ronald Reagan had vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987, respectively, but both were successfully overridden by Congress). Bush feared racial quotas would be imposed, but later approved the watered-down Civil Rights Act of 1991.NEWS, President Vetoes Bill on Job Rights; Showdown is Set, Holmes, Steven A.,weblink The New York Times, October 23, 1990, March 21, 2013, He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research. He also signed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, which provides monetary compensation of people who had contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear weapons testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to high levels of radon while doing uranium mining. In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. He quarreled with Congress over an eventually signed bill to aid police in capturing criminals, and signed into law a measure to improve the nation's highway system. Bush signed the Immigration Act of 1990,"Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans". Jeffrey D. Schultz (2000). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 282. {{ISBN|1-57356-148-7}} which led to a 40 percent increase in legal immigration to the United States."The Paper curtain: employer sanctions' implementation, impact, and reform". Michael Fix (1991). The Urban Institute. p. 304. {{ISBN|0-87766-550-8}}On November 21, 1989, Bush signed a measure that guaranteed reparations to Japanese-Americans who were relocated into internment camps during World War II. Congress authorized US$20,000 ({{Inflation|US|20000|1989|fmt=eq}}) for each survivor.NEWS,weblink Bush Signs Japanese-American Reparation Guarantee, November 22, 1989, Los Angeles Times, Bush became a life member of the National Rifle Association early in 1988 and had campaigned as a "pro-gun" candidate with the NRA's endorsement.BOOK, Feldman, Richard, Ricochet: Confessions of a Gun Lobbyist,weblink 2011, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-13100-8, In March 1989, he placed a temporary ban on the import of certain semiautomatic rifles.BOOK, Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, 1, Gregg Lee, Carter, 38, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 978-1-57607-268-4, This action cost him endorsement from the NRA in 1992. Bush publicly resigned his life membership in the organization after receiving a form letter from the NRA depicting agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as "jack-booted thugs." He called the NRA letter a "vicious slander on good people."BOOK, Moral controversies in American politics: cases in social regulatory policy, Raymond, Tatalovich, Byron W. Daynes, 168–175, 2, M. E. Sharpe, 1998, 978-1-56324-994-5,

Points of Light

President Bush devoted attention to voluntary service as a means of solving some of America's most serious social problems. He often used the "thousand points of light" theme to describe the power of citizens to solve community problems. In his 1989 inaugural address, President Bush said, "I have spoken of a thousand points of light, of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation, doing good."BOOK, The Points of Light Movement: The President's Report to the Nation, Executive Office of the President, 1993,weblink 1993, File:StromThurmond GeorgeBush.jpg|thumb|left|President Bush presents Senator Strom Thurmond with the Presidential Medal of FreedomPresidential Medal of FreedomFour years later, in his report to the nation on the Points of Light Movement, President Bush said, "Points of Light are the soul of America. They are ordinary people who reach beyond themselves to touch the lives of those in need, bringing hope and opportunity, care and friendship. By giving so generously of themselves, these remarkable individuals show us not only what is best in our heritage but what all of us are called to become."In 1990, the Points of Light Foundation was created as a nonprofit organization in Washington D.C. to promote this spirit of volunteerism.JOURNAL, Perry, Suzanne, After Two Tough Years, New Points of Light Charity Emerges, Chronicle of Philanthropy, October 15, 2009,weblink May 23, 2013, In 2007, the Points of Light Foundation merged with the Hands on Network with the goal of strengthening volunteerism, streamlining costs and services and deepening impact.JOURNAL, Edward, Deborah, Getting to Yes: The Points of Light and Hands On Network Merger, RGK Center for Philanthropy and Community Service, the University of Texas at Austin, 2008,weblink May 23, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921061145weblink">weblink September 21, 2013, Points of Light, the organization created through this merger, has approximately 250 affiliates in 22 countries and partnerships with thousands of nonprofits and companies dedicated to volunteer service around the world. In 2012, Points of Light mobilized 4 million volunteers in 30 million hours of service worth $635 million.WEB, Points of Light 2012 Year in Review,weblink Points of Light, May 23, 2013, On October 16, 2009, President Barack Obama held a Presidential Forum on Service hosted by former President George H. W. Bush and Points of Light at the George Bush Presidential Library Center on the campus of Texas A&M University. The event celebrated the contributions of more than 4,500 Daily Point of Light award winners and honored President Bush's legacy of service and civic engagement.NEWS, President Obama to Hold Presidential Forum on Service Hosted by former President George H.W. Bush,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921055407weblink">weblink September 21, 2013, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, September 11, 2009, yes, In 2011, Points of Light paid tribute to President George H. W. Bush and volunteer service at Washington, D.C.'s John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. President Bush was joined by presidents Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush to highlight the role volunteer service plays in people's lives.NEWS, Jaffe, Matthew, Former Presidents Gather For Tribute to George H.W. Bush and Volunteer Service,weblink July 30, 2016, ABC News, March 21, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160822042704weblink">weblink August 22, 2016,

Daily Point of Light Award

President Bush created the Daily Point of Light Award in 1989 to recognize ordinary Americans from all walks of life taking direct and consequential voluntary action in their communities to solve serious social problems. The president focused great attention on these individuals and organizations, both to honor them for their tremendous work and to call the nation to join them and multiply their efforts. By the end of his administration, President Bush had recognized 1,020 Daily Points of Light representing all 50 states and addressing issues ranging from care for infants and teenagers with AIDS to adult illiteracy and from gang violence to job training for the homeless. The Daily Point of Light continues to be awarded by Points of Light and up until his death President Bush continued to sign all of the awards.NEWS, Health Matters 07/10/13,weblink July 11, 2013, Leader-Telegram, July 10, 2013, On July 15, 2013, President Barack Obama welcomed President Bush to the White House to celebrate the 5,000th Daily Point of Light Award.NEWS, Landler, Mark, At White House Homecoming, Elder Bush's 'Points of Light' Shine On,weblink July 18, 2013, The New York Times, July 15, 2013, They bestowed the award on Floyd Hammer and Kathy Hamilton of Union, Iowa, for their work founding Outreach, a nonprofit which delivers free meals to hungry children in 15 countries.NEWS, Rucker, Philip, Obama pays tribute to George H.W. Bush,weblink July 18, 2013, The Washington Post, July 15, 2013,

Judicial appointments

{{See also|George H. W. Bush Supreme Court candidates|List of federal judges appointed by George H. W. Bush}}Bush made two appointments to the Supreme Court of the United States â€” David Souter in 1990, and Clarence Thomas in 1991. Additionally, he appointed 42 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 148 judges to the United States district courts. Among these was Vaughn Walker, a gay man who ruled that California's Proposition 8 amendment was unconstitutional.NEWS, Dan, Levine,weblink Reuters, Gay judge never considered dropping Prop 8 case, April 6, 2011, April 6, 2011, Bush also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 11 nominees for 10 federal appellate judgeships were not processed by the Democratically-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee.Congressional Chronicle {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110930154103weblink |date=September 30, 2011}}, C-SPAN (March 7, 2000).

Foreign policy

Panama

File:George H. W. Bush on telephone.jpg|thumb|Bush speaks on the telephone regarding Operation Just Cause as General Brent Scowcroft and Chief of Staff John H. SununuJohn H. SununuIn the 1980s, Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, a once U.S.-supportive leader who was later accused of spying for Fidel Castro and using Panama to traffic drugs into the United States, was one of the most recognizable names in America and was constantly in the press. The struggle to remove him from power began in the Reagan administration, when economic sanctions were imposed on the country; this included prohibiting American companies and government from making payments to Panama and freezing $56 million in Panamanian funds in American banks. Reagan sent more than 2,000 American troops to Panama as well.WEB,weblink Panama: Background and Buildup to Invasion of 1989, April 11, 2008, Franklin, Jane, 2001, Rutgers University, Unlike Reagan, Bush was able to remove Noriega from power, but his administration's unsuccessful post-invasion planning hindered the needs of Panama during the establishment of the young democratic government.WEB, Prudence in Panama: George H. W. Bush, Noriega, and economic aid, May 1989 – May 1990,weblinkweblink yes, August 7, 2011, Texas A&M University, April 11, 2008, April 25, 2007, In May 1989, Panama held democratic elections, in which Guillermo Endara was elected president; the results were then annulled by Noriega's government. In response, Bush sent 2,000 more troops to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in Panamanian territory (in violation of prior treaties). Bush shuttered the U.S. embassy and removed the U.S. Ambassador from the country, and dispatched additional troops to Panama to prepare the way for an upcoming invasion. Noriega suppressed an October military coup attempt and massive protests in Panama against him, but after a U.S. serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered 24,000 troops into the Central American nation with an objective of removing Noriega from power;WEB,weblink Richard B. Cheney, July 30, 2008, United States Department of Defense,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411093018weblink">weblink April 11, 2008, "Operation Just Cause" was a large-scale American military operation, and the first in more than 40 years that was not related to the Cold War.The mission was controversial, but American forces achieved control of the country and Endara assumed the presidency.NEWS,weblink Observer; Is This Justice Necessary?, January 3, 1990, December 12, 2007, The New York Times, Russell, Baker, Noriega surrendered to the United States and was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.WEB,weblink Operation Just Cause, April 27, 2005, December 12, 2007, John Pike, President Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush visited Panama in June 1992, to give support to the first post-invasion Panamanian government. The visit was marred by protests which broke into gunfire and tear gas, forcing Bush to depart a rally.NEWS, Wines, Michael, June 12, 1992, Bush Made to Flee a Rally in Panama as Protest Erupts, A1,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018,

Soviet Union

{{See also|Dissolution of the Soviet Union|New world order (politics)|A World Transformed|History of the United States (1980–1991)#The end of the Cold War}}File:Bush Gorba P15623-25A.jpg|thumb|left|Bush and Mikhail GorbachevMikhail GorbachevBush met with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev at the Malta Summit in December 1989, just after the fall of the Berlin Wall. His administration had been under intense pressure to meet with the Soviets, but not all initially found the conference to be a step in the right direction. General Brent Scowcroft, among others, was apprehensive about the meeting, saying that it might be "premature" due to concerns that, according to Condoleezza Rice, "expectations [would be] set that something was going to happen, where the Soviets might grandstand and force [the U.S.] into agreements that would ultimately not be good for the United States."WEB,weblink George Washington University, April 11, 2008, Interview with Dr. Condoleezza Rice, December 17, 1997, European leaders, including François Mitterrand and Margaret Thatcher, encouraged Bush to meet with Gorbachev. Although no agreements were signed, the meeting was received as an important step to the end of the Cold War.NEWS,weblink 1989: Malta summit ends Cold War, April 11, 2008, December 3, 1989, BBC News, When asked about nuclear war, Gorbachev responded, "I assured the President of the United States that the Soviet Union would never start a hot war against the United States of America, and we would like our relations to develop in such a way that they would open greater possibilities for cooperation.... This is just the beginning. We are just at the very beginning of our road, long road to a long-lasting, peaceful period."NEWS,weblink The Malta Summit; Transcript of the Bush-Gorbachev News Conference in Malta, Associated Press, The New York Times, April 11, 2008, December 4, 1989, File:President and Mrs. Bush show Russian President Boris Yeltsin the South Grounds of the White House and stop at the... - NARA - 186451.tif|thumb|George and Barbara Bush with President Boris Yeltsin, Russia's first post-Soviet, freely elected leader, at the White HouseWhite HouseAnother summit was held in July 1991, where the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed by Bush and Gorbachev in Moscow. The treaty took nine years to negotiate, and was the first major arms agreement since the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty by Reagan and Gorbachev in 1987. The contentions in START would reduce the strategic nuclear weapons of the United States and the USSR by about 35% over seven years, and the Soviet Union's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles would be cut by 50%. Bush described START as "a significant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust".NEWS,weblink July 31, 1991, April 11, 2008, BBC News, 1991: Superpowers to cut nuclear warheads, Bush and Condoleezza Rice were criticized for their very weak tone and miscalculation in the Chicken Kiev speech on August 1, 1991, three weeks before the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, four months before the 92.26%-confirmed Ukrainian independence referendum, and 145 days before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the USSR, President Bush and Russian president Boris Yeltsin declared a U.S.–Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War.NEWS, Wines, Michael, February 2, 1992, Bush and Yeltsin Declare Formal End to Cold War; Agree to Exchange Visits, A1,weblink The New York Times, December 1, 2018,

Gulf War

File:Bush troops.jpg|thumb|President Bush visits American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990]]On August 2, 1990, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasionNEWS,weblink The Gulf War: A Chronology, April 11, 2008, PBS, and began rallying opposition to Iraq in the United States and among European, Asian, and Middle Eastern allies. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Fahd, who requested United States military aid in the matter, fearing a possible invasion of his country as well. The request was met initially with Air Force fighter jets. Iraq made attempts to negotiate a deal that would have allowed the country to take control of half of Kuwait. Bush rejected this proposal and insisted on a complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces. The planning of a ground operation by U.S.-led coalition forces began forming in September 1990, headed by General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.. Bush spoke before a joint session of the United States Congress regarding the authorization of air and land attacks, laying out four immediate objectives: "Iraq must withdraw from Kuwait completely, immediately, and without condition. Kuwait's legitimate government must be restored. The security and stability of the Persian Gulf must be assured. And American citizens abroad must be protected." He then outlined a fifth, long-term objective: "Out of these troubled times, our fifth objective â€” a new world order â€” can emerge: a new era â€” freer from the threat of terror, stronger in the pursuit of justice, and more secure in the quest for peace. An era in which the nations of the world, East and West, North and South, can prosper and live in harmony ... A world where the rule of law supplants the rule of the jungle. A world in which nations recognize the shared responsibility for freedom and justice. A world where the strong respect the rights of the weak."WEB,weblink George H. W. Bush: Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the Persian Gulf Crisis and the Federal Budget Deficit, September 11, 1990, With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq's violence, Congress authorized the use of military force with a set goal of returning control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government, and protecting America's interests abroad.File:President Bush meets with General Colin Powell, General Scowcroft, Secretary James Baker, Vice President Quayle... - NARA - 186429.tif|thumb|Bush meets with Robert Gates, General Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf and Operation Desert Shield, January 15, 1991]]Early on the morning of January 17, 1991, allied forces launched the first attack, which included more than 4,000 bombing runs by coalition aircraft.WEB,weblink Public Papers - George Bush Library and Museum: Address to the Nation Announcing Allied Military Action in the Persian Gulf, January 16, 1991, bush41library.tamu.edu, This pace would continue for the next four weeks, until a ground invasion was launched on February 24, 1991. Allied forces penetrated Iraqi lines and pushed toward Kuwait City, while on the west side of the country, forces were intercepting the retreating Iraqi army. Bush made the decision to stop the offensive after a mere 100 hours.WEB,weblink Public Papers - George Bush Library and Museum: Address to the Nation on the Suspension of Allied Offensive Combat Operations in the Persian Gulf, February 27, 1991, bush41library.tamu.edu, NEWS,weblink Bush Halts Offensive Combat; Kuwait Freed, Iraqis Crushed, February 28, 1991, The New York Times, Critics labeled this decision premature, as hundreds of Iraqi forces were able to escape; Bush responded by saying that he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties. Opponents further charged that Bush should have continued the attack, pushing Hussein's army back to Baghdad, then removing him from power. Bush explained that he did not give the order to overthrow the Iraqi government because it would have "incurred incalculable human and political costs... We would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in effect, rule Iraq."WEB,weblink A World Transformed, 2003, April 11, 2008, Snopes.com, Bush's approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive. Additionally, President Bush and Secretary of State Baker felt the coalition victory had increased U.S. prestige abroad and believed there was a window of opportunity to use the political capital generated by the coalition victory to revitalize the Arab-Israeli peace process. The administration immediately returned to Arab-Israeli peacemaking following the end of the Gulf War; this resulted in the Madrid Conference, later in 1991.Middle East Review of International Affairs Journal Volume 6, No. 1 – March 2002 Underwriting Peace in the Middle East: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Limits of Economic InducementsSeveral Iraqi families living in Belgium who lost loved ones in the Gulf War launched a lawsuit against George H. W. Bush for committing what they claim are war crimes in the 1991 Amiriyah shelter bombing in Baghdad, which killed more than 400 civilians. The suit was brought under Belgium's universal jurisdiction guarantees in March 2003.NEWS, Belgium Nixes War-Crimes Charges Against Bush, Powell, Cheney, Sharon,weblink Fox News, September 25, 2003,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110208134211weblink">weblink February 8, 2011, no, According to the Human Rights Watch, the Amiriyah shelter bombing was "a serious violation of the laws of war."NEWS, The Ignored Legacy of George H.W. Bush: War Crimes, Racism, and Obstruction of Justice,weblink The Intercept, December 1, 2018,

Somali Civil War

Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia which was exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992 to aid the situation through humanitarian efforts, though the mission failed.WEB,weblink UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA I, UN Dept of Peacekeeping, United Nations, May 22, 2011, The Bush administration proposed American aid to the region by assisting in creating a secure environment for humanitarian efforts and UN Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the Security Council on December 3, 1992.Security Council Resolution 794 A lame duck president, Bush launched Operation Restore Hope the following day under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794.Bush, George H., Address to the Nation on the Situation in Somalia, 4/12/92 Fighting would escalate and continue into the Clinton administration.NEWS, The Washington Post (online, January 31), Atkinson, Rick, 1994, Night of a Thousand Casualties,weblink November 4, 2015,

Japan

During an April 28, 1989 appearance in the press room of the White House, Bush announced that the U.S. would continue a deal with Japan to produce the FSX advanced fighter jet. He said that promises had been made that American jobs and technology would be safe and the proposal would bolster security for both the U.S. and Japan.NEWS,weblink Bush Clears Way for FSX Fighter Deal With Japan, April 30, 1989, Los Angeles Times, On March 12, 1990, Bush met for an hour with former Prime Minister of Japan Noboru Takeshita to discuss shared economic issues and "the fact that their solution will require extraordinary efforts on both sides of the Pacific."NEWS,weblink Former Japanese Prime Minister Meets Bush, Norman D., Sandler, UPI, On December 6, 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa apologized to the United States for the attack on Pearl Harbor. The following day â€” the fiftieth anniversary of the attack â€” Bush accepted Japan's apology for the event that drew the United States into World War II. Bush urged that progress be made in improving relations between the U.S. and Japan.NEWS,weblink Bush says U.S. appreciates 'remorse' of Japan, UPI, December 7, 1991, Thomas, Ferraro,

Israel

On June 18, 1990, White House Press Secretary Marlin Fitzwater confirmed President Bush had sent Prime Minister of Israel Yitzhak Shamir a letter in which he congratulated the latter on his election and urged him to support the proposed "Shamir initiative for peace," which would involve the participation of Palestinian Arabs in local elections.NEWS,weblink Bush congratulates Shamir, pushes peace process, UPI, June 18, 1990, On June 20, Bush suspended American dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization for the latter's refusal to condemn the Palestinian guerrilla raid of an Israeli beach the previous month.NEWS,weblink Bush Suspends Talks With PLO : Terrorism: President assails the organization's failure to denounce a splinter group's raid on an Israeli beach., Los Angeles Times, June 21, 1990, Iraq attacked Israel with Scud missiles during the Gulf War. Most Israelis wanted the Israeli military to retaliate, but President Bush advised the Israelis not to. Bush praised Prime Minister Shamir for his leadership during the crisis.Kampeas, Ron. "George H.W. Bush, a president with a complicated Jewish legacy, dies at 94." Jewish Telegraphic Agency. December 1, 2018. December 5, 2018.On August 11, 1992, following a meeting between President Bush and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Bush announced he would seek the approval of Congress to bestow Israel with up to $10{{nbsp}}billion in loan guarantees to assist the country with its absorbing of Soviet Union immigrants.NEWS,weblink Bush strikes Irael loan deal with Rabin, Steven, Heilbronner, UPI, August 12, 1992, WEB,weblink The President's News Conference With Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of Israel in Kennebunkport, August 11, 1992, Literally hundreds of thousands of Jews from Ethiopia and from the former Soviet Union now make their homes in Israel; and this, more than anything else, is what the Jewish state is all about. In this regard, I am extremely pleased to announce that we were able to reach agreement on the basic principles to govern the granting of up to billion in loan guarantees. I've long been committed to supporting Israel in the historic task of absorbing immigrants, and I'm delighted that the Prime Minister and I have agreed to an approach which will assist these new Israelis without frustrating the search for peace. We can thus pursue these two humanitarian goals at one and the same time.,

NAFTA

File:Nafta.jpg|thumb|Standing: President Carlos Salinas, President Bush, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; Seated: Jaime Serra Puche, Carla Hills, and Michael Wilson at the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony, October 1992]]The Bush administration and the Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The agreement would eliminate the majority of tariffs on products that were traded among the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This would encourage trade among the countries. The treaty also restricted patents, copyrights, and trademarks, and outlined the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries.WEB,weblink Federal Express, Frequently Asked Questions: NAFTA, April 11, 2008, President Bush announced the completion of NAFTA during a White House Rose Garden appearance on August 12, 1992, calling it the "beginning of a new era".NEWS,weblink Bush announces new trade pact with Mexico, Helen, Thomas, UPI, August 12, 1992, The agreement came under heavy scrutiny amongst mainly Democrats, who charged that NAFTA resulted in a loss of American jobs. NAFTA also contained no provisions for labor rights; according to the Bush administration, the trade agreement would generate economic resources necessary to enable Mexico's government to overcome problems of funding and enforcement of its labor laws. Bush needed a renewal of negotiating authority to move forward with the NAFTA trade talks. Such authority would enable the president to negotiate a trade accord that would be submitted to Congress for a vote, thereby avoiding a situation in which the president would be required to renegotiate with trading partners those parts of an agreement that Congress wished to change.WEB,weblink Human Rights Watch, April 11, 2008, The NAFTA Labor Side Accord, While initial signing was possible during his term, negotiations made slow, but steady, progress. President Clinton would go on to make the passage of NAFTA a priority for his administration, despite its conservative and Republican roots—with the addition of two side agreements—to achieve its passage in 1993.WEB,weblink NAFTA, Duke University, July 30, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420094150weblink">weblink April 20, 2008, The treaty has since been defended, as well as criticized further. The American economy has grown 54% since the adoption of NAFTA in 1993, with 25 million new jobs created; this was seen by some as evidence of NAFTA being beneficial to the United States.NEWS,weblink Stop Hating on NAFTA, The Washington Post, Gutierrez, Carlos M, March 1, 2008, April 11, 2008, With talk in early 2008 regarding a possible American withdrawal from the treaty, Carlos M. Gutierrez, the then United States Secretary of Commerce, wrote, "Quitting NAFTA would send economic shock waves throughout the world, and the damage would start here at home." But John J. Sweeney, the then President of the AFL-CIO, wrote in The Boston Globe that "the U.S. trade deficit with Canada and Mexico ballooned to twelve times its pre-NAFTA size, reaching $111 billion in 2004."NEWS,weblink A Bad Deal on Free Trade, Sweeney, John J, The Boston Globe, April 11, 2008, March 21, 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915030224weblink">weblink September 15, 2008, NEWS,weblink A Bad Deal on Free Trade, Sweeney, John J, The Boston Globe, December 1, 2018, March 21, 2005,

Pardons

In keeping with tradition, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. On December 24, 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former senior government officials implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal of the late 1980s, most prominently the former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.WEB,weblink Bush pardons Weinberger, Five Other Tied to Iran-Contra, April 11, 2008, Federation of American Scientists, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080421150512weblink">weblink April 21, 2008, Bush described Weinberger, who was scheduled to stand trial starting on January 5, 1993, for criminal charges related to Iran-Contra, as a "true American patriot".In addition to Weinberger, Bush pardoned Duane R. Clarridge, Clair E. George, who had been convicted to felonies in connection with the Iran-Contra scandal, Robert C. McFarlane, Elliott Abrams, and Alan Fiers, all of whom had been indicted and/or convicted of criminal charges by an Independent Counsel headed by Lawrence Walsh, who headed the investigation of Reagan Administration officials' criminal conduct in the Iran-Contra scandal.WEB,weblink Pardons and Commutations Granted by President George H. W. Bush, United States Department of Justice, May 17, 2008, In response to these Bush pardons, Lawrence Walsh stated that "the Iran-Contra cover-up, which has continued for more than six years, has now been completed." Walsh noted that in issuing the pardons Bush may have been preempting being implicated himself in the crimes of Iran-Contra by evidence that was to come to light during the Weinberger trial, and noted that there was a pattern of "deception and obstruction" by Bush, Weinberger and other senior Reagan administration officials.New York Times, December 25, 1992 "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'

Honorary degrees

George H. W. Bush received honorary degrees from several American and International Universities, including:{| class="wikitable"
Howard University, Washington, D.C. >Doctor of Laws (LL.D)RICHBURG TITLE=BUSH SPEAKS AT HOWARD ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017 THE WASHINGTON POST >DATE=MAY 10, 1981, RECIPIENTS OF HONORARY DEGREES AND OTHER UNIVERSITY HONORS (BY YEAR) >URL=HTTPS://WWW.HOWARD.EDU/SECRETARY/CONVOCATIONS/RECIPIENTS-YEAR.HTM PUBLISHER=HOWARD UNIVERSITY, December 2, 2017,
Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, Connecticut >PUBLISHER=RECORD-JOURNAL WEBSITE=UPI.COM ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017, September 12, 1981,
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio >TITLE=BUSH PRAISES REAGAN DISARMAMENT PLAN WEBSITE=UPI.COM ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017, May 16, 1982,
Boston College, Boston, Massachusetts >| Doctor of Laws (LL.D) weblink
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio >Doctor of Humane Letters (L.H.D.)UNIVERSITY AWARDS & RECOGNITION: HONORARY DEGREES AWARDED WEBSITE=OSU.EDU ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017,
Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas >PUBLISHER=TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, February 15, 2017,
Oklahoma State University–Stillwater>Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma Doctor of EconomicsKILLACKEY >FIRST1=JIM URL=HTTP://NEWSOK.COM/ARTICLE/2313747 WORK=THE OKLAHOMAN, April 4, 1990,
Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia >PUBLISHER=LIBERTY.EDU ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 28, 2017,
Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey >LAST=DE LOOPER DATE=AUGUST 1, 2011 PUBLISHER=SEELEY G. MUDD MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, April 20, 2018,
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana >FIRST=MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS: WEB // UNIVERSITY OF NOTREWEBSITE=NOTRE DAME NEWS,
College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia >| Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania >PUBLISHER=LAFAYETTE COLLEGE ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 5, 2018,
Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut >PUBLISHER=ROCHESTER SENTINEL ACCESS-DATE=MARCH 17, 2018,
Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland > WEBSITE=WASHCOLL.EDU LOCATION=CHESTERTOWN, MARYLAND, April 20, 2018,
Saint Anselm College, Goffstown, New Hampshire >website=www.anselm.edu|access-date=March 4, 2019}}
Bryant University, Smithfield, Rhode Island >WEBSITE=BRYANT.EDU ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 5, 2018,
University of Macau, Macau, China >WEBSITE=UMAC.MO ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire >PUBLISHER=DARTMOUTH COLLEGE LAST=BOUTWELL ACCESS-DATE=JULY 30, 2016,
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts >WEBSITE=HARVARD.EDU WORK=THE HARVARD CRIMSON FIRST1=MATTHEW Q. FIRST2=DEV A. ACCESS-DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2017,
National Intelligence University, Bethesda, Maryland >TITLE=FORMER PRESIDENT GEORGE H. W. BUSH AWARDED HONORARY DEGREE – NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE UNIVERSITY DATE=MARCH 23, 2016, October 28, 2017,
{{Expand list|date=April 2018}}

Awards and honors

In 1990, Time magazine named him the Man of the Year.NEWS, Church, George J., January 7, 1991, A Tale of Two Bushes,weblink Time, November 30, 2018, In 1991, the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation awarded Bush its Lone Sailor award for his naval service and his subsequent government service.NEWS, Conconi, Chuck, February 1, 1991, Personalities,weblink The Washington Post, November 30, 2018, WEB,weblink Lone Sailor Award Recipients, In 1993, he was made an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath by Queen Elizabeth II.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080530062826weblink">weblink May 30, 2008, Honours: Order of the Bath, The British Monarchy Today, March 28, 2008, In 2009, he received the PGA Tour Lifetime Achievement Award and was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame two years later.NEWS, September 22, 2010, Ernie Els, George H.W. Bush among inductees to golf hall of fame,weblink Los Angeles Times, November 30, 2018,

1992 presidential campaign

In early 1992, Bush announced that he would seek a second term. A coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings made re-election seem likely. As a result, many leading Democrats declined to seek their party's presidential nomination.NEWS, Kornacki, Steve, April 10, 2011, The Mario Effect: Last time a group of presidential challengers was this unimpressive, there was a reason,weblink Politico, December 1, 2018, On the negative side, Bush's popularity was reduced by an economic recession and doubts of whether he properly ended the Gulf War.NEWS, Kagay, Michael R., May 22, 1991, History Suggests Bush's Popularity Will Ebb, A18,weblink The New York Times, December 1, 2018, NEWS, Greenhouse, Steven, May 11, 1992, The Economy; Despite Recession's End, Bush May Face Unusually Harsh Public Judgment, B8,weblink The New York Times, December 1, 2018, Conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan challenged Bush for the Republican nomination. He shocked political pundits by finishing second, with 37% of the vote in the New Hampshire primary. Bush responded by adopting more conservative positions on issues, in an attempt to undermine Buchanan's base. Once he had secured the nomination, Bush faced the Democratic nominee, Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton. Clinton attacked Bush as a politician who was not doing enough to assist the working middle-class and being "out of touch" with the common man, a notion reinforced by reporter Andrew Rosenthal's false report that Bush was "astonished" to see a demonstration of a supermarket scanner.WEB,weblink Maybe I'm Amazed, April 1, 2001, April 11, 2008, Snopes.com, May 27, 2012,weblink" title="archive.is/20120527030747weblink">weblink yes, (File:ElectoralCollege1992.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|The 1992 presidential electoral votes by state)In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties' perceived fiscal irresponsibility.WEB, The Perot Vote, President and Fellows of Harvard College, April 23, 2008,weblink Perot later bowed out of the race for a short time, then reentered.NEWS,weblink The 1992 Campaign: The Independent; Bush aide calls Perot's story 'paranoid', October 27, 1992, April 14, 2008, The New York Times, Holmes, Steven A, Clinton had originally been in the lead, until Perot reentered, tightening the race significantly.NEWS,weblink The 1992 Campaign: The Overview; Contest tightens as Perot resurges and Clinton slips, April 14, 2008, October 25, 1992, The New York Times, Toner, Robin, As Election Day neared, the polls suggested that the race was a dead-heat, but Clinton pulled out on top, with 370 electoral votes to Bush's 168 votes. Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in U.S. history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls.NEWS, Holmes, Steven A.,weblink An Eccentric but No Joke; Perot's Strong Showing Raises Questions On What Might Have Been, and Might Be, The New York Times, November 5, 1992, September 5, 2010, WEB,weblink George Herbert Walker Bush: Campaigns and Elections, April 11, 2008, Miller Center of Public Affairs, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080409120342weblink">weblink April 9, 2008, Several key factors led to Bush's defeat. The ailing economy that arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush's loss. On Election Day, 7 in 10 voters said that the economy was either "not so good" or "poor".NEWS, R. W., Apple Jr., R. W. Apple Jr.,weblink The Economy's Casualty, The New York Times, November 4, 1992, September 5, 2010, NEWS,weblink Downside of the Reagan Legacy, The San Francisco Chronicle, April 11, 2008, Lazarus, David, June 9, 2004, On the eve of the 1992 election unemployment reports of 7.8% (the highest since 1984),JOURNAL, WSJ Research, 2015, The Wall Street Journal, How the Presidents Stack Up: A Look at U.S. Presidents' Job Approval Ratings (George H.W. Bush),weblink November 4, 2015, and the economic recession overall contributed significantly to a sharp decline in Bush's approval rating â€“ to just 37%.WEB,weblink Presidency on Life Support, Pollingreport.com, September 5, 2010, Conservative Republicans pointed out that Bush's 1990 agreement to raise taxes contradicted his famous "(Read my lips: no new taxes)" pledge. In doing so, Bush alienated many members of his conservative base, losing their support for his re-election. According to one survey, of the voters who cited Bush's broken "No New Taxes" pledge as "very important", two thirds voted for Bill Clinton.NEWS, Jeffrey, Schmalz, Clinton Carves a Path Deep Into Reagan Country,weblink The New York Times, November 4, 1992, May 21, 2008, Bush had raised taxes in an attempt to address an increasing budget deficit, which has largely been attributed to the Reagan tax cuts and military spending of the 1980s. The tax revenue increase had not hurt his approval rating to the extent that it prevented it from reaching its highest level, 89%, by February 1991, during the Gulf War, and four months after the tax vote.The Illusory Power of Grover Norquist, Timothy Noah, November 27, 2012Presidential Approval Ratings – Gallup Historical Statistics and Trends, Gallup.com

Public image

File:US Navy 051008-N-9274T-001 After arriving on board Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NAS JRB), New Orleans, former President George H. Bush sits down to eat with military personnel.jpg|thumb|Bush visits NAS JRB, New Orleans personnel before he receives briefs on the status of Joint Task Force KatrinaJoint Task Force KatrinaBush was widely seen as a "pragmatic caretaker" president who lacked a unified and compelling long-term theme in his efforts.NEWS,weblink The Independent — George H. W. Bush, The Independent, UK, January 22, 2009, September 5, 2010, JOURNAL,weblink The Prudence Thing: George Bush's Class Act, November/December 1998, Foreign Affairs, November 1, 1998, September 5, 2010, NEWS,weblink Time, Where Is the Real George Bush?, January 26, 1987, May 3, 2010, Robert, Ajemian, Indeed, Bush's sound bite where he refers to the issue of overarching purpose as "the vision thing" has become a metonym applied to other political figures accused of similar difficulties.WEB,weblink Quotations : Oxford Dictionaries Online, Askoxford.com, July 30, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030204213218weblink">weblink February 4, 2003, BOOK, Listen Up, Mr. President: Everything You Always Wanted Your President to Know and Do, 978-1-4391-4815-0, Thomas, Helen, Craig Crawford, Scribner, NEWS,weblink Joseph A. Palermo: Meg Whitman's "Vision Thing", The Huffington Post, September 5, 2010, September 26, 2009, WEB,weblink It's time to do the 'vision' thing: Times Argus Online, Timesargus.com, September 29, 2009, September 5, 2010, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130204102054weblink">weblink February 4, 2013, WEB, Mazurak, Zbigniew,weblink Blog Archive » Sarah Palin as a GOP Nominee?, The Reality Check, September 5, 2010, NEWS,weblink Obama does not want to become known as 'The Great Ditherer', David, Rothkopf, October 1, 2009, Foreign Policy, September 5, 2010, "He does not say why he wants to be there", wrote columnist George Will, "so the public does not know why it should care if he gets his way".His Ivy League and prep school education led to warnings by advisors that his image was too "preppy" in 1980, which resulted in deliberate efforts in his 1988 campaign to shed the image, including meeting voters at factories and shopping malls, abandoning set speeches. Bush's campaign director Roger Ailes and others were concerned that Bush was seen as a "wimp." Bush put that image to rest when he displayed evident fury during an interview with Dan Rather on January 25, 1988.His ability to gain broad international support for the Gulf War and the war's result were seen as both a diplomatic and military triumph, rousing bipartisan approval,WEB,weblink Modest Bush Approval Rating Boost at War's End: Summary of Findings – Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, People-press.org, September 5, 2010, April 18, 2003, though his decision to withdraw without removing Saddam Hussein left mixed feelings, and attention returned to the domestic front and a souring economy.WEB,weblink American Experience, George H. W. Bush, PBS, October 3, 1990, September 5, 2010, A New York Times article mistakenly depicted Bush as being surprised to see a supermarket barcode reader;JOURNAL, Goldberg, Jonah, August 22, 2008, The Corner: The Supermarket Scanner Story Cont'd, National Review,weblink June 26, 2017, NEWS, Rosenthal, Andrew, February 5, 1992, Bush Encounters the Supermarket, Amazed, The New York Times,weblink November 5, 2015, the report of his reaction exacerbated the notion that he was "out of touch". Amid the early 1990s recession, his image shifted from "conquering hero" to "politician befuddled by economic matters".Although Bush became the first elected Republican president since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid (facing a 34% approval rating leading up to the 1992 election), the mood did not last. Despite his defeat, Bush climbed back from election day approval levels to leave office in 1993 with a 56% job approval rating.NEWS,weblink Poll: Clinton Legacy Mixed, Langer, Gary, ABC News, January 17, 2001, April 11, 2008, By December 2008, 60% of Americans gave Bush's presidency a positive rating.NEWS, Steinhauser, Paul,weblink Views soften on 2 former presidents, CNN poll finds, CNN, September 5, 2010,

Post-presidency (1993–2018)

{{prose|section|date=December 2018}}

During Clinton presidency

Upon leaving office, Bush retired with his wife, Barbara, and temporarily moved into a friend's house near the Tanglewood community of Houston as they prepared to build a permanent retirement house nearby."From White House to 'regular house'". Associated Press at the Ocala Star-Banner. Saturday November 21, 1992. 2A. Retrieved from Google Books (2 of 84) on October 14, 2012. Ultimately they built their retirement house in the community of West Oaks, near Tanglewood. They had a presidential office within the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive."Bushes upbeat for step-down". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. January 10, 1993. 1 News. Retrieved on October 15, 2012. "Bush's Houston office will be in the Park Laureate Building on Memorial Drive" Mimi Swartz of National Geographic wrote that "The Bushes are too studiously sedate to live in River Oaks".Swartz, Mimi. "Survival of the Richest." National Geographic. March 2006. Retrieved on June 4, 2014. They spent their summers at Walker's Point in Kennebunkport, Maine.NEWS, Sharp, David, May 20, 2018, George H.W. Bush arrives in Kennebunkport for summer,weblink The Boston Globe, Associated Press, November 30, 2018, File:President Bill Clinton meeting with former Presidents George H.W. Bush and Jimmy Carter at the White House.jpg|thumb|President Bill Clinton meeting with former Presidents George H.W. Bush and Jimmy CarterJimmy CarterIn 1993, Bush was targeted in an assassination plot when he visited Kuwait to commemorate the coalition's victory over Iraq in the Gulf War. Kuwaiti authorities arrested 17 people who were allegedly involved in using a car bomb in an attempt to kill Bush. Through interviews with the suspects and examinations of the bomb's circuitry and wiring, the FBI established that the plot had been directed by the Iraqi Intelligence Service. A Kuwaiti court later convicted all but one of the defendants. Two months later, Clinton retaliated when he ordered the firing of 23 cruise missiles at Iraqi Intelligence Service headquarters in Baghdad. The day before the strike, U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright went before the Security Council to present evidence of the Iraqi plot. After the missiles were fired, Vice President Al Gore said the attack "was intended to be a proportionate response at the place where this plot" to assassinate Bush "was hatched and implemented".WEB,weblink frontline: the long road to war: assassination, PBS, September 5, 2010, In September 1993, Bush and other living former presidents were invited back to the White House for an Arab-Israeli peace accord. They also made the case to Clinton for a repeal of NAFTA.BOOK, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush, Jon, Meacham, 543, 2015, 978-1-4000-6765-7, Random House, In April 1994, Bush attended the funeral of Richard Nixon.NEWS,weblink The 37th President, Maureen, Dowd, The New York Times, April 28, 1994, In the 1994 gubernatorial elections, his sons George W. and Jeb concurrently ran for Governor of Texas and Governor of Florida. The elder Bush frequently telephoned their respective campaign headquarters for updates on the races.Meacham, p. 549. George W. won his race against Ann Richards while Jeb lost to Lawton Chiles. After the results came in, the elder Bush told ABC, "I have very mixed emotions. Proud father, is the way I would sum it all up."NEWS,weblink The 1994 Elections: The Nation The Bushes; Texas Elects George W. While Florida Rejects Jeb, November 9, 1994, Sam Howe, Verhovek, The New York Times, Jeb would again run for governor of Florida in 1998 and win at the same time that his brother George W. won re-election in Texas. It marked the second time in United States history that a pair of brothers served simultaneously as governors.NEWS, Rosenbaum, David E., November 4, 1998, George W. Bush Is Re-elected in Texas; His Brother Jeb Is Victorious in Florida,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, From 1993 to 1999, he served as the chairman of the board of trustees for Eisenhower Fellowships,NEWS, May 19, 1999, For Bush, a 2-day whirlwind of awards, The Philadelphia Inquirer,weblink Newspapers.com, December 1, 2018, {{free access}} and from 2007 to 2009 was chairman of the National Constitution Center.NEWS, December 1, 2018, Former President George H.W. Bush dies at 94,weblink KTRE, December 1, 2018, On September 28, 1994, Bush said he was opposed to sending American troops to Haiti, citing his loss of confidence in President of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide while speaking to business and civic leaders in Houston.NEWS,weblink Bush has lost confidence in Aristide, Paula, Dittrick, September 28, 1994, UPI, In an October 22, 1994 speech in Cancún, Mexico, Bush said history would vindicate him for not attempting to force Saddam Hussein out of power while in office: "The Mideast peace talks that offer hope to the world would never have started if we had done that. The Arabs would never have talked to us."NEWS,weblink Bush on Iraq, October 23, 1994, The New York Times, File:Unveiling of official George H. W. Bush portrait at the White House, 1995 2.jpg|thumb| The unveiling of an official portrait of George H. W. Bush at the East RoomEast RoomOn July 17, 1995, Bush returned to the White House for the unveiling of his official portrait in an East Room ceremony attended by former members of his administration.NEWS,weblink Bush Portraits Unveiled at White House, July 18, 1995, The New York Times, In September 1995, Bush met with President of Vietnam Lê Đức Anh and party secretary Đỗ Mười in Vietnam.BOOK, Bush, Barbara, Reflections: Life After the White House, Scribner, 2004, 978-0-7432-5582-0, 85–86, On September 2, Bush and his son George W. participated in a parade commemorating World War II in Fredericksburg, Texas, where the elder Bush reasoned the United States had become united in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor and stressed America would have to stay involved in world affairs to continue its unity.NEWS,weblink Bush: U.S. united by world involvement, September 2, 1995, UPI, On July 26, 1996, Bush met with Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole and pledged he would do everything in his power to aid in securing a victory for Dole in the upcoming presidential election.NEWS,weblink Bush vows to help Dole win White House, July 26, 1996, UPI, The two met again in October while Dole was preparing for upcoming debates with President Clinton. Bush's experience with debating Clinton prompting Dole to seek out his advice.NEWS,weblink Dole Concludes Debate Preparation by Asking Bush for Advice, October 6, 1996, The New York Times, In February 1997, Bush endorsed the chemical weapon banning treaty supported by United States Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, saying the United States would need to approve the treaty ahead of the April deadline.NEWS,weblink Bush Backs Albright on Chemical Arms Ban, February 9, 1997, The New York Times, In April 1997, Bush gave a speech at a convocation of a weekend conference analyzing his presidencyNEWS,weblink Bush Is a Self-Effacing Figure At Meeting on His Leadership, Clifford, Krauss, April 20, 1997, The New York Times, and joined President Bill Clinton, former President Ford, and Nancy Reagan in signing the "Summit Declaration of Commitment" in advocating for participation by private citizens in solving domestic issues within the United States.NEWS,weblink Presidents Call for Big Citizenship, Not Big Government, James, Bennet, April 29, 1997, The New York Times, Also in April 1997, the Houston Intercontinental Airport was renamed George Bush Intercontinental Airport after a proposal received the unanimous approval of the Houston City Council.NEWS, April 16, 1997, Houston renaming airport after Bush,weblink UPI, November 30, 2018, The renaming took effect on May 2, with Bush presiding over the ceremonies as he took a 50-minute flight during the official changeover.NEWS, Jicha, Tom, May 2, 1997, Houston Airport renamed after Bush,weblink Sun-Sentinel, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, November 30, 2018, File:Inauguration ceremony of Jeb Bush.jpg|thumb|Inauguration ceremony of Jeb BushJeb BushIn August 1997, Bush agreed to be interviewed by The New York Times, as long as he would not be portrayed as giving credit to himself over the balanced budget deal that was composed by President Clinton and House Speaker Newt Gingrich. During a telephone interview, he stated his belief that history would show that his administration laid the groundwork for the agreement.NEWS,weblink In Balanced-Budget Deal, Bush Is Off the Seesaw, David E., Rosenbaum, August 8, 1997, President Bush was Honorary Chairman of Points of Light, an international nonprofit dedicated to engaging more people and resources in solving serious social problems through voluntary service.WEB, Points of Light: Our Leadership,weblink Points of Light, May 23, 2013, In January 1999, Bush spoke in the Old Senate chamber as part of a lecture series for Senators in an address warning against the collapse of political decorum and invasions into the privacy of individuals.NEWS,weblink STATE OF THE UNION: THE EX-PRESIDENT; In Speech to Senators, Bush Laments Decline of Civility and Privacy, Frank, Bruni, January 21, 1999, The New York Times, In February 1999, Bush was part of the American delegation to the funeral of King Hussein of Jordan in Amman.NEWS,weblink DEATH OF A KING: THE AMERICANS; Clinton Lauds King Hussein As Man of Vision and Spirit, John, Broder, February 9, 1999, The New York Times, In April 1999, Bush called for the release of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet when Spain had him arrested and sought to try him for human rights violations.WEB, Former U.S. President Bush urges Pinochet release,weblink CNN, Reuters, April 12, 1999, December 11, 2017, In May 1999, Bush and his wife Barbara honored six senior citizens during the annual Ageless Heroes honors in Chicago, Illinois.NEWS,weblink Bush honors senior 'ageless heroes', May 18, 1999, UPI,

During George W. Bush presidency

(File:G & B. Bush F-SD-03-15575.jpg|left|thumb|upright=0.9|George and Barbara Bush, 2001)His eldest son, George W. Bush, was inaugurated as the 43rd president of the United States on January 20, 2001, and re-elected in 2004. Through previous administrations, the elder Bush had ubiquitously been known as "George Bush" or "President Bush", but following his son's election the need to distinguish between them has made retronymic forms such as "George H. W. Bush" and "George Bush senior" and colloquialisms such as "Bush 41" and "Bush the Elder" much more common. H.W. Bush was traveling to Minnesota for a speaking engagement on the day of the September 11 attacks. George W. made multiple calls to get in contact with his father before the two men reconnected after the elder Bush had gone to a Brookfield, Wisconsin motel.BOOK, 41: A Portrait of My Father, George W., Bush, George W. Bush, Crown Publishers, 978-0-553-44778-1, 265, 2014, Bush told biographer Jon Meacham that his son's vice president, Dick Cheney, underwent a change following the September 11 attacks: "His seeming knuckling under to the real hard-charging guys who want to fight about everything, use force to get our way in the Middle East."NEWS,weblink Elder Bush Says His Son Was Served Badly by Aides, November 4, 2015, The New York Times, Peter, Baker, In December 2002, George W. sought counsel from the elder Bush regarding Iraq and informed him of "my efforts to rally the Saudis, Jordanians, Turks, and others in the Middle East".Meacham, pp. 571-572.Following the fall of Baghdad, Bush praised George W. in an April 2003 email to the incumbent president.Meacham, p. 274. In a September 14, 2003 interview with BBC, Bush stated his support for a continuation of his son's war against terrorism and that the U.S. was in a better state in terms of protecting itself from terrorism than two years prior.NEWS,weblink Ex-president Bush backs war on terrorism, September 14, 2003, UPI, While visiting Houston VA Medical Center on December 17, Bush told reporters of his satisfaction with the capture of Saddam Hussein.NEWS,weblink Elder Bush says capture magical moment, UPI, December 17, 2003, President and Mrs. Bush attended the state funeral of Ronald Reagan in June 2004,NEWS,weblink The 40th President; Faces in the Four Thousand, June 12, 2004, Brian, Wingfield, and of Gerald Ford in January 2007.NEWS,weblink Ford Is Remembered at Funeral in Washington, Scott, Shane, January 3, 2007, The New York Times, One month later, he was awarded the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award in Beverly Hills, California, by former First Lady Nancy Reagan. Despite Bush's political differences with Bill Clinton, reports acknowledged that the two former presidents had become friends.NEWS, Healy, Patrick,weblink A Candidacy That May Test a Friendship's Ties, The New York Times, May 19, 2007, May 22, 2011, He and Clinton appeared together in television ads in 2005, encouraging aid for victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.WEB,weblink People of the Year: Bill Clinton and George H. W. Bush, ABC News, December 27, 2005, September 5, 2010, File:Vladimir Putin met with former U.S. President George Bush Sr.jpg|thumb|Bush (right) with Russian President Vladimir Putin as he receives the Jubilee Medal "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"Jubilee Medal "60 Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"In October 2004, Bush endorsed Pete Sessions and Ted Poe in Texas congressional races.NEWS,weblink Pa Bush endorses another Texas candidate, October 27, 2004, UPI, In February 2006, Bush delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King.NEWS,weblink 4 U.S. presidents at Coretta King funeral, February 7, 2006, UPI, On March 2, 2006, President Bush announced that his father would lead the American delegation to the inauguration of the President-elect of the Republic of Portugal Aníbal Cavaco Silva.WEB,weblink President Announces Former President Bush to Lead U.S. Delegation to Attend Portuguese Inauguration, georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov, In September 2006, Bush campaigned for New Jersey Senate candidate Thomas Kean Jr., praising him as well as stating his respect for Kean for calling on the resignation of U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld.NEWS,weblink Ex-Presidents, Often Allies, Divided by a Senate Race, September 7, 2006, The New York Times, Richard G., Jones, Kean went on to lose the election. The following month, he was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF) with the NIAF One America Award for fundraising, with Bill Clinton, for the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.WEB,weblink Univision CEO Joe Uva to Receive One America Award, National Italian American Foundation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120612022655weblink">weblink June 12, 2012, July 30, 2016, On February 18, 2008, Bush formally endorsed Senator John McCain for President of the United States.NEWS,weblink George H. W. Bush Endorses McCain for President, February 18, 2008, March 28, 2008, The Washington Post, The endorsement offered a boost to McCain's campaign, because the Arizona Senator had been facing criticism among many conservatives.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080314155546weblink">weblink March 14, 2008, Former President Bush Endorses McCain, February 18, 2008, March 28, 2008, Los Angeles Times, Neuman, Johanna, yes, During a trip to Tokyo, Japan, Bush said that he would campaign vigorously against Senator Hillary Clinton if she were to initiate a presidential bid.WEB, Elder Bush: 'Beat the hell' out of Hillary, UPI, December 16, 2006,weblink December 1, 2018, In March 2008, Bush met with President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao, who praised Bush for his attempts at harmonizing relations between the U.S. and China.WEB, Former U.S. president Bush visits China, UPI, March 8, 2008,weblink December 1, 2018, File:George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush with Hu Jintao.jpg|thumb|George H. W. Bush with son George W. Bush and China's President Hu JintaoHu JintaoDuring an address at the University of Kansas on November 16, 2008, Bush said that President-elect Obama would encounter diverse issues upon taking office and experience a wave of enthusiasm.WEB, Elder Bush says Obama will face tough job, UPI, November 17, 2008,weblink December 1, 2018, On January 10, 2009, George H. W. and George W. Bush were both present at the commissioning of {{USS|George H.W. Bush}} (CVN-77), the tenth and last {{sclass-|Nimitz|aircraft carrier|0}} supercarrier of the United States Navy.WEB, Future USS George H. W. Bush to Transit, Naval Sea Systems Command Public Affairs, December 18, 2008,weblink December 22, 2008, NEWS,weblink Carrier awaits a call to come to life in ceremony today, Jones, Matthew, January 10, 2009, The Virginian Pilot, Landmark Communications, January 10, 2009, Bush paid a visit to the carrier again on May 26, 2009.WEB, Former President Bush Visits Namesake Aircraft Carrier, United States Navy, May 27, 2009,weblink December 1, 2018, (File:US Navy 090109-N-7656T-060 Capt. Kevin E. O-Flaherty-- commanding officer of the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush -CVN 77- --escorts former President George H.W. Bush.jpg|thumb|left|Capt. Kevin E. O'Flaherty, commanding officer of the aircraft carrier {{USS|George H.W. Bush}}, escorts former President George H. W. Bush, 2009)

During Obama presidency

File:Five Presidents Oval Office.jpg|upright=1.2|thumb|right|Four presidents and one then-president-elect. From left to right: George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter. Photo taken in the Oval OfficeOval OfficeIn October 2009, Bush joined President Barack Obama onstage at Texas A&M University for a promotion of volunteering.NEWS,weblink Two Presidents Share a Stage on the Subject of Service, October 16, 2009, Peter, Baker, The New York Times, On February 15, 2011, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the highest civilian honor in the United States—by President Barack Obama.For the transcript of Obama's remarks honoring Bush, see WEB,weblink 2010 Presidential Medal of Freedom Ceremony, The White House, February 15, 2011, Later that year, Bush, an avid golfer, was inducted in the World Golf Hall of Fame.WEB,weblink Bush, George H.W., June 1, 2018, On March 29, 2012, Bush endorsed Mitt Romney for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2012 Presidential election. NBC News reported that Bush had chosen to support Romney three months prior.NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush endorses Romney, March 29, 2012, UPI, In July 2013, Bush had his head shaved in a show of support for the two-year-old son of a member of his security detail, who had leukemia.NEWS, Edwards, Breanna, George H.W. Bush shaves head,weblink Politico, July 24, 2013, On July 7, Bush met with Gabrielle Giffords for part of her week-long Rights and Responsibilities Tour advocating expanded background checks in relation to firearm purchases.NEWS,weblink Giffords meets with George H.W. Bush, UPI, July 7, 2013, File:Barack Obama and George H. W. Bush in the Oval Office.jpg|thumb|Bush meets President Barack ObamaBarack ObamaIn April 2014, Frederick D. McClure, chief executive of the Bush library foundation, organized a three-day gathering in College Park, Texas, to mark the 25th anniversary of the Bush administration. Also in early 2014, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation presented the Profile in Courage Award to Bush and Mount Vernon awarded him its first Cyrus A. Ansary Prize.Baker, Peter, "Bush 41 Reunion Looks to Burnish His Legacy", New York Times, April 3, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014. The Kennedy foundation award was presented by Jack Schlossberg, the late president's grandson, to Lauren Bush Lauren, who accepted on her grandfather's behalf.Edelman, Adam, "George H.W. Bush honored with Kennedy Profile in Courage Award", New York Daily News, May 4, 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2014. The Ansary prize was presented in Houston with Ansary, Barbara Lucas, Ryan C. Crocker, dean of the Bush school since January 2010, Barbara Bush, and Curt Viebranz in attendance with the former president. Bush directed $50,000 of the prize to the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University, and $25,000 to fund an animation about the Siege of Yorktown for Mount Vernon.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140602195113weblink">weblink June 2, 2014, Former U.S. President Honored with Ansary Prize,weblink Mt. Vernon web page, March 18, 2016, Viebranz and Lucas represented Mount Vernon at the presentation.Senior staff, mountvernon.org. Viebranz is identified as president and CEO of George Washington's Mount Vernon. Retrieved June 14, 2014."Presidents Day 2014 â€” Barbara Lucas", mountvernon.org. Lucas is identified as regent of Mount Vernon's Ladies' Association. Retrieved June 14, 2014.On June 12, 2014, Bush fulfilled a long-standing promise by skydiving on his 90th birthday. He made the parachute jump from a helicopter near his home at 11:15 a.m. in Kennebunkport, Maine. The jump marked the eighth time the past president skydived, including jumps on his 80th and 85th birthday as well.WEB,weblink George H. W. Bush SKYDIVES for His 90th Birthday!, TMZ, June 12, 2014, July 2, 2014, He tweeted about the incident prior to the jump, saying "It's a wonderful day in Maine â€” in fact, nice enough for a parachute jump."NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush takes one last skydive for 90th birthday, Jackson, David, USA Today, June 12, 2014, July 2, 2014, TWEET, GeorgeHWBush, 477061870478581760, June 12, 2018, It's a wonderful day in Maine -- in fact, nice enough for a parachute jump., File:Bushes and Pences C38RSFoVYAAZCI2.jpg|thumb|right|The Bushes with Vice President Mike Pence and family, wife Karen and daughter Charlotte, at Super Bowl LISuper Bowl LIOn December 7, 2016, Bush and former Senator Bob Dole commemorated the 75th anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor by appearing at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University.NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush and Bob Dole reunite for Pearl Harbor Anniversary, CNN, Terence, Burliij, December 7, 2016,

2016 election

Bush supported his younger son Jeb's 2016 presidential bid.NEWS,weblink Bush father, son want Jeb Bush to run for White House, November 11, 2014, azcentral.com, Jeb Bush's campaign struggled however, and he withdrew from the race during the primaries. Neither George H.W. nor George W. Bush endorsed the eventual Republican nominee, Donald Trump;NEWS,weblink Bush 41, 43 won't be endorsing Trump, Eliza, Collins, USA Today, all three Bushes emerged as frequent critics of Trump's policies and speaking style, while Trump frequently criticized George W. Bush's presidency. George H. W. Bush later said that he voted for the Democratic nominee, Hillary Clinton, in the general election.NEWS,weblink White House attacks legacies of both Bush presidents after reports they refused to vote for Trump, Selk, Avi, November 4, 2017, The Washington Post, November 4, 2017, After Trump won the election, Bush sent him a congratulatory message.NEWS,weblink George H. W. Bush's message to Donald Trump, The Washington Post, Lindsey, Bever, November 9, 2016,

During Trump presidency

On February 5, 2017, George and Barbara Bush participated in the coin toss for Super Bowl LI.WEB,weblink Former President Bush 'fired up' for coin toss at Houston's Super Bowl, George, Cindy, Houston Chronicle, February 4, 2017, February 5, 2017, On August 16, 2017, Bush and his son George W. released a joint statement in which they condemned the violence at the Unite the Right rally.NEWS,weblink George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush: We must reject 'hatred in all forms', Jessica, Estepa, USA Today, August 16, 2017, On September 7, 2017, Bush partnered with former presidents Carter, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.NEWS,weblink Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief, Shelbourne, Mallory, September 10, 2017, The Hill, September 11, 2017,

Personal life

Faith

Bush was raised in the Episcopal Church, though by the end of his life his apparent religious beliefs are considered to have more in line with Evangelical Christian doctrine and practices.NEWS, Johnston, Lori, December 1, 2018, George H.W. Bush helped lead GOP toward evangelicalism,weblink The Washington Post, December 1, 2018, He cited various moments in his life deepening of his faith, including his escape from Japanese forces in 1944, and the death of his three-year-old daughter Robin in 1953. His faith was reflected in his Thousand Points of Light speech, his support for prayer in schools, and his support for the pro-life movement (following his election as vice president).WEB,weblink The Faith of George HW Bush, Gary S., Smith, June 26, 2017, The Christian Post, June 1, 2018, After his wife's death in April 2018, Bush released a statement through his spokesman, saying in part, "We have faith she is in heaven, and we know life will go on â€” as she would have it. So, cross the Bushes off your worry list."WEB,weblink "How is 41?" Family offers update on President George H.W. Bush, April 18, 2018, June 1, 2018, On the day of his death, his friend James Baker told Bush that he was going to heaven. Bush replied "Good. That's where I want to go."WEB,weblink George Bush's last day started with three eggs, ended with 'I love you', John, Bacon, December 2, 2018, USA Today, December 3, 2018,

Later-life health

In 1991, The New York Times revealed that Bush was suffering from Graves' disease, a non-contagious thyroid condition that his wife Barbara also suffered from.NEWS, Altman, Lawrence, In Strange Twist, Bush Is Suffering From Same Gland Disease as Wife,weblink June 5, 2018, The New York Times, May 10, 1991, On February 24, 2000, Bush was standing at a reception for 90 minutes when he felt lightheaded. He was admitted to a hospital with an irregular heartbeat.NEWS,weblink THE 2000 CAMPAIGN; Ex-President Falls Ill, February 25, 2000, Associated Press, When Bush was released three days later, his doctors said that he had retained the irregularity in his heartbeat.NEWS,weblink Elder Bush Is Released After More Heart Tests, February 24, 2000, The New York Times, On March 11, 2007, Bush fainted on a golf course and was admitted to the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, California, but was released the following morning.NEWS,weblink President's father faints on golf course, March 12, 2007, UPI, Bush suffered from vascular parkinsonism, a form of Parkinson's disease which had forced him to use a motorized scooter or wheelchair since at least 2012.NEWS, Updegrove, Mark K., An Exclusive Conversation with President and Mrs. Bush,weblink February 15, 2017, Parade (magazine), Parade, July 15, 2012, Then, in July 2015, he suffered a severe neck injury. Even so, in October that year, he had recovered enough that he was able to throw out the ceremonial first pitch for the Houston Astros at Minute Maid Park.NEWS, McAfee, Tierney, PHOTO: George H.W. Bush Throws Out First Pitch at Astros Playoff Game in First Public Appearance Since Neck Injury,weblink January 31, 2016, People, October 12, 2015, Bush wrote a letter to president-elect Donald Trump in January 2017 to inform him that because of his poor health, he would not be able to attend Trump's inauguration on January 20; he gave him his best wishes. On January 18, he was admitted to the intensive care unit at Houston Methodist Hospital, where he was sedated for a procedure to treat an acute respiratory problem that was stemming from pneumonia.NEWS, Garcia, Feliks, George HW Bush sends personal note to Donald Trump on why he can't attend inauguration,weblink January 18, 2017, The Independent, January 18, 2017, Three months later, he experienced a recurrence of pneumonia and was hospitalized.NEWS, Former President George HW Bush hospitalised in Houston,weblink The Telegraph, April 19, 2017, April 19, 2017, Associated Press, On April 22, 2018, the day after his wife's funeral Bush was hospitalized with a blood infection.WEB,weblink George H.W. Bush admitted to Houston hospital for blood infection, April 23, 2018, NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush admitted to hospital days after wife's death, Telegraph, Reporters, April 23, 2018, www.telegraph.co.uk, The Telegraph, The infection led to sepsis.NEWS, Gangel, Jamie, April 24, 2018, Former President George H.W. Bush is alert and talking, but remains in intensive care,weblink CNN, November 30, 2018, One month later, he was briefly hospitalized again, after experiencing fatigue and low blood pressure.NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush hospitalized, Maegan, Vazquez, CNN, May 27, 2018, May 27, 2018, NEWS,weblink Former president George H.W. Bush is hospitalized again, spokesman says, Phillips, Kristine, Chicago Tribune, May 27, 2018,

Charity

In December 2018, the nonprofit Compassion International, revealed that Bush secretly sponsored a boy in the Philippines for ten years using a pseudonym. He sponsored the boy from 2002 until 2012, personally writing to Timothy using the name George Walker. Timothy only found out who his sponsor had been after he graduated from the program at 17.WEB,weblink George H.W. Bush secretly sponsored a Filipino child for 10 years. Read some of the letters they sent each other, Diaz, Andrea, December 19, 2018, CNN, WEB,weblink George H.W. Bush secretly sponsored Filipino boy, letters reveal, ph.news.yahoo.com,

Sexual misconduct allegations

In October 2017, during the Me Too movement, actress Heather Lind accused Bush of groping her and telling an inappropriate joke. Several other women subsequently made similar allegations.NEWS, Jenkins, Aric, 'I Was a Child.' Woman Says George H.W. Bush Groped Her When She Was 16, Time, November 13, 2017,weblink December 1, 2018, Bush apologized for these incidents through his spokesman, Jim McGrath.NEWS, Tom, Porter,weblink George H.W. Bush Apologizes After Actress Heather Lind Accuses Him of Sexual Assault, Newsweek, October 25, 2017, September 14, 2018, NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush Responds to Groping Allegations, NPR, October 26, 2017, October 29, 2017, James, Doubek, NEWS,weblink George Bush Snr accused by interpreter, BBC News, November 17, 2017, Bell, Chris, At the time, an editorial writer for the Washington Post noted that some would relate his behavior to his vascular parkinsonism or other senility related conditions.NEWS, Molly, Roberts,weblink The biggest question about the George H.W. Bush groping debacle, The Washington Post, Nash Holdings LLC, Washington DC, October 26, 2017, December 2, 2018,

Death and funeral

File:The United States Capitol (46125518422).jpg|thumb|upright=.95|Members of the public pay their respects at the casket of George H. W. Bush lying in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C.]]George H. W. Bush died on November 30, 2018, aged 94 years, 171 days,NEWS, Former President George H.W. Bush dead at 94,weblink ABC News, December 1, 2018, December 1, 2018, at his home in Houston.NEWS, Nagourney, Adam, November 30, 2018, George Bush, 41st President, Dies at 94,weblink The New York Times, November 30, 2018, At the time of his death he was the longest-lived U.S. president,NEWS, Bowden, John, November 25, 2017, Bush 41 becomes longest-living president in US history,weblink The Hill, Washington, D.C., November 25, 2017, a distinction now held (since March 22, 2019) by Jimmy Carter.NEWS, Barrow, Bill, Jimmy Carter's new milestone: Longest-lived U.S. president, The Detroit News,weblink March 22, 2019, March 22, 2019, He was also the third-oldest vice president.{{refn|group=nb|The longest-lived U.S. vice president is John Nance Garner, who died on November 7, 1967, 15 days short of his 99th birthday.NEWS, Lewis, Janna, January 22, 2009, Texans who were presidents, vice-presidents,weblink Fort Hood Sentinel, Fort Hood, Texas, April 22, 2018, }}Bush laid in state in the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol from December 3 through December 5; he was the 12th U.S. President to be accorded this honor.NEWS,weblink George H.W. Bush to lie in state in US Capitol; Trump to attend funeral, Pergram, Chad, Shaw, Adam, John Roberts (journalist), John Roberts contributed to this report, December 1, 2018, Fox News, January 21, 2019, WEB, Individuals Who Have Lain in State or in Honor,weblink Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., January 21, 2019, Then, on December 5, Bush's casket was transferred from the Capitol rotunda to Washington National Cathedral where a state funeral was held.NEWS, Thousands honor former President George H.W. Bush at National Cathedral funeral, December 6, 2018, CBS News,weblink January 19, 2019, Former president George W. Bush eulogized his father saying,Former Canadian prime minister Brian Mulroney (1984–1993) said,Presidential historian Jon Meacham also gave a eulogy for the former President in which he stated, "George Herbert Walker Bush, who survived that fiery fall into the waters of the Pacific three quarters of a century ago, so that he could make our lives and the lives of nations freer, better, warmer, and nobler."WEB,weblink Jon Meacham's Eulogy for George H.W. Bush: Read What the President's Biographer Had to Say, Chloe, Foussianes, December 5, 2018, Town & Country, Afterward, Bush's casket was flown back to Houston and then transported to St. Martin's Episcopal Church where a second service was held on December 6.NEWS,weblink Houston says goodbye to former President George H.W. Bush, a 'devoted' man of faith, Rhor, Monica, Jervis, Rick, Bacon, John, USA Today, December 6, 2018, January 21, 2019, Following this his casket was brought by train to the George H.W. Bush Presidential Library in College Station, Texas where he was buried next to his wife Barbara and daughter Robin.NEWS,weblink For George Bush, One Last Funeral, and then a 70-Mile Train Ride, The New York Times, December 12, 2018, Fernandez, Manny,

Tributes

Former President Barack Obama released a lengthy statement, in part it reads, "America has lost a patriot and humble servant in George Herbert Walker Bush. While our hearts are heavy today, they are also filled with gratitude. Our thoughts are with the entire Bush family tonight – and all who were inspired by George and Barbara’s example."WEB,weblink Celebrities pay tribute to George H.W. Bush after former president's death, EW.com, Former First Lady Michelle Obama cancelled her book tour, saying on twitter, "I hope readers and ticket holders will understand my decision regarding my desire to attend President Bush’s funeral, and join me in paying tribute to him and his tremendous contributions to our world."WEB,weblink Michelle Obama cancels part of book tour to attend George H.W. Bush's funeral, TODAY.com, Former President Bill Clinton, in a statement described Bush's long record of service in the military, Congress, the CIA and as president, where he served from 1989 to 1993. "He never stopped serving," Clinton said. "I am profoundly grateful for every minute I spent with President Bush and will always hold our friendship as one of my life's greatest gifts."WEB,weblink Presidents And Former Colleagues React To George H.W. Bush's Death, NPR.org, Former Sec. of State Hillary Clinton tweeted out in remembrance of the President, "George H.W. Bush was a beloved father & grandfather, a war hero, a public servant, & a class act. In my experiences w/ him, I always valued his desire to listen, look at evidence & ask for ideas, even from people w/ different beliefs. My heart goes out to the entire Bush family".WEB,weblink George H.W. Bush: Social media lights up with respect, NBC News, Former President Jimmy Carter, said Bush's administration "was marked by grace, civility and social conscience." The Democrat added that through the Points of Light initiative that Bush founded, which promotes volunteerism, he embraced "a uniquely American volunteer spirit and bipartisan support."Queen Elizabeth II released a lengthy statement saying in part, "It was with sadness that I learned of the death of President George H W Bush last night. Prince Philip and I remember our days in Texas in 1991 with great fondness. My thoughts and prayers are with President Bush's family and the American people."WEB,weblink Tributes to George H.W. Bush pour in from former presidents, world leaders and celebs, USA TODAY, German Chancellor Angela Merkel called Bush — who was U.S. president during the 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall — "one of the fathers of German reunification, and we will never forget that."Colin Powell in an interview with NPR, who served as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under Bush, called the former President "the most qualified president to take over that office in our history."Ellen DeGeneres tweeted, "I will never forget George H.W. Bush and President Clinton meeting me in my old hometown of New Orleans to show support and raise money after Hurricane Katrina. I send my love to his family tonight."At the 2018 Kennedy Center Honors, host Gloria Estefan paused the show to acknowledge the recent passing of George H.W. Bush. She also shared a personal story in which he shared his kindness to her and her son. She noted that Bush was a "wonderful man who dedicated his life to service and who graciously attended this event many times during his administration". The entire theatre applauded and in tribute to Bush gave him a standing ovation.WEB,weblink Gloria Estefan Opens Kennedy Center Honors With Tribute To George H.W. Bush, Marina, Fang, December 2, 2018, HuffPost, On Saturday Night Live, during the Weekend Update segment, Colin Jost and Michael Che paid tribute to the late President saying, "President Bush was famously a warm and gracious man who always understood the power of being able to laugh at yourself", before cutting to a clip package of Dana Carvey's legandary and iconic impersonation of the President.WEB,weblink George H.W. Bush receives a loving tribute from 'Saturday Night Live' and Dana Carvey, Adam, Rosenberg, Mashable, Following Bush Sr's death Carvey released a statement remembering the President saying, ""It was an honor and a privileged to know and spend time with George H.W. Bush for over 25 years. When I think of those times what I remember most is how hard we would laugh. I will miss my friend."WEB,weblink How 'SNL,' Dana Carvey paid tribute to President George H.W. Bush, TODAY.com, On the Late Show with Stephen Colbert, Colbert honored "the last President from the greatest generation" saying, "The 41st President was known for the kindness and respect he showed to even his political rivals...we may never see the likes of that again"WEB,weblink Remembering George H.W. Bush, December 4, 2018, YouTube, Later Colbert asked Sen. Bernie Sanders, who was on the show about the passing of Bush Sr., to which Sanders replied "Of course I disagreed with him [H.W. Bush], but he was an honest man, he was a decent man, he loved his country very much...we wish that we could have a president who was honest back in the White House again"WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders: I would take George H.W. Bush back in the White House over Trump any day, December 7, 2018, Washington Examiner,

Legacy

Upon his death many in the news media remembered his 1988 speech when receiving his party's nomination for President, he declared that he wanted "a kinder, gentler nation," adding, "We are a nation of communities, of thousands, and tens of thousands, of ethnic, religious, social, business, labor union, neighborhood, regional, and other organizations, all of them varied, voluntary and unique ... a brilliant diversity spread like stars, like a thousand points of light in a broad and peaceful sky.".WEB,weblink The Bush With "˜the Vision Thing' Comes Home to the White House, George E. Condon Jr , National, Journal, July 15, 2013, The Atlantic, WEB,weblink Dead at 94; former President George H.W. Bush called for 'kinder, gentler nation, IndianCountryToday.com, WEB,weblink Washington Post: Breaking News, World, US, DC News & Analysis, Washington Post, Scott Horsley of NPR, wrote "The 41st president of the United States led the country through turbulent times, including the end of the Cold War and the first Gulf War. His life exemplified service to his country".WEB,weblink Looking Back At George H.W. Bush's Legacy, NPR.org, and that "The tax hike cut the deficit, but it cost Bush dearly with conservatives. Years later, Bush would receive a Profile in Courage Award from John F. Kennedy's grandson who said America's gain was President Bush's loss. Bush's most notable accomplishments in the White House came in the area of foreign policy. While Ronald Reagan is often credited with winning the Cold War, biographer Naftali says it was Bush who successfully navigated the aftermath. His low-key approach avoided inflaming communist hard-liners and allowed for the peaceful breakup of the Soviet Union."On the PBS NewsHour Weekend, they credited him with "bringing the Cold War to a peaceful end after the fall of the Berlin Wall, and signed the American with Disabilities and Clean Air acts into law."WEB,weblink A tribute to 41 and his ‘kinder, gentler’ legacy, December 1, 2018, PBS NewsHour, Presidential historian Jon Meacham described Bush's life as one of "great privilege but who believed and embodied the idea that to whom much is given, much is expected".WEB,weblink Remembering Bush 41 who wished for a ‘gentler, kinder nation’, MSNBC.com, He also noted his "grace, civility, and prudence" On MSNBC he was noted as the "last gentleman in Washington", who chose the path of "conviction over convenience" They also noted despite his extraordinary legacy, the divisive Clarence Thomas hearings that happened during his presidency as well as President Reagan's poor response to the AIDS crisis. President Obama commented on Bush's legacy by crediting him with "expanding America’s promise to new immigrants and people with disabilities. Reducing the scourge of nuclear weapons and building a broad international coalition to expel a dictator from Kuwait. And when democratic revolutions bloomed across Eastern Europe, it was his steady, diplomatic hand that made possible an achievement once thought anything but - ending the Cold War without firing a shot, It’s a legacy of service that may never be matched, even though he’d want all of us to try."WEB,weblink Former US president Barack Obama remembers George H.W. Bush's 'legacy of service', December 1, 2018, YOURCENTRALVALLEY, According to presidential historian Mark K. Updegrove, Bush "cemented" the tradition of presidents leaving behind letters of support for their successors on the Resolute Desk.NEWS,weblink Bush's Letter to Clinton Cemented a Presidential Tradition, Historians Say, Jacobs, Julia, December 1, 2018, The New York Times, December 2, 2018, While Reagan had been the first modern president to do so in 1989, Bush's move was significant in that his gesture of goodwill was made towards Clinton, the man to whom Bush had just lost the election. President Clinton spoke with 60 Minutes in a part of a tribute to Bush Sr., commenting on the letter saying, "This letter is a statement of who he is. That's why he's a world-class human being in my book. ... And our friendship just got better. And in a world where everybody's just gutting each other all the time I thought it was a good thing to show. ... It's been one of the great joys of my life, my friendship with him. Our arguments were good-natured and open, and — we continue to debate things all the way up until recently."WEB,weblink Former presidents talk George H.W. Bush's legacy on "60 Minutes", Axios, According to USA Today, the legacy of Bush's presidency was defined by his victory over Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait, and for his presiding over the collapse of the USSR and unification of Germany. The paper said his political legacy would "continue years later through his son, George W. Bush, who became the 43rd president of the United States."NEWS, Remembering Former President George H.W. Bush's life and legacy,weblink USA Today, December 1, 2018, December 1, 2018,

Presidential library

File:George Bush Presidential Library.jpg|thumb|The George Bush Presidential LibraryGeorge Bush Presidential LibraryThe George Bush Presidential Library is the nation's tenth presidential library and was built between 1995 and 1997.PRESS RELEASE, November 6, 1997, National Archives Accepts Bush Library as Tenth Presidential Library,weblink National Archives and Records Administration, November 30, 2018, It contains the presidential and vice presidential papers of Bush and the vice presidential papers of Dan Quayle.WEB, The Birth of the Tenth Presidential Library: The Bush Presidential Materials Project, 1993–1994, George Bush Presidential Library,weblink March 22, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070410185146weblink">weblink April 10, 2007, It was dedicated on November 6, 1997, and opened to the public shortly thereafter; the architectural firm of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum designed the complex.NEWS, November 6, 1997, Bush hopes library makes history clear,weblink CNN, November 30, 2018, NEWS, Robbins, Jefferson, February 7, 1999, Free Hand,weblink Chicago Tribune, November 30, 2018, The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is located on a {{convert|90|acre|adj=on}} site on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, on a plaza adjoining the Presidential Conference Center and the Texas A&M Academic Center.NEWS, Heathman, Claire, July 3, 2013, How Texas A&M became home to the George Bush Presidential Library and Museum,weblink The Bryan-College Station Eagle, November 30, 2018, The Library operates under NARA's administration and the provisions of the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955.NEWS, 2005, The Presidential Libraries Act after 50 Years,weblink Prologue Magazine, National Archives and Records Administration, November 30, 2018, The Bush School of Government and Public Service is a graduate public policy school at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, which was established in 1995. The graduate school is part of the presidential library complex, and offers four programs â€” two master's degree programs (Public Service and Administration, and International Affairs) and three certificate programs (Advanced International Affairs, Nonprofit Management, and Homeland Security).NEWS, Lyons, Kelan, October 19, 2017, For alumni, the Bush School of Government & Public Service served as 'a foundation' for education,weblink The Bryan-College Station Eagle, November 30, 2018,

See also

{{Wikipedia books|George H. W. Bush}}

Notes

{{Reflist|group=nb}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Andrew, Christopher, Christopher Andrew (historian), For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush, 1996, Harper Perennial, 978-0-06-092178-1, 503–536,
  • BOOK, Barilleaux, Ryan J., Stuckey, Mary E., Leadership and the Bush Presidency: Prudence or Drift in an Era of Change, 1992, Praeger, New York, 978-0-275-94418-6,
  • BOOK, Ducat, Stephen J., The Wimp Factor: Gender Gaps, Holy Wars, and the Politics of Anxious Masculinity, 2004, Beacon Press, Boston, 978-0-8070-4344-8,
  • BOOK, Duffy, Michael, Michael Duffy (American journalist), Goodgame, Dan, Marching in Place: The Status Quo Presidency of George Bush, 1992, Simon & Schuster, New York, 978-0-671-73720-7,
  • BOOK, Fitzwater, Marlin, Marlin Fitzwater, Call the Briefing, 1995, Times Books, New York, 978-0-7388-3458-0,
  • BOOK, Greene, John Robert, John Robert Greene, The Presidency of George Bush, 2015, 2nd, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 978-0-7006-2079-1,
  • BOOK, Hyams, Joe, Joe Hyams, Flight of the Avenger: George Bush at War, 1991, Harcourt Brace Jovanovic, San Diego, 978-0-15-131469-0,
  • BOOK, Kelley, Kitty, Kitty Kelley, The Family: The True Story of the Bush Dynasty, 2004, Doubleday, London, 978-0-385-50324-2,
  • BOOK, Meacham, Jon, Jon Meacham, Destiny and Power: The American Odyssey of George Herbert Walker Bush,weblink 2015, Random House, New York, 978-1-4000-6765-7,
  • BOOK, Naftali, Timothy, Timothy Naftali, George H. W. Bush, 2007, Times Books, 978-0-8050-6966-2,
  • BOOK, Patterson, James T., James T. Patterson (historian), Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore, Oxford University Press, 2005, 978-0-19-512216-9,
  • BOOK, Podhoretz, John, John Podhoretz, Hell of a Ride: Backstage at the White House Follies, 1989–1993, 1993, Simon & Schuster, New York, 978-0-671-79648-8,
  • BOOK, Smith, Jean Edward, Jean Edward Smith, George Bush's War, 1992, Henry Holt & Company, New York, 978-0-8050-1388-7,
  • BOOK, Sununu, John H., The Quiet Man: The Indispensable Presidency of George H. W. Bush, Broadside Books, 2015, 978-0-06-238428-7, John H. Sununu,
  • BOOK, Updegrove, Mark K., Mark K. Updegrove, The Last Republicans: Inside the Extraordinary Relationship between George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush, 2017, Harper, 978-0-06-265412-0,
  • BOOK, Wicker, Tom, Tom Wicker, George Herbert Walker Bush, Lipper/Viking, 2004, 978-0-670-03303-4,
  • NEWS,weblink The President Who Treated Me Like a Son, McBride, Tim, The Daily Beast, June 12, 2009, October 8, 2014,
  • AV MEDIA, 2008, American Experience, The Presidents: George H.W. Bush, Television production,weblink October 8, 2014, American Experience, Public Broadcasting Service,

Primary sources

  • BOOK, Bush, George H. W., Looking Forward: An Autobiography, 1987, Doubleday, New York, 978-0-385-14181-9,
  • BOOK, Bush, George H. W., Scowcroft, Brent, A World Transformed, 1998, Knopf, New York, 978-0-679-43248-7, A World Transformed,
  • BOOK, Bush, George H. W., All the Best, George Bush: My Life in Letters and Other Writings, 1999, Scribner, New York, 978-0-684-83958-5,
  • INTERVIEW, Bush, George H. W., Bush, Barbara, McGrath, Jim, Interview with: George W. Bush, Barbara Bush,weblink 2009, October 8, 2014,
  • BOOK, Bush, George W., 41: A Portrait of My Father, 2014, Crown, 978-0-553-44778-1,
  • BOOK, Bush Koch, Dorothy, My Father, My President: A Personal Account of the Life of George H. W. Bush, 978-0-446-57990-2, Grand Central Publishing, 2006,
  • BOOK, Bush, George H. W., Engel, Jeffrey A., The China Diary of George H. W. Bush: The Making of a Global President,weblink 2011, Princeton UP, 978-1-4008-2961-3,

External links

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