Harvard University

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Harvard University
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{{Redirect|Harvard}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2018}}{{pp-semi-vandalism|small=yes}}

| free_label = Newspaper| free = The Harvard CrimsonLAST=QUINCYYEAR=1860 LOCATION=117 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON, , p. 586, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: HTTP://WWW.TIME.COM/TIME/MAGAZINE/PRINTOUT/0,8816,756722,00.HTML>DATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 1936WORK=TIMEURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=DECEMBER 5, 2012, : "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: HTTP://WWW.NEWS.HARVARD.EDU/GAZETTE/2003/10.02/02-HISTORY.HTML>PUBLISHER=HARVARD UNIVERSITYDATE=SEPTEMBER 2, 2003AUTHOR=MARVIN HIGHTOWERARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20060908144409/HTTP://WWW.NEWS.HARVARD.EDU/GAZETTE/2003/10.02/02-HISTORY.HTML, September 8, 2006, , "Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."| former_names = Harvard College| mottoeng = TruthPrivate university>Private nonprofit university| endowment = US$40.9 billioweblink| president = Lawrence S. Bacow201921}}. HARVARD AT A GLANCE> WORK = HARVARD UNIVERSITY ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 21, 2019, | undergrad = 6,699| postgrad = 13,120YEAR=2009 CHAPTER-URL=HTTP://WWW.PROVOST.HARVARD.EDU/INSTITUTIONAL_RESEARCH/PROVOST_-_09_18-19FACUNI.PDF ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120425050912/HTTP://WWW.PROVOST.HARVARD.EDU/INSTITUTIONAL_RESEARCH/PROVOST_-_09_18-19FACUNI.PDF DF=, ("Unduplicated, Paid Instructional Faculty Count: 2,107. Unduplicated instructional faculty count is the most appropriate count for general reporting purposes.")| location = Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States42287101region:US_type:edu|display=title,inline}}Urban area>Urban{{Convertacre|ha}}| athletics = NCAA Division I – Ivy League| nickname = Harvard Crimson#A51C30}} CrimsonHARVARD AT A GLANCE >URL=HTTP://WWW.HARVARD.EDU/ABOUT-HARVARD/HARVARD-GLANCE ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 2, 2015,  National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities>NAICUAssociation of Independent Colleges and Universities in MassachusettsAssociation of American Universities>}}| logo =1=Harvard University logo.svgdate=July 2019}}}}Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 13,100 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning.BOOK, Frederick, Rudolph, The American College and University, 1961, 3, 0-8203-1285-1, University of Georgia Press, Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.BOOK, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University, Keller, Morton, Keller, Phyllis, Oxford University Press, 0-19-514457-0, Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. [...] Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes., 2001, 463–481, BOOK, How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire, ... [Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige [...] Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning ..., Sexual Shakedown, 326–336, 1989, South End Press, 0-89608-284-9, John, Spaulding, Christina, Trumpbour, WEB,weblink Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports, David Altaner, Bloomberg, March 9, 2011, March 1, 2012, BOOK, Collier's Encyclopedia, Macmillan Educational Co., 1986, Harvard University, one of the world's most prestigious institutions of higher learning, was founded in Massachusetts in 1636., WEB, Newport, Frank, Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place,weblink Gallup, NEWS, The New York Times, The Week in Review: Harvard Ends Early Admissions and Guess Who Wins, September 17, 2006, The most prestigious college in the world, of course, is Harvard, and the gap between it and every other university is often underestimated., It is cited as the world's top university by many publishers.The Harvard Corporation, chartered in 1650, is the governing body of Harvard. The early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, although it has never been formally affiliated with any denomination. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.JOURNAL, Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865, Story, Ronald, Journal of Social History, 8, 3, 1975, 94–121, 10.1353/jsh/8.3.94, BOOK, Farrell, Betty G., Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston, 1993, 0-7914-1593-7, State University of New York Press, Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard was a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.WEB,weblink Member Institutions and years of Admission, Association of American Universities, August 28, 2010, A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant. James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College.The university is organized into eleven principal academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area:WEB,weblink Faculties and Allied Institutions, Office of the Provost, Harvard University, August 27, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2010, its {{convert|209|acre|ha|adj=on}} main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, approximately {{convert|3|mi|0}} northwest of Boston; the business school and athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical, dental, and public health schools are in the Longwood Medical Area.WEB,weblink Faculties and Allied Institutions, 2012, Office of the Provost, Harvard University, June 15, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2013, Harvard's endowment is worth $40.9 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.Harvard is a large, highly residential research university. The nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items.WEB,weblink Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013, Harvard University Library, 2013, January 3, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2016, dead, mdy-all, {{refn|name=speaking|NEWS, The President and Fellows of Harvard College, February 26, 1998, Speaking Volumes, Harvard Gazette,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, September 9, 1999, }}Harvard's alumni include eight U.S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 188 living billionaires, 364 Rhodes Scholars, and 252 Marshall Scholars.WEB,weblink Rhodes Scholarships: Number of Winners by Institution, U.S. Rhodes Scholars (1904 ‐ 2019), The Rhodes Trust, live, October 1, 2019, NEWS,weblink More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined, Kathleen Elkins, May 18, 2018, October 1, 2019, CNBC, WEB,weblink Statistics,, {{as of|2019|October}}, 161 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, and 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers.WEB, The complete list of Fields Medal winners,weblink areppim AG, 2014, September 10, 2015, In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 108 Olympic medals (46 gold, 41 silver, and 21 bronze), as well as founded many notable companies worldwide.WEB,weblink Pulitzer Prize Winners, Harvard University, February 2, 2018, WEB,weblink Harvard Olympians,, February 2, 2018, WEB,weblink Companies - Entrepreneurship - Harvard Business School,, 2019-03-28,



File:Harvard College Seal.png|upright=1|thumb|The official seal of the Harvard CorporationHarvard CorporationFile:A Westerly View of the Colledges in Cambridge New England by Paul Revere.jpeg|upright=1|thumb|Engraving of Harvard College by Paul ReverePaul RevereHarvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press.WEB, The instrument behind New England's first literary flowering,weblink's-first-impressions/, Harvard University, January 18, 2014, WEB, Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press,weblink Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull, January 18, 2014, In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes.WEB, John Harvard Facts, Information.,weblink The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008, July 17, 2009, He bequeathed £780 (half his estate) and his library of 320 volumes to the new established college at Cambridge, Mass., which was named in his honor., The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650.A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust";BOOK, Louis B., Wright, The Cultural Life of the American Colonies, 2002, 116, 978-0-486-42223-7, in its early years trained many Puritan ministers.BOOK, Grigg, John A., Mancall, Peter C., British Colonial America: People and Perspectives,weblink 2008, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-025-4, 47, It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model{{mdashb}}many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge{{mdashb}}but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches.WEB, Harvard Office of News and Public Affairs,weblink Harvard guide intro, Harvard University, July 26, 2007, August 29, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 26, 2007, The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not also a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence.

19th century

File:John Harvard statue at Harvard University.jpg|thumb|John Harvard statue, Harvard YardHarvard Yard Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties.Gary J. Dorrien. The Making of American Liberal Theology: Imagining Progressive Religion, 1805–1900, Volume 1. Westminster John Knox Press, 2001{{rp|1–4}} When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, and the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years later, which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas (defined by traditionalists as Unitarian ideas).{{rp|4–5}}Peter S. Field Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Making of a Democratic Intellectual Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 {{ISBN|978-0847688425}}{{rp|24}}In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time. The popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" probably also derived from other writings to which Harvard students were exposed, including Platonic treatises by Ralph Cudworth, John Norris and, in a Romantic vein, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The library records at Harvard reveal that the writings of Plato and his early modern and Romantic followers were almost as regularly read during the 19th century as those of the "official philosophy" of the more empirical and more deistic Scottish school.JOURNAL, David K., Nartonis, Louis Agassiz and the Platonist Story of Creation at Harvard, 1795–1846, Journal of the History of Ideas, 2005, 66, 3, 437–449, 3654189, 10.1353/jhi.2005.0045, Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the favored position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, but by Transcendentalist Unitarian convictions. Derived from William Ellery Channing and Ralph Waldo Emerson, these convictions were focused on the dignity and worth of human nature, the right and ability of each person to perceive truth, and the indwelling God in each person.JOURNAL, Stephen P., Shoemaker, The Theological Roots of Charles W. Eliot's Educational Reforms, Journal of Unitarian Universalist History, 2006–2007, 31, 30–45,

20th century

(File:Rummell, Richard Harvard University.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Richard Rummell's 1906 watercolor landscape view, facing northeast."Arader Galleries Iconic College Views", Rummell, Richard, Littig & Co. 1915)File:Harvard square harvard yard.JPG|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Harvard Yard as seen from the Smith Campus CenterSmith Campus CenterDuring the 20th century, Harvard's international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the university's scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new graduate schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, became one of the most prominent schools for women in the United States. Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Presbyterians"—a group later called "WASPs" (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants). In 1923 a proposal by president A. Lawrence Lowell that Jews be limited to 15% of undergraduates was rejected, but Lowell did ban blacks from living in Harvard Yard; Lowell believed that "forcing" blacks and whites to live together "would increase a prejudice that{{nbsp}}... is most unfortunate and probably growing." But by the 1970s, Harvard was much more diversified.BOOK, Jerome Karabel, The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton,weblink 2006, 23, 9780618773558, JOURNAL, Steinberg, Stephen, How Jewish Quotas Began, Commentary, September 1, 1971,weblink September 10, 2017, NEWS, Johnson, Dirk, YALE'S LIMIT ON JEWISH ENROLLMENT LASTED UNTIL EARLY 1960'S, BOOK SAYS,weblink The New York Times, March 4, 1986, NEWS, Lowell Tells Jews Limits at Colleges Might Help Them,weblink The New York Times, June 17, 1922, James Bryant Conant (president, 1933–1953) reinvigorated creative scholarship to guarantee its preeminence among research institutions. He saw higher education as a vehicle of opportunity for the talented rather than an entitlement for the wealthy, so Conant devised programs to identify, recruit, and support talented youth. In 1943, he asked the faculty make a definitive statement about what general education ought to be, at the secondary as well as the college level. The resulting Report, published in 1945, was one of the most influential manifestos in the history of American education in the 20th century.Anita Fay Kravitz, "The Harvard Report of 1945: An historical ethnography", Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1994, 367 pages; AAT 9427558In 1945–1960 admissions policies were opened up to bring in students from a more diverse applicant pool. No longer drawing mostly from rich alumni of select New England prep schools, the undergraduate college was now open to striving middle class students from public schools; many more Jews and Catholics were admitted, but few blacks, Hispanics or Asians.Malka A. Older. (1996). Preparatory schools and the admissions process. The Harvard Crimson, January 24, 1996Harvard graduate schools began admitting women in small numbers in the late 19th century, andduring World War II, students at Radcliffe College (which since 1879 had been paying Harvard professors to repeat their lectures for women students) began attending Harvard classes alongside men,BOOK, Sally, Schwager, Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe, Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 1-4039-6098-4, 115, The first class of women was admitted to Harvard Medical School in 1945.REPORT, First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945, Countway Repository, Harvard University Library,weblink May 2, 2016, Since the 1970s Harvard has been responsible for essentially all aspects of admission, instruction, and undergraduate life for women, and Radcliffe was formally merged into Harvard in 1999.REPORT, Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard,weblink May 6, 2016,

21st century

Drew Gilpin Faust, previously the dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, became Harvard's president on July 1, 2007.NEWS, Alan Finder, Patrick D. Healy, Kate Zernicke, President of Harvard Resigns, Ending Stormy 5-Year Tenure, The New York Times, February 22, 2006,weblink August 8, 2015, JOURNAL, Associated Press, Harvard Board Names First Woman President, February 11, 2007,weblink August 8, 2015, NBC News, In February 2018, Lawrence Seldon Bacow was designated to take office as its 29th president on July 1, 2018.NEWS,weblink Harvard University names Lawrence Bacow its 29th president, February 11, 2018, Fox News, February 15, 2018, en-US,



(File:USA-Harvard University.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|University seal)Harvard's {{convert|209|acre|ha|adj=on}} main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge, about {{convert|3|mi|km|0}} west-northwest of downtown Boston, and extends into the surrounding Harvard Square neighborhood. Harvard Yard itself contains the central administrative offices and main libraries of the university, academic buildings including Sever Hall and University Hall, Memorial Church, and the majority of the freshman dormitories. Sophomore, junior, and senior undergraduates live in twelve residential Houses, nine of which are south of Harvard Yard along or near the Charles River. The other three are located in a residential neighborhood half a mile northwest of the Yard at the Quadrangle (commonly referred to as the Quad), which formerly housed Radcliffe College students until Radcliffe merged its residential system with Harvard. Each residential house contains rooms for undergraduates, House masters, and resident tutors, as well as a dining hall and library. The facilities were made possible by a gift from Yale University alumnus Edward Harkness.WEB,weblink History of Harkness: The Men Behind the Plan, Radcliffe Yard, formerly the center of the campus of Radcliffe College and now home of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard,Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard. President and Fellows of Harvard College. 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016 is adjacent to the Graduate School of Education and the Cambridge Common.File:Sanders theater 2009y.JPG|thumb|left|Memorial Hall ]](File:harvard memorial church winter 2009.JPG|thumb|upright|Memorial Church)Between 2014 and 2016, Harvard University reported crime statistics for its main Cambridge campus that included 141 forcible sex offenses, 33 robberies, 46 aggravated assaults, 151 burglaries, and 32 cases of motor vehicle theft.WEB,weblink 17 asr final cambridge criminal statistics rev 102017.pdf, Harvard University Police Department, March 28, 2018, Harvard also has commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge and Allston, on which it pays property taxes.WEB,weblink Institutional Ownership Map – Cambridge Massachusetts, This includes the Allston Doubletree Hotel, The Inn at Harvard, and the Harvard Square Hotel.WEB,weblink Harvard Purchases Doubletree Hotel Building – News – The Harvard Crimson,,


The Harvard Business School and many of the university's athletics facilities, including Harvard Stadium, are located on a {{convert|358|acre|ha|adj=on}} campus in Allston,Harvard continues its march into Allston, with science complex Tim Logan. Boston Globe. April 14, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016 a Boston neighborhood across the Charles River from the Cambridge campus. The John W. Weeks Bridge, a pedestrian bridge over the Charles River, connects the two campuses.Intending a major expansion, Harvard now owns more land in Allston than it does in Cambridge.WEB,weblink Allston Planning and Development / Office of the Executive Vice President, Harvard University, September 7, 2016, A ten-year planHarvard unveils big campus expansion Svea Herbst-Bayliss. Reuters. January 12, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2016 calls for 1.4 million square feet (130,000 square meters) of new construction and 500,000 square feet (50,000 square meters) of renovations, including new and renovated buildings at Harvard Business School; a hotel and conference center; a multipurpose institutional building; renovations to graduate student housing and to Harvard Stadium; new athletic facilities; new laboratories and classrooms for the John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences; expansion of the Harvard Education Portal; and a district energy facility.


Further south, the Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, and the Harvard School of Public Health are located on a {{convert|21|acre|ha|adj=on}} campus in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area about {{convert|3.3|mi|km}} south of the Cambridge campus, and the same distance southwest of downtown Boston. The Arnold Arboretum, in the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, is also owned and operated by Harvard.


Harvard also owns and operates the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, in Washington, D.C.; the Harvard Forest in Petersham, Massachusetts; the Concord Field Station in Estabrook Woods in Concord, MassachusettsWEB,,weblink Concord Field Station, Harvard University, March 4, 2017, and the Villa I Tatti research centerWEB,weblink Villa I Tatti: The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies,, June 30, 2010, in Florence, Italy. Harvard also operates the Harvard Shanghai Center in China.WEB,, Shanghai Center,weblink

Organization and administration


{|class="toccolours" style="float:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:90%; line-height:1.4em; width:280px;" style="text-align:center;"College/school >| Year founded style="text-align:center;"Harvard College >| 1636 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Medical School>Medicine 1782 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Divinity School>Divinity 1816 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Law School>Law 1817 style="text-align:center;"Harvard School of Dental Medicine>Dental Medicine 1867 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences>Arts and Sciences 1872 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Business School>Business 1908 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Extension School>Extension 1910 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Graduate School of Design>Design 1914 style="text-align:center;"Harvard Graduate School of Education>Education 1920 style="text-align:center;"Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health>Public Health 1922 style="text-align:center;"John F. Kennedy School of Government>Government 1936 style="text-align:center;"John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences>Engineering and Applied Sciences 2007File:Harvard Medical School HDR.jpg|thumb|Harvard Medical SchoolHarvard Medical SchoolHarvard is governed by a combination of its Board of Overseers and the President and Fellows of Harvard College (also known as the Harvard Corporation), which in turn appoints the President of Harvard University.BOOK, Bethell, John T., Hunt, Richard M., Shenton, Robert, Harvard A to Z,weblink 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-02089-4, 166–, There are 16,000 staff and faculty,Burlington Free Press, June 24, 2009, page 11B, ""Harvard to cut 275 jobs" Associated Pressincluding 2,400 professors, lecturers, and instructors.BOOK, Office of Institutional Research, Harvard University Fact Book 2009–2010, 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 23, 2011, ("Faculty")The Faculty of Arts and Sciences has primary responsibility for instruction in Harvard College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and the Harvard Division of Continuing Education, which includes Harvard Summer School and Harvard Extension School. There are ten other graduate and professional school faculties, in addition to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study.{{clarify|date=July 2016}}Joint programs with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology include the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, the Broad Institute, The Observatory of Economic Complexity, and edX.


Harvard has the largest university endowment in the world. {{As of|2011|09}}, it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession. It was worth $32 billion in 2011, up from $28 billion in September 2010MAGAZINE, Harvard Endowment Rises $4.4 Billion to $32 Billion, Harvard Magazine, 2011, November–December,weblink December 13, 2011, and $26 billion in 2009. It suffered about 30% loss in 2008–2009.WEB,weblink U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2012 to FY 2013, National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute, January 29, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2014, NEWS,weblink Harvard endowment leads others down, Beth Healy, January 28, 2010, The Boston Globe, September 2, 2010, In December 2008, Harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22% (approximately $8 billion) from July to October 2008, necessitating budget cuts.NEWS, Wall Street Journal, John, Hechinger, Harvard Hit by Loss as Crisis Spreads to Colleges, A1, December 4, 2008, Later reportsWEB, Munk, Nina,weblink Nina Munk on Hard Times at Harvard, Vanity Fair, August 2009, August 29, 2010, suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure, a reduction of nearly 50% of its endowment in the first four months alone. Forbes in March 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $12 billion.NEWS, Andrew M. Rosenfield,weblink Understanding Endowments, Part I, Forbes, March 4, 2009, August 29, 2010, One of the most visible results of Harvard's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $1.2 billion Allston Science Complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011, resulting in protests from local residents.NEWS, February 10, 2011,weblink March 5, 2009, Residents Protest Vacancies in Allston, Harvard Crimson, Vidya B. Viswanathan and Peter F. Zhu, {{As of|2012}}, Harvard University had a total financial aid reserve of $159 million for students, and a Pell Grant reserve of $4.093 million available for disbursement.WEB,,weblink Locate Colleges Harvard University,


{{See also|Financial endowment#Criticism and reforms}}Since the 1970s, several campaigns have sought to divest Harvard's endowment from holdings the campaigns opposed, including investments in apartheid South Africa, the tobacco industry, Sudan during the Darfur genocide, and the fossil fuel industry.MAGAZINE, Alli Welton, Harvard Students Vote 72 Percent Support for Fossil Fuel Divestment, The Nation, November 20, 2012,weblink July 27, 2015, During the divestment from South Africa movement in the late 1980s, student activists erected a symbolic "shantytown" on Harvard Yard and blockaded a speech given by South African Vice Consul Duke Kent-Brown.NEWS, Michael C. George, David W. Kaufman, Students Protest Investment in Apartheid South Africa, The Harvard Crimson, May 23, 2012,weblink July 27, 2015, WEB, Anjali Cadambi, Harvard University community campaigns for divestment from apartheid South Africa, 1977–1989, Global Nonviolent Action Database, September 19, 2010,weblink July 27, 2015, The Harvard Management Company repeatedly refused to divest, stating that "operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups."BOOK, John Trumpbour, How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire,weblink 1989, South End Press, 978-0-89608-283-0, 402–418, However, the university did eventually reduce its South African holdings by $230 million (out of $400 million) in response to the pressure.BOOK, Robert Anthony Waters Jr., Historical Dictionary of United States-Africa Relations,weblink March 20, 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-6291-3, 77,



Undergraduate admission to Harvard is characterized by the Carnegie Foundation as "more selective, lower transfer-in". Harvard College accepted 4.5% of applicants for the class of 2023, a record low.WEB,weblink, Record-Low 4.5 Percent of Harvard College Applicants Accepted to Class of 2023, September 23, 2019, Harvard College ended its early admissions program in 2007 as the program was believed to disadvantage low-income and under-represented minority applicants applying to selective universities, but for the class of 2016, an early action program was reintroduced.NEWS,, Harvard Ends Early Admission, The New York Times, Alan, Finder, Karen W., Arenson, September 12, 2006, The freshman class that entered in the fall of 2017 was the first to be predominantly (50.8%) nonwhite.NEWS, Fernandes, Deirdre,weblink The majority of Harvard's incoming class is nonwhite, The Boston Globe, August 3, 2017, August 4, 2017, Harvard's undergraduate admission policies on preference for children of alumni has been criticized as favoring white, wealthy candidates.NEWS,weblink Admissions Preferences Given to Alumni Children Draws Fire, Golden, Daniel, January 15, 2003, The Wall Street Journal, BOOK, The Price of Admission: How America's Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Colleges—and Who Gets Left Outside the Gates, Golden, Daniel, 2006, 1-4000-9796-7,weblink Admission is based on academic prowess, extracurricular activities and "personality" (judged subjectively by admissions officers who have not met the applicants), and it is alleged that this approach discriminates against Asians.JOURNAL, Affirmative Dissatisfaction, The Economist, 2018-06-23, 38, NEWS, Harvard's Ongoing Anti-Asian-American Micro-Aggression,weblink 2018-07-17, National Review, 2018-06-19, NEWS, A lawsuit reveals how peculiar Harvard's definition of merit is,weblink 2018-07-17, The Economist,

Teaching and learning

File:Massachusetts Hall, Harvard University.JPG|thumb|Massachusetts Hall (1720), Harvard's oldest buildingWEB,weblink A Brief History of Harvard College, Harvard College, Harvard College, July 25, 2011, Harvard College, ]]File:HarvardYard.jpg|thumb|right|Harvard YardHarvard YardHarvard is a large, highly residential research university.WEB,weblink Carnegie Classifications – Harvard University, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, August 28, 2010, The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.WEB,weblink Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, New England Association of Schools and Colleges, Roster of Institutions, August 28, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2013, The university offers 46 undergraduate concentrations (majors),WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, August 3, 2012, Fields of Concentration, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, 134 graduate degrees,WEB,weblink Degree Programs, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Handbook, 28–30, August 28, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2015, and 32 professional degrees. For the 2008–2009 academic year, Harvard granted 1,664 baccalaureate degrees, 400 master's degrees, 512 doctoral degrees, and 4,460 professional degrees.WEB,weblink Degrees Conferred by Program: Academic Year 2008–2009, Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, Harvard University, August 28, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2010, The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an "arts and sciences focus". Between 1978 and 2008, entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 5, 2010, Academic Information: The Core Curriculum Requirement, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, Between 2008 and 2019, undergraduate students were required to complete courses in eight General Education categories: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding, Culture and Belief, Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, Ethical Reasoning, Science of Living Systems, Science of the Physical Universe, Societies of the World, and United States in the World.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 5, 2010, Academic Information: Program in General Education Requirement, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, The New York Times, and some students have criticized Harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education.NEWS, Hicks, D. L.,weblink Should Our Colleges Be Ranked?, September 20, 2002, The New York Times, WEB, Merrow, J., 2004,weblink Grade Inflation: It's Not Just an Issue for the Ivy League, Carnegie Perspectives, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Harvard's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early September and ending in mid-May.WEB,weblink 5 Year Academic Calendar, Harvard University, August 28, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 1, 2006, Undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 5, 2010, Academic Information: Rate of Work, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, mdy-all, In many concentrations, students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 5, 2010, Academic Information: The Concentration Requirement, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, mdy-all, Students graduating in the top 4–5% of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude, students in the next 15% of the class are awarded magna cum laude, and the next 30% of the class are awarded cum laude.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 5, 2010, Academic Information: Requirements for Honors Degrees, Handbook for Students, Harvard College, August 28, 2010, mdy-all, Harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually.WEB,weblink Prizes, 2010, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Harvard University, Harvard, along with other universities, has been accused of grade inflation,NEWS, Doesn't Anybody Get a C Anymore?, Primack, Phil, October 5, 2008,weblink The Boston Globe, although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased.NEWS, Kohn, A,weblink The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 8, 2002, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 9, 2006, Harvard College reduced the number of students who receive Latin honors from 90% in 2004 to 60% in 2005. Moreover, the honors of "John Harvard Scholar" and "Harvard College Scholar" are now given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class.No author given. (2003). Brevia {{webarchive|url= |date=March 26, 2006 }}. Harvard Magazine, January–February 2003.Milzoff, R. M., Paley, A. R., & Reed, B. J. (2001). weblink" title="">Grade Inflation is Real. Fifteen Minutes March 1, 2001.Bombardieri, M. & Schweitzer, S. (2006). "At Harvard, more concern for top grades." The Boston Globe, February 12, 2006. p. B3 (Benedict Gross quotes, 23.7% A/25% A- figures, characterized as an "all-time high.").Associated Press. (2004). Princeton becomes first to formally combat grade inflation. USA Today, April 26, 2004.University policy is to expel students engaging in academic dishonesty to discourage a "culture of cheating."NEWS, Kevin S., Davis, February 15, 1994, The Harvard Crimson,weblink How Does Harvard Define Cheating?, September 15, 2013, ...Cheating incidences that appear before the Ad Board almost always result in requirement to withdraw by the student..., NEWS, Coleen, Curry, ABC News, August 31, 2012,weblink Harvard Students Accused of Cheating on Final Exam Reflects 'Culture of Cheating,' Grad Says, September 15, 2013, NEWS, Melody Y., Hu, Eric P., Newcomer, March 24, 2010, The Harvard Crimson,weblink Administrators Discuss College Honor Code, September 15, 2013, " thing remains certain: many College administrators are looking for a way to combat academic dishonesty at Harvard—which Harris recently called a real problem"..., In 2012, dozens of students were expelled for cheating after an investigation of more than 120 students.NEWS, Richard, Perez-Pena, February 1, 2013, The New York Times,weblink Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal, September 15, 2013, In 2013, there was a report that as many as 42% of incoming freshmen had cheated on homework prior to entering the university,NEWS, Simon, Moya-Smith, September 6, 2013, NBC News,weblink Survey: 42 percent of Harvard's incoming freshman class cheated on homework, September 6, 2013, and these incidents have prompted the university to consider adopting an honor code.NEWS, Rebecca, Harrington, September 14, 2012, The New York Times,weblink Song of the Cheaters, September 15, 2013, " honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted, For the 2012–2013 school year, annual tuition was $38,000, with a total cost of attendance of $57,000.WEB,weblink Harvard University Tuition And Costs, November 22, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, Beginning in 2007, families with incomes below $60,000 pay nothing for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $60,000 to $80,000 pay only a few thousand dollars per year, and families earning between $120,000 and $180,000 pay no more than 10% of their annual incomes.NEWS,weblink Harvard Steps Up Financial Aid, The New York Times, December 10, 2007, Sara, Alan, Rimer, Finder, In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million; $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support.


{{expand section|date=September 2013}}Harvard is a founding member of the Association of American UniversitiesWEB,weblink Member Institutions and Years of Admission, Association of American Universities, September 15, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2012, and remains a research university with "very high" research activity and a "comprehensive" doctoral program across the arts, sciences, engineering, and medicine. Research and development expenditures in 2011 totaled $650 million, 27th among American universities.WEB,weblink Table 14: Higher education R&D expenditures, ranked by all R&D expenditures, by source of funds: FY 2011, National Science Foundation, 2011, September 15, 2013,

Libraries and museums

File:Widener Library.jpg|thumb|Widener LibraryWidener LibraryThe Harvard University Library system is centered in Widener Library in Harvard Yard and comprises nearly 80 individual libraries holding over 18 million volumes. According to the American Library Association, this makes it the largest academic library in the United States, and one of the largest in the world.WEB,weblink The Nation's Largest Libraries: A Listing By Volumes Held, May 2009, August 19, 2009, American Library Association, Houghton Library, the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, and the Harvard University Archives consist principally of rare and unique materials. America's oldest collection of maps, gazetteers, and atlases both old and new is stored in Pusey Library and open to the public. The largest collection of East-Asian language material outside of East Asia is held in the Harvard-Yenching Library.File:Henry Moore sculpture, Harvard University.jpg|thumb|leftThe Harvard Art Museums comprise three museums. The Arthur M. Sackler Museum includes collections of ancient, Asian, Islamic and later Indian art, the Busch-Reisinger Museum, formerly the Germanic Museum, covers central and northern European art, and the Fogg Museum of Art, covers Western art from the Middle Ages to the present emphasizing Italian early Renaissance, British pre-Raphaelite, and 19th-century French art. The Harvard Museum of Natural History includes the Harvard Mineralogical Museum, Harvard University Herbaria featuring the Blaschka Glass Flowers exhibit, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Other museums include the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, designed by Le Corbusier, housing the film archive, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the Western Hemisphere, and the Semitic Museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the Middle East.


{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed floatright" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Harvard Crimson|color=white}}" |National Program RankingsMAGAZINE, Harvard University – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, September 11, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 4| 3| 2| 16| 16| 8| 1| 1| 21| 8| 4| 3| 2| 17| 1| 3| 1| 3| 3| 2| 1|3{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed floatright" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Harvard Crimson|color=white}}" |Global Program RankingsMAGAZINE, Harvard University – U.S. News Best Global University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, September 11, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 26| 2| 1| 9| 1| 35| 1| 36| 3| 7| 1| 5| 11| 1| 1| 1| 1| 4| 18| 1| 1| 2Among overall rankings, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) has ranked Harvard as the world's best university every year since it was first released.WEB,weblinkpublisher=Shanghai Ranking ConsultancyTimes Higher Education>Times Higher Education (THE) were published in partnership as the THE-QS World University Rankings during 2004{{ndash}}2009, Harvard had held the top spot every year, so has it on ''World Reputation Rankings'' ever since it was released in 2011.HTTPS://WWW.TIMESHIGHEREDUCATION.COM/WORLD-UNIVERSITY-RANKINGS/2016/REPUTATION-RANKING#!/PAGE/0/LENGTH/25/SORT_BY/RANK_LABEL/SORT_ORDER/ASC/COLS/RANK_ONLYTIMES HIGHER EDUCATION>TITLE=WORLD REPUTATION RANKINGS 2016ACCESSDATE=2016-09-07, In 2019, it ranked 1st among universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.HTTPS://WWW.SCIMAGOIR.COM/RANKINGS.PHP?SECTOR=HIGHER%20EDUC.&COUNTRY=ALL>TITLE=SCIMAGO INSTITUTIONS RANKINGS - HIGHER EDUCATION - ALL REGIONS AND COUNTRIES - 2019 - OVERALL RANK,, Regarding rankings of specific indicators, Harvard topped both University Ranking by Academic Performance 2015{{ndash}}2016 and (Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities) (2011), which measured universities' numbers of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies.WEB,weblink 2015-2016 WORLD RANKING (1-250), University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) Research Laboratory, 2015, September 7, 2016, According to the 2016 poll done by The Princeton Review, Harvard is the second most commonly named "dream college" in the United States, both for students and parents.NEWS,weblink College Hopes & Worries Press Release, PR Newswire, 2016, September 7, 2016,

Student life {|style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-right:2em;" class"wikitable"

Demographics of student bodyHTTP://WWW.PROVOST.HARVARD.EDU/INSTITUTIONAL_RESEARCH/HARVARD_FACT_BOOK_2010-11_WEB.PDF, Degree Student Head Count: Fall 2010, Harvard University, March 11, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 18, 2013, See Demographics of the United States for references.WEB,weblink Fall Headcount Enrollment, 2008–2012, The Office of the Provost, December 16, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2013, ! !! Undergrad !! Graduate !! U.S. census! Asian/Pacific Islander| 5%! Black/non-Hispanic| 12%! Hispanics of any race| 16%! White/non-Hispanic| 64%! Mixed race/other| 9%! International students| N/A

Student government

The Harvard Undergraduate Council and Harvard Graduate Council are the chief organs of student government.


The Harvard Crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division I Ivy League. Harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with Yale University culminating in The Game, although the Harvard–Yale Regatta predates the football game. This rivalry is put aside every two years when the Harvard and Yale Track and Field teams come together to compete against a combined Oxford University and Cambridge University team, a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world.WEB, Yale and Harvard Defeat Oxford/Cambridge Team,weblink Yale University Athletics, September 13, 2011, Harvard's athletic rivalry with Yale is intense in every sport in which they meet, coming to a climax each fall in the annual football meeting, which dates back to 1875 and is usually called simply "The Game". While Harvard's football team is no longer one of the country's best as it often was a century ago during football's early days (it won the Rose Bowl in 1920), both it and Yale have influenced the way the game is played. In 1903, Harvard Stadium introduced a new era into football with the first-ever permanent reinforced concrete stadium of its kind in the country. The stadium's structure actually played a role in the evolution of the college game. Seeking to reduce the alarming number of deaths and serious injuries in the sport, Walter Camp (former captain of the Yale football team), suggested widening the field to open up the game. But the stadium was too narrow to accommodate a wider playing surface. So, other steps had to be taken. Camp would instead support revolutionary new rules for the 1906 season. These included legalizing the forward pass, perhaps the most significant rule change in the sport's history.WEB,weblink History of American Football,, August 29, 2010, Nelson, David M., Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game, 1994, pp. 127–128File:Harvard stadium 2009h.JPG|thumb|Harvard Stadium, home of Harvard Crimson and the Boston CannonsBoston CannonsHarvard has several athletic facilities, such as the Lavietes Pavilion, a multi-purpose arena and home to the Harvard basketball teams. The Malkin Athletic Center, known as the "MAC", serves both as the university's primary recreation facility and as a satellite location for several varsity sports. The five-story building includes two cardio rooms, an Olympic-size swimming pool, a smaller pool for aquaerobics and other activities, a mezzanine, where all types of classes are held, an indoor cycling studio, three weight rooms, and a three-court gym floor to play basketball. The MAC offers personal trainers and specialty classes. It is home to Harvard volleyball, fencing and wrestling.File:Harvard Rowing Crew at Henley 2004 -2.JPG|thumb|left|Harvard men's eight crew at Henley, 2004]]Weld Boathouse and Newell Boathouse house the women's and men's rowing teams, respectively. The men's crew also uses the Red Top complex in Ledyard, Connecticut, as their training camp for the annual Harvard–Yale Regatta. The Bright Hockey Center hosts the Harvard hockey teams, and the Murr Center serves both as a home for Harvard's squash and tennis teams as well as a strength and conditioning center for all athletic sports.{{As of|2013}}, there were 42 Division I intercollegiate varsity sports teams for women and men at Harvard, more than at any other NCAA Division I college in the country.WEB,weblink Harvard : Women's Rugby Becomes 42nd Varsity Sport at Harvard University,, August 9, 2012, July 5, 2013, As with other Ivy League universities, Harvard does not offer athletic scholarships.WEB,weblink The Harvard Guide: Financial Aid at Harvard, Harvard University, September 2, 2006, August 29, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink September 2, 2006, File:Bright Hockey Center, Harvard.JPG|thumb|The Cornell–Harvard hockey rivalryCornell–Harvard hockey rivalryOlder than The Game by 23 years, the Harvard–Yale Regatta was the original source of the athletic rivalry between the two schools. It is held annually in June on the Thames River in eastern Connecticut. The Harvard crew is typically considered to be one of the top teams in the country in rowing. Today, Harvard fields top teams in several other sports, such as the Harvard Crimson men's ice hockey team (with a strong rivalry against Cornell), squash, and even recently won NCAA titles in Men's and Women's Fencing. Harvard also won the Intercollegiate Sailing Association National Championships in 2003.Harvard's men's ice hockey team won the school's first NCAA Championship in any team sport in 1989. Harvard was also the first Ivy League institution to win an NCAA championship title in a women's sport when its women's lacrosse team won the NCAA Championship in 1990.Harvard Undergraduate Television has footage from historical games and athletic events including the 2005 pep-rally before the Harvard-Yale Game.The school color is crimson, which is also the name of the Harvard sports teams and the daily newspaper, The Harvard Crimson. The color was unofficially adopted (in preference to magenta) by an 1875 vote of the student body, although the association with some form of red can be traced back to 1858, when Charles William Eliot, a young graduate student who would later become Harvard's 21st and longest-serving president (1869–1909), bought red bandanas for his crew so they could more easily be distinguished by spectators at a regatta.

Fight songs

Harvard has several fight songs, the most played of which, especially at football, are "Ten Thousand Men of Harvard" and "Harvardiana." While "Fair Harvard" is actually the alma mater, "Ten Thousand Men" is better known outside the university. The Harvard University Band performs these fight songs, and other cheers at football and hockey games. These were parodied by Harvard alumnus Tom Lehrer in his song "Fight Fiercely, Harvard," which he composed while an undergraduate.

Notable people


{{Cleanup gallery|date=October 2018}}File:US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg|2nd President of the United States John Adams (AB, 1755; AM, 1758)File:John Quincy Adams.jpg|6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams (AB, 1787; AM, 1798)File:President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880 Restored.jpg|19th President of the United States Rutherford B. Hayes (LLB, 1845)File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg|26th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Theodore Roosevelt (AB, 1880)File:FRoosevelt.png|32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt (AB, 1903)File:Helen Keller circa 1920 - restored.jpg|American author, political activist, and lecturer Helen Keller (AB, Radcliffe College, 1904)File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg|35th President of the United States John F. Kennedy (AB, 1940)File:Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg|President of Liberia and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (MPA, 1971)File:Benazir Bhutto.jpg|11th Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto (AB, Radcliffe College, 1973)File:George-W-Bush.jpeg|43rd President of the United States George W. Bush (MBA, 1975)File:Bill Gates June 2015.jpg|Founder of Microsoft Bill Gates (COL, 1977; LLD, 2007)File:Ban Ki-Moon Davos 2011 Cropped.jpg|Former Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon (MPA, 1984)File:Elena Kagan SCOTUS portrait.jpg|Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Elena Kagan (JD, Harvard Law School, 1986)File:Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg|44th President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Barack Obama (JD, 1991)File:Michelle Obama 2013 official portrait.jpg| Former First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama (JD, 1988)File:Mark Zuckerberg at the 37th G8 Summit in Deauville 018 v1.jpg|Co-Founder of Facebook Mark Zuckerberg (COL, 2006)


Harvard's faculty includes scholars such as biologist E. O. Wilson, psychologist Steven Pinker, physicists Lisa Randall and Roy Glauber, chemists Elias Corey, Dudley R. Herschbach and George M. Whitesides, computer scientists Michael O. Rabin and Leslie Valiant, Shakespeare scholar Stephen Greenblatt, writer Louis Menand, critic Helen Vendler, historians Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Niall Ferguson, economists Amartya Sen, N. Gregory Mankiw, Robert Barro, Stephen A. Marglin, Don M. Wilson III and Martin Feldstein, political philosophers Harvey Mansfield, Baroness Shirley Williams and Michael Sandel, Fields Medalist mathematician Shing-Tung Yau, political scientists Robert Putnam, Joseph Nye, and Stanley Hoffmann, scholar/composers Robert Levin and Bernard Rands, astrophysicist Alyssa A. Goodman, and legal scholars Alan Dershowitz and Lawrence Lessig.Past faculty members include Stephen Jay Gould, Robert Nozick, Stephan Thernstrom, Sanford J. Ungar, Michael Walzer, and Cornel West.

Literature and popular culture

File:Clock Tower University of Puerto Rico-San Marcos-Harvard.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|Tower at the University of Puerto Rico, showing (right) the emblem of Harvard University{{mdashb}}the oldest in the United States{{mdashb}}and (left) that of National University of San MarcosNational University of San MarcosThe perception of Harvard as a center of either elite achievement, or elitist privilege, has made it a frequent literary and cinematic backdrop. "In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness," film critic Paul Sherman has said.NEWS, Thomas, Sarah, 'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role,, September 24, 2010,weblink 'In the grammar of film, Harvard has come to mean both tradition, and a certain amount of stuffiness.... Someone from Missouri who has never lived in Boston ... can get this idea that it's all trust fund babies and ivy-covered walls.',


  • William Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury (1929) and Absalom! Absalom! (1936) both depict Harvard student life.
  • Of Time and the River (1935), Thomas Wolfe's fictionalized autobiography, includes his alter ego's student days at Harvard.
  • The Late George Apley (1937; winner of the Pulitzer Prize), by John P. Marquand, parodies Harvard men at the opening of the 20th century.
  • The Second Happiest Day (1953), by John P. Marquand, Jr., depicts the Harvard of the World War II generation.{{refn |BOOK, Wrestling with the Angel, King, Michael, 2002, 371, ...praised as an iconic chronicle of his generation and his WASP-ish class., }}{{refn|NEWS, White Shoe and Weak Will, Michael J., Halberstam, February 18, 1953, Harvard Crimson,weblink The book is written slickly, but without distinction.... The book will be quick, enjoyable reading for all Harvard men., }}{{refn |NEWS, Yardley, Jonathan, Jonathan Yardley, Second Reading, December 23, 2009,weblink  '...a balanced and impressive novel...' [is] a judgment with which I [agree]., The Washington Post, }}{{refn |NEWS, Out of a Jitter-and-Fritter World, Du Bois, William, The New York Times, February 1, 1953, BR5, "exhibits Mr. Phillips' talent at its finest", }}{{refn |NEWS, Southwest Review, 38, 267, John Phillips, The Second Happiest Day, So when the critics say the author of "The Second Happiest Day" is a new Fitzgerald, we think they may be right., }}
  • The Accidental Billionaires (2009), by Ben Mezrich.


Harvard's policy since 1970 has been to permit filming on its property only rarely, so most scenes set at Harvard (especially indoor shots, but excepting aerial footage and shots of public areas such as Harvard Square) are in fact shot elsewhere.NEWS, Nathaniel L., Schwartz,weblink University, Hollywood Relationship Not Always a 'Love Story', Harvard Crimson, September 21, 1999, September 15, 2013, WEB,weblink 'Social Network' taps other campuses for Harvard role, Sarah Thomas, September 24, 2010,,

See also

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  • Abelmann, Walter H., ed. The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995 (2004). 346 pp.
  • Beecher, Henry K. and Altschule, Mark D. Medicine at Harvard: The First 300 Years (1977). 569 pp.
  • Bentinck-Smith, William, ed. The Harvard Book: Selections from Three Centuries (2d ed.1982). 499 pp.
  • Bethell, John T.; Hunt, Richard M.; and Shenton, Robert. Harvard A to Z (2004). 396 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Bethell, John T. Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1998, {{ISBN|0-674-37733-8}}
  • Bunting, Bainbridge. Harvard: An Architectural History (1985). 350 pp.
  • Carpenter, Kenneth E. The First 350 Years of the Harvard University Library: Description of an Exhibition (1986). 216 pp.
  • Cuno, James et al. Harvard's Art Museums: 100 Years of Collecting (1996). 364 pp.
  • Elliott, Clark A. and Rossiter, Margaret W., eds. Science at Harvard University: Historical Perspectives (1992). 380 pp.
  • Hall, Max. Harvard University Press: A History (1986). 257 pp.
  • Hay, Ida. Science in the Pleasure Ground: A History of the Arnold Arboretum (1995). 349 pp.
  • Hoerr, John, We Can't Eat Prestige: The Women Who Organized Harvard; Temple University Press, 1997, {{ISBN|1-56639-535-6}}
  • Howells, Dorothy Elia. A Century to Celebrate: Radcliffe College, 1879–1979 (1978). 152 pp.
  • Keller, Morton, and Phyllis Keller. Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (2001), major history covers 1933 to 2002 online edition
  • Lewis, Harry R. Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (2006) {{ISBN|1-58648-393-5}}
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936 (1986) 512pp; excerpt and text search
  • Powell, Arthur G. The Uncertain Profession: Harvard and the Search for Educational Authority (1980). 341 pp.
  • Reid, Robert. Year One: An Intimate Look inside Harvard Business School (1994). 331 pp.
  • Rosovsky, Henry. The University: An Owner's Manual (1991). 312 pp.
  • Rosovsky, Nitza. The Jewish Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1986). 108 pp.
  • Seligman, Joel. The High Citadel: The Influence of Harvard Law School (1978). 262 pp.
  • Sollors, Werner; Titcomb, Caldwell; and Underwood, Thomas A., eds. Blacks at Harvard: A Documentary History of African-American Experience at Harvard and Radcliffe (1993). 548 pp.
  • Trumpbour, John, ed., How Harvard Rules. Reason in the Service of Empire, Boston: South End Press, 1989, {{ISBN|0-89608-283-0}}
  • Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher, ed., Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. 337 pp.
  • Winsor, Mary P. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum (1991). 324 pp.
  • Wright, Conrad Edick. Revolutionary Generation: Harvard Men and the Consequences of Independence (2005). 298 pp.

External links

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