Major League Baseball

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Major League Baseball
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{{Redirect|MLB|Minor League Baseball|Minor League Baseball|other uses|MLB (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Professional baseball league}}{{Good article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2018}}

(National League, 1876)(American League, 1901)Rob ManfredMLB EXECUTIVESPUBLISHER=MLB ADVANCED MEDIAACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 19, 2017, Current Major League Baseball franchises>30MLB TEAM CONTACT INFORMATION>URL=HTTPS://WWW.MLB.COM/TEAMWEBSITE=MLB.COM, October 10, 2018, | champion = Boston Red Sox(9th title)New York Yankees(27 titles)WORLD SERIES HISTORY: CHAMPIONSHIPS BY CLUBPUBLISHER=MLB ADVANCED MEDIAACCESS-DATE=MARCH 11, 2016, | countries = United States (29 teams)Canada (1 team)New York City, New York (state)>New York, United States| TV = {{unbulleted list| United States:ESPN Major League Baseball>ESPN/ESPN2Fox Major League Baseball>Fox/FS1Major League Baseball on TBS>TBS| MLB NetworkYouTube (live streaming)NATIONAL BROADCAST SCHEDULEPUBLISHER=MLB ADVANCED MEDIAACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 10, 2018, MLB GAME OF THE WEEK LIVE ON YOUTUBE>URL=HTTPS://WWW.MLB.COM/LIVE-STREAM-GAMES/YOUTUBEWEBSITE=MLB.COM, August 9, 2019, | Canada:| SportsnetRéseau des sports>RDS| TVA SportsThe Sports Network>TSN/TSN2| MLB Network }}weblink}}}}Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization and the oldest of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League (AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901, respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000.WEB, Year In Review: 2000 National League,weblink, September 5, 2008, NEWS, Chass, Murray, BASEBALL; League Presidents Out As Baseball Centralizes,weblink The New York Times, September 16, 1999, May 29, 2018, The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the major league clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament.Baseball's first openly all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869. (Previously, some teams had paid some players under the table.) The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another.The period before 1920 in baseball is known as the dead-ball era, during which players would rarely hit home runs. In the late 1910s, baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among MLB players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.Today, MLB is composed of 30 teams: 29 in the United States and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world. MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 69.6 million spectators in 2018.WEB,weblink Why MLB Attendance Dropped Below 70 Million For The First Time In 15 Years, Brown, Maury, October 3, 2018,, Forbes, April 19, 2016,

Organizational structure

MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution. This document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876.WEB, Berg, Ted, Someone is selling MLB's original 1876 constitution, and it's expected to fetch millions,weblink, August 22, 2017, Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, and negotiates marketing, labor, and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball. This is due in large part to the 1922 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law. This ruling has been weakened only slightly in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates.WEB,weblink Policy Debate: Should the antitrust exemption for baseball be eliminated?, September 4, 2008,, WEB,weblink The Role of Antitrust Laws in the Professional Sports Industry From a Financial Perspective, September 4, 2008, Howard Bartee, Jr, The Sport Journal, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2008, There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916; the last attempt at a new major league was the aborted Continental League in 1960.The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner, currently Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president (business and media), chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, and chief baseball officer.NEWS,weblink Manfred promoted; Jimmie Lee Solomon resigns, ESPN, June 7, 2012, November 29, 2013, WEB, MLB Executives,, 2013,weblink February 23, 2017, The multimedia branch of MLB, which is based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees and each of the 30 teams' websites. Its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a similarly structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB also owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV.WEB,weblink MLB Network,, October 30, 2013, It operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, and also has editorial independence from the league.WEB,weblink About MLB Network,, October 30, 2013,

League organization

In 1920, the weak National Commission, which had been created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.WEB, The Commissionership: A Historical Perspective,weblink Major League Baseball Advanced Media,, November 30, 2013, From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece.In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U.S. team (the Montreal Expos). Two teams (the Seattle Mariners and the Toronto Blue Jays) were also added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an East and West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994. Until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the World Series and the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997.NEWS, Interleague play ho-hum to some,weblink November 24, 2013, Spartanburg Herald-Journal, June 4, 2000, In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays (now known as the Tampa Bay Rays), were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998. This addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL. The original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league (15 per league, with five in each division), but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it was unclear at the time if interleague play would continue after the 1998 season, as it had to be approved by the players' union. For this and other reasons, it was decided that both leagues should continue to have an even number of teams; one existing club would have to switch leagues. The (Milwaukee Brewers#1994–98: Realignment / "We're taking this thing National"|Milwaukee Brewers) agreed in November 1997 to move from the AL to the NL, thereby making the NL a 16-team league. At the same time, the Detroit Tigers agreed to move from the AL East to the AL Central (to replace Milwaukee), with the expansion Tampa Bay Devil Rays joining the AL East.NEWS,weblink Brewers switch leagues, join Reds in NL Central, The Kentucky Post (Associated Press), E. W. Scripps Company, November 6, 1997,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2005, dead, Later, when the Houston Astros changed ownership prior to the 2013 season, the team moved from the NL Central to the AL West,WEB,weblink ESPN: MLB Baseball Teams, October 14, 2013, resulting in both leagues having three divisions of five teams each and allowing all teams to have a more balanced schedule. Interleague play is now held throughout the season.MLB required the Astros to accept this move as a condition of approving their sale to Jim Crane.NEWS, Associated Press, Associated Press, Astros' sale finalized; 2 more for playoffs, ESPN Internet Ventures, November 17, 2011,weblink November 17, 2011, In 2000 the AL and NL were dissolved as legal entities, and MLB became a single, overall league de jure, similar to the National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA) and National Hockey League (NHL)—albeit with two components called "leagues" instead of "conferences." The same rules and regulations are used in both leagues, with one exception: the AL operates under the designated hitter rule, while the NL does not.WEB, Designated Hitter Rule,weblink Major League Baseball Advanced Media,, February 22, 2018, NEWS, Adamson, Scott, Nothing more irritating than playing by one set of rules in one park and a different set in another,weblink The Anderson Independent-Mail, November 24, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, This difference in rules between leagues is unique to MLB; the other sports leagues of the U.S. and Canada have one set of rules for all teams.


{{MLB Labelled Map|float=right}}{{GeoGroup}}{|class="wikitable"! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Division! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Team! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|City! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Stadium! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Capacity! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Coordinates! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Founded! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Joined! style="background:#FFFFFF;"|Ref! style="{{Baseball primary style|American League}};" colspan="9"|{{Baseball secondary link|American League|American League}}! style="background:#FFFFFF;" rowspan="5"|East|Baltimore OriolesBaltimore>Baltimore, Maryland|Oriole Park at Camden Yards 45,9713927618type:landmark|name=Baltimore Orioles}} 1901*ORIOLE PARK AT CAMDEN YARDS>URL=HTTP://BALTIMORE.ORIOLES.MLB.COM/BAL/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Boston Red SoxBoston>Boston, Massachusetts|Fenway Park 37,94942477151type:landmark|name=Boston Red Sox}} 1901FENWAY PARK>URL=HTTP://BOSTON.REDSOX.MLB.COM/BOS/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |New York Yankees New York City>New York City, New York|Yankee Stadium 49,63840457335type:landmark|name=New York Yankees}} 1901*YANKEE STADIUM>URL=HTTP://NEWYORK.YANKEES.MLB.COM/NYY/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Tampa Bay Rays |St. Petersburg, Florida|Tropicana Field 31,0422768212type:landmark|name=Tampa Bay Rays}} 1998TROPICANA FIELD>URL=HTTP://TAMPABAY.RAYS.MLB.COM/TB/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Toronto Blue JaysToronto>Toronto, Ontario|Rogers Centre 49,28243297921type:landmark|name=Toronto Blue Jays}} 1977ROGERS CENTRE>URL=HTTP://TORONTO.BLUEJAYS.MLB.COM/TOR/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, ! style="background:#fff;" rowspan="5"| Central|Chicago White Sox Chicago>Chicago, Illinois|Guaranteed Rate Field 40,6154148872type:landmark|name=Chicago White Sox}} 1901U.S. CELLULAR FIELD>URL=HTTP://CHICAGO.WHITESOX.MLB.COM/CWS/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Cleveland IndiansCleveland>Cleveland, Ohio|Progressive Field 35,2254145817type:landmark|name=Cleveland Indians}} 1901PROGRESSIVE FIELD>URL=HTTP://CLEVELAND.INDIANS.MLB.COM/CLE/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Detroit TigersDetroit>Detroit, Michigan|Comerica Park 41,29742218355type:landmark|name=Detroit Tigers}} 1901COMERICA PARK>URL=HTTP://DETROIT.TIGERS.MLB.COM/DET/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Kansas City Royals|Kansas City, Missouri|Kauffman Stadium 37,9033959450type:landmark|name=Kansas City Royals}} 1969KAUFFMAN STADIUM>URL=HTTP://KANSASCITY.ROYALS.MLB.COM/KC/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Minnesota TwinsMinneapolis>Minneapolis, Minnesota|Target Field 38,87144549342type:landmark|name=Minnesota Twins}} 1901*TARGET FIELD>URL=HTTP://MINNESOTA.TWINS.MLB.COM/MIN/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, ! style="background:#fff;" rowspan="5"|West|Houston Astros Houston>Houston, Texas|Minute Maid Park 41,67629259520type:landmark|name=Houston Astros}} 1962 (NL) 2013 (AL)MINUTE MAID PARK>URL=HTTP://HOUSTON.ASTROS.MLB.COM/HOU/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Los Angeles Angels|Anaheim, California|Angel Stadium 45,95733111758type:landmark|name=Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim}} 1961ANGEL STADIUM OF ANAHEIM>URL=HTTP://LOSANGELES.ANGELS.MLB.COM/ANA/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Oakland Athletics|Oakland, California|RingCentral Coliseum 35,0673761222type:landmark|name=Oakland Athletics}} 1901*O.CO COLISEUM>URL=HTTP://OAKLAND.ATHLETICS.MLB.COM/OAK/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Seattle MarinersSeattle>Seattle, Washington|T-Mobile Park 47,943472912257type:landmark|name=Seattle Mariners}} 1977SAFECO FIELD>URL=HTTP://SEATTLE.MARINERS.MLB.COM/SEA/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, Texas Rangers (baseball)>Texas Rangers|Arlington, Texas|Globe Life Park in Arlington 48,1143259758type:landmark|name=Texas Rangers}} 1961*GLOBE LIFE PARK IN ARLINGTON>URL=HTTP://TEXAS.RANGERS.MLB.COM/TEX/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, ! style="{{Baseball primary style|National League}};" colspan="9"|{{Baseball secondary link|National League|National League}}! style="background:#FFFFFF;" rowspan="5"|East|Atlanta Braves Atlanta>Atlanta, Georgia|SunTrust Park 41,5003324844type:landmark|name=Atlanta Braves}} 1871* (NA) 1876 (NL)TURNER FIELD>URL=HTTP://ATLANTA.BRAVES.MLB.COM/ATL/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Miami Marlins Miami>Miami, Florida|Marlins Park 36,74225418011type:landmark|name=Miami Marlins}} 1993MARLINS PARK INFORMATION>URL=HTTP://MIAMI.MARLINS.MLB.COM/MIA/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |New York MetsNew York City>New York City, New York|Citi Field 41,92240257345type:landmark|name=New York Mets}} 1962CITI FIELD>URL=HTTP://NEWYORK.METS.MLB.COM/NYM/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Philadelphia PhilliesPhiladelphia>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Citizens Bank Park 43,65139217559type:landmark|name=Philadelphia Phillies}} 1883CITIZENS BANK PARK>URL=HTTP://PHILADELPHIA.PHILLIES.MLB.COM/PHI/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Washington Nationals|Washington, D.C.|Nationals Park 41,31338227727type:landmark|name=Washington Nationals}} 1969*NATIONALS PARK>URL=HTTP://WASHINGTON.NATIONALS.MLB.COM/WAS/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, ! style="background:#fff;" rowspan="5"| Central|Chicago CubsChicago>Chicago, Illinois|Wrigley Field 41,26841548720type:landmark|name=Chicago Cubs}} 1874 (NA) 1876 (NL)WRIGLEY FIELD>URL=HTTP://CHICAGO.CUBS.MLB.COM/CHC/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Cincinnati RedsCincinnati>Cincinnati, Ohio|Great American Ball Park 42,31939518424type:landmark|name=Cincinnati Reds}} 1882 (AA) 1890 (NL)GREAT AMERICAN BALL PARK>URL=HTTP://CINCINNATI.REDS.MLB.COM/CIN/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Milwaukee Brewers Milwaukee>Milwaukee, Wisconsin|Miller Park 41,90043428716type:landmark|name=Milwaukee Brewers}} 1969* (AL) 1998 (NL)MILLER PARK>URL=HTTP://MILWAUKEE.BREWERS.MLB.COM/MIL/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Pittsburgh PiratesPittsburgh>Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania|PNC Park 38,36240498021type:landmark|name=Pittsburgh Pirates}} 1882 (AA) 1887 (NL)PNC PARK>URL=HTTP://PITTSBURGH.PIRATES.MLB.COM/PIT/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |St. Louis Cardinals St. Louis>St. Louis, Missouri|Busch Stadium 43,97538219035type:landmark|name=St. Louis Cardinals}} 1882 (AA) 1892 (NL)BUSCH STADIUM>URL=HTTP://STLOUIS.CARDINALS.MLB.COM/STL/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, ! style="background:#fff;" rowspan="5"| West|Arizona Diamondbacks|Phoenix, Arizona|Chase Field 48,51933431121type:landmark|name=Arizona Diamondbacks}} 1998CHASE FIELD>URL=HTTP://ARIZONA.DIAMONDBACKS.MLB.COM/ARI/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Colorado RockiesDenver>Denver, Colorado|Coors Field 50,398392210439type:landmark|name=Colorado Rockies}} 1993COORS FIELD>URL=HTTP://COLORADO.ROCKIES.MLB.COM/COL/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |Los Angeles DodgersLos Angeles>Los Angeles, California|Dodger Stadium 56,000342511824type:landmark|name=Los Angeles Dodgers}} 1884* (AA) 1890 (NL)DODGER STADIUM>URL=HTTP://LOSANGELES.DODGERS.MLB.COM/LA/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |San Diego PadresSan Diego>San Diego, California|Petco Park 40,162322611724type:landmark|name=San Diego Padres}} 1969PETCO PARK>URL=HTTP://SANDIEGO.PADRES.MLB.COM/SD/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, |San Francisco Giants San Francisco>San Francisco, California|Oracle Park 41,915374312221type:landmark|name=San Francisco Giants}} 1883*AT&T PARK>URL=HTTP://SANFRANCISCO.GIANTS.MLB.COM/SF/BALLPARK/INDEX.JSPDATE=JULY 21, 2015, July 21, 2015, An asterisk (*) denotes a relocation of a franchise. See respective team articles for more information.



In the 1860s, aided by soldiers playing the game in camp during the Civil War, "New York"-style baseball expanded into a national game and spawned baseball's first governing body, The National Association of Base Ball Players. The NABBP existed as an amateur league for 12 years. By 1867, more than 400 clubs were members. Most of the strongest clubs remained those based in the northeastern U.S. For professional baseball's founding year, MLB uses the year 1869—when the first professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, was established.WEB,weblink Legend of the Cincinnati Red Stockings, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2008, 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings Vintage Base Ball Team, 2007, A schism developed between professional and amateur ballplayers after the founding of the Cincinnati club. The NABBP split into an amateur organization and a professional organization. The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, often known as the National Association (NA), was formed in 1871.WEB,weblink National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, September 10, 2008,, Its amateur counterpart disappeared after only a few years.BOOK, Rader, Benjamin, Baseball: A History of America's Game, 2008, University of Illinois Press, 0-252-07550-1, 29,weblink The modern Chicago Cubs and Atlanta Braves franchises trace their histories back to the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players in the 1870s.BOOK, Spatz, Lyle, Historical Dictionary of Baseball, 2012, Scarecrow Press, 0-8108-7954-9, 236,weblink In 1876, the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs (later known as the National League or NL) was established after the NA proved ineffective. The league placed its emphasis on clubs rather than on players. Clubs could now enforce player contracts, preventing players from jumping to higher-paying clubs. Clubs were required to play the full schedule of games instead of forfeiting scheduled games when the club was no longer in the running for the league championship, which happened frequently under the NA. A concerted effort was made to curb gambling on games, which was leaving the validity of results in doubt. The first game in the NL—on Saturday, April 22, 1876 (at the Jefferson Street Grounds, Philadelphia)—is often pointed to as the beginning of MLB.NEWS, Marty, Noble, MLB carries on strong, 200,000 games later: Look what they started on a ballfield in Philadelphia in 1876,weblink MLB Advanced Media,, September 23, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2013, March 29, 2018, dead, Events of Saturday, April 22, 1876. Retrosheet. Retrieved September 30, 2011.File:1896 Baltimore Orioles.jpg|thumb|right|National League Baltimore Orioles, 1896]]The early years of the NL were tumultuous, with threats from rival leagues and a rebellion by players against the hated "reserve clause", which restricted the free movement of players between clubs. Competitor leagues formed regularly and also disbanded regularly. The most successful was the American Association (1882–1891), sometimes called the "beer and whiskey league" for its tolerance of the sale of alcoholic beverages to spectators. For several years, the NL and American Association champions met in a postseason championship series—the first attempt at a World Series. The two leagues merged in 1892 as a single 12-team NL, but the NL dropped four teams after the 1899 season. This led to the formation of the American League in 1901 under AL president Ban Johnson, and the resulting bidding war for players led to widespread contract-breaking and legal disputes.The war between the AL and NL caused shock waves throughout the baseball world. At a meeting at the Leland Hotel in Chicago in 1901, the other baseball leagues negotiated a plan to maintain their independence. A new National Association was formed to oversee these minor leagues.WEB,weblink Minor League Baseball History, September 10, 2008,, While the NA continues to this day (known as Minor League Baseball), at the time Ban Johnson saw it as a tool to end threats from smaller rivals who might expand in other territories and threaten his league's dominance.After 1902, the NL, AL, and NA signed a new National Agreement which tied independent contracts to the reserve-clause contracts. The agreement also set up a formal classification system for minor leagues, the forerunner of today's system that was refined by Branch Rickey.WEB,weblink 1903 National Agreement, September 10, 2008, Society for American Baseball Research, Several other early defunct baseball leagues are officially considered major leagues, and their statistics and records are included with those of the two current major leagues. These include the AA, the Union Association (1884),WEB,weblink American Association (19th Century),, October 14, 2013, the Players' League (1890),WEB,weblink 1890 Players' League,, October 14, 2013, and the Federal League (1914–1915).WEB,weblink 1914 Federal League,, October 14, 2013, WEB,weblink 1915 Federal League,, October 14, 2013, Both the UA and AA are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers{{who|date=October 2015}} because of the perceived high caliber of play and the number of star players featured. Some researchers, including Nate Silver, dispute the major-league status of the UA by pointing out that franchises came and went and that the St. Louis club was deliberately "stacked"; the St. Louis club was owned by the league's president and it was the only club that was close to major-league caliber.WEB,weblink NerdFight: League Quality Adjustments, Baseball Prospectus, September 8, 2008, Silver, Nate, 2007, Nate Silver, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2007,

Dead-ball era

(File:T205 Cy Young.jpg|thumb|upright|Cy Young, 1911 baseball card)The period between 1900 and 1919 is commonly referred to as the "Dead-Ball Era." Games of this era tended to be low scoring and were often dominated by pitchers, such as Walter Johnson, Cy Young, Christy Mathewson, Mordecai Brown, and Grover Cleveland Alexander. The term also accurately describes the condition of the baseball itself. The baseball used American rather than the modern Australian wool yarn and was not wound as tightly, affecting the distance that it would travel.BOOK, McNeil, William, The Evolution of Pitching in Major League Baseball, 2006, McFarland, 0-7864-2468-0, 60,weblink More significantly, balls were kept in play until they were mangled, soft and sometimes lopsided. During this era, a baseball cost three dollars, equal to ${{Formatprice|{{Inflation|US|3|1919|r=2}}}} today (in inflation-adjusted U.S. dollars), and owners were reluctant to purchase new balls. Fans were expected to throw back fouls and (rare) home runs. Baseballs also became stained with tobacco juice, grass, and mud, and sometimes the juice of licorice, which some players would chew for the purpose of discoloring the ball.NEWS, Keating, Peter, The game that Ruth built,weblink, November 24, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2011, Also, pitchers could manipulate the ball through the use of the spitball. (In 1921 use of this pitch was restricted to a few pitchers with a grandfather clause). Additionally, many ballparks had large dimensions, such as the West Side Grounds of the Chicago Cubs, which was {{convert|560|ft}} to the center field fence, and the Huntington Avenue Grounds of the Boston Red Sox, which was {{convert|635|ft}} to the center field fence, thus home runs were rare, and "small ball" tactics such as singles, bunts, stolen bases, and the hit-and-run play dominated the strategies of the time.Daniel Okrent, Harris Lewine, David Nemec (2000) "The Ultimate Baseball Book", Houghton Mifflin Books, {{ISBN|0-618-05668-8}} p. 33. Hitting methods like the Baltimore Chop were used to increase the number of infield singles.BOOK, Burt, Solomon, 1999, Where They Ain't: The Fabled Life And Untimely Death Of The Original Baltimore Orioles, Simon and Schuster, 0-684-85917-3,weblink . On a successful Baltimore chop, the batter hits the ball forcefully into the ground, causing it to bounce so high that the batter reaches first base before the ball can be fielded and thrown to the first baseman.BOOK, Lieb, Fred, The Baltimore Orioles: The History of a Colorful Team in Baltimore and St. Louis, 1955, SIU Press, 0-8093-8972-X, 46,weblink The adoption of the foul strike rule in the early twentieth century quickly sent baseball from a high-scoring game to one where scoring runs became a struggle. Prior to the institution of this rule, foul balls were not counted as strikes: a batter could foul off any number of pitches with no strikes counted against him; this gave an enormous advantage to the batter. In 1901, the NL adopted the foul strike rule, and the AL followed suit in 1903.Foul strike rule. the 1919 World Series between the Chicago White Sox and Cincinnati Reds, baseball was rocked by allegations of a game fixing scheme known as the Black Sox Scandal. Eight players—Joe Jackson, Eddie Cicotte, Claude "Lefty" Williams, George "Buck" Weaver, Arnold "Chick" Gandil, Fred McMullin, Charles "Swede" Risberg, and Oscar "Happy" Felsch—intentionally lost the World Series in exchange for a ring worth $100,000 ($1,064,705.88 in 2016 dollars).WEB,weblink History Files – Chicago Black Sox: The Fix, Chicago History Museum, October 26, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2013, Despite being acquitted, all were permanently banned from Major League Baseball.WEB,weblink History Files – Chicago Black Sox, Chicago History Museum, October 26, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2014,

Rise in popularity

Baseball's popularity increased in the 1920s and 1930s. The 1920 season was notable for the death of Ray Chapman of the Cleveland Indians. Chapman, who was struck in the head by a pitch and died a few hours later, became the only MLB player to die of an on-field injury, a tragedy which led directly to both leagues requiring the placing into play new, white baseballs whenever a ball became scuffed or dirty, helping bring the "dead-ball" era to an end. The following year, the New York Yankees made their first World Series appearance.WEB, Indians uncover lost Chapman plaque,weblink, October 31, 2013, By the end of the 1930s, the team had appeared in 11 World Series, winning eight of them.WEB, New York Yankees: Team History and Encyclopedia,weblink, October 31, 2013, Yankees slugger Babe Ruth had set the single season home run record in 1927, hitting 60 home runs; a few years earlier, Ruth had set the same record with 29 home runs.BOOK, McNeil, William, The King of Swat: An Analysis of Baseball's Home Run Hitters from the Major, Minor, Negro, and Japanese Leagues, 1997, McFarland, 0-7864-0362-4, 32,weblink Affected by the difficulties of the Great Depression, baseball's popularity had begun a downward turn in the early 1930s. By 1932, only two MLB teams turned a profit. Attendance had fallen, due at least in part to a 10% federal amusement tax added to baseball ticket prices. Baseball owners cut their rosters from 25 men to 23 men, and even the best players took pay cuts. Team executives were innovative in their attempts to survive, creating night games, broadcasting games live by radio and rolling out promotions such as free admission for women. Throughout the period of the Great Depression, no MLB teams moved or folded.NEWS, Belson, Ken, Apples for a Nickel, and Plenty of Empty Seats,weblink October 31, 2013, The New York Times, January 6, 2009,

World War II era

The onset of World War II created a significant shortage of professional baseball players, as more than 500 men left MLB teams to serve in the military. Many of them played on service baseball teams that entertained military personnel in the US or in the Pacific. MLB teams of this time largely consisted of young men, older players, and those with a military classification of 4F, indicating mental, physical, or moral unsuitability for service. Men like Pete Gray, a one-armed outfielder, got the chance to advance to the major leagues. However, MLB rosters did not include any black players through the end of the war.BOOK, Anton, Todd and Bill Nowlin (eds.), When Baseball Went to War, 2008, Triumph Books, 1-60078-126-8, 7–9,weblink Black players, many of whom served in the war, were still restricted to playing Negro league baseball.BOOK, Martin, Alfred, The Negro Leagues in New Jersey: A History, 2008, McFarland, 0-7864-5192-0, 104–105,weblink Wartime blackout restrictions, designed to keep outdoor lighting at low levels, caused another problem for baseball. These rules limited traveling and night games to the point that the 1942 season nearly had to be canceled. On January 14, 1942, MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and pleaded for the continuation of baseball during the war in hopes for a start of a new major league season. President Roosevelt responded, "I honestly feel that it would be best for the country to keep baseball going. There will be fewer people unemployed and everybody will work longer hours and harder than ever before. And that means that they ought to have a chance for recreation and for taking their minds off their work even more than before."Roosevelt, Franklin. "Green Light Letter". January 15, 1942.With the approval of President Roosevelt, spring training began in 1942 with few repercussions. The war interrupted the careers of stars including Stan Musial, Bob Feller, Ted Williams, and Joe DiMaggio, but baseball clubs continued to field their teams.WEB, Weintraub, Robert, Three Reichs, You're Out,weblink, November 24, 2013,

Breaking the color barrier

Branch Rickey, president and general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, began making efforts to introduce a black baseball player to the previously all-white professional baseball leagues in the mid-1940s. He selected Jackie Robinson from a list of promising Negro league players. After obtaining a commitment from Robinson to "turn the other cheek" to any racial antagonism directed at him, Rickey agreed to sign him to a contract for $600 a month. In what was later referred to as "The Noble Experiment", Robinson was the first black baseball player in the International League since the 1880s, joining the Dodgers' farm club, the Montreal Royals, for the 1946 season.WEB,weblink The Jackie Robinson Foundation, Jackie Robinson Foundation, July 4, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 28, 2013, The following year, the Dodgers called up Robinson to the major leagues. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons. Black baseball fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning the Negro league teams that they had followed exclusively. Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspaper writers and white major league players. Manager Leo Durocher informed his team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."WEB,  ,weblink Leo Durocher, Society for American Baseball Research, July 4, 2013, After a strike threat by some players, NL President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players, including Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese who said, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them."WEB,weblink 1947: A time for change, September 12, 2009, Newman, Mark, April 13, 2007,, That year, Robinson won the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award (separate NL and AL Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).Rookie of the Year Awards & Rolaids Relief Award Winners. Retrieved November 24, 2013.Less than three months later, Larry Doby became the first African-American to break the color barrier in the American League with the Cleveland Indians.Doby was AL's first African-American player. ESPN Classic. June 26, 2003. Retrieved November 24, 2013. The next year, a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Satchel Paige was signed by the Indians and the Dodgers added star catcher Roy Campanella and Don Newcombe, who was later the first winner of the Cy Young Award for his outstanding pitching.BOOK, Finkelman, Paul (ed.), Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-First Century, Volume 1, 2008, Oxford University Press, 0-19-516779-1, 145,weblink

Women in baseball

MLB banned the signing of women to contracts in 1952, but that ban was lifted in 1992.WEB,weblink Are Women the Next Demographic to Integrate into Major League Baseball?, September 13, 2011, As of 2019, there have been no female MLB players.

Expanding west, south and north

File:Dodger Stadium.jpg|thumb|Dodger StadiumDodger StadiumFrom 1903 to 1953, the two major leagues consisted of two eight-team leagues. The 16 teams were located in ten cities, all in the northeastern and midwestern United States: New York City had three teams and Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and St. Louis each had two teams. St. Louis was the southernmost and westernmost city with a major league team. The longest possible road trip, from Boston to St. Louis, took about 24 hours by railroad. In 1953, the NL's Boston Braves became the Milwaukee Braves. In 1954, the St. Louis Browns became the Baltimore Orioles. In 1955, the Philadelphia Athletics became the Kansas City Athletics.Baseball experts consider the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers' boss Walter O'Malley to be "perhaps the most influential owner of baseball's early expansion era."WEB,weblink Veterans elect five into Hall of Fame: Two managers, three executives comprise Class of 2008, January 19, 2008, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, December 3, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink December 4, 2007, dead, Before the 1958 Major League Baseball season, he moved the Brooklyn Dodgers to Los Angeles. When O'Malley moved the Dodgers from Brooklyn, he appeared on the cover of Time.NEWS,weblink Walter O'Malley, April 28, 2008, April 28, 1958, Time, O'Malley was also influential in persuading the rival New York Giants to move west to become the San Francisco Giants. The Giants were already suffering from slumping attendance records at their aging ballpark, the Polo Grounds. Had the Dodgers moved out west alone, the St. Louis Cardinals—{{convert|1600|mi|km|0|abbr=on}} awayWEB,weblink PDF, Worldwide Timetable, American Airlines, November 24, 2007, November 1, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2007, WEB,weblink Identifying Locations,, November 24, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2008, dead, —would have been the closest NL team. The joint move made West Coast road trips economical for visiting teams.NEWS, Walter in Wonderland,weblink Time, April 28, 1958, subscription, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2009, O'Malley invited San Francisco Mayor George Christopher to New York to meet with Giants owner Horace Stoneham. Stoneham was considering moving the Giants to Minnesota,WEB,weblink Metropolitan Stadium / Minnesota Twins / 1961–1981, May 16, 2008, Ballpark Digest,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, dead, but he was convinced to join O'Malley on the West Coast at the end of 1957. The meetings between Stoneham, Christopher and O'Malley occurred against the wishes of Ford Frick, the Commissioner of Baseball.NEWS,weblink Scoreboard, May 20, 1957, Time, Inc., Time, subscription, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 14, 2009, The dual moves were successful for both franchises—and for MLB.BOOK, After many a summer: the passing of the Giants and Dodgers and a golden age in New York baseball, Robert, Murphy, 2009, New York, Sterling, 978-1-4027-6068-6,weblink The Dodgers set a single-game MLB attendance record in their first home appearance with 78,672 fans.In 1961, the first Washington Senators franchise moved to Minneapolis–St. Paul to become the Minnesota Twins. Two new teams were added to the American League at the same time: the Los Angeles Angels (who soon moved from downtown L.A. to nearby Anaheim) and a new Washington Senators franchise. The NL added the Houston Astros and the New York Mets in 1962. The Astros (known as the "Colt .45s" during their first three seasons) became the first southern major league franchise since the Louisville Colonels folded in 1899 and the first franchise to be located along the Gulf Coast. The Mets established a reputation for futility by going 40–120 during their first season of play in the nation's media capital—and by playing only a little better in subsequent campaigns—but in their eighth season (1969) the Mets became the first of the 1960s expansion teams to play in the postseason, culminating in a World Series title over the heavily favored Baltimore Orioles.In 1966, the major leagues moved to the "Deep South" when the Braves moved to Atlanta. In 1968, the Kansas City Athletics moved west to become the Oakland Athletics. In 1969, the American and National Leagues both added two expansion franchises. The American League added the Seattle Pilots (who became the Milwaukee Brewers after one disastrous season in Seattle) and the Kansas City Royals. The NL added the first Canadian franchise, the Montreal Expos, as well as the San Diego Padres.In 1972, the second Washington Senators moved to the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex to become the Texas Rangers. In 1977, baseball expanded again, adding a second Canadian team, the Toronto Blue Jays, as well as the Seattle Mariners. Subsequently, no new teams were added until the 1990s and no teams moved until 2005.

Pitching dominance and rule changes

(File:MLB runs.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Graph showing, by year, the average number of runs per MLB game)By the late 1960s, the balance between pitching and hitting had swung in favor of the pitchers. In 1968—later nicknamed "the year of the pitcher""1968 – The Year of the Pitcher" Sports Illustrated, August 4, 1998. {{webarchive |url= |date=May 21, 2013 }}—Boston Red Sox player Carl Yastrzemski won the American League batting title with an average of just .301, the lowest in the history of Major League Baseball.WEB,weblink Year by Year Leaders for Batting Average, September 8, 2008,, Detroit Tigers pitcher Denny McLain won 31 games, making him the only pitcher to win 30 games in a season since Dizzy Dean in 1934.WEB,weblink When Denny McLain stood baseball on its ear, September 8, 2008, Bailey, Mary, 2000, The Detroit News, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2009, St. Louis Cardinals starting pitcher Bob Gibson achieved an equally remarkable feat by allowing an ERA of just 1.12.WEB,weblink Bob Gibson Statistics, September 8, 2008,, Following these pitching performances, in December 1968 the MLB Playing Rules Committee voted to reduce the strike zone from knees to shoulders to top of knees to armpits and lower the pitcher's mound from 15 to 10 inches, beginning in the 1969 season.NEWS,weblink From Mountain To Molehill, March 9, 2009, William Leggett, Sports Illustrated, March 24, 1969, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 26, 2012, In 1973, the American League, which had been suffering from much lower attendance than the National League, sought to increase scoring even further by initiating the designated hitter (DH) rule.WEB,weblink Blomberg first permanent pinch-hitter, September 8, 2008, Merron, Jeff, 2003,,

New stadiums and artificial surfaces

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, as baseball expanded, NFL football had been surging in popularity, making it economical for many of these cities to build multi-purpose stadiums instead of single-purpose baseball fields. Because of climate and economic issues, many of these facilities had playing surfaces made from artificial turf, as well as the oval designs characteristic of stadiums designed to house both baseball and football.NEWS,weblink Timeline: Artificial turf in Major League Baseball, Bleacher Report, September 24, 2009, October 13, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 24, 2013, This often resulted in baseball fields with relatively more foul territory than older stadiums. These characteristics changed the nature of professional baseball, putting a higher premium on speed and defense over home-run hitting power, since the fields were often too big for teams to expect to hit many home runs and foul balls hit in the air could more easily be caught for outs.Teams began to be built around pitching—particularly their bullpens—and speed on the basepaths. Artificial surfaces meant balls traveled quicker and bounced higher, so it became easier to hit ground balls "in the hole" between the corner and middle infielders. Starting pitchers were no longer expected to throw complete games; it was enough for a starter to pitch 6–7 innings and turn the game over to the team's closer, a position which grew in importance over these decades. As stolen bases increased, home run totals dropped. After Willie Mays hit 52 home runs in 1965, only one player (George Foster) reached that mark until the 1990s.

Scandals and a changing game

During the 1980s, baseball experienced a number of significant changes the game had not seen in years. Home runs were on the decline throughout the decade, with players hitting only 40 home runs just 13 times and no one hitting more than 50 home runs in a season for the first time since the Dead-ball era (1900—1919).WEB,weblink 1980s: The Decade Baseball's Innocence Ended, July 3, 2015, Parade Magazine, Gammons, Peter, February 26, 2019, WEB,weblink 1Baseball’s Forgotten Era: The ’80s, Society for American Baseball Research (SABR), D’Addona, Dan, February 26, 2019, Teams instead focused on building their rosters around speed and defense.The 1981 Major League Baseball strike from June 12 until July 31 forced the cancellation of 713 total games and resulted in a split-season format.In {{mlby|1985}}, Pete Rose broke Ty Cobb's all-time hits record with his 4,192nd hit, and in {{mlby|1989}} Rose received a lifetime ban from baseball as a result of betting on baseball games while manager of the Cincinnati Reds. Rose was the first person to receive a lifetime ban from baseball since 1943.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Pete Rose Banned for Life : Giamatti Says He Bet on Games; Appeal Possible in Year, August 24, 1989, February 26, 2019, 1985 also saw the Pittsburgh drug trials which involved players who were called to testify before a grand jury in Pittsburgh related to cocaine trafficking. Eleven players were officially suspended, but all the suspensions were commuted in exchange for fines, drug testing, and community service.

Steroid era and further expansion

{{see|Doping in baseball}}Routinely in the late 1990s and early 2000s, baseball players hit 40 or 50 home runs in a season, a feat that was considered rare even in the 1980s. It has since become apparent that at least some of this power surge was a result of players using steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs.In 1993, the NL added the Florida Marlins in the Miami area and the Colorado Rockies in Denver. In 1998, the Brewers switched leagues by joining the National League and two new teams were added: the NL's Arizona Diamondbacks in Phoenix and the American League's Tampa Bay Devil Rays in St. Petersburg, Florida.After the 2001 season, the team owners voted in favor of contraction. Several MLB teams had been considered for elimination in early talks about contraction, but the Montreal Expos and the Minnesota Twins were the two teams that came closest to folding under the plan. Plans for MLB contraction were halted when the Twins landlord was awarded a court injunction that required the team to play its 2002 home games at their stadium. MLB owners agreed to hold off on reducing the league's size until at least 2006.WEB, Plans involving Angels and A's never seriously considered,weblink, November 24, 2013, The Montreal Expos became the first franchise in over three decades to move when they became the Washington Nationals in 2005. This move left Canada with just one team, but it also returned baseball to the United States capital city after a 33-year absence. This franchise shift, like many previous ones, involved baseball's return to a city which had been previously abandoned. Not counting the short-lived Federal League, Montreal is the only city granted an MLB franchise since 1901 that does not currently host a team.


(File:Baseball1870s.jpg|thumb|A baseball team and its uniforms in the 1870s. Note that the team is integrated, in contrast to 20th century MLB, which was segregated until 1947.)A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players, and by some non-playing personnel, such as field managers and coaches. It is worn to indicate the person's role in the game and—through the use of logos, colors, and numbers—to identify the teams and their players, managers, and coaches.WEB,weblink History of Baseball Uniforms,, June 13, 2011, Robert, Riles, April 8, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 16, 2013, Traditionally, home uniforms display the team name on the front, while away uniforms display the team's home location. In modern times, however, exceptions to this pattern have become common, with teams using their team name on both uniforms.WEB,weblink MLB Logos,, November 30, 2013, Most teams also have one or more alternate uniforms, usually consisting of the primary or secondary team color on the vest instead of the usual white or gray. In the past few decades throwback uniforms have become popular.WEB,weblink MLB tems wear throwback uniforms for select games in 2011, FOX Sports, December 1, 2013, The New York Knickerbockers were the first baseball team to use uniforms, taking the field on April 4, 1849, in pants made of blue wool, white flannel shirts (jerseys) and straw hats.WEB,weblink Date when the New York Knickerbockers wore the first baseball uniforms and what they were made of,, June 30, 2008, WEB,weblink History Of Baseball Uniforms In The Major Leagues,, May 2, 2008, WEB,weblink The history of the baseball uniform at the National Baseball Hall of Fame,, June 14, 2008, Caps and other types of headgear have been a part of baseball uniforms from the beginning.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 19, 2012, A short history of the baseball cap.(The Home Forum) – The Christian Science Monitor â€” HighBeam Research,, May 2, 2008, NEWS,weblink Happy 50th, baseball caps, BBC News, May 2, 2008, April 27, 2004, Baseball teams often wore full-brimmed straw hats or no cap at all since there was no official rule regarding headgear.WEB,weblink Celebrating the rich history of baseball caps,, June 29, 2008, Under the 1882 uniform rules, players on the same team wore uniforms of different colors and patterns that indicated which position they played.WEB,weblink The history of the baseball uniform at the National Baseball Hall of Fame,, May 11, 2008, In the late 1880s, the Detroit Wolverines and Washington Nationals of the National League and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms of the American Association were the first to wear striped uniforms.WEB,weblink National Baseball Hall of Fame â€” Dressed to the Nines â€” Uniform Database,, May 2, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2008, By the end of the 19th century, teams began the practice of having two different uniforms, one for when they played at home in their own baseball stadium and a different one for when they played away (on the road) at the other team's ballpark. It became common to wear white pants with a white color vest at home and gray pants with a gray or solid (dark) colored vest when away. By 1900, both home and away uniforms were standard across the major leagues.WEB, Baseball Uniforms,weblink Baseball Almanac, November 30, 2013,

Season structure

Spring training

File:Spring training.jpg|thumb|A Grapefruit League game at the former Los Angeles Dodgers camp in Vero Beach, Florida]]Spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Teams hold training camps in the states of Arizona and Florida, where the early warm weather allows teams to practice and play without worrying about late winter cold. Spring training allows new players to audition for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play. The teams that hold spring training in Arizona are grouped into the Cactus League,WEB,weblink Cactus League, October 13, 2013, while teams that hold camp in Florida are known as the Grapefruit League.WEB,weblink Florida's Grapefruit League, October 13, 2013, Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warmer climates to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, and spring training usually coincides with spring break for many college students. Autograph seekers also find greater access to players during spring training.Spring training typically lasts almost two months, starting in mid February and running until just before the season opening day, traditionally the first week of April. As pitchers benefit from a longer training period, pitchers and catchers begin spring training several days before the rest of the team.WEB,weblink MLB: Spring Training, October 13, 2013,

Regular season

The current MLB regular season, consisting of 162 games per team, typically begins on the first Sunday in April and ends on the first Sunday in October. Each team's schedule is typically organized into three-game series, with occasional two- or four-game series.WEB,weblink MLB Schedule,, October 14, 2013, Postponed games or continuations of suspended games can result in an ad hoc one-game or five-game series. A team's series are organized into homestands and road trips that group multiple series together. Teams generally play games five to seven days per week, commonly having Monday or Thursday as an off day. Frequently, games are scheduled at night. Sunday games are generally played during the afternoon, allowing teams to travel to their next destination prior to a Monday night game. In addition, teams will play day games frequently on Opening Day, holidays, and getaway days.Each team plays 19 games against each of its four divisional opponents. It plays one home series and one away series, amounting to six or seven games, against the 10 other teams in its league. A team also plays one of the divisions in the other league, rotating each year, with two opponents in a three-game home series, two in a three-game away series, and one with four games split between home and away. Furthermore, each team has an interleague "natural rival" (in many cases its counterpart in the same metro area) with which it plays two home games and two away games each year.With an odd number of teams in each league (15), it is necessary to have two teams participate in interleague play for most days in the season, except when two or more teams have a day off. Each team plays 20 interleague games throughout the season, usually with just one interleague game per day, but for one weekend in late May all teams will participate in an interleague series. Use of the DH rule is determined by the home team's league rules. Before 2013, interleague play was structured differently: there would be one weekend in mid-May and another period consisting typically of the last two-thirds of June in which all teams played interleague games (save for two NL teams each day), and no interleague games were scheduled outside those dates. (Before 2013, season-long interleague play was not necessary, because each league had an even number of teams. In 2013, the Houston Astros moved to the American League, so that each league would have 15 teams.)Over the course of a season, teams compete for the five playoff berths in their respective leagues. In order to secure a berth, a team must either win its division, or capture a wild card spot by having one of the two best records among the non-winners in its entire league.WEB,weblink MLB: Regular Season,, October 14, 2013, After the conclusion of the 162-game season, an additional tie-breaking game (or games) may be needed to determine postseason participation.WEB,weblink How to determine playoff tiebreakers,, 2 September 2014,

All-Star Game

File:President attends the 32nd All-Star Baseball Game, throws out first ball. Speaker of the House John W. McCormack... - NARA - 194250.jpg|right|thumb|President John F. Kennedy throwing out the first pitch at the 1962 All-Star Game at DC Stadium ]]In early-to-mid July, just after the midway point of the season, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game is held during a four-day break from the regular-season schedule. The All-Star Game features a team of players from the American League (AL)—led by the manager of the previous AL World Series team—and a team of players from the National League (NL), similarly managed, in an exhibition game. From 1959 to 1962, two games were held each season, one was held in July and one was held in August. The designated-hitter rule was used in the All-Star Game for the first time in 1989. Following games used a DH when the game was played in an AL ballpark. Since 2010, the DH rule has been in effect regardless of venue.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Rosters Expanded For the All-Star Game, April 28, 2010, May 12, 2010, The first official All-Star Game was held as part of the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago, Illinois, and was the idea of Arch Ward, then sports editor for The Chicago Tribune.WEB,weblink All-Star Game History, Baseball Almanac, Initially intended to be a one-time event, its great success resulted in making the game an annual one. Ward's contribution was recognized by Major League Baseball in 1962 with the creation of the "Arch Ward Trophy", given to the All-Star Game's Most Valuable Player each year.WEB,weblink Newman, Mark, All-Star MVP Awaits Your Vote,, July 10, 2006, June 13, 2011, (In 1970, it was renamed the Commissioner's Trophy, until 1985, when the name change was reversed. In 2002, it was renamed the Ted Williams Most Valuable Player Award.)Beginning in 1947, the eight position players in each team's starting lineup have been voted into the game by fans. The fan voting was discontinued after a 1957 ballot-box-stuffing scandal in Cincinnati: seven of the eight slots originally went to Reds players, two of whom were subsequently removed from the lineup to make room for Willie Mays and Hank Aaron. Fan voting was reinstated in 1970 and has continued ever since, including Internet voting in recent years.The 2002 contest in Milwaukee controversially ended in an 11-inning tie when both managers ran out of pitchers. In response, starting in 2003 the league which wins the All-Star game received home-field advantage in the World Series: the league champion hosted the first two games at its own ballpark as well as the last two (if necessary). The National League did not win an All-Star game and thus gain home-field advantage until 2010; it was able to overcome this disadvantage and win in three of the seven World Series from 2003 to 2009.WEB,weblink 2003 World Series (4–2): Florida Marlins (91–71) over New York Yankees (101–61),, September 6, 2008,, WEB,weblink 2006 World Series (4–1): St. Louis Cardinals (83–78) over Detroit Tigers (95–67),, September 6, 2008, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} This was discontinued after the 2016 season.MLB All-Stars from both leagues have worn uniforms from their respective teams at the game with one exception. In the 1933 All-Star Game, the National League All-Star Team members wore special gray uniforms with "National League" written in navy blue letters across the front of the jersey.BOOK, Lamont, Buchanan, The World Series and Highlights of Baseball, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1951, 120, BOOK, Okkonen, Marc, Baseball uniforms of the 20th century: The official major league baseball guide, Sterling Pub. Co., 1991, 7, 978-0-8069-8490-2,weblink


{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; margin-left:1em; float:right"World Series Records!Team!Numberof Serieswon!LastSerieswon!Seriesplayed''New York Yankees (AL) †|27|2009|40 St. Louis Cardinals (NL)|11|2011|19Boston Red Sox (AL) †|9|2018|14Oakland Athletics (AL) †|9|1989|14 San Francisco Giants (NL) †|8|2014|20 Los Angeles Dodgers (NL) †|6|1988|20 Cincinnati Reds (NL)|5|1990|9 Pittsburgh Pirates (NL)|5|1979|7Detroit Tigers (AL)|4|1984|11Chicago Cubs (NL)|3|2016|11 Atlanta Braves (NL) †|3|1995|9 Baltimore Orioles (AL) †|3|1983|7 Minnesota Twins (AL) †|3|1991|6 Chicago White Sox (AL)|3|2005|5Philadelphia Phillies (NL)|2|2008|7Cleveland Indians (AL)|2|1948|6New York Mets (NL)|2|1986|5Kansas City Royals (AL)|2|2015|4 Toronto Blue Jays (AL)|2|1993|2Miami Marlins (NL) †|2|2003|2Houston Astros (NL to AL, 2013) †|1 [AL]|2017|2 (1 [NL], 1 [AL]) Arizona Diamondbacks (NL)|1|2001|1 Los Angeles Angels (AL) †|1|2002|1San Diego Padres (NL)|0| |2Texas Rangers (AL) †|0| |2Milwaukee Brewers (AL to NL, 1998) †|0| |1 [AL]Colorado Rockies (NL)|0| |1Tampa Bay Rays (AL) †|0| |1 Washington Nationals (NL) †|0| |1 ‡ Seattle Mariners (AL)|0| |0 AL=American LeagueNL=National League † Totals include a team's record in a previous city or under another name(see team article for details). ‡ Have not yet played in a World Series. More detail at World Series and List of World Series championsSource: MLB.comWhen the regular season ends after the first Sunday in October (or the last Sunday in September), ten teams enter the postseason playoffs. These ten teams consist of six teams that are division champions by earning the best regular season overall win-loss record for their respective divisions, and four who are "wild-card" teams that are each one of two teams in their respective leagues who have earned the best regular season win-loss record, but are not division champions. Four rounds of series of games are played to determine the champion:
  1. Wild Card Game, a one-game playoff between the two wild-card teams in each league.
  2. American League Division Series and National League Division Series, each a best-of-five-games series.
  3. American League Championship Series and National League Championship Series, each a best-of-seven-games series played between the winning teams from the Division Series. The league champions are informally referred to as the pennant winners.
  4. World Series, a best-of-seven-games series played between the pennant winners of each league.
Within each league, the division winners are the #1, #2 and #3 seeds, based on win–loss records. The team with the best record among non division winners will be the first wildcard and the #4 seed. The team with the second best record among non division winners will be the second wildcard and the #5 seed. In the wildcard round, the #5 seed will play at the #4 seed in a one-game playoff. For the division series, the matchup will be the #1 seed against the Wild Card Game winner and the #2 seed against the #3 seed.WEB,weblink MLB Playoff Format 2013: Tiebreaker Scenarios, Wild Card Games and Seedings, Bleacher Report, September 23, 2013, October 13, 2013, Since 2017, home-field advantage in the World Series is determined by regular-season records of the two league champions, replacing a system used for the prior 14 seasons where the champion of the league that won the All-Star Game would receive home-field advantage.Because each postseason series is split between the home fields of the two teams, home-field advantage does not usually play a large role in the postseason unless the series goes to its maximum number of games, giving one team an additional game at home. However, the first two games of a postseason series are hosted by the same team. That team may have an increased chance of starting the series with two wins,World Series, sec. 3.2.2 (Game-by-Game), note 2; as of 2008, the 1981 Los Angeles Dodgers are the last team to win a World Series after losing the first two games on the road. thereby gaining some momentum for the rest of the series.WEB,weblink Major League Baseball announces revamped postseason schedule, September 7, 2008, 2007,, The DH rule in the World Series is only used in games played at the American League Champions' home field. National League home games will play the traditional rules with each teams pitching staff batting.WEB,weblink Official Rules: 6.00 The Batter,, October 13, 2013,

International play

{{See also|MLB Japan All-Star Series|MLB Taiwan All-Star Series}}Since 1986 an All-Star team from MLB is sent to a biennial end-of-the-season tour of Japan, dubbed as MLB Japan All-Star Series, playing exhibition games in a best-of format against the All-Stars from Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) or recently as of 2014 their national team Samurai Japan.In 2008, MLB played the MLB China Series in the People's Republic of China. It was a series of two spring-training games between the San Diego Padres and Los Angeles Dodgers. The games were an effort to popularize baseball in China."MLB, China Baseball League Team to Tour China", Mar. 3, 2005. Voice of America. {{webarchive |url= |date=October 4, 2005 }}MLB played the MLB Taiwan All-Star Series in Taiwan in November 2011. It was a series of five exhibition games played by a team made up of MLB players called the MLB All-Stars and the Chinese Taipei national baseball team. The MLB All-Stars swept the series, five games to zero."Resilient Taiwan drop All-Stars series finale 6-4", Taipei Times, November 7, 2011 At the end of the 2011 season, it was announced that the Seattle Mariners and the Oakland Athletics would play their season openers in Japan.WEB,weblink Seattle Mariners open 2012 season in Japan vs. Oakland Athletics,, September 28, 2011, July 4, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2013, In October 2013, Phil Rogers of the Chicago Tribune wrote that MLB was considering postseason all-star tours in Taiwan and Korea; baseball is increasing in popularity in both countries.WEB, Jarosh, Noah, MLB exploring possible All-Star tour in Korea after 2014,weblink, November 30, 2013, The Arizona Diamondbacks opened the 2014 season against Los Angeles Dodgers on March 22–23 in Australia.NEWS, Australia, Baseball's Diamond in Rough, Rick, Burton, March 9, 2014, New York Times,weblink March 10, 2014, The teams played each other at the historic Sydney Cricket Ground, which has a seating capacity of 46,000. The two games represented the first MLB regular-season play held in that country. The games counted as home games for the Diamondbacks, so they played 79 home games at Chase Field.WEB,weblink D-backs' trip Down Under highlights '14 schedule: Arizona opens next season against Los Angeles at Sydney Cricket Ground,, September 10, 2013, In 2019, the Red Sox were the home team in the inaugural MLB London Series, a regular season two-game series against the Yankees. The games were played on June 29–30 at London Stadium with the Yankees winning both games. The pair were the first regular season MLB games held in Europe.Together with the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB sponsors the World Baseball Classic, an international baseball tournament contested by national teams.

Steroids in baseball

{{See also|Doping in baseball|List of Major League Baseball players suspended for performance-enhancing drugs}}File:Palmeiro swing2.png|thumb|Rafael Palmeiro (batter), one of the MLB players suspended for steroid useWEB, Players suspended under baseball's steroids policy, ESPN.comESPN.comIn 1998, both Mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa hit more than the long-standing single-season MLB record of 61 home runs. Barry Bonds topped the record in 2001 with 73 home runs. McGwire, Bonds and Sosa became the subjects of speculation regarding the use of performance-enhancing substances. McGwire later admitted that he used a steroid hormone that was still legal in baseball during the 1998 season.WEB, The Steroids Era,weblink ESPN, December 8, 2013, Baseball's original steroid testing policy, in effect from 2002 to 2005, provided for penalties ranging from a ten-game suspension for a first positive test to a one-year suspension for a fourth positive test. Players were tested at least once per year, with the chance that several players could be tested many times per year.WEB,weblink MLB Owners, Players Reach Deal On Steroid Testing, September 6, 2008, 2005,, A 2006 book, Game of Shadows by San Francisco Chronicle investigative reporters Lance Williams and Mark Fainaru-Wada, chronicled alleged extensive use of performance enhancers, including several types of steroids and growth hormone by baseball superstars Barry Bonds, Gary Sheffield, and Jason Giambi. Former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell was appointed by Selig on March 30, 2006WEB, Barry, Bloom, Mitchell Report to be released today,weblink, December 13, 2007, June 13, 2011, to investigate the use of performance-enhancing drugs in MLB. The appointment was made after several influential members of the U.S. Congress made negative comments about both the effectiveness and honesty of MLB's drug policies and Commissioner Selig.NEWS, Duff, Wilson, Michael, Schmidt, Baseball Braces for Steroid Report From Mitchell,weblink The New York Times, December 13, 2007, June 13, 2011, The day before the Mitchell Report was to be released in 2007, Selig said, "I haven't seen the report yet, but I'm proud I did it."NEWS,weblink Mitchell report will assess the damage done, Chicago Tribune, Phil Rogers, December 12, 2007, December 13, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2007, NEWS,weblink Sources: Players, owners to share blame in Mitchell report, ESPN, T.J., Quinn, Mark Fainaru-Wada, December 13, 2007, December 13, 2007, The report said that after mandatory random testing began in 2004, HGH treatment for athletic enhancement became popular among players, as HGH is not detectable in tests. It pointed out that HGH is likely a placebo with no performance-enhancing effects.WEB,weblink Mitchell Report, PDF, SR2, December 13, 2007, The report included substance use allegations against at least one player from each MLB team.NEWS, Mitchell report: Baseball slow to react to players' steroid use, ESPN,weblink December 13, 2007, December 13, 2007, According to ESPN, some people questioned whether Mitchell's director role with the Boston Red Sox created a conflict of interest, especially because no "prime [Sox] players were in the report."WEB,weblink Mitchell Report, PDF, A1, December 31, 2007, The report named several prominent Yankees who were parts of World Series clubs; there is a long-running and fierce Yankees–Red Sox rivalry. Former U.S. prosecutor John M. Dowd brought up Mitchell's conflict of interest,NEWS,weblink Mike Dodd, Is George Mitchell independent enough?, March 31, 2006, December 24, 2007, USA Today, but he later said that the former senator had done a good job.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 21, 2012, Childs Walker, Some question Mitchell as report draws near, December 11, 2007, December 24, 2007, Baltimore Sun, Mitchell acknowledged that his "tight relationship with Major League Baseball left him open to criticism",NEWS,weblink Greg Johnson, Mitchell cites unbiased history, December 14, 2007, December 19, 2007, The Los Angeles Times,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2007, dead, but he said that readers who examine the report closely "will not find any evidence of bias, of special treatment of the Red Sox".On January 10, 2013, MLB and the players union reached an agreement to add random, in-season HGH testing. They also agreed to implement a new test to reveal the use of testosterone for the 2013 season.NEWS, Baseball to Expand Drug-Testing Program,weblink The New York Times, January 10, 2013, Michael S., Schmidt, January 10, 2013, The current MLB drug policy provides for an 80-game suspension for a first positive test, a 162-game suspension for a second positive test, and a lifetime suspension for a third positive test.WEB,weblink MLB, union increase penalties for drug use, ESPN, 31 March 2014, In 2009, allegations surfaced against Alex Rodriguez and David Ortiz, and Manny Ramirez received a 50-game suspension after testing positive for banned substances. In early April 2011, Ramirez retired from baseball rather than face a 100-game suspension for his second positive steroid test.NEWS, Rays' Manny Ramirez to retire,weblink, April 10, 2011, October 11, 2013, He would later unretire, having the suspension dropped to 50 games, and would serve those in 2012.

Media coverage


{{See also|List of current Major League Baseball broadcasters}}Several networks televise baseball games, including Fox, ESPN, and MLB Network. Since 2008, Fox Sports has broadcast MLB games on Fox Saturday Baseball throughout the entire season; Fox previously only broadcast games from May to September.WEB,weblink Fox, TBS have seven-year, $3 billion TV deal with MLB, September 6, 2008, 2006,, Fox also holds rights to the All-Star Game each season. Fox also alternates League Championship Series broadcasts, broadcasting the American League Championship Series (ALCS) in odd-numbered years and the National League Championship Series (NLCS) in even-numbered years. Fox broadcasts all games of the World Series. ESPN continues to broadcast MLB games through 2013 as well, beginning with national Opening Day coverage.NEWS,weblink MLB extends TV agreement with ESPN through 2013, September 6, 2008, Yahoo! Sports, ESPN broadcasts Sunday Night Baseball, Monday Night Baseball, Wednesday Night Baseball, and Baseball Tonight. ESPN also has rights to the Home Run Derby at the All-Star Game each July.TBS airs Sunday afternoon regular season games (non-exclusive) nationally. In 2007, TBS began its exclusive rights to any tiebreaker games that determine division or wild card champions; However, in 2018, the two tiebreaker games were broadcast on ESPN. it also airs exclusive coverage of the Division Series round of the playoffs.NEWS,weblink TBS drops Braves games, joins Fox in rich TV deal, September 6, 2008, Michael Hiestand, USA Today, July 11, 2006, TBS carries the League Championship Series that are not included under Fox's television agreement; TBS shows the NLCS in odd-numbered years and the ALCS in even-numbered years.WEB,weblink TBS signs on to air LCS games, September 6, 2008, Barry M. Bloom, 2006,, In January 2009, MLB launched the MLB Network, featuring news and coverage from around the league, and airing 26 live games in the 2009 season.NEWS,weblink Dave Sheinin, May 18, 2007, MLB Network Closer to Fruition, The Washington Post, December 21, 2007, Each team also has local broadcasts for all games not carried by Fox on Saturdays or ESPN on Sunday nights. These games are typically split between a local broadcast television station and a local or regional sports network (RSN), though some teams only air local games through RSNs or through their own team networks. As Canada only contains one team, Sportsnet broadcasts Toronto Blue Jays games nationally. The channel is owned by Rogers Communications, who is also the parent company of the Blue Jays.NEWS,weblink Sportsnet will carry all 162 games for Blue Jays,, March 22, 2013, October 13, 2013, Sportsnet also televises Fox's Saturday afternoon games, the All-Star Game, playoff games, and the World Series.WEB, Company Information,weblink Sportsnet, November 30, 2013, In April 2011, TSN2 began carrying ESPN Sunday Night Baseball in Canada.WEB, ESPN's Sunday Night Baseball airs on TSN 2,weblink, November 30, 2013,

Blackout policy

{{See also|Syndication exclusivity}}(File:MLB Blackout Areas.png|thumb|upright=1.35|MLB blackout map in the United States)(File:Canadian MLB Blackout map.PNG|thumb|upright=1.35|Canadian MLB blackout map)MLB has several blackout rules.WEB,weblink Blackouts FAQ,, October 13, 2013, A local broadcaster has priority to televise games of the team in their market over national broadcasters. For example, at one time TBS showed many Atlanta Braves games nationally and internationally in Canada. Fox Sports Networks also show many games in other areas. If the Braves played a team that FSN or another local broadcaster showed, the local station will have the broadcast rights for its own local market, while TBS would have been blacked out in the same market during the game. A market that has a local team playing in a weekday ESPN or ESPN2 game and is shown on a local station will see ESPNews, or, in the past, another game scheduled on ESPN or ESPN2 at the same time (if ESPN or ESPN2 operates a regional coverage broadcasting and operates a game choice), or will be subject to an alternative programming feed.NEWS,weblink Singin' the 'Baseball Blackout Blues', Helyar, John, May 15, 2007,, September 25, 2012, MLB's streaming Internet video service is also subject to the same blackout rules.

Radio and Internet

ESPN Radio holds national broadcast rights and broadcasts Sunday Night Baseball weekly throughout the season in addition to all playoff games.NEWS,weblink ESPN's Star-Studded 2013 Sunday Night Baseball Schedule,, January 15, 2013, October 13, 2013, The rights to the World Series are exclusive to ESPN.In addition, each team employs its own announcers, who broadcast during the regular season. Most teams operate regional networks to cover their fan bases; some of these supposedly regional networks (such as the New York Yankees Radio Network) have a national reach with affiliates located across the United States.WEB,weblink New York Yankees Radio Network, October 13, 2013, Major League Baseball has an exclusive rights deal with XM Satellite Radio, which includes the channel MLB Network Radio and live play-by-play of all games.WEB,weblink MLB Network Radio, Sirius XM Radio, October 14, 2013, Many teams also maintain a network of stations that broadcast their games in Spanish; the former Montreal Expos broadcast their games in both English and French.MLB games are also broadcast live on the internet. All television and radio broadcasts of games are available via subscription to at Major League Baseball's website,, and radio-only broadcasts are also available via subscription to Gameday Audio.WEB,weblink,, October 13, 2013, Radio station affiliates are officially forbidden from streaming games through their Internet feeds. Blackout rules are still applied for live television broadcasts, but not radio broadcasts.

International broadcasting

ESPN Deportes televises a large number of MLB games in Spanish throughout Latin America.WEB,weblink ESPN Deportes' Multimedia Coverage of Major League Baseball All-Star Game and Events,, September 8, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2009, Wapa 2 airs games in Puerto Rico, including spring training games and most of the World Baseball Classic games involving the team from Puerto Rico.NEWS, Santana, Glenn, Inicia el béisbol por Telemundo y Wapa,weblink Primera Hora (Puerto Rico), Primera Hora, November 30, 2013, Spanish, March 1, 2013, In Brazil, ESPN Brasil has exclusive rights on TV (ESPN and ESPN+) and Internet (WatchESPN),WEB,weblink ESPN Brasil: Beisebol, ESPN Brasil, February 18, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2014, dead, mdy-all, with Fox Sports also broadcasting some games.Five in the United Kingdom previously screened MLB games, including the All-Star Game and the postseason games, on Sunday and Wednesday usually starting at 1 a.m. BST. Most recently, Johnny Gould and Josh Chetwynd presented MLB on Five on that station.WEB,weblink Gould, Jonny, August 8, 2008, Jonny Gould,, September 8, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2009, The channel covered baseball beginning on its opening night in 1997, but for financial reasons, the decision was made not to pick up MLB for the 2009 season.WEB,weblink June 30, 2009, Customer Services FAQ â€” Major League Baseball, July 7, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 17, 2009, ESPN UK show live and recorded games several times a week—it is available with BT Sport and (on a subscriber-basis) Virgin Media in the UK.WEB,weblink ESPN UK: Baseball, November 21, 2013, ESPN America televised a large number of games in the UK and dozens of other countries; in May 2013, ESPN announced that it would shut down the channel on July 31, 2013.WEB, Laughlin, Andrew, ESPN agrees $5.6 billion MLB baseball deal,weblink Digital Spy, November 30, 2013, WEB, ESPN America To Suspend Broadcasts In Europe, N. Africa, The Middle East On July 31,weblink Sports Business Daily, November 30, 2013, In Australia, MLB games are regularly shown on ESPN Australia (subscription).WEB,weblink ESPN Australia: Baseball, ESPN Australia, November 21, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 3, 2013, In the Middle East & North Africa, MLB games are broadcast on beIN Sports channels.{{Citation needed|date=June 2016}}In Italy MLB games are broadcast on DAZN

See also

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Further reading

  • Banner, Stuart. The Baseball Trust: A History of Baseball's Antitrust Exemption. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Bouton, Jim. Ball Four: My Life and Hard Times Throwing the Knuckleball in the Major Leagues. World Publishing Company, 1970.
  • Buchanan, Lamont, The World Series and Highlights of Baseball, E. P. Dutton & Company, 1951.
  • Cohen, Richard M., Neft, David, Johnson, Roland T., Deutsch, Jordan A., The World Series, 1976, Dial Press.
  • Deutsch, Jordan A., Cohen, Richard M., Neft, David, Johnson, Roland T., The Scrapbook History of Baseball, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1975.
  • King, Corretta. Jackie Robinson. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
  • James, Bill. The Historical Baseball Abstract. New York: Villard, 1985 (with many subsequent editions).
  • Lanigan, Ernest, Baseball Cyclopedia, 1922, originally published by Baseball Magazine.
  • Lansch, Jerry, Glory Fades Away: The Nineteenth Century World Series Rediscovered, Taylor Publishing, 1991. {{ISBN|0-87833-726-1}}.
  • Murphy, Cait. Crazy '08: How a Cast of Cranks, Rogues, Boneheads, and Magnates Created the Greatest Year in Baseball History. New York: Smithsonian Books, 2007. {{ISBN|978-0-06-088937-1}}.
  • Okkonen, Marc. Baseball Uniforms of the 20th Century: The Official Major League Baseball Guide, 1991.
  • Ritter, Lawrence. The Glory of their Times. New York: MacMillan, 1966. Revised edition, New York: William Morrow, 1984.
  • Ross, Brian. "Band of Brothers". Minor League News, April 6, 2005. Available at weblink" title="">Minor League News.
  • Seymour, Harold. Baseball: The Early Years. 2v. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960. {{ISBN|0-19-500100-1}}.
  • Turkin, Hy, and Thompson, S. C., The Official Encyclopedia of Baseball, 1951, A.S. Barnes and Company
  • Tygiel, Jules. Past Time: Baseball as History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. {{ISBN|0-19-514604-2}}.
  • The New York Times, The Complete Book of Baseball: A Scrapbook History, 1980, Bobbs Merrill.

External links

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