University of California, Berkeley

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University of California, Berkeley
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{{short description|Public university in California, USA}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{distinguish|Berkeley College|Berkeley College (Yale University)|Berklee College of Music}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2018}}

| chancellor = Carol T. ChristWEBSITE=UC BERKELEY OFFICE OF PLANNING AND ANALYSIS, October 24, 2018, | undergrad = 30,853 (fall 2018)| postgrad = 11,666 (fall 2018)Berkeley, California>Berkeley| state = California| country = U.S.Urban area>UrbanTotal {{convertacre178ha}}HTTP://WWW.BERKELEY.EDU/ABOUT/FACT.SHTML >FORMAT=PDF DATE=NOVEMBER 2010 ACCESSDATE=JULY 31, 2013, Total land owned {{convertacreFORMAT=PDF DATE=2012 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 16, 2015, | former_names = University of California (1868–1958)Berkeley Blue, Gold (color)#California (UC Berkeley) Gold}}PRIMARY PALETTESPUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEYACCESSDATE=MAY 7, 2017, {{color box#FDB515}}NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision>NCAA Division I FBSCalifornia Golden Bears>Golden Bears| mascot = Oski the BearPac-12 Conference>Pac-12}}| logo = University of California, Berkeley logo.svg| affiliations = {{unbulleted listUniversity of California>University of California system, Association of American Universities, International Alliance of Research Universities>IARU, Universities Research Association, Association of Pacific Rim Universities>APRU, APLU}}| logo_size = 250}}The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or CaliforniaWEB, Trademark Use Guidelines and Requirements,weblink University of California, Berkeley, February 18, 2018, WEB, Name,weblink 2014,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2014, Berkeley, University of California, March 24, 2017, yes, ) is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.WEB,weblink History – UC Berkeley,, June 8, 2012, Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.WEB,weblink Member Institutions and Years of Admission, 2011, Association of American Universities, Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory.WEB,weblink UC National Laboratories {{!, UCOP||language=en|access-date=April 6, 2018}} Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Berkeley also offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center."2017–18 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview" U.S. News & World Report (August 8, 2017){{as of|2018|October}}, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, and 14 Fields Medalists. They have also won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships,WEB, Maclay, Kathleen,weblink Two young faculty members named MacArthur "genius" fellows,, September 28, 2010, June 8, 2012, 20 Academy Awards, 19 Pulitzer Prizes, and 207 Olympic medals (117 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze).WEB,weblink California Golden Bears Olympians,, August 23, 2016, In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world.WEB,weblink Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron,, April 6, 2018, WEB,weblink Chemical Elements Discovered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 7, 1999,, March 7, 2016, WEB,weblink Branding the Elements: Berkeley Stakes its Claims on the Periodic Table, Cal Alumni Association, March 7, 2016, During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students.WEB,weblink Days of Cal {{!, Berkeley in the 60s||accessdate=January 19, 2017}}WEB,weblink Berkeley FSM {{!, Free Speech Movement 50th Anniversary||language=en-US|accessdate=January 19, 2017}}WEB,weblink Unforgettable Change: 1960s: Free Speech Movement & The New American Left {{!, Picture This||language=en|accessdate=January 19, 2017}} In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide.NEWS,weblink The list of top schools for producing tech entrepreneurs shows how clubby Silicon Valley really is, September 1, 2017, Quartz, NEWS,weblink In startup sweepstakes, it’s Cal vs. Stanford, September 9, 2016, Berkeley News, April 6, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley third-largest producer of entrepreneurs, report says {{!, The Daily Californian|date=August 18, 2013|work=The Daily Californian|access-date=April 6, 2018|language=en-US}}NEWS,weblink The University Entrepreneurship Report – Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals, October 29, 2012, CB Insights Research, April 6, 2018, en-US, WEB,weblink Innovation and Entrepreneurship {{!, Research UC Berkeley||language=en|access-date=April 6, 2018}}For 2018–19, Berkeley ranks 5th internationally in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 27th in the QS World University Rankings, 15th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 4th in the U.S. News & World Report Global University Rankings.[26][27][28][29] {{TOC limit|3}}


File:UCBerkeleyCampus.jpg|thumb|View from Memorial Glade of Sather TowerSather Tower


In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds. The effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state.Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill (California Assembly Bill No. 583) stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions".WEB, History of UC Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley,weblinkweblink February 8, 2011, Founded in the wake of the gold rush by leaders of the newly established 31st state, the University of California's flagship campus at Berkeley has become one of the preeminent universities in the world., yes, WEB,weblink October 8, 1998, The Future of Flagship Universities, Berndahl, Robert, Robert M. Berdahl, University of California, Berkeley,weblink February 7, 2011, The issue I want to talk about tonight is the future of "flagship" universities, institutions like the University of Texas at Austin, or Texas A&M at College Station, or the University of California, Berkeley. This is not an easy topic to talk about for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that those of us in "systems" of higher education are frequently actively discouraged from using the term "flagship" to refer to our campuses because it is seen as hurtful to the self-esteem of colleagues at other institutions in our systems., yes, Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.WEB,weblink History of UC Berkeley, 19th-century: Founding UC's flagship campus, UC Berkeley, December 26, 2012, Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.WEB,weblink Berkeley, A City in History, Wollenberg, Charles, 2002, Chapter 2: Tale of Two Towns, Berkeley Public Library, June 6, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2009, In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female studentsWEB,weblink The Centennial of The University of California, 1868–1968, June 10, 2016, where it held its first classes.WEB,weblink University of California History Digital Archives, November 30, 2008, Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan.

First half of 20th century

In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley, About UC Berkeley – History, November 30, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2008, In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which ultimately became University of California, Los Angeles.WEB,weblink University of California History Digital Archives: Los Angeles General History., Douglass, John, Thomas, Sally,, en, 2019-03-17, By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.WEB,weblink John Galen Howard and the design of the City of Learning, the UC Berkeley campus, UC Berkeley, December 24, 2010, File:Berkeley, California. University of California Student Peace Strike. About half of the students assembled at the... - NARA - 532103.tif|thumb|Berkeley students participate in a one-day peace strike opposing U.S. involvement in World War IIWorld War IIRobert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958.WEB,weblink UC Presidents, University of California History Digital Archives, November 30, 2008, In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939,, August 18, 2017, Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942.WEB,weblink Manhattan Project Chronology,, November 30, 2008, WEB,weblink Atomic History – Early Government Support, Atomic Heritage Foundation, November 30, 2008, Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments. During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman objected and were dismissed;WEB,weblink The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949–1951, University of California Archives, November 30, 2008, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay.NEWS,weblink Former UC Presidents Recollect Loyalty Oath, Benjaminson, Anne, January 8, 1999, The Daily Californian,

Second half of 20th century

In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.File:CampanileMtTamalpiasSunset-original.jpg|thumb|Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount TamalpaisMount TamalpaisBerkeley gained worldwide reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964WEB,weblink Days of Cal â€“ Berkeley in the 60s, November 30, 2008, and opposition to the Vietnam War.NEWS,weblink 10 Fun Facts about UC Berkeley {{!, AdmitSee|access-date=August 1, 2017}} In the highly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted. Then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus "...a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants".Rosenfeld, Seth (June 9, 2002). "Part 4: The governor's race". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 23, 2008.NEWS, Jeffery, Kahn, Ronald Reagan launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target, UC Berkeley News, June 8, 2004,weblink In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was founded on the Berkeley campus at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians – Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer—and with the support of the National Science Foundation. The institute was later moved to the Berkeley Hills. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.WEB,weblink Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, MSRI,, August 18, 2017, WEB,weblink MSRI, AMS,

21st century

Modern students at Berkeley are less politically radical, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives than in the 20th century.NEWS,weblink Examining Berkeley's liberal legacy, Doty, Meriah, February 5, 2004, CNN, February 20, 2008, WEB,weblink Web Feature, Powell, Bonnie Azab, January 24, 2005, UC Berkeley News, February 29, 2008, Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1.NEWS,weblink Republicans Outnumbered in Academia, Studies Find, Tierney, John, November 18, 2004, New York Times, January 16, 2008, On the whole, Democrats outnumber Republicans on American university campuses by a ratio of 10:1.NEWS,weblink Democratic professors outnumber Republicans 10 to 1: Study,weblink The Washington Times, The Washington Times, September 27, 2018, en-US, Entering the 21st century, as state funding declined,NEWS, A money gap and a brain drain; UC Berkeley, long on reputation but short on funding, is losing talent, Los Angeles Times, October 28, 2006, La Ganga, Maria L., Berkeley turned to private sources: BP donated $400 million over 10 years to develop biofuels,Rick DelVecchio Berkeley / Cal sees BP deal as landmark, Research could lead more quickly to making alternative fuel a reality SF Chronicle, February 2, 2007, retrieved October 21, 2015. "...$400 million over 10 years in Berkeley and $100 million at the University of Illinois..." the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to endow 100 faculty chairs,HEWLETT FOUNDATION AWARDS $113 MILLION GRANT TO UC BERKELEY: AWARD IS LARGEST PRIVATE GIFT IN UC BERKELEY HISTORY, Hewlett Foundation, September 10, 2007,weblink the Simons Foundation gave $60 million to establish the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing,NEWS,weblink New York Times, California Chosen as Home for Computing Institute, Markoff, John, April 30, 2012, and, in 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged $600 million (shared with UCSF and Stanford University) to establish the Biohub. The 2008–13 Campaign for Berkeley raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors.NEWS, Campaign for Berkeley,weblink

Organization and administration


The original name, University of California, is frequently shortened to California or Cal. UC Berkeley's athletic teams date to this time are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal. Today, the term "University of California" refers to the statewide school system, of which UC Berkeley is a part. The university discourages referring to the University of California, Berkeley as UCB, University of California at Berkeley,JOURNAL, 2013, Editorial Style Guide,weblink University of California, Berkeley, 14,weblink" title="">weblink December 13, 2013, Cal Berkeley, U.C. Berkeley, and UC-Berkeley.WEB,weblink Instagram post by UC Berkeley • Jun 29, 2016 at 2:28am UTC, Instagram, en, October 24, 2017, Berkeley is unaffiliated with the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley College.


The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of which are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms, 7 serving as ex officio members, a single student regent and a non-voting student regent-designate.WEB,weblink About UC â€“ Shared Governance, The University of California,weblink December 4, 2008, yes, November 30, 2008, The position of Chancellor was created in 1952 to lead individual campuses. The Board appointed Nicholas Dirks the 10th Chancellor of the university in 2013 after Robert J. Birgeneau, originally appointed in 2004, announced his resignation.NEWS,weblink Robert J. Birgeneau appointed UC Berkeley chancellor, July 27, 2004, November 30, 2008, UC Berkeley NewsCenter, 12 vice chancellors report directly to the Chancellor. The Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost serves as the chief academic officer and is the office to which the deans of the 14 colleges and schools report.WEB,weblink Organizational Chart â€“ Senior Administration, UC Berkeley, PDF,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2008, yes, November 30, 2008, On August 16, 2016, Dirks announced he would step down as chancellor after months of heavy criticism from faculty over his management of university finances and his handling of a string of sexual misconduct cases involving high-profile faculty.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley chancellor to resign following months of criticism by faculty, Watanabe, Teresa, August 16, 2016, Los Angeles Times, Dirks said he would step down upon the selection of a successor, who will be picked by a search committee of a dozen university leaders.NEWS,weblink University announces members of chancellor search committee, Esail, Vera, September 21, 2016, Daily Californian, In March 2017, his successor, Carol T. Christ, was confirmed by the UC Regents and assumed the position on July 1, 2017.NEWS,weblink Carol Christ approved as UC Berkeley chancellor by UC regents, Pratt, Pressly, March 13, 2017, The Daily Californian, The 2006–07 budget totaled $1.7 billion; 33% came from the State of California. In 2006–07, 7,850 donors contributed $267.9 million and the endowment was valued at $2.89 billion.File:Haas School of Business .jpg|thumb|Haas School of BusinessHaas School of BusinessUC Berkeley employs 24,700 people directly and employees are permitted to unionize and are represented by AFSCME, California Nurses Association (CNA), CUE-Teamsters Local 2010 (formerly the Coalition of University Employees (CUE)), UAW, UC-AFT, and UPTE.WEB,weblink Human Resources â€“ Unions, bargaining agreements, and labor relations, UC Berkeley,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2008, November 30, 2008,


{{see also|University of California finances}}Berkeley receives funding from a variety of federal, state, and private sources. With the exception of government contracts, public money is proportioned to Berkeley and the other 9 campuses of the University of California system through the UC Office of the President.State funding has, historically, been very high at the University of California. In 1987, the state provided 54% of Berkeley's budget. However, educational appropriations to the university have declined significantly over the last few decades,WEB,weblink California state shortfall triggers $100 million cut for UC, December 13, 2011, UC Berkeley, February 27, 2019, Berkeley News, with general state support dropping to 12% of the university's total revenues in 2013.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley looks to philanthropy in place of state funding, Berryhill, Alex, February 20, 2013, The Daily Californian, February 27, 2019, To be sure, Berkeley has long benefited from private philanthropy, with considerable gifts from members of the Flood, Hearst, Durant, Strauss, Lick, Harmon, and Bacon families in the 19th century and from the Hearst, Doe, Sather, Rockefeller, Cowell, Haviland, Bowles, Boalt, and Stern families, among others, in the first half of the 20th century. More recently, helping to offset the decline in state funding, alumni and their foundations have given generously to the school, with major contributions from, among many others, the Haas family (Haas, Goldman, Koshland); Gordon Moore (BS, 1950, over $110 million over the past two decades, primarily through multiple grants by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation); the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (Flora Lamson Hewlett, BS, 1935, a total of over $140 million since 2000, most notably a $113 million gift announced in 2007); William V. Power (Class of 1930, multiple gifts, including a $26 million gift in 1999 and his $46.5 million bequest in 2003); the Simons family—over $110 million from James Harris Simons (PhD, 1961—multiple gifts, including a $60 million grant through the Simons Foundation to establish the Simons Institute), Mark Heising and Elizabeth Simons (both alums, over $32 million through the Heising-Simons Foundation over the past decade), and Nathaniel Simons (BA, MA in mathematics) and Laura Baxter-Simons (BA, MA); F. Warren Hellman (BA); Donald Fisher (Class of '51) and Doris Fisher; Sanford Diller (Class of '48) and Helen Diller ('50); Laura and Stephen D. Bechtel, Sr. (both Class of 1923); Sehat Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BS); Gerson Bakar (BS); Edward and Carol Spieker (both of the Class of '66); Pehong Chen (PhD); Cornelius Vander Starr (attendee); Paul E. Jacobs (BS, MS, PhD); Richard C. Blum (BS); and Kevin Chou (BS, 2002), the youngest major alumni benefactor in the school's history.Outside of alumni, Berkeley has also benefited from the generosity of friends, corporations, and foundations, notable among which are Mark Zuckerberg and Dr. Priscilla Chan (pledged $600 million, shared with UCSF and Stanford University, to form the Biohub); BP (pledged $400 million to research biofuels); the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (over $60 million in a series of grants since the foundation's creation), billionaire Sir Ka-Shing Li (multiple gifts, most notably a $40 million gift in 2005), Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, and Thomas and Stacey Siebel.Over the years, anonymous donors have given hundreds of millions of dollars to the school, including a 1999 gift of $50 million to support molecular engineering and a 2018 gift of $50 million to support STEM faculty.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley sets fundraising record at $569M in donations during 2017–18 fiscal year, Daily Californian, July 22, 2018, In 2014, Cal presented a plan to the Board of Regents that would create a venture capital fund that would fund student and faculty startups.WEB,weblink University Of California Proposes Creation Of Venture-Capital Fund For Student And Faculty Startups, CBS San Francisco, September 18, 2014,


(File:VLSB north exterior.JPG|thumb|Valley Life Sciences Building)(File:Berkeley T-rex - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg|thumb|A T-Rex replica at the UC Museum of Paleontology)(File:Wheeler Hall, University of California, Berkeley.jpg|thumb|right|Wheeler Hall)(File:Hearst Mining Building - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg|thumb|Hearst Mining Building)(File:UC-Berkeley-017-stanley-hall-college-of-chemistry-LBL.jpg|thumb|From left to right: Stanley Hall, Tan Hall and College of Chemistry Plaza)Berkeley is a large, primarily residential research university with a majority of its enrollment in undergraduate programs but also offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program.WEB, Carnegie Classifications: University of California-Berkeley,weblink Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, February 24, 2015, The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949.WEB,weblink Statement of Accreditation Status: University of California at Berkeley, Western Association of Schools and Colleges, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2013, The university is one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar (the other is UC Merced). Berkeley offers 106 Bachelor's degrees, 88 Master's degrees, 97 research-focused doctoral programs and 31 professionally focused graduate degrees.WEB,weblink Degrees Offered at the University of California, Berkeley, July 1, 2011, Office of Planning and Analysis, UC-Berkeley, September 19, 2013, The university awarded 7,565 Bachelor's, 2,610 Master's or Professional and 930 Doctoral degrees in 2013–2014.WEB,weblink Degrees Awarded, University of California, Berkeley Office of Planning & Analysis, December 10, 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2015, Berkeley's 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized into 14 colleges and schools in addition to UC Berkeley Extension. Colleges are both undergraduate and graduate, while Schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors, minors, or courses.{{Div col}} {{Div col end}}Berkeley does not have a medical school, but the university offers the UC Berkeley – UCSF Joint Medical Program with the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), a standalone medical school that is also part of the University of California. The institutions also share the UC Berkeley – UCSF Bioengineering Graduate Program. Berkeley and UCSF have a long history of affiliation in medical research and are the two oldest campuses in the UC system. UCSF manages the UCSF Medical Center, the top-ranked hospital in California.WEB,weblink The 2017–18 Best Hospitals Honor Roll, U.S. News and World Report,

Undergraduate programs

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a focus on the arts and sciences with a high level of co-existence in undergraduate and graduate programs. Freshman admission is selective but there are high levels of transfer-in. 107 Bachelor's degrees are offered across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20), College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), College of Natural Resources (10), and other individual majors (2). The most popular majors are Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Political Science, Molecular and Cell Biology, Environmental Science, and Economics.WEB,weblink Berkeley Facts, UC Berkeley, September 19, 2013, Requirements for undergraduate degrees come from four sources: the University of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department. These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT), completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school.WEB,weblink General Catalog – Undergraduate Degree Requirements, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2013, Three-hour final examinations are required in most undergraduate classes and take place over a week following the last day of instruction in mid-December for the Fall semester and in mid-May for the Spring semester.WEB,weblink Midterm and Final Examinations, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2013, Academic grades are reported on a five-letter scale (A,B,C,D,F) with grade points being modified by three-tenths of point for pluses and minuses.WEB,weblink Grades, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2013, Requirements for academic honors are specified by individual schools and colleges, scholarly prizes are typically awarded by departments, and students are elected to honor societies based on these organizations' criteria.WEB,weblink Academic Honors, Prizes, and Scholarships, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2013,

Graduate and professional programs

File:Doe Library, main facade, July 2018.jpg|alt=|thumb|The north facade of Doe Library with Memorial Glade in the foreground]](File:Morrison Library, UC Berkeley.jpg|thumb|Morrison Library)Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, but no medical school. The university offers graduate degrees in Master's of Art, Master's of Science, Master's of Fine Art, and Ph.D.s in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor and Master of Business Administration.WEB,weblink Graduate Degrees and Certificates, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2013, The university awarded 887 doctoral degrees and 2,506 Master's degrees in 2012. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teach assistantships, or research assistantships. The 2010 United States National Research Council Rankings identified UC Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation.WEB, 2010 Rankings: Doctoral Programs in America,weblink The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 21, 2012, UC Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking include Agricultural and Resource Economics, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Science, English, Epidemiology, Geography, German, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Physics, Plant Biology, and Political Science. UC Berkeley was also the #1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards.WEB, Berkeley Graduate Profile,weblink UC Berkeley, April 21, 2012,

Faculty and research

(File:Cnr campus.png|thumb|left|The College of Natural Resources: Wellman Hall, flanked by Giannini and Hilgard Halls)Berkeley is a research university with a "very high" level of research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Berkeley spent $789 million on research and development (R&D).WEB,weblink Rankings by total R&D expenditures, National Science Foundation, January 19, 2017, There are 1,620 full-time and 500 part-time faculty members among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research units.WEB, By the numbers {{!, University of California, Berkeley|url =weblink|website =|access-date = January 24, 2016}} The current faculty includes 235 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, 3 Fields Medal winners, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 73 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 149 members of the National Academy of Sciences,WEB,weblink Six faculty members elected to National Academy of Sciences, May 3, 2016, Berkeley News, en-US, May 9, 2016, 8 Nobel Prize winners, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 7 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker Prize winner.WEB,weblink About UC Berkeley: Honors and Awards,, June 8, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2008, WEB, National Academy of Engineering members,weblink Berkeley Engineering, January 24, 2016, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States and third most of any university in the world.

Library system

Berkeley's 32 libraries together make up the fourth largest academic library in the United States, surpassed by Harvard University Library, Yale University Library and University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Library.WEB,weblink ARL Statistics 2007–2008,, June 28, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2013, However, considering the relative sizes and ages of these University libraries, Berkeley's collections have been growing about as fast as those at Harvard and Yale combined: specifically, 1.8 times faster than Harvard, and 1.9 times faster than Yale. In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality.WEB,weblink 06.20.2002 â€“ UC Berkeley library is top-ranked among North American public university research libraries,, June 20, 2002, June 8, 2012, {{as of|2006}}, Berkeley's library system contains over 11 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles.WEB,weblink What's New in the Library,, June 8, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2006, The libraries together cover over {{convert|12|acre|ha}} of land and form one of the largest library complexes in the world.WEB,weblink New addition to UC Berkeley Main Library dedicated to former UC President David Gardner,, June 12, 1997, June 8, 2012, Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, has over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictorial items, maps and more, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also houses The Mark Twain Papers,WEB,weblink Mark Twain Papers – UC Berkeley Library,, The Oral History Center,WEB,weblink Oral History Center – UC Berkeley Library,, the Center for the Tebtunis PapyriWEB,weblink The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri – UC Berkeley Library,, and the University Archives.WEB,weblink University Archives – UC Berkeley Library,,



{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|California Golden Bears|color=white}}" |National Program RankingsWEB, University of California—Berkeley – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, June 4, 2017,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 1| 7| 2| 2| 1| 2| 1| 19| 3| 1| 27| 4| 9| 2| 3| 4| 1| 6| 9| 3| 1| 2Statistics| 2{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|California Golden Bears|color=white}}" |Global Program RankingsWEB, University of California—Berkeley – U.S. News Best Global University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, November 3, 2018,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 7| 4| 1| 127| 24| 4| 7| 1| 6| 72| 6| 5| 6| 12| 20| 3| 4| 32| 15| 3{{col-end}}{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"! Rank !! 2018 QS World Ranking by Subject| Art and Humanities (OVERALL)| Architecture| English Language| History| Philosophy| Engineering and Technology (OVERALL)| Computer and Information System| Chemical Engineering| Civil and Structural Engineering| Electronic and Electrical Engineering| Mechanical Aeronautical & Manufacturing| Natural Sciences (OVERALL)| Chemistry| Environmental Sciences| Geography| Mathematics| Material Sciences| Physics & Astronomy| Social Sciences & Management (OVERALL)| Accounting & Finance| Business & Management Studies| Communication & Media Studies| Economics & Econometrics| Education & Training| Law| Political & International Studies| Sociology| Statistics & Operations ResearchBerkeley is often ranked as a top-ten university in the world and the top public university in the United States,WEB,weblink Top World University Rankings {{!, US News Best Global Universities||accessdate=September 9, 2016}}WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley {{!, Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2017 {{!}} Shanghai Ranking – 2017||access-date=April 13, 2018}}NEWS,weblink UC boasts the world’s top public universities, August 17, 2017, University of California, April 14, 2018, en, WEB,weblink World University Rankings, September 30, 2015, February 19, 2017, WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings, April 21, 2016, September 9, 2016, WEB,weblink CWUR 2017 {{!, Top Universities in the World||language=en|access-date=April 13, 2018}}WEB,weblink Top Public Schools, U.S News,weblink February 23, 2017, yes, NEWS,weblink World University Rankings blog: how the 'university superbrands' compare, May 10, 2016, Times Higher Education (THE), May 21, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Six 'superbrands': their reputations precede them, March 10, 2011, Times Higher Education (THE), May 21, 2018, en, as well as the top public university producing Nobel laureates and billionaires. For 2017–18, the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Berkeley 5th in the world. Berkeley ranks 27th internationally in the QS World University Rankings. It is additionally ranked 4th internationally by U.S. News & World Report.WEB,weblink University of California—Berkeley: Overall Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, November 7, 2015, Berkeley is ranked 18th internationally among research universities in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and as the 6th most reputed university in the world by the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings 2017, Times Higher Education, April 2, 2018, Globally, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings (THE) for 2017–2018 ranks Berkeley 10th and recognized the institution as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford.WEB, Morgan, John, Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings,weblink "The rankings suggest that the top six-...Stanford University and the University of Oxford – form a group of globally recognised "super brands"., In its 2017 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked Berkeley 4th in their Best Global University Rankings. In 2016, Berkeley was ranked 3rd in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) and 28th in the 2016/17QS World University Rankings. The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 7th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, citations, broad impact, and patents in 2015.WEB, CWUR 2015 – World University Rankings,weblink Center for World University Rankings, November 7, 2015, In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Berkeley 7th in the world based on research publication output in top tier academic journals in the life sciences, chemistry, earth and environmental sciences and physical sciences based on publication data from 2015.WEB, Nature Index 2016 Global – Top Institutions Academic Sector,weblink Springer Nature, August 8, 2016, Nationally, the 2016 U.S. News & World Report "Best Colleges" report ranked Berkeley first among public universities and 20th among national universities. Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley 7th among national universities in 2016, with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility. The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the United States, based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings.WEB, Money's Best Colleges,weblink Time Inc., November 7, 2015, For 2015 Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state students, and 6th for out-of-state students.WEB,weblink The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., Kiplinger's Best College Values, December 2014, November 7, 2015, The 2018 Forbes America's Top Colleges report ranked Berkeley 14th among all universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States.WEB, America's Top Colleges,weblink Forbes, July 5, 2018, In 2014, The Daily Beast's Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country.WEB, College Rankings 2014,weblink The Daily Beast Company LLC, November 7, 2015, The 2013 Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance ranked Berkeley 8th over-all, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and education, and 1st in education.WEB, The Top American Research Universities,weblink The Center for Measuring University Performance, The Center for Measuring University Performance, November 7, 2015, yes,weblink January 29, 2016, Berkeley was listed as a "Public Ivy" in Richard Moll's 1985 Public Ivies.BOOK,weblink Greenes' Guide to Educational Planning:The Public Ivies, Howard, Greene, Matthew W., Greene, August 7, 2013,

Admissions and enrollment{| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; margin:10px"|+Demographics of student body (Fall 2018)See Demographics of California and Demographics of the United States for references.

! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate !! California !! U.S. Census!Black| 13.2%!Asian| 5.5%!Non-Hispanic White| 61.7%!Hispanic (of any race)| 17.7%!Native American| 1.2%!International| N/A! Other/Unknown| 2.8%For Fall 2018, Berkeley's total enrollment was 42,519: 30,853 undergraduate and 11,666 graduate students, with women accounting for 52.6% of undergraduates and 46.4% of graduate and professional students. The acceptance rate for freshmen was 15.0%. Of enrolled freshman, nearly 54% were women and approximately 60% self-identified as persons of color. Enrolled freshman had an average weighted secondary school GPA of 4.45WEB,weblink Student Profile, 2018, UC Berkeley: Office of Undergraduate Admissions, August 31, 2018, (unweighted GPA of 3.89) and had an average SAT score of 1415 (average ACT score of 31). The interquartile range for SAT scores was 1300–1530, with 640–740 for reading/writing and 660–790 for math. Berkeley and other campuses of the University of California do not superscore.In 2014, Cal instituted a strict academic standard for an athlete's admission to the university. By the 2017 academic year 80 percent of incoming student athletes must comply with the University of California general student requirement that they have a 3.0 or higher high school grade point average.WEB,weblink Academic Senate releases new admissions criteria for student-athletes, Staff, Isaac Smith {{!, |website=The Daily Californian|archiveurl=|archivedate=January 1, 2016|deadurl=yes|accessdate=December 29, 2015}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; font-size:85%; margin:10px" "text-align:center; font-size:85%; margin:auto;"|+Fall Freshman Profile! !! 2018 !! 2017 !! 2016 !! 2015 !! 2014 !! 2013 !! 2012 !! 2011 style="text-align:center;"! ApplicantsWEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2018–2019, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2017–2018, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California FRESHMAN ADMISSION RATES by Campus and Residency, The Independent Berkeley Student Publishing Co., July 6, 2016, {{dead link|date=May 2019}}{{dead link|date=May 2019}}| 52,953 style="text-align:center;"! Admitsbackground:#003262; color:#FFFFFF; {{box-shadow border|a|#FDB515|2px}}|list ={{University of California}}{{UCBerkeleyChancellors}}{{Pac-12 Conference navbox}}{{America East Conference navbox}}{{Association of American Universities}}{{Universities Research Association}}{{APRU}}{{International Alliance of Research Universities}}{{HCP Research Network}}{{Graduate Theological Union}}{{Berkeley, California}}{{Silicon Valley}}}}{{Authority control}}

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