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University of California, Berkeley
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{{redirect-distinguish|Berkeley University|Berkeley College|Berkeley College (Yale University)|Berklee College of Music}}{{short description|Public university in California, USA}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2018}}







factoids
| chancellor = Carol T. ChristWEBSITE=UC BERKELEY OFFICE OF PLANNING AND ANALYSIS, October 24, 2018, | undergrad = 30,853 (fall 2018)| postgrad = 11,666 (fall 2018)Berkeley, California>Berkeley| state = California| country = United StatesUrban area>UrbanTotal {{convertacre178ha}}HTTP://WWW.BERKELEY.EDU/ABOUT/FACT.SHTML >FORMAT=PDF DATE=NOVEMBER 2010 ACCESSDATE=JULY 31, 2013, Total land owned {{convertacreFORMAT=PDF DATE=2012 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 16, 2015, | former_names = University of California (1868–1958)Berkeley Blue, Gold (color)#California (UC Berkeley) Gold}}PRIMARY PALETTESPUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEYACCESSDATE=MAY 7, 2017, {{color box#FDB515}}NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision>NCAA Division I FBSCalifornia Golden Bears>Golden Bears| mascot = Oski the BearPac-12 Conference>Pac-12 www.berkeley.edu}}| logo = University of California, Berkeley logo.svg| affiliations = {{unbulleted listUniversity of California>University of California system, Association of American Universities, International Alliance of Research Universities>IARU, Universities Research Association, Association of Pacific Rim Universities>APRU, APLU}}| logo_size = 150}}The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California)WEB, Trademark Use Guidelines and Requirements,weblink University of California, Berkeley, February 18, 2018, WEB, Name,weblink 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407230335weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, Berkeley, University of California, March 24, 2017, dead, is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship campus of the ten campuses of the University of California. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines.WEB,weblink History â€“ UC Berkeley, Berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.WEB,weblink Member Institutions and Years of Admission, 2011, Association of American Universities, Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory.WEB,weblink UC National Laboratories {{!, UCOP|website=www.ucop.edu|language=en|access-date=April 6, 2018}} Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Berkeley also offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center."2017–18 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview" U.S. News & World Report (August 8, 2017){{as of|2019|October|df=}}, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, and 14 Fields Medalists. They have also won 19 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships,WEB, Maclay, Kathleen,weblink Two young faculty members named MacArthur "genius" fellows, Newscenter.berkeley.edu, September 28, 2010, June 8, 2012, 20 Academy Awards, 19 Pulitzer Prizes, and 207 Olympic medals (117 gold, 51 silver and 39 bronze).WEB,weblink California Golden Bears Olympians, calbears.com, August 23, 2016, In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table â€“ more than any other university in the world.WEB,weblink Ernest Lawrence's Cyclotron, www2.lbl.gov, April 6, 2018, WEB,weblink Chemical Elements Discovered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, June 7, 1999, Lbl.gov, March 7, 2016, WEB,weblink Branding the Elements: Berkeley Stakes its Claims on the Periodic Table, Cal Alumni Association, March 7, 2016, March 20, 2014, During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb", led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students.WEB,weblink Days of Cal {{!, Berkeley in the 60s|website=bancroft.berkeley.edu|accessdate=January 19, 2017}}WEB,weblink Berkeley FSM {{!, Free Speech Movement 50th Anniversary|website=fsm.berkeley.edu|language=en-US|accessdate=January 19, 2017}}WEB,weblink Unforgettable Change: 1960s: Free Speech Movement & The New American Left {{!, Picture This|website=picturethis.museumca.org|language=en|accessdate=January 19, 2017}} In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded many companies worldwide.NEWS,weblink The list of top schools for producing tech entrepreneurs shows how clubby Silicon Valley really is, September 1, 2017, Quartz, NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley third-largest producer of entrepreneurs, report says {{!, The Daily Californian|date=August 18, 2013|work=The Daily Californian|access-date=April 6, 2018|language=en-US}}NEWS,weblink The University Entrepreneurship Report â€“ Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals, October 29, 2012, CB Insights Research, April 6, 2018, en-US, WEB,weblink Innovation and Entrepreneurship {{!, Research UC Berkeley|website=vcresearch.berkeley.edu|language=en|access-date=April 6, 2018}}For 2018–19, UC Berkeley ranks 5th internationally in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 28th in the QS World University Rankings, 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 4th in the U.S. News & World Report Global University Rankings.WEB,weblink World University Rankings, 2017-08-18, Times Higher Education (THE), en, 2019-01-08, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/894593099)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/894122757) cite #26 - please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC bot/Job 18}}WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings 2018, 2017-02-01, Top Universities, en, 2019-01-08, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/894593099)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/894122757) cite #27 - please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC bot/Job 18}}WEB,weblink University of California—Berkeley: Overall Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, November 7, 2015, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/894593099)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/894122757) cite #28 - please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC bot/Job 18}}WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings 2017, Times Higher Education, April 2, 2018, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/894593099)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/894122757) cite #29 - please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC bot/Job 18}} Berkeley has been consistently cited as one of the six most prestigious universities in the world by Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.MAGAZINE,weblink World Reputation Rankings 2018, Times Higher Education, June 15, 2019, WEB,weblink Birds? Planes? No, colossal 'super-brands': Top Six Universities, 1990-01-01, Times Higher Education (THE), en, 2019-06-15, WEB,weblink Six 'superbrands': their reputations precede them, 2011-03-10, Times Higher Education (THE), en, 2019-06-15, WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings 2016: winning recognition worldwide, 2016-05-04, Times Higher Education (THE), en, 2019-06-15, WEB,weblink World University Rankings blog: how the 'university superbrands' compare, 2016-05-10, Times Higher Education (THE), en, 2019-06-15, {{TOC limit|3}}

History

File:UCBerkeleyCampus.jpg|thumb|View from Memorial Glade of Sather TowerSather Tower

Founding

After the passage by the US Congress of the Morrill Act in 1862, the California legislature procrastinated in establishing a land-grant university. Meanwhile, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds. The effort failed to raise the necessary funds so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. This designation fulfilled the requirement for access to Morrill Act donated land.Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill (California Assembly Bill No. 583) stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions".WEB, History of UC Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101123024409weblink">weblink November 23, 2010, Founded in the wake of the gold rush by leaders of the newly established 31st state, the University of California's flagship campus at Berkeley has become one of the preeminent universities in the world., dead, WEB,weblink October 8, 1998, The Future of Flagship Universities, Berndahl, Robert, Robert M. Berdahl, University of California, Berkeley,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511120058weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, The issue I want to talk about tonight is the future of "flagship" universities, institutions like the University of Texas at Austin, or Texas A&M at College Station, or the University of California, Berkeley. This is not an easy topic to talk about for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that those of us in "systems" of higher education are frequently actively discouraged from using the term "flagship" to refer to our campuses because it is seen as hurtful to the self-esteem of colleagues at other institutions in our systems., dead, Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.WEB,weblink History of UC Berkeley, 19th-century: Founding UC's flagship campus, UC Berkeley, December 26, 2012, Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.WEB,weblink Berkeley, A City in History, Wollenberg, Charles, 2002, Chapter 2: Tale of Two Towns, Berkeley Public Library, June 6, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090612053620weblink">weblink June 12, 2009, During the following year the college began admitting women.WEB,weblink A History of Women at Cal {{!, Campus Climate, Community Engagement & Transformation|last=|first=|date=|website=Campus Climate at Berkeley|language=en|url-status=live|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=2019-10-08}} In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female studentsWEB,weblink The Centennial of The University of California, 1868–1968, June 10, 2016, where it held its first classes.WEB,weblink University of California History Digital Archives, November 30, 2008, Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan.

First half of 20th century

In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley, About UC Berkeley â€“ History, November 30, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080905155320weblink">weblink September 5, 2008, In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which ultimately became University of California, Los Angeles.WEB,weblink University of California History Digital Archives: Los Angeles General History., Douglass, John, Thomas, Sally, www.lib.berkeley.edu, en, 2019-03-17, By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.WEB,weblink John Galen Howard and the design of the City of Learning, the UC Berkeley campus, UC Berkeley, December 24, 2010, File:Berkeley, California. University of California Student Peace Strike. About half of the students assembled at the... - NARA - 532103.tif|thumb|Berkeley students participate in a one-day peace strike opposing U.S. involvement in World War IIWorld War IIRobert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958.WEB,weblink UC Presidents, University of California History Digital Archives, November 30, 2008, In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory (now Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939, www.nobelprize.org, August 18, 2017, Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table â€“ more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942.WEB,weblink Manhattan Project Chronology, atomicarchive.com, November 30, 2008, WEB,weblink Atomic History â€“ Early Government Support, Atomic Heritage Foundation, November 30, 2008, Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1952).By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments. During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman objected and were dismissed;WEB,weblink The Loyalty Oath Controversy, University of California, 1949–1951, University of California Archives, November 30, 2008, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay.NEWS,weblink Former UC Presidents Recollect Loyalty Oath, Benjaminson, Anne, January 8, 1999, The Daily Californian,

Second half of 20th century

In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.File:CampanileMtTamalpiasSunset-original.jpg|thumb|Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount TamalpaisMount TamalpaisBerkeley gained worldwide reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964WEB,weblink Days of Cal â€“ Berkeley in the 60s, November 30, 2008, and opposition to the Vietnam War.NEWS,weblink 10 Fun Facts about UC Berkeley {{!, AdmitSee|access-date=August 1, 2017}} In the highly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted. Then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus "...a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants".Rosenfeld, Seth (June 9, 2002). "Part 4: The governor's race". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 23, 2008.NEWS, Jeffery, Kahn, Ronald Reagan launched political career using the Berkeley campus as a target, UC Berkeley News, June 8, 2004,weblink In 1982, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was founded on the Berkeley campus at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians â€“ Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore and Isadore M. Singer—and with the support of the National Science Foundation. The institute was later moved to the Berkeley Hills. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.WEB,weblink Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, MSRI, www.msri.org, August 18, 2017, WEB,weblink MSRI, AMS,

21st century

Modern students at Berkeley are less politically radical, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives than in the 20th century.NEWS,weblink Examining Berkeley's liberal legacy, Doty, Meriah, February 5, 2004, CNN, February 20, 2008, WEB,weblink Web Feature, Powell, Bonnie Azab, January 24, 2005, UC Berkeley News, February 29, 2008, Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1.NEWS,weblink Republicans Outnumbered in Academia, Studies Find, Tierney, John, November 18, 2004, New York Times, January 16, 2008, On the whole, Democrats outnumber Republicans on American university campuses by a ratio of 10:1.NEWS,weblink Democratic professors outnumber Republicans 10 to 1: Study Shows, Richardson, Bradford, The Washington Times, April 26, 2018, September 27, 2018, en-US, Entering the 21st century, as state funding declined,NEWS, A money gap and a brain drain; UC Berkeley, long on reputation but short on funding, is losing talent, Los Angeles Times, October 28, 2006, La Ganga, Maria L., Berkeley turned to private sources: BP donated $400 million over 10 years to develop biofuels,Rick DelVecchio Berkeley / Cal sees BP deal as landmark, Research could lead more quickly to making alternative fuel a reality SF Chronicle, February 2, 2007, retrieved October 21, 2015. "...$400 million over 10 years in Berkeley and $100 million at the University of Illinois..." the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to endow 100 faculty chairs,HEWLETT FOUNDATION AWARDS $113 MILLION GRANT TO UC BERKELEY: AWARD IS LARGEST PRIVATE GIFT IN UC BERKELEY HISTORY, Hewlett Foundation, September 10, 2007,weblink the Simons Foundation gave $60 million to establish the Simons Institute for the Theory of Computing,NEWS,weblink New York Times, California Chosen as Home for Computing Institute, Markoff, John, April 30, 2012, and, in 2016, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan pledged $600 million (shared with UCSF and Stanford University) to establish the Biohub. The 2008–13 Campaign for Berkeley raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors.WEB,weblink The Campaign for Berkeley, www.campaign.berkeley.edu,

Organization and administration

Name

The original name, University of California, is frequently shortened to California or Cal. UC Berkeley's athletic teams date to this time are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal. Today, the term "University of California" refers to the expanded statewide school system, of which Berkeley Campus is the original institution. The university discourages referring to the University of California, Berkeley as UCB, University of California at Berkeley,JOURNAL, 2013, Editorial Style Guide,weblink University of California, Berkeley, 14,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131213172904weblink">weblink December 13, 2013, Cal Berkeley, U.C. Berkeley, or UC-Berkeley.WEB,weblink Instagram post by UC Berkeley • Jun 29, 2016 at 2:28am UTC, Instagram, en, October 24, 2017, Berkeley is unaffiliated with the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley College.

Governance

The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of which are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms, 7 serving as ex officio members, a single student regent and a non-voting student regent-designate.WEB,weblink About UC â€“ Shared Governance, The University of California,weblink December 4, 2008, dead, November 30, 2008, The position of Chancellor was created in 1952 to lead individual campuses. The Board appointed Nicholas Dirks the 10th Chancellor of the university in 2013 after Robert J. Birgeneau, originally appointed in 2004, announced his resignation.NEWS,weblink Robert J. Birgeneau appointed UC Berkeley chancellor, July 27, 2004, November 30, 2008, UC Berkeley NewsCenter, 12 vice chancellors report directly to the Chancellor. The Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost serves as the chief academic officer and is the office to which the deans of the 14 colleges and schools report.WEB,weblink Organizational Chart â€“ Senior Administration, UC Berkeley, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217080423weblink">weblink December 17, 2008, dead, November 30, 2008, On August 16, 2016, Dirks announced he would step down as chancellor after months of heavy criticism from faculty over his management of university finances and his handling of a string of sexual misconduct cases involving high-profile faculty.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley chancellor to resign following months of criticism by faculty, Watanabe, Teresa, August 16, 2016, Los Angeles Times, Dirks said he would step down upon the selection of a successor, who will be picked by a search committee of a dozen university leaders.NEWS,weblink University announces members of chancellor search committee, Esail, Vera, September 21, 2016, Daily Californian, In March 2017, his successor, Carol T. Christ, was confirmed by the UC Regents and assumed the position on July 1, 2017.NEWS,weblink Carol Christ approved as UC Berkeley chancellor by UC regents, Pratt, Pressly, March 13, 2017, The Daily Californian, The 2006–07 budget totaled $1.7 billion; 33% came from the State of California. In 2006–07, 7,850 donors contributed $267.9 million and the endowment was valued at $2.89 billion.File:Haas School of Business .jpg|thumb|Haas School of BusinessHaas School of BusinessUC Berkeley employs 24,700 people directly and employees are permitted to unionize and are represented by AFSCME, California Nurses Association (CNA), CUE-Teamsters Local 2010 (formerly the Coalition of University Employees (CUE)), UAW, UC-AFT, and UPTE.WEB,weblink Human Resources â€“ Unions, bargaining agreements, and labor relations, UC Berkeley,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080804055815weblink">weblink August 4, 2008, November 30, 2008,

Funding

{{See also|University of California finances}}Berkeley receives funding from a variety of federal, state, and private sources. With the exception of government contracts, public money is proportioned to Berkeley and the other 9 campuses of the University of California system through the UC Office of the President.State funding has, historically, been very high at the University of California. In 1987, the state provided 54% of Berkeley's budget. However, educational appropriations to the university have declined significantly over the last few decades,WEB,weblink California state shortfall triggers $100 million cut for UC, December 13, 2011, UC Berkeley, February 27, 2019, Berkeley News, with general state support dropping to 12% of the university's total revenues in 2013.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley looks to philanthropy in place of state funding, Berryhill, Alex, February 20, 2013, The Daily Californian, February 27, 2019, To be sure, Berkeley has long benefited from private philanthropy, with considerable gifts from members of the Flood, Hearst, Durant, Strauss, Lick, Harmon, and Bacon families in the 19th century and from the Hearst, Doe, Sather, Rockefeller, Cowell, Haviland, Bowles, Boalt, and Stern families, among others, in the first half of the 20th century. More recently, helping to offset the decline in state funding, alumni and their foundations have given generously to the school, with major contributions from, among many others, the Haas family (Haas, Goldman, Koshland); Gordon Moore (BS, 1950, over $110 million over the past two decades, primarily through multiple grants by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation); the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (Flora Lamson Hewlett, BS, 1935, a total of over $140 million since 2000, most notably a $113 million gift announced in 2007); William V. Power (Class of 1930, multiple gifts, including a $26 million gift in 1999 and his $46.5 million bequest in 2003); the Simons family—over $110 million from James Harris Simons (PhD, 1961—multiple gifts, including a $60 million grant through the Simons Foundation to establish the Simons Institute), Mark Heising and Elizabeth Simons (both alums, over $32 million through the Heising-Simons Foundation over the past decade), and Nathaniel Simons (BA, MA in mathematics) and Laura Baxter-Simons (BA, MA); F. Warren Hellman (BA); Donald Fisher (Class of '51) and Doris Fisher; Sanford Diller (Class of '48) and Helen Diller ('50); Laura and Stephen D. Bechtel, Sr. (both Class of 1923); Sehat Sutardja (MS, PhD) and Weili Dai (BS); Gerson Bakar (BS); Edward and Carol Spieker (both of the Class of '66); Pehong Chen (PhD); Cornelius Vander Starr (attendee); Paul E. Jacobs (BS, MS, PhD); Richard C. Blum (BS); and Kevin Chou (BS, 2002), the youngest major alumni benefactor in the school's history.Outside of alumni, Berkeley has also benefited from the generosity of friends, corporations, and foundations, notable among which are Mark Zuckerberg and Dr. Priscilla Chan (pledged $600 million, shared with UCSF and Stanford University, to form the Biohub); BP (pledged $400 million to research biofuels); the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (over $60 million in a series of grants since the foundation's creation), billionaire Sir Li Ka-Shing (multiple gifts, most notably a $40 million gift in 2005), Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, and Thomas and Stacey Siebel.Over the years, anonymous donors have given hundreds of millions of dollars to the school, including a 1999 gift of $50 million to support molecular engineering and a 2018 gift of $50 million to support STEM faculty.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley sets fundraising record at $569M in donations during 2017–18 fiscal year, Daily Californian, July 22, 2018, In 2014, Cal presented a plan to the Board of Regents that would create a venture capital fund that would fund student and faculty startups.WEB,weblink University Of California Proposes Creation Of Venture-Capital Fund For Student And Faculty Startups, CBS San Francisco, September 18, 2014, September 17, 2014,

Academics

(File:VLSB north exterior.JPG|thumb|Valley Life Sciences Building)(File:Berkeley T-rex - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg|thumb|A T-Rex replica at the UC Museum of Paleontology)(File:Wheeler Hall, University of California, Berkeley.jpg|thumb|right|Wheeler Hall)(File:Hearst Mining Building - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg|thumb|Hearst Mining Building)(File:UC-Berkeley-017-stanley-hall-college-of-chemistry-LBL.jpg|thumb|From left to right: Stanley Hall, Tan Hall and College of Chemistry Plaza)Berkeley is a large, primarily residential Tier One research university with a majority of its enrollment in undergraduate programs, but also offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program.WEB, Carnegie Classifications: University of California-Berkeley,weblink Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, February 24, 2015, The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949.WEB,weblink Statement of Accreditation Status: University of California at Berkeley, Western Association of Schools and Colleges, September 19, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130927213723weblink">weblink September 27, 2013, The university is one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar (the other is UC Merced). Berkeley offers 106 Bachelor's degrees, 88 Master's degrees, 97 research-focused doctoral programs and 31 professionally focused graduate degrees.WEB,weblink Degrees Offered at the University of California, Berkeley, July 1, 2011, Office of Planning and Analysis, UC-Berkeley, September 19, 2013, The university awarded 7,565 Bachelor's, 2,610 Master's or Professional and 930 Doctoral degrees in 2013–2014.WEB,weblink Degrees Awarded, University of California, Berkeley Office of Planning & Analysis, December 10, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151211093118weblink">weblink December 11, 2015, Berkeley's 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized into 14 colleges and schools in addition to UC Berkeley Extension. Colleges are both undergraduate and graduate, while Schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors, minors, or courses.{{Div col}} {{Div col end}}Berkeley does not have a medical school, but the university offers the UC Berkeley – UCSF Joint Medical Program with the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), a standalone medical school that is also part of the University of California. The institutions also share the UC Berkeley â€“ UCSF Bioengineering Graduate Program. Berkeley and UCSF have a long history of cooperation in medical research and are the two oldest campuses in the UC system. UCSF manages the UCSF Medical Center, the top-ranked hospital in California.MAGAZINE,weblink The 2017–18 Best Hospitals Honor Roll, U.S. News and World Report,

Undergraduate programs

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a focus on the arts and sciences with a high level of co-existence in undergraduate and graduate programs. Freshman admission is selective but there are high levels of transfer-in. 107 Bachelor's degrees are offered across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20), College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), College of Natural Resources (10), and other individual majors (2). The most popular majors are Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Political Science, Molecular and Cell Biology, Environmental Science, and Economics.WEB,weblink Berkeley Facts, UC Berkeley, September 19, 2013, Requirements for undergraduate degrees come from four sources: the University of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department. These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT), completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school.WEB,weblink General Catalog â€“ Undergraduate Degree Requirements, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130912213547weblink">weblink September 12, 2013, Three-hour final examinations are required in most undergraduate classes and take place over a week following the last day of instruction in mid-December for the Fall semester and in mid-May for the Spring semester.WEB,weblink Midterm and Final Examinations, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130811133645weblink">weblink August 11, 2013, Academic grades are reported on a five-letter scale (A,B,C,D,F) with grade points being modified by three-tenths of point for pluses and minuses.WEB,weblink Grades, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130705063049weblink">weblink July 5, 2013, Requirements for academic honors are specified by individual schools and colleges, scholarly prizes are typically awarded by departments, and students are elected to honor societies based on these organizations' criteria.WEB,weblink Academic Honors, Prizes, and Scholarships, University of California, Berkeley, September 19, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130704205820weblink">weblink July 4, 2013,

Graduate and professional programs

File:Doe Library, main facade, July 2018.jpg|alt=|thumb|The north facade of Doe Library with Memorial Glade in the foreground]](File:Morrison Library, UC Berkeley.jpg|thumb|Morrison Library)Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, but no medical school. The university offers graduate degrees in Master's of Art, Master's of Science, Master's of Fine Art, and Ph.D.s in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor, Master of Business Administration and Master of Design.WEB,weblink Graduate Degree Programs University of California, Berkeley, guide.berkeley.edu, 2019-06-28, The university awarded 963 doctoral degrees and 3,531 Master's degrees in 2017. Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teach assistantships, or research assistantships. The 2010 United States National Research Council Rankings identified UC Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation.NEWS, 2010 Rankings: Doctoral Programs in America,weblink The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 21, 2012, UC Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking include Agricultural and Resource Economics, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Science, English, Epidemiology, Geography, German, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Physics, Plant Biology, and Political Science. UC Berkeley was also the #1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards.WEB, Berkeley Graduate Profile,weblink UC Berkeley, June 28, 2019,

Faculty and research

(File:Cnr campus.png|thumb|left|The College of Natural Resources: Wellman Hall, flanked by Giannini and Hilgard Halls)Berkeley is a research university with a "very high" level of research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Berkeley spent $789 million on research and development (R&D).WEB,weblink Rankings by total R&D expenditures, National Science Foundation, January 19, 2017,weblink January 13, 2017, dead, There are 1,620 full-time and 500 part-time faculty members among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research units.WEB, By the numbers {{!, University of California, Berkeley|url =weblink|website = www.berkeley.edu|access-date = January 24, 2016}} The current faculty includes 235 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, 3 Fields Medal winners, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 73 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 149 members of the National Academy of Sciences,WEB,weblink Six faculty members elected to National Academy of Sciences, May 3, 2016, Berkeley News, en-US, May 9, 2016, 8 Nobel Prize winners, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 7 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker Prize winner.WEB,weblink About UC Berkeley: Honors and Awards, Berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080704130609weblink">weblink July 4, 2008, WEB, National Academy of Engineering members,weblink Berkeley Engineering, January 24, 2016, As of October 2019, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States and third most of any university in the world.

Library system

Berkeley's 32 libraries together make up the fourth largest academic library in the United States, surpassed by Harvard University Library, Yale University Library and University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign Library.WEB,weblink ARL Statistics 2007–2008, Arl.org, June 28, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130113041936weblink">weblink January 13, 2013, However, considering the relative sizes and ages of these University libraries, Berkeley's collections have been growing about as fast as those at Harvard and Yale combined: specifically, 1.8 times faster than Harvard, and 1.9 times faster than Yale. In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality.WEB,weblink 06.20.2002 â€“ UC Berkeley library is top-ranked among North American public university research libraries, Berkeley.edu, June 20, 2002, June 8, 2012, {{as of|2006}}, Berkeley's library system contains over 11 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles.WEB,weblink What's New in the Library, Lib.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060615233637weblink">weblink June 15, 2006, The libraries together cover over {{convert|12|acre|ha}} of land and form one of the largest library complexes in the world.WEB,weblink New addition to UC Berkeley Main Library dedicated to former UC President David Gardner, Berkeley.edu, June 12, 1997, June 8, 2012, Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, has over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictorial items, maps and more, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also houses The Mark Twain Papers,WEB,weblink Mark Twain Papers â€“ UC Berkeley Library, www.lib.berkeley.edu, The Oral History Center,WEB,weblink Oral History Center â€“ UC Berkeley Library, www.lib.berkeley.edu, the Center for the Tebtunis PapyriWEB,weblink The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri â€“ UC Berkeley Library, www.lib.berkeley.edu, and the University Archives.WEB,weblink University Archives â€“ UC Berkeley Library, www.lib.berkeley.edu,

Rankings

{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}







factoids
{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|California Golden Bears|color=white}}" |National Program RankingsMAGAZINE, University of California—Berkeley â€“ U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, July 12, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 1| 6| 2| 2| 1| 2| 1| 18| 3| 1| 27| 4| 10| 2| 3| 4| 1| 7| 9| 3| 1| 2Statistics| 2{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="float:right" "text-align:center"! colspan=4 style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|California Golden Bears|color=white}}" |Global Program RankingsMAGAZINE, University of California—Berkeley â€“ U.S. News Best Global University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, July 12, 2019,weblink ! Program! Ranking| 7| 4| 1| 127| 24| 4| 7| 1| 6| 72| 6| 5| 6| 12| 20| 3| 4| 32| 15| 3{{col-end}}{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"! Rank !! 2018 QS World Ranking by Subject| Art and Humanities (OVERALL)| Architecture| English Language| History| Philosophy| Engineering and Technology (OVERALL)| Computer and Information System| Chemical Engineering| Civil and Structural Engineering| Electronic and Electrical Engineering| Mechanical Aeronautical & Manufacturing| Natural Sciences (OVERALL)| Chemistry| Environmental Sciences| Geography| Mathematics| Material Sciences| Physics & Astronomy| Social Sciences & Management (OVERALL)| Accounting & Finance| Business & Management Studies| Communication & Media Studies| Economics & Econometrics| Education & Training| Law| Political & International Studies| Sociology| Statistics & Operations ResearchBerkeley is often ranked as a top-ten university in the world and the top public university in the United States,WEB,weblink Top World University Rankings {{!, US News Best Global Universities|website=www.usnews.com|accessdate=September 9, 2016}}WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley {{!, Academic Ranking of World Universities â€“ 2017 {{!}} Shanghai Ranking â€“ 2017|website=www.shanghairanking.com|access-date=April 13, 2018}}NEWS,weblink UC boasts the world’s top public universities, August 17, 2017, University of California, April 14, 2018, en, WEB,weblink World University Rankings, September 30, 2015, February 19, 2017, WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings, April 21, 2016, September 9, 2016, WEB,weblink CWUR 2017 {{!, Top Universities in the World|website=cwur.org|language=en|access-date=April 13, 2018}}WEB,weblink Top Public Schools, U.S News,weblink February 23, 2017, dead, NEWS,weblink World University Rankings blog: how the 'university superbrands' compare, May 10, 2016, Times Higher Education (THE), May 21, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Six 'superbrands': their reputations precede them, March 10, 2011, Times Higher Education (THE), May 21, 2018, en, as well as the top public university producing Nobel laureates and billionaires.Globally, for 2018–19, Berkeley is ranked 5th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), 28th internationally in the QS World University Rankings, 15th internationally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 4th internationally by U.S. News & World Report.MAGAZINE,weblink University of California—Berkeley: Overall Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, June 15, 2019, Additionally, for 2018–29, Berkeley is cited as the 6th most prestigious university in the world by the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings, and it has been consistently recognized as one of the world's "six super brands" along with Cambridge, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford. The Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 6th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, citations, broad impact, and patents in 2018–19.WEB,weblink CWUR World University Rankings 2018–2019, Center for World University Rankings, June 15, 2019, In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Berkeley as the 6th university in the world based on research publication output in top tier academic journals in the life sciences, chemistry, earth and environmental sciences and physical sciences based on publication data from 2015.WEB, Nature Index 2016 Global â€“ Top Institutions Academic Sector,weblink Springer Nature, August 8, 2016, It was ranked as the 9th institution in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.WEB,weblink 10 institutions that dominated science in 2017, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink Introduction to the Nature Index, May 28, 2019, Nationally, the 2019–20 U.S. News & World Report's "Best Colleges" ranks Berkeley second among public universities and 22nd among national universities. The 2019 Forbes America's Top Colleges report ranks Berkeley the top public university and 13th among 650 universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States.MAGAZINE, America's Top Colleges,weblink Forbes, July 5, 2019, Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley 20th among national universities in 2019, with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility. The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the United States, based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings.WEB, Money's Best Colleges,weblink Time Inc., November 7, 2015, For 2015 Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state students, and 6th for out-of-state students.WEB,weblink The Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc., Kiplinger's Best College Values, December 2014, November 7, 2015, In 2014, The Daily Beast's Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country.WEB, College Rankings 2014,weblink The Daily Beast Company LLC, November 7, 2015, The 2013 Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance ranked Berkeley 8th over-all, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and education, and 1st in education.WEB, The Top American Research Universities,weblink The Center for Measuring University Performance, The Center for Measuring University Performance, November 7, 2015, dead,weblink January 29, 2016, Berkeley was listed as a "Public Ivy" in Richard Moll's 1985 Public Ivies.BOOK,weblink Greenes' Guide to Educational Planning:The Public Ivies, Howard, Greene, Matthew W., Greene, August 7, 2013,

Admissions and enrollment {| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; margin:10px"|+Demographics of student body (Fall 2018)See Demographics of California and Demographics of the United States for references.

! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate !! California !! U.S. Census!Black| 13.2%!Asian| 5.5%!Non-Hispanic White| 61.7%!Hispanic (of any race)| 17.7%!Native American| 1.2%!International| N/A! Other/Unknown| 2.8%For Fall 2018, Berkeley's total enrollment was 42,519: 30,853 undergraduate and 11,666 graduate students, with women accounting for 52.6% of undergraduates and 46.4% of graduate and professional students. The acceptance rate for freshmen was 15.0%. Of enrolled freshman, nearly 54% were women and approximately 60% self-identified as persons of color. Enrolled freshman had an average weighted secondary school GPA of 4.45WEB,weblink Student Profile, 2018, UC Berkeley: Office of Undergraduate Admissions, August 31, 2018, (unweighted GPA of 3.89) and had an average SAT score of 1415 (average ACT score of 31). The interquartile range for SAT scores was 1300–1530, with 640–740 for reading/writing and 660–790 for math. Berkeley and other campuses of the University of California do not superscore.In 2014, Cal instituted a strict academic standard for an athlete's admission to the university. By the 2017 academic year 80 percent of incoming student athletes must comply with the University of California general student requirement that they have a 3.0 or higher high school grade point average.WEB,weblink Academic Senate releases new admissions criteria for student-athletes, Staff, Isaac Smith {{!, |website=The Daily Californian|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160101194229weblink|archivedate=January 1, 2016|url-status=dead|accessdate=December 29, 2015}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; font-size:85%; margin:10px" "text-align:center; font-size:85%; margin:auto;"|+Fall Freshman Profile! !! 2018 !! 2017 !! 2016 !! 2015 !! 2014 !! 2013 !! 2012 !! 2011 style="text-align:center;"! ApplicantsWEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2018–2019, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2017–2018, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California FRESHMAN ADMISSION RATES by Campus and Residency, The Independent Berkeley Student Publishing Co., July 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Table 2, University of California, FRESHMAN ADMISSION RATES by Campus and Residency, Fall 2013, 2014 and 2015, July 14, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150714103001weblink">weblink WEB,weblink September 6, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906103112weblink">weblink Table 2, University of California, New FRESHMAN ADMIT Rates by Campus and Residency, Fall 2011, 2012 and 2013 (Does not include referral and waitlist, | 52,953 style="text-align:center;"! Admits| 13,523 style="text-align:center;"! Admit rate| 25.5% style="text-align:center;"! EnrolledWEB,weblink September 6, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906104056weblink">weblink Table 1.1, University of California, Statement of Intent to Register (SIR) Rates of FRESHMEN by Campus, Fall 2013, 2014 and 2015, WEB,weblink September 6, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906133609weblink">weblink Table 1.1, University of California, Statement of Intent to Register (SIR) Rates of FRESHMEN by Campus, Fall 2011, 2012 and 2013, | 5,640 style="text-align:center;"!SAT rangeWEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2016–2017, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150405052408weblink">weblink April 5, 2015, dead, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2015–2016, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2014–2015, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2013–2014, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2012–2013, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley Common Data Set 2011–2012, Part C, University of California Berkeley, Office of Planning and Analysis, | 1870–2230 style="text-align:center;"!ACT average| 31 style="text-align:center;"!GPA (unweighted)| 3.83{{clear}}Students and prospective students of UC Berkeley are eligible for a variety of public and private financial aid. Generally, financial aid inquiries are processed through the weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120410170047weblink">UC Berkeley Financial Aid and Scholarships Office. Some graduate schools, such as the Haas School of BusinessWEB,weblink Full-Time MBA Financial Aid â€“ Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, Haas.berkeley.edu,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120709093208weblink">weblink July 9, 2012, dead, June 8, 2012, and Berkeley Law,WEB,weblink Financial Aid, April 10, 2015, Berkeley Law, have their own financial aid offices. Berkeley's enrollment of National Merit Scholars was third in the nation until 2002, when participation in the National Merit program was discontinued.NEWS,weblink Six UC campuses to redirect national merit funding to other merit-based scholarships, July 13, 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080829134813weblink">weblink August 29, 2008, dead, University of California Newsroom, For 2017–18, Berkeley ranked third in enrollment of recipients of the National Merit National Merit $2,500 Scholarship,500 Scholarship (124 scholars).WEB, NMSC 2017–2018 Annual Report,weblink National Merit Scholarship Corporation, 27% of admitted students receive federal Pell grants.NEWS,weblink Pell Grant, August 14, 2019, UC Regents,

Discoveries and innovation

File:Unix history-simple.svg|thumb|alt=A simple flow chart showing the history and timeline of the development of Unix starting with one bubble at the top and 13 tributaries at the bottom of the flow |Simplified evolution of Unix systems and BSD forks ]]A number of significant inventions and discoveries have been made by the Berkeley faculty and researchers:WEB, History & discoveries,weblink University of California, Berkeley, November 7, 2016,

Natural sciences

Computer and applied sciences

Companies and entrepreneurship

UC Berkeley alumni and faculty have founded many companies, some of which are shown below.WEB,weblink Innovation and Entrepreneurship {{!, Research UC Berkeley|website=vcresearch.berkeley.edu|language=en|access-date=November 11, 2017}}NEWS,weblink In startup sweepstakes, it’s Cal vs. Stanford, September 9, 2016, Berkeley News, November 11, 2017, en-US, UC Berkeley has often been cited as one of the universities that have produced most entrepreneurs.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley third-largest producer of entrepreneurs, report says {{!, The Daily Californian|date=August 18, 2013|work=The Daily Californian|access-date=November 23, 2017|language=en-US}}NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley is No. 1 in global entrepreneurship, September 16, 2016, University of California, November 23, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink The University Entrepreneurship Report â€“ Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals, October 29, 2012, CB Insights Research, November 23, 2017, en-US, NEWS,weblink One University To Rule Them All: Stanford Tops Startup List â€“ ReadWrite, December 3, 2012, ReadWrite, November 23, 2017, en-US,

Campus

The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately {{convert|1232|acre|ha}}, though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western {{convert|178|acre|ha}} of this area. Of the remaining acres, approximately {{convert|200|acre|ha}} are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an undeveloped {{convert|800|acre|ha|adj=on}} ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon. Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park.WEB, OpenStreetMap Oakland,weblink openstreetmap.org, September 10, 2014, (File:FullSizeRender.jpg-2.jpg|thumb|View looking west from Wurster Hall)To the west of the central campus is the downtown business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panisse. Immediately to the north is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northside with a large graduate student population;WEB, Moving to Berkeley,weblink Berkeley Postdoctoral Association, February 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120229062100weblink">weblink February 29, 2012, situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley Hills. Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row, and beyond that the Clark Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremont. The area south of the university includes student housing and Telegraph Avenue, one of Berkeley's main shopping districts with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists. In addition, the University also owns land to the northwest of the main campus, a {{convert|90|acre|ha|adj=on}} married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany ("Albany Village" and the "Gill Tract"), and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, California.(File:Innovation Lab.jpg|thumb|The Summer PreCore Program for community college transfers to the Haas Undergraduate Program, hosted at the Innovation Lab (est. 2013), founded by Linda (BS '67) and Mike Gallagher (MBA '68), under the California Memorial Stadium.)The campus is home to several museums including the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science. The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex. Campus resource spaces for innovation and entrepreneurship such as the Big Ideas Competition (Blum Center for Developing Economies), SkyDeck, the Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology, and the Berkeley Haas Innovation Lab can also be found at UC Berkeley.WEB,weblink Innovation/Entrepreneurship {{!, Research UC Berkeley|website=vcresearch.berkeley.edu|access-date=2019-04-14}}Outside of the Bay Area, the University owns various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra Nevada.{{Wide image|University of California, Berkeley.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center|360-degree-view of the UC Berkeley campus}}

Architecture

File:South Hall--UC Berkeley--Panoramic.jpg|thumb|South Hall (1873), one of the two original buildings of the University of California, still stands on the Berkeley campus]]What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California", funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899.WEB,weblink Online Exhibit on the Hearst Architectural Competition, Sunsite.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, however he refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s. The structures forming the "classical core" of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Library, California Hall, Wheeler Hall, (Old) Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gate, and the {{convert|307|ft|m|0|adj=on}} Sather Tower (nicknamed "the Campanile" after its architectural inspiration, St Mark's Campanile in Venice), the tallest university clock tower in the United States.WEB, The 10 Tallest University Clock Towers,weblink Best College Reviews, July 17, 2018, Buildings he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly "serious" were designed in shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical LandmarksOHP, 946, University of California, Berkeley Campus, March 30, 2012, and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hall, designed by David Farquharson, is the oldest university building in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are two of the only surviving examples of the nineteenth-century campus. Other notable architects and firms whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard MaybeckBOOK, McCoy, Esther, Esther McCoy, Five California Architects, New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1960, 6, B000I3Z52W, (Faculty Club); Julia Morgan (Hearst Women's Gymnasium and Julia Morgan Hall); William Wurster (Stern Hall); Moore Ruble Yudell (Haas School of Business); Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects (C.V. Starr East Asian Library), and Diller Scofidio + Renfro (Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive).

Natural features

File:Strawberry Creek near Dwinelle Hall.jpg|thumb| The south fork of Strawberry CreekStrawberry CreekFlowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum.Trees in the area date from the founding of the University in the 1870s. The campus, itself, contains numerous wooded areas; including: Founders' Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in North America.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley Strawberry Creek, Strawberrycreek.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120301075156weblink">weblink March 1, 2012, The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadium.WEB,weblink Hayward Fault: UC Berkeley, seismo.berkeley.edu, April 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080422164708weblink">weblink April 22, 2008, There is ongoing construction to retrofit the stadium. The "treesit" protest revolved around the controversy of clearing away trees by the stadium to build the new Student Athlete High Performance Center. As the stadium sits directly on the fault, this raised campus concerns of the safety of student athletes in the event of an earthquake as they train in facilities under the stadium stands.WEB,weblink Campus provides updates on Memorial Stadium Project and Student-Athlete High Performance Center, Berkeley.edu, August 29, 2007, June 8, 2012,

Environmental record

Through its Office of Sustainability and Energy, UC Berkeley works to implement sustainability initiatives on campus. The university encourages green purchasing when possible and installing energy-efficient technologies.WEB,weblink The College Sustainability Report Card, Greenreportcard.org, UC Berkeley has a green building policy. Nine buildings on campus are LEED Gold, five are LEED Silver, and one is LEED Certified.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley LEED Buildings (as of July 2016), Multiple building spaces have been repurposed for alternative use, and waste from construction projects is reduced. Water conservation technologies have been installed across campus, and the university employs a variety of techniques to manage storm water. UC Berkeley heats, cools, and powers its lab equipment with power from an on-campus natural gas plant.WEB, Berkeley Cogeneration Project,weblink 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130602225103weblink">weblink June 2, 2013, Olympus Power, LLC, July 30, 2016, UC Berkeley's efforts toward sustainability earned the school an overall grade of B+ on one sustainability report card.

Student life and traditions

(File:The Sather Gate.jpg|thumb|left|Sather Gate)The official university mascot is Oski the Bear, who debuted in 1941. Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial Stadium until it was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative. Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.WEB,weblink California Golden Bears â€“ Traditions, Calbears.collegesports.com, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050905215604weblink">weblink September 5, 2005, The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.WEB,weblink University of California Marching Band ~ About Us, Calband.berkeley.edu, June 29, 2013, The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the five Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession.WEB,weblink Home, UC Rally Committee, June 8, 2012, The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds the title "Custodian of the Axe" while it is in the Committee's care.The Cal Mic Men, a standard at home football games, has recently expanded to involve basketball and volleyball. The traditional role comes from students holding megaphones and yelling, but now includes microphones, a dedicated platform during games, and the direction of the entire student section.WEB,weblink Home, Cal Spirit, November 14, 2018, Both men and women are allowed to fulfill the role, despite the name.(File:FullSizeRender.jpg-4.jpg|thumb|View of campus from Evans Hall, as San Francisco and Oakland are seen in the background)Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit. The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called "Rush", which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build "the Big C".WEB,weblink Days of Cal, Bear Traditions, Sunsite.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, Owing to its prominent position, the Big "C" is often the target of pranks by rival Stanford University students who paint the Big "C" red and also fraternities and sororities who paint it their organization's colors. One of the Rally Committee's functions is to repaint the Big "C" to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow.Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts. Then known as Bleacher Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background. The tradition continues today in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.WEB,weblink California Golden Bears â€“ Traditions, Calbears.collegesports.com, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060303152734weblink">weblink March 3, 2006, The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hill in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.WEB,weblink California Golden Bears â€“ Traditions, Calbears.collegesports.com, September 7, 1991, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041212030716weblink">weblink December 12, 2004,

Student housing

Students at UC Berkeley live in a variety of housing that cater to personal and academic preferences and styles. The immediately surrounding community offers apartments, Greek (fraternity and sorority) housing and cooperative housing, twenty of which are houses that are members of the Berkeley Student Cooperative.

University housing

File:I-House Berkeley front.jpg|alt=|left|thumb|The International House was opened in 1930 with the funding of John D. RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller(File:Christian-Unit 1.jpg|thumb|left|Christian Hall)The university runs twelve different residence halls: seven undergraduate residence halls or complexes, both with and without themes; family student housing; re-entry student housing; and optional international student housing at the International House, built with a gift from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and the erstwhile home of six Nobel laureates. Undergraduate residence halls are located off-campus in the city of Berkeley. Units 1, 2 and 3, located on the south side of campus, offer high-rise accommodations with common areas on every other floor. Units 1 and 2 share a common dining hall, Crossroads. The oldest unit, Unit 3, has its own dining hall, Café 3, on the first floor.WEB,weblink Cafe 3, Yelp, At the beginning of the 2018–2019 school year, a new building called Blackwell Hall, was opened across the street from Unit 3. These buildings share a dining hall. Further away and also on the south side of campus is Clark Kerr, an undergraduate residential complex that houses many student athletes and was once a school for the deaf and blind.In the foothills east of the central campus, there are three additional undergraduate residence halls: Foothill, Stern, and Bowles. Foothill is a co-ed, suite-style hall reminiscent of a Swiss chalet. Just south of Foothill, overlooking the Hearst Greek Theatre, is the all-women's traditional-style Stern Hall, which boasts an original mural by Diego Rivera. Because of their proximity to the College of Engineering and College of Chemistry, these residence halls often house science and engineering majors. They tend to be quieter than the southside complexes but often get free glimpses of concerts owing to their proximity to the theater. Bowles Hall, the oldest state-owned residence hall in California, is located immediately north of California Memorial Stadium. Dedicated in 1929 and on the National Register of Historic Places, this residence hall is known for its Collegiate Gothic architecture and large rooms ("quads") that can accommodate four students.(File:Bowles Residential Hall (UC Berkeley) (2016).jpg|left|thumb|Bowles Residential Hall)The Channing-Bowditch and Ida Jackson apartments are intended for older students.WEB,weblink Living at Cal 2012–2013, UC Berkeley Housing, Housing.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, WEB,weblink Jackson House, Housing.berkeley.edu, June 8, 2012, Family student housing consists of two main groups of housing: University Village and Smyth-Fernwald. University Village is located {{convert|3|mi|km}} northwest of campus in Albany, California, and Smyth-Fernwald is near the Clark Kerr campus.(File:Clark Kerr Residential Campus.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Clark Kerr Residential Campus)

Cooperative housing

UC Berkeley students, as well as students of other universities and colleges in the area, have the option of living in one of the twenty cooperative houses of the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC), formerly the University Students' Cooperative Association (USCA) and formerly a member of the national cooperative federation, NASCO. The BSC is a nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 cooperative homes and 1250 member-owners.WEB,weblink Home, Usca.org, June 8, 2012, The UCSCA (as the BSC was known by at that time) was founded in 1933 with the assistance of then-director of Stiles Hall, Harry Kingman. The birth of the UCSCA, as well as many other cooperative organizations around the country, coincided with the Great Depression precisely as a response to scant resources. By living together in large houses and pooling together resources, members found that their monetary resources could go further to pay for their cost of living than living separately.In the 1960s, the USCA pioneered the first co-ed university housing in Berkeley (excluding a short-lived "experiment" at Barrington Hall), called the Ridge Project (later renamed Casa Zimbabwe). In 1975, the USCA founded its first and only vegetarian-themed house, Lothlorien. In 1997, the USCA opened its African-American theme house, Afro House, and in 1999 its LGBT-themed house, named after Irish author and poet Oscar Wilde.WEB,weblink BSC history, Usca.org, June 8, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120617152214weblink">weblink June 17, 2012, Notable alumni of the BSC include Marion Nestle, professor at New York University and author of Food Politics, and Beverly Cleary, a writer of children's books.

Fraternities and sororities

File:Thorsen House.jpg|thumb|The residence of the Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House, located across the street from the university's International House.]]University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses that are accredited to one of four Governing Councils, all under the umbrella organization of CalGreeks.WEB, About CalGreeks,weblink ASUC Student Union LEADCenter, January 25, 2016, WEB, Welcome to CalGreeks.com,weblink CalGreeks, January 25, 2016, One fraternal organization does not participate in any of the governing bodies or in any of the campus-wide fraternal activities, the Sigma Phi Society of the Thorsen House, which acts instead as an independent secret society.{| class="wikitable"!colspan=5|Fraternities (IFC)WEB, Find a Chapter at the University of California, Berkeley,weblink University of California, Berkeley, May 21, 2017, !colspan=2|Sororities (PHC)

Student-run organizations

Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC)

(File:Wellness Room.jpg|thumb|Wellness Room sleep pods: part of a program created by the ASUC, UC Berkeley's official student association)The Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC) is the official student association that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events. It is considered one of the most autonomous student governments at any public university in the U.S. The two main political parties are "Student Action"WEB,weblink Student Action Webpage, Studentaction.org, June 8, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120707113918weblink">weblink July 7, 2012, dead, mdy-all, and "CalSERVE."WEB,weblink CalSERVE Webpage, Calserve.org, June 8, 2012, The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating budget of $1.7 million (excluding the budget of the Graduate Assembly of the ASUC), in addition to various investment assets.The ASUC's Student Union Program, Entertainment, and Recreation Board (SUPERB) is a student-run, non-profit branch dedicated to providing entertainment for the campus and community. Founded in 1964, SUPERB's programming includes the Friday Film Series, free Noon Concerts on Lower Sproul Plaza, Comedy Competitions, Poker Tournaments, free Sneak Previews of upcoming movies, and more.In April 2013, in an 11–9 vote, the ASUC Senate passed a Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions resolution for the UC system to divest from companies that are assisting in Israel's "...illegal occupation and ensuing human rights abuses".WEB,weblink ASUC Senate passes Israeli divestment bill SB 160, 11–9, Jeremy, Gordon, Daphne, Chen, April 18, 2013, WEB,weblink UC Berkeley students pass Israel divestment bill,

Communications media

UC Berkeley's student-run online television station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online. It is run by students with a variety of backgrounds and majors. Since the mid-2010s, it has been a program of the ASUC.WEB,weblink ASUC Bylaw 3206: CalTV, ASUC Central Drive (Google Drive), UC Berkeley's independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian. Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors for encouraging readers to take back People's Park. The Daily Californian has both a print and online edition. Print circulation is about 10,000. The newspaper is an important source of information for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding City of Berkeley.Berkeley's FM Student radio station, KALX, broadcasts on 90.7 MHz. It is run largely by volunteers, including both students and community members.Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run magazines, most notably Caliber Magazine. Founded in 2008, Caliber Magazine promotes itself as "the everything magazine" by featuring articles and blogs on a wide range of topics. It has been voted "Best Magazine on Campus" by the readers of the Daily CalNEWS, Staff, Best of Berkeley: Best of Campus,weblink April 19, 2012, The Daily Californian, January 16, 2015, as well as "Best Publication on Campus" by the ASUC.

Student groups

{{redirects|DeCal}}(File:Berkeley DM 2009.JPG|thumb|left|Berkeley Dance Marathon, one of the campus's student-led fundraising events)(File:Zellerbach01.jpg|thumb|left|Zellerbach Hall, home of the Cal Performances theater group)UC Berkeley has a reputation for student activism, stemming from the 1960s and the Free Speech Movement. Today, Berkeley is known as a lively campus with activism in many forms, from email petitions, presentations on Sproul Plaza and volunteering, to the occasional protest. During the 2006–07 school year, there were 94 political student groups on campus including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley American Civil Liberties Union, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team (STEAM), the Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans. Berkeley sends the most students to the Peace Corps of any university in the nation.WEB, Campus Description — UC Berkeley,weblink June 2, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070310173847weblink">weblink University of California, March 10, 2007, June 23, 2016, The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-run residence hall organization that oversees all aspects of residence wide event planning, legislation, sponsorships and activities for over 7,200 on-campus undergraduate residents. Founded in 1988 by the President's Council, it is now funded and supported by the Residential and Student Service Programs department on campus.WEB,weblink About the Residence Hall Assembly, rha.berkeley.edu, November 19, 2014, UC Berkeley also has a rich history of student-run consulting groups. The Berkeley GroupWEB,weblink The Berkeley Group, The Berkeley Group, February 11, 2007, June 8, 2012, is a student consulting organization, founded in 2003, affiliated with UC Berkeley and the Haas School of Business. Students of all majors are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with real-life nonprofit clients. The oldest consulting group on campus is Berkeley Consulting, founded in 1996, which has served over 140 companies across technology, retail, banking, and non-profit sectors.WEB, Berkeley Consulting,weblink January 23, 2018, Net Impact Berkeley, founded in 2005, has consulted for over 100 social enterprises, nonprofits, and impact driven businesses, and is sponsored by Haas School of Business, Center for Responsible Business, and the ASUC.WEB,weblink Net Impact Berkeley, Net Impact Berkeley, February 20, 2019, February 20, 2019, ImagiCalWEB,weblink Official weblink to ImagiCal, September 19, 2014, has been the college chapter of the American Advertising Federation at Berkeley since the late 1980s. Every year, the team competes in the National Student Advertising Competition. Students from various backgrounds come together to work on a marketing case provided by the AAF and a corporate sponsor to college chapters across the nation. Most recently, the UC Berkeley team won in their region in 2005, 2009 and 2012, going on to win 4th and 3rd in the nation in 2005 and 2009, respectively.The Berkeley Forum is a student organization that hosts panels, debates, and talks by leading experts from many different fields.WEB,weblink The Berkeley Forum, Forum.berkeley.edu, June 28, 2013, The organization is nonpartisan and has brought a wide variety of speakers to campus, including Senator Rand Paul, entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel, Khan Academy founder Salman Khan, and many others.(File:UCSO.jpg.jpg|left|thumb|UC Berkeley Symphony Orchestra)Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes through the Special Studies 98/198 program.WEB, DeCal,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19991104084732weblink">weblink dead, November 4, 1999, Democratic Education at Cal, April 4, 2014, DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially established in 1981. The program offers around 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that appeal to the Berkeley student community, including classes on the Rubik's Cube, blockchain, web design, metamodernism, cooking, Jewish Art Through the Ages, 3D animation, and bioprinting.WEB, DeCal Courses,weblink May 4, 2018,weblink June 25, 2018, dead, In addition, UC Berkeley is home to a quidditch team, Cal Quidditch.WEB,weblink Cal Quidditch, Cal Quidditch, en-US, June 13, 2017, Drawing inspiration from J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter book series, Cal Quidditch was founded in 2009 and competes in national tournaments, recently earning a ranking of 2nd at US Quidditch Cup 12, held in Round Rock, Texas.There are many a cappella groups on campus, including Drawn to Scale, Artists in Resonance, Berkeley Dil Se, the UC Men's Octet, the California Golden Overtones, and Noteworthy. The UC Men's Octet is an eight-member a cappella group founded in 1948 featuring a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern alternative, and fight songs. They are one of only two multiple time champions of the ICCA, having won the championship in both 1998 and 2000. The California Golden Overtones, founded in 1984, have a very similar repertoire to the Octet. Noteworthy competed in Season 5 of America's Got Talent. It is a tradition for every Berkeley a cappella group to perform under the campus' Sather Gate each week at different times during the week. In addition to a Capella, Berkeley is host to a myriad of other performing arts groups in comedy, dance, acting and instrumental music. A few examples include jericho! Improv & Sketch Comedy, The Movement, Taiko drumming, BareStage student musical theater, the Remedy Music Project, Main Stacks, AFX Dance, and TruElement.Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles. Under the direction of Dr. David W. Tucker, who was hired by the Cal Band as a composer, arranger, and associate director, but was later asked to direct the jazz ensembles as it grew in popularity and membership, the group grew rapidly from one big band to multiple big bands, numerous combos, and numerous instrumental classes with multiple instructors. For several decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians. PCCJF brought jazz luminaries such as Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy to the Berkeley campus as performers, clinicians, and adjudicators. The festival later included high school musicians. The jazz ensembles became an effective recruitment tool. Many high school musicians interested in strong academics as well as jazz found that the campus met both interests. Numerous alumni have had successful careers in jazz performance and education including Michael Wolff and Andy Narell.UC Berkeley also hosts many conferences, talks, and musical and theatrical performances. Many of these events, including the Annual UC Berkeley Sociological Research Symposium, are completely planned and organized by undergraduate students.

Athletics

(File:California Memorial Stadium 2015.jpg|thumb|California Memorial Stadium)(File:HaasPavillion UCBerkeley.jpg|thumb|The interior of Haas Pavilion during a basketball game)(File:Hellman Tennis Complex 1.JPG|thumb|Hellman Tennis Complex)The athletic teams at UC Berkeley are known as the California Golden Bears (often shortened to "Cal Bears" or just "Cal") and are primarily members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12). Cal is also a member of the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America East Conference in women's field hockey. The first school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, were Blue (specifically Yale Blue) and Gold.JOURNAL, State Colors,weblink State-Wide News, University Bulletin, 2, 4, August 24, 1953, 18, July 19, 2014, WEB,weblink Resource Guide: Student history, University of California, Berkeley, February 26, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100110222529weblink">weblink January 10, 2010, Yale Blue was originally chosen because many of the university's founders were Yale University graduates (for example Henry Durant, the first university president). Blue and Gold were specified and made the official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955.WEB, GOVERNMENT CODE â€“ GOV TITLE 1. GENERAL [100–7914] (Title 1 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134.) DIVISION 2. STATE SEAL, FLAG, AND EMBLEMS [399–447] (Division 2 enacted by Stats. 1943, Ch. 134.),weblink California Legislative Information Code Section, September 9, 2014, However, the athletic department has recently specified a darker blue, close to but not the same as the Berkeley Blue now used by the school.WEB, Athletics Brand Identity Guidelines: Color,weblink July 19, 2014, WEB, Colors,weblink Berkeley, University of California, July 19, 2014, The California Golden Bears have a long history of excellence in athletics, having won national titles in football, men's basketball, baseball, softball, men's and women's crew, men's gymnastics, men's tennis, men's and women's swimming, men's water polo, men's Judo, men's track, and men's rugby. In addition, Cal athletes have won numerous individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis. On January 31, 2009, the school's Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanford in the first collegiate hurling match ever played on American soil. Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball (2), men's basketball (2), men's crew (15), women's crew (3), football (5), men's golf (1), men's gymnastics (4), men's lacrosse (1), men's rugby (26), softball (1), men's swimming & diving (4), women's swimming & diving (3), men's tennis (1), men's track & field (1), and men's water polo (13).California finished in first placeWEB, 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings,weblink CBS Interactive, May 22, 2014, in the 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings (Now the NACDA Directors' Cup), a competition measuring the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points.WEB,weblink Director's Cup results 07–08, PDF, March 2, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308142816weblink">weblink March 8, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors' Cup with 1219.50 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State. This is California's highest ever finish in the Director's Cup.WEB,weblink Director's Cup results 10–11, PDF, March 2, 2012, In particular, the Golden Bears' traditional arch-rivalry is with the Stanford Cardinal. The most anticipated sporting event between the two universities is the annual football game dubbed the Big Game, and it is celebrated with spirit events on both campuses. Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the Stanford Axe. Other sporting games between these rivals have related names such as the Big Splash between the water polo teams.NEWS, Yen, Ruey, Big Splash + Big Kick: Cal vs. Stanford in Men’s Water Polo and Men’s Soccer,weblink March 10, 2018, California Golden Blogs, November 9, 2017, One of the most famous moments in college football history occurred during the 85th Big Game on November 20, 1982. In what has become known as "the band play" or simply The Play, Cal scored the winning touchdown in the final seconds with a kickoff return that involved a series of laterals and the Stanford marching band rushing onto the field.

Notable alumni, faculty, and staff

{{as of|2018}}, 34 alumni and 40 past and present full-time faculty are counted among the 107 Nobel laureates associated with the university.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley Nobel Prize Winners, www.berkeley.edu, March 8, 2016, The Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize of computer science", has been awarded to 11 alumni and 12 past and present full-time faculty, with Dana Scott being an alumnus and a faculty member.WEB,weblink Dana Scott's Career Highlights, www.cs.cmu.edu, March 13, 2016, File:Earl Warren.jpg|Earl Warren, BA 1912, JD 1914, 14th Chief Justice of the United States; 30th Governor of CaliforniaFile:Steven Chu official DOE portrait crop.jpg|Steven Chu, PhD 1976, Nobel laureate and former United States Secretary of EnergyFile:Granholm speaking to troops, Lansing, 1 Dec, 2005.jpg|Jennifer Granholm, BA 1984, First female Governor of MichiganFile:Pedro Nel Ospina.jpg|Pedro Nel Ospina, BA 1882, President of Colombia 1922–1926File:NixonBhutto1973 140x190.jpg|Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, BA 1950,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Encyclopædia Britannica Online,weblink 4th President of Pakistan, 9th Prime Minister of PakistanFile:Robert Reich, Policy Network, April 6 2009, detail.jpg|Robert Reich, Professor of Public Policy, 22nd United States Secretary of LaborFile:Christina Romer official portrait small.jpg|Christina Romer, Professor of Economics, 25th Chairperson of the President's Council of Economic AdvisersFile:Steve Wozniak.jpg|Steve Wozniak, BS 1986, cofounder of Apple Inc.File:Gordon Moore.jpg|Gordon Moore, BS 1950, cofounder of semiconductor company IntelFile:Eric E Schmidt, 2005 (looking left).jpg|Eric Schmidt, MS 1979, PhD 1982, Executive Chairman of AlphabetFile:JerryBrownByPhilKonstantin.jpg|Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown, Jr, BA 1961, Governor of California, former California Attorney GeneralFile:Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday trailer cropped.jpg|Gregory Peck, BA 1939, Academy Award-winning actorFile:Natalie Coughlin.png|Natalie Coughlin, BA 2005, multiple gold medal-winning Olympic swimmerFile:Mostafa Chamran.jpg|Mostafa Chamran, Ph.D. 1963, Iranian scientist, Vice President and Defense Minister of IranFile:Crown Prince Håkon (50).jpg|Haakon Magnus, Crown Prince of Norway, BA 1999"Her Norwegian heritage drew her to projects with the Norwegian Consulate in San Francisco and the Norwegian American Cultural Society, and she hosted a party for Crown Prince Haakon Magnus when he graduated from UC Berkeley in 1999."NEWS, Sigrun Corrigan, Bay Area arts patron, dies, Carolyne Zinko, July 3, 2008, San Francisco Chronicle,weblink File:Robert McNamara official portrait.jpg|Robert McNamara, BA 1937, President of World Bank (1968–81), United States Secretary of Defense (1961–68), President of Ford Motor Company (1960)File:Daniel KAHNEMAN.jpg|Daniel Kahneman, PhD 1961, awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theoryFile:Harold Urey.jpg|Harold Urey, PhD 1923, Nobel laureate and discoverer of deuteriumFile:Pete Wilson meeting with Les Aspin, Feb 3, 1993 - cropped to Wilson.JPEG|Pete Wilson, JD 1961, 36th Governor of California and former United States Senator from CaliforniaFile:Janet Yellen official Federal Reserve portrait.jpg|Janet Yellen, professor emeritus at the Haas School of Business, 15th Chair of the Federal Reserve

Faculty and staff

{{Further|List of University of California, Berkeley faculty|List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley}}
  • Shiing-Shen Chern, a leading geometer of the 20th century and a faculty member of the Berkeley mathematics department, co-founded the renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley in 1981 and served as the founding Director until 1984.WEB,weblink 12.06.2004 â€“ Renowned mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern, who revitalized the study of geometry, has died at 93 in Tianjin, China, www.berkeley.edu, March 8, 2016, WEB,weblink MSRI, MSRI, www.msri.org, March 8, 2016,
  • Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb in the world during World War II, and was the founder of the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics.WEB,weblink BCTP History, ctp.berkeley.edu, March 8, 2016,
  • Faculty member Edward Teller was (together with Stanislaw Ulam) the "father of the hydrogen bomb", who laid important foundations for the establishment of Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley.WEB,weblink History, Space Sciences Laboratory, en-US, March 8, 2016,
  • Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel laureate in physics who invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, and founded the Radiation Laboratory on campus, which later became the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.WEB,weblink Berkeley Lab History â€“ 75 Years of World-Class Science, history.lbl.gov, March 8, 2016,
  • Gilbert N. Lewis, a former Dean of the College of Chemistry, was nominated 41 times for Nobel Prize in Chemistry.WEB,weblink Nomination Database Gilbert N. Lewis, NobelPrize.org, 10 May 2016, WEB,weblink Gilbert N. Lewis, Atomic Heritage Foundation, en, 2019-03-09, He mentored and influenced numerous Nobel laureates at Berkeley including Harold Urey (1934 Nobel Prize), William F. Giauque (1949 Nobel Prize), Glenn T. Seaborg (1951 Nobel Prize), Willard Libby (1960 Nobel Prize), Melvin Calvin (1961 Nobel Prize) and so on, turning Berkeley into one of the world's major centers for chemistry.WEB,weblink Gilbert Newton Lewis {{!, Lemelson-MIT Program|website=lemelson.mit.edu|access-date=2019-03-09}}JOURNAL, Harris, Reviewed By Harold H., 1999-11-01, A Biography of Distinguished Scientist Gilbert Newton Lewis (by Edward S. Lewis),weblink Journal of Chemical Education, 76, 1487, 10.1021/ed076p1487, 0021-9584,
  • Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg discovered or co-discovered 10 chemical elements at Berkeley and served as the Chancellor of UC Berkeley from 1958–1961.WEB,weblink Days of Cal {{!, Glenn T. Seaborg|website=vm136.lib.berkeley.edu|access-date=March 8, 2016}}WEB,weblink Glenn T. Seaborg â€“ His Biography, www2.lbl.gov, March 8, 2016,
  • Hans Albert Einstein, the first son of Albert Einstein and a world's leading scholar in hydraulic engineering, was a long-time faculty member at Berkeley.WEB,weblink University of California: In Memoriam, March 1976, texts.cdlib.org, 2019-07-07,
  • Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate Steven Chu (PhD 1976), was Director of Berkeley Lab, 2004–2009.
  • Janet Yellen, the 15th Chair of the Federal Reserve Board, is a professor emeritus at Berkeley Haas School of Business and the Department of Economics.WEB,weblink Janet Yellen {{!, Faculty Directory {{!}} Berkeley-Haas|website=facultybio.haas.berkeley.edu|access-date=March 8, 2016}}WEB,weblink Faculty profiles {{!, Department of Economics|website=www.econ.berkeley.edu|access-date=March 8, 2016}}

Alumni

{{Further|List of University of California, Berkeley alumni}}File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|The computer mouse was invented by Turing Award laureate Doug EngelbartDoug EngelbartBerkeley alumni have served in a range of prominent government offices, both domestic and foreign, including Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (Earl Warren, BA, JD); United States Attorney General (Edwin Meese III, JD); United States Secretary of State (Dean Rusk, LL.B.); United States Secretary of the Treasury (W. Michael Blumenthal, BA); United States Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara, BS); United States Secretary of the Interior (Franklin Knight Lane, 1887); United States Secretary of Transportation and United States Secretary of Commerce (Norman Mineta, BS); United States Secretary of Agriculture (Ann Veneman, MPP); scores of federal judges and members of the United States Congress and United States Foreign Service; governors of California (George C. Pardee; Hiram W. Johnson; Earl Warren, BA and LL.B; Jerry Brown, BA; and Pete Wilson, JD), Michigan (Jennifer Granholm, BA), and the United States Virgin Islands (Walter A. Gordon, BA); Chief of Staff of the United States Army (Frederick C. Weyand, Class of 1938); Lieutenant General of the United States Army (Jimmy Doolittle); Vice Admiral of the United States Navy (Murry L. Royar, Class of 1916); Major General of the United States Marine Corps (Oliver Prince Smith); Brigadier General of the United States Marine Corps (Bertram A. Bone); Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (John A. McCone, BS); chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisors (Michael Boskin, BA, PhD.; Sandra Black, BA; Jesse Rothstein, PhD; Robert Seamans, PhD; Jay Shambaugh, PhD; James Stock, MA, PhD); Governor of the Federal Reserve System (H. Robert Heller, PhD) and President and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (William Dudley, PhD); Commissioners of the SEC (Troy A. Paredes, BA) and the FCC (Rachelle Chong, BA); and United States Surgeon General (Kenneth P. Moritsugu, MPH).Foreign alumni include the President of Colombia 1922–1926, (Pedro Nel Ospina Vázquez, BA, Mining Engineering); the President of Mexico (Francisco I. Madero, attended 1892–93); the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan; the Premier of the Republic of China (Sun Fo, BA); the President of Costa Rica (Miguel Angel Rodriguez, MA, PhD); and members of parliament of the United Kingdom (House of Lords, Lydia Dunn, Baroness Dunn, BS), India (Rajya Sabha, the upper house, Prithviraj Chavan, MS), and Iran (Mohammad Javad Larijani, PhD); Nigerian Minister of Science and Technology and first Executive Governor of Abia State (Ogbonnaya Onu, PhD Chemical Engineering)Alumni have also served in many supranational posts, notable among which are President of the World Bank (Robert McNamara, BS); Deputy Prime Minister of Spain and Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (Rodrigo Rato, MBA); Executive Director of UNICEF (Ann Veneman, MPP); member of the European Parliament (Bruno Megret, MS); and judge of the World Court (Joan Donoghue, JD).File:Robert Laughlin, Stanford University.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|Robert LaughlinRobert LaughlinAlumni have made important contributions to science. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules. Nobel laureate William F. Giauque (BS 1920, PhD 1922) investigated chemical thermodynamics, Nobel laureate Willard Libby (BS 1931, PhD 1933) pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel laureate Willis Lamb (BS 1934, PhD 1938) examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton O. Smith (BA 1952) applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin (BA math 1972) explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew Fire (BA math 1978) helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) collaborated with Albert Ghiorso (BS 1913) to discover 12 chemical elements, such as americium, berkelium, and californium. David Bohm (PhD 1943) discovered Bohm Diffusion. Nobel laureate Yuan T. Lee (PhD 1965) developed the crossed molecular beam technique for studying chemical reactions. Carol Greider (PhD 1987), professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer. Harvey Itano (BS 1942) conducted breakthrough work on sickle cell anemia that marked the first time a disease was linked to a molecular origin. While he was valedictorian of UC Berkeley's class of 1942, he was unable to attend commencement exercises due to internment.NEWS, Maugh, Thomas, Harvey Itano dies at 89; researcher whose studies provided a breakthrough on sickle cell disease,weblink LA Times, May 12, 2014, Narendra Karmarkar (PhD 1983) is known for the interior point method, a polynomial algorithm for linear programming known as Karmarkar's algorithm.{{MathGenealogy|id=106239}} National Medal of Science laureate Chien-Shiung Wu (PhD 1940), often known as the "Chinese Madame Curie", disproved the Law of Conservation of Parity for which she was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize in Physics.MAGAZINE, Weinstock, Maia, Channeling Ada Lovelace: Chien-Shiung Wu, Courageous Hero of Physics,weblink Scientific American, May 12, 2014, Kary Mullis (PhD 1973) was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in developing the polymerase chain reaction,JOURNAL, Shampo, MA, Kary Mullis—Nobel Laureate for Procedure to Replicate DNA, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, July 2002, 606, 12108595, 10.4065/77.7.606, 77, 7, a method for amplifying DNA sequences. Daniel Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theory. Richard O. Buckius, engineer, Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering '72, Masters '73, PhD '75, currently Chief Operating Officer of the National Science Foundation. Edward P. Tryon (PhD 1967) is the physicist who first said our universe originated from a quantum fluctuation of the vacuum.JOURNAL, Tryon, Edward P., Is the Universe a Vacuum Fluctuation?, Nature, 246, 5433, 396–397, 10.1038/246396a0, 1973, 1973Natur.246..396T, BOOK, Impey, Chris, How It Began: A Time-Travelers Guide To the Universe, 2012, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, United States, 978-0-393-08002-5, 411, First, BOOK, Parsons, Paul, The Big Bang: The Birth of Our Universe, 2001, DK Publishing, Inc., London, 0-7894-8161-8, 36,weblink John N. Bahcall (BS 1956) worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space Telescope,NEWS,weblink The Times(United Kingdom), September 1, 2005, Obituaries â€“ Professor John Bahcall, London, May 27, 2010, Deirdre, Hipwell, resulting in a National Medal of Science. Peter Smith (BS 1969) was the principal investigator and project leader for the NASA robotic explorer Phoenix,WEB,weblink Peter Smith Named Thomas R. Brown Distinguished Chair in Integrative Science, University of Arizona University Communications, March 18, 2008, which physically confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time.WEB,weblink NASA Spacecraft Confirms Martian Water, Mission Extended, July 31, 2008, NASA, Astronauts James van Hoften (BS 1966), Margaret Rhea Seddon (BA 1970), Leroy Chiao (BS 1983), and Rex Walheim (BS 1984) have orbited the earth in NASA's fleet of space shuttles.Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as Apple Computer,Apple Computer was co-founded by Steve Wozniak( BS 1986). NEWS,weblink A UC Berkeley Degree Is Now the Apple of Steve Wozniak's Eye, May 14, 1986, Los Angeles Times, Harriet Stix, Intel,Intel was co-founded by Gordon Moore (BS 1950). WEB, Intel chairman awarded UC Berkeley's highest honor at Silicon Valley tribute,weblink July 17, 1996, Jose Rodriguez, University of California at Berkeley Public Information Office, LSI LogicLSI Logic was cofounded by Robert Walker (BS EE 1958). JOURNAL, Contributors (August 1970), August 1970, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 5, 4, 168–169, 0018-9200, 10.1109/JSSC.1970.1050102, 1970IJSSC...5..168., The Gap,The Gap was founded by Donald Fisher (BS 1951), who served as its inaugural president and chairman of the board. JOURNAL, Business Visionary Don Fisher, BS 51,weblink Fall 2009, Obituaries, Cal Business, University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business, January 16, 2015, MySpace,MySpace was cofounded by Tom Anderson (BA 1998). NEWS,weblink The Guardian (publication in the United Kingdom), Owen Gibson, 200 million friends and counting, June 23, 2008, London, PowerBar,PowerBar was cofounded by Brian Maxwell (BA 1975) and his wife Jennifer Maxwell (BS 1988). WEB,weblink UC Berkeley News, Cal mourns passing of Brian Maxwell, former coach, runner, PowerBar founder, and philanthropist, March 22, 2004, Berkeley Systems,Berkeley Systems and MoveOn.org were cofounded by Joan Blades (BA 1977). JOURNAL, Hawkes, Ellen, Joan Blades,weblink Winter 2003, Women of the Year 2003, Ms. (magazine), Ms. Magazine, January 16, 2015, Bolt, Beranek and NewmanBolt, Beranek and Newman was cofounded by Richard Bolt (BA 1933, MA 1937, PhD 1939). WEB,weblink Acoustical Society of America Gold Medal Award â€“ 1979 Richard Henry Bolt, 1979, Acoustical Society of America, Leo L. Beranek, dead,weblink June 9, 2012, (which created a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet), Chez Panisse,Chez Panisse was founded by Alice Waters (BA 1967). NEWS,weblink Alice Waters, New York Times, Andrew, Martin, May 27, 2010, ; and NEWS,weblink Alice Waters: Food Revolutionary, Marian Burros, August 14, 1996, The New York Times, GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice),GrandCentral (known now as Google Voice) was cofounded by Craig Walker (B.A. 1988, J.D. 1995). JOURNAL,weblink A Symposium on Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship March 7–8, 2008 â€“ Speakers, Berkeley Center for Law & Technology, Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516200705weblink">weblink May 16, 2008, HTC Corporation,HTC Corporation and VIA Technologies were cofounded by Cher Wang (BA 1980, MA 1981). NEWS,weblink Laura Holson, October 26, 2008, With Smartphones, Cher Wang Made Her Own Fortune, New York Times, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group,Marvell Technology Group was founded by Weili Dai, (BA Computer Science 1984) and her husband Sehat Sutardja (MS 1983, PhD 1988 EECS) and brother-in-law Pantas Sutardjai (MS 1983, PhD 1988 ). WEB,weblink Sarah Yang, February 27, 2009, Dedication of new CITRIS headquarters marks new stage of innovation to help fuel economic growth, University of California, Berkeley and the UC Regents, MoveOn.org, Opsware,Opsware was cofounded by In Sik Rhee (BS EECS 1993).MAGAZINE,weblink David Sheff, August 2008, Crank it up, Wired Magazine, RedOctane,RedOctane was cofounded by brothers Charles Huang (BA 1992 ) and Kai Huang (BA CS 1994). WEB,weblink Just Play â€“ Guitar Hero, Inc Magazine, Don Steinberg, October 1, 2008, Rimon Law P.C.,JOURNAL, Ward, Stephanie Francis, Moradzadeh and Silberman Maintain High-Tech, No-Pomp Practice,weblink September 12, 2012, ABA Journal, February 25, 2016, SanDisk,SanDisk was cofounded by Sanjay Mehrotra (BS 1978, MS EE 1980). WEB,weblink Corporate Officers, SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker,Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker was cofounded by John Scharffenberger (BA 1973). NEWS,weblink Berkeley Scharffen Berger Factory to Close, Daily Californian, Jessica Kwong, January 29, 2009, VMwareVMware was cofounded by Edward Wang (BS EECS 1983, MS 1988, PhD 1994), along with Diane Greene (MS CS 1988) and her husband Mendel Rosenblum (MS 1989, PhD 1992). WEB,weblink VMware, VMware Leadership, and Zilog,Zilog was cofounded by Ralph Ungermannn (BSEE 1964). NEWS,weblink New York Times, Business People: Ungermann-Bass Chairman Finds a Merger He Likes, Lawrence M. Fisher, February 19, 1988, while graduate school alumni have cofounded companies such as DHL,DHL was cofounded by Larry Hillblom (Law 1969). NEWS,weblink Larry L. Hillblom, 52, Founder Of DHL Worldwide Express, Saul Hansell, May 23, 1995, New York Times, KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth),KeyHole Inc (known now as Google Earth) was cofounded by John Hanke (MBA 1996). WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley, Haas Alumnus Maps the Future at Google Earth, Sun Microsystems,Sun Microsystems was cofounded by Bill Joy (MS 1982). WEB,weblink 2009 Goff Smith Lecture: Bill Joy, The Promise of Green Technologies, October 16, 2009, University of Michigan College of Engineering, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091021141007weblink">weblink October 21, 2009, and The Learning Company.The Learning Company was cofounded by Warren Robinett (MS 1976). JOURNAL, Kuekes, P. J., Robinett, W., Williams, R. S., September 2006, Effect of Conductance Variability on Resistor-Logic Demultiplexers for Nanoelectronics, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 5, 5, 446–454, 1536-125X, 10.1109/TNANO.2006.880405, 2006ITNan...5..446K, Berkeley alumni have also led various technology companies such as Electronic Arts,John Riccitiello (BS 1981) has served as the CEO of Electronic Arts since 2007, and previously served as the president and COO of the company from 1996 to 2003. He is also the cofounder of Elevation Partners (with U2 singer Bono). WEB,weblink University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business â€“ John Riccitiello, BS 81, HarmonyService, Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley, Fall 2007, Google,Eric Schmidt (MS 1979, PhD 1982) has been the CEO of Google since 2001. JOURNAL, Pescovitz, David, Eric Schmidt Searches and Finds Success (Again),weblink Lab Notes: Research from the Berkeley College of Engineering, 3, 1 (Jan/Feb 2003), College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, January 16, 2015, 2014-05-27, Adobe Systems,Shantanu Narayen (MBA 1993) has been the CEO of Adobe Systems since 2007. WEB,weblink Shantanu Narayen MBA 93, University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Businessyear=2009, Softbank (Masayoshi Son) and Qualcomm.Paul Jacobs (BS 1984, MS 1986, PhD 1989 EECS) has been the CEO of Qualcomm since 2005. HTTP://INNOVATIONS.COE.BERKELEY.EDU/VOL2-ISSUE10-NOV08/PAULJACOBS>TITLE= MOBILE PHONE METAMORPHOSIS PUBLISHER="INNOVATIONS" BY UC BERKELEY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERINGVOLUME=2, 10, File:Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.jpg|thumb|Turing Award laureate Ken Thompson (left), BS 1965, MS 1966, and fellow laureate and colleague Dennis Ritchie (right), created UnixUnixBerkeley alumni have developed a number of key technologies associated with the personal computer and the Internet."Berkeley Unix worked so well that DARPA chose it for the preferred 'universal computing environment' to link Arpanet research nodes, thus setting in place an essential piece of infrastructure for the later growth of the Internet. An entire generation of computer scientists cut their teeth on Berkeley Unix. Without it, the Net might well have evolved into a shape similar to what it is today, but with it, the Net exploded." NEWS,weblink BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code, Andrew Leonard, Salon.com, May 16, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051204135210weblink">weblink December 4, 2005, Unix was created by alumnus Ken Thompson (BS 1965, MS 1966) along with colleague Dennis Ritchie. Alumni such as L. Peter DeutschDeutsch was awarded a 1992 citation by the Association for Computing Machinery for his work on Interlisp(WEB,weblink ACM Award Citation â€“ L. Peter Deutsch, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120504100004weblink">weblink May 4, 2012, )L. Peter Deutsch is profiled on pages 30, 31, 43, 53, 54, 66 (which mentions Deutsch beginning his freshman year at Berkeley), and page 87 in the following book: BOOK, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Steven Levy, Penguin Books, January 2, 2001, 0-385-19195-2, Steven Levy, L. Peter Deutsch is profiled in pages 69, 70–72, 118, 146, 227, 230, 280, 399 of the following book: BOOK, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age, Michael A. Hiltzik, Collins Business, 0-88730-891-0, 1999-03-03,weblink (PhD 1973), Butler Lampson (PhD 1967), and Charles P. Thacker (BS 1967)WEB,weblink Computer History Museum, 2007, Fellow Awards â€“ Charles Thacker, worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department of Defense-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), which was scattered throughout the Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors.BOOK, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox Parc and the Dawn of the Computer Age, Michael A. Hiltzik, Collins Business, 70, 0-88730-891-0, 1999-03-03,weblink After BCC failed, Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARC, where they developed a number of pioneering computer technologies, culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh. In particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart (B.Eng 1952, Ph.D. 1955). Thompson, Lampson, Engelbart, and ThackerNEWS, USA Today, Charles Thacker wins Turing Award, computing's 'Nobel prize', Elizabeth Weise, March 15, 2010,weblink all later received a Turing Award. Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V. Schmidt (BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971), who became known as "the man who brought Ethernet to the masses".NEWS,weblink Sound Bytes; On Building a Better Highway, Lawrence M. Fisher, The New York Times, February 27, 1994, Another Xerox PARC researcher, Charles Simonyi (BS 1972), pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft Word. Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the earth.In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982) assembledNEWS,weblink BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code, Andrew Leonard, Salon.com, May 16, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051204135210weblink">weblink December 4, 2005, the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix. Joy, who went on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console editor vi, while Ken Arnold (BA 1985) created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like systems that enables the construction of text user interface (TUI) applications. Working alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz (BS 1997) and his future wife Lynne Jolitz (BA 1989), who together created 386BSD, a version of BSD Unix that runs on Intel CPUs and evolved into the BSD family of free operating systems and the Darwin operating system underlying Apple Mac OS X.NEWS,weblink The unknown hackers â€“ Open-source pioneers Bill and Lynne Jolitz may be the most famous programmers you've never heard of, Rachel Chalmers, Salon.com, May 17, 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051109065644weblink">weblink November 9, 2005, Eric Allman (BS 1977, MS 1980) created SendMail, a Unix mail transfer agent that delivers about 12% of the email in the world.WEB,weblink Security Space, Mail (MX) Server Survey, January 1, 2012, E-Soft Inc, The XCF, an undergraduate research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software projects, including GTK+ (created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997), The GIMP (Spencer Kimball, BS 1996), and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm.WEB, eXperimental Computer Facility's proud present and impressive past, February 10, 2003, Engineering News,weblink February 13, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080517144203weblink">weblink May 17, 2008, In 1992, Pei-Yuan Wei,Pei-Yuan Wei's contributions are profiled on pages 56, 64, 68, and 83, in the World Wide Web creator's autobiography (BOOK, Weaving the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, Collins Business, November 7, 2001, 0-06-251586-1, Tim Berners-Lee, ) an undergraduate at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers. ViolaWWW was the first browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables. In the spirit of Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets( Kim Polese (BS 1984) was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems.) ViolaWWW also inspired researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser,BOOK, Weaving the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, Collins Business, November 7, 2001, 68, 83, 0-06-251586-1, Tim Berners-Lee, a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer.File:Robert Penn Warren.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Robert Penn WarrenRobert Penn WarrenAlumni collectively have won at least twenty-one Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins (BA 1941) was a pioneering female war correspondent"General Walton H. Walker had ordered her out of Korea..... Like many another soldier, old and young, General Walker was convinced that women do not belong in a combat zone... General Douglas MacArthur reversed Walker's ruling. To the Herald Tribune, MacArthur sent a soothing telegram: 'Ban on women correspondents in Korea has been lifted. Marguerite Higgins is held in highest professional esteem by everyone.'" MAGAZINE,weblink The Press: Last Word, Time (magazine), Time, July 31, 1950, MAGAZINE, The Press: Pride of the Regiment, Time (magazine), Time,weblink September 25, 1950, who covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.MAGAZINE,weblink Time (magazine), Time, Columnists: Lady at War, January 14, 1966, Novelist Robert Penn Warren (MA 1927) won three Pulitzer Prizes,WEB,weblink The Biography Channel, Robert Penn Warren, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100830145048weblink">weblink August 30, 2010, including one for his novel All the King's Men, which was later made into an Academy Award-winningNominated for seven Academy Awards, All the King's Men won Oscars for Best Picture of 1949, Best Actor (Broderick Crawford), and Best Supporting Actress (Mercedes McCambridge)NEWS,weblink All the King's Men â€“ Review Summary, Bosley Crowther, The New York Times, May 27, 2010, movie. Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg (BS 1904) invented the comically complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines. Journalist Alexandra Berzon (MA 2006) won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009,NEWS,weblink April 23, 2009, Journalism School Alumna Part Of Pulitzer-Prize Winning Staff, Shannon Lee, The Daily Californian, and journalist Matt Richtel (BA 1989), who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of "Theron Heir",NEWS,weblink Matt Richtel, The New York Times, April 12, 2010, May 27, 2010, Ashlee, Vance, won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting.WEB,weblink Matt Richtel, 2010, The Pulitzer Prizes, Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Leon Litwack (BAWEB,weblink Leon Litwack Rocks, The Berkeleyan and the UC Berkeley NewsCenter, September 14, 2005, Cathy Cockrell, 1951, PhD 1958) taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years;WEB,weblink Leon Litwack's last stand, May 8, 2007, Cathy Cockrell, UC Berkeley NewsCenter (University of California, Berkeley), three other UC Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize. Alumna and professor Susan Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991. USC Professor and UC Berkeley alumna Viet Thanh Nguyen's (PhD 1997) first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for FictionWEB,weblink The Pulitzer Prizes, The Pulitzer Prizes â€“ Columbia University, Alumni have also written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent, including The Call of the Wild author Jack London. Irving Stone (BA 1923) wrote the novel Lust for Life, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning film of the same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh. Stone also wrote The Agony and the Ecstasy, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charlton Heston as Michelangelo. Mona Simpson (BA 1979) wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer (BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award-winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain.File:KathyBaker.jpg|thumb|Emmy and Golden Globe AwardGolden Globe AwardCollectively, alumni have won at least 20 Academy Awards. Gregory Peck (BA 1939), nominated for four Oscars during his career, won an Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird. Chris Innis (BA 1991) won the 2010 Oscar for film editing for her work on best picture winner, The Hurt Locker. Walter Plunkett (BA 1923) won an Oscar for costume design (for An American in Paris). Freida Lee Mock (BA 1961) and Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) have eachFreida Lee Mock (BA 1961) won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 1995 for (Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision). WEB,weblink Behind the Lens â€“ Extended Interviews with POV Filmmakers, Public Broadcasting Service and American Documentary Inc., March 4, 2011, Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2011 for Inside Job. NEWS,weblink The Guardian (United Kingdom), February 28, 2011, Andrew Pulver, Oscars 2011: Inside Job banks best documentary award, won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking. Mark Berger (BA 1964) has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley.NEWS, UC Berkeley Professor Mixes Sound for Award Winning Films, Jawad Qadir, March 31, 2010,weblink The Daily Californian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121105121605weblink">weblink November 5, 2012, Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design. Joe Letteri (BA 1981JOURNAL, California Magazine, June 2003, Talk of the Gown â€“ Blues in the News, Cal Alumni Association, ) has won four Oscars for Best Visual Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, (The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers|The Two Towers), and (The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King|The Return of the King).NEWS,weblink Beaver County native wins fourth Oscar for visual effects, Sandra Fischione Donovan, Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, March 12, 2010, Alumni have collectively won at least 25 Emmy Awards: Jon Else (BA 1968) for cinematography; Andrew Schneider (BA 1973) for screenwriting; Linda Schacht (BA 1966, MA 1981), two for broadcast journalism;WEB,weblink Haas NewsWire, February 20, 2001, Haas School of Business and the University of California, Berkeley, February 20, 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080612151429weblink">weblink June 12, 2008, JOURNAL,weblink Television Program Faculty and Lecturers, Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and the Regents of the University of California, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090412192516weblink">weblink April 12, 2009, Christine Chen (dual BA's 1990), two for broadcast journalism;WEB,weblink 2007, Robert Chinn Foundation, Asian Hall of Fame â€“ Induction Ceremony, Kristen Sze (BA), two for broadcast journalism;WEB, KGO-TV, KGO News, Meet the Team â€“ Kristen Sze,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081210033220weblink">weblink December 10, 2008, Kathy Baker (BA 1977), three for acting; Ken Milnes (BS 1977), four for broadcasting technology; and Leroy Sievers (BA),JOURNAL,weblink Colon Cancer Claims Veteran Journalist Leroy Sievers, August 16, 2008, ABC News, twelve for production. Elisabeth Leamy is the recipient of 13 Emmy awards.WEB, MegaMetro NewsCenter Story Archives June–August 2000,weblink MegaMetro TV NewsCenter, MegaMetro TV NewsCenter, November 7, 2014, NEWS, Maynard, John, Youth Is Served At Local Emmys,weblink November 7, 2014, The Washington Post, June 19, 2005, WEB, Elisabeth Leamy Bio,weblink ABC News, ABC News Internet Ventures, November 7, 2014, Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today. Karen Grassle (BA 1965) played the mother Caroline Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, Jerry Mathers (BA 1974) starred in Leave it to Beaver, and Roxann Dawson (BA 1980) portrayed B'Elanna Torres on (Star Trek: Voyager).Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, The Police drummer Stewart Copeland,NEWS,weblink Rovi of All Movie Guide, The New York Times, Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine founder Jann Wenner, The Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs (BA 1980), Counting Crows lead singer Adam Duritz, electronic music producer Giraffage, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak (BA 1997),WEB, MTV,weblink SuChin Pak Biography â€“ Reporter, Host and Interviewer â€“ MTV News, AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget (BA 1996), and solo artist Marié Digby (Say It Again). People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine's list of 50 Most Beautiful People.MAGAZINE, May 10, 1999, People Magazine, Stephan Jenkins: Musician,weblink Alumni have also participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody (BA 1925) won 31 Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledon. Tarik Glenn (BA 1999) is a Super Bowl XLI champion. Michele Tafoya (BA 1988) is a sports television reporter for ABC Sports and ESPN.WEB, Michele Tafoya â€“ ESPN's Monday Night Football Sideline Reporter; Play-By-Play and Sideline Commentator,weblink ESPN, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080705094754weblink">weblink July 5, 2008, Sports agent Leigh Steinberg ( BA 1970, JD 1973) has represented professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar De La Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspirationNEWS, Jerry Maguire aspires to be you, Daniel Roberts and Pablo S. Torre, Sports illustrated, April 11, 2012,weblink for the title character in the Oscar-winningJerry Maguire was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, and won for Best Supporting Actor (Cuba Gooding, Jr.). film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics. At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history"The six medals she won are the most by an American woman in any sport, breaking the record she tied four years ago. Her career total matches the third-most by any U.S. athlete." NEWS,weblink Coughlin's 6 medals most by a US woman, Jaime Aron, August 17, 2008, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511093814weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, to win six medals in one Olympics.Berkeley alumni—often generous benefactors—have long been among the billionaire ranks, giving rise to many of the campus' eponymous schools, pavilions, centers, institutes, and halls, with some of the more prominent being J. Paul Getty, Sanford Diller and Helen Diller, Donald Fisher, and members of the Haas (Walter A. Haas, Rhoda Haas Goldman, Walter A. Haas Jr., Peter E. Haas, Bob Haas), Hearst, and Bechtel families. There are at least 18 living alumni billionaires: Masayoshi Son (SoftBank),WEB,weblink Masayoshi Son, Forbes, May 12, 2018, Gordon Moore (Intel founder), James Harris Simons, Jon Stryker (Stryker Medical Equipment),WEB,weblink Jon Stryker, Forbes, April 12, 2016, Bill Joy (computer programmer and Sun Microsystems founder), Eric Schmidt (Google Chairman), Michael Milken, Bassam Alghanim (wealthiest Kuwaiti), Kutayba Alghanim,WEB,weblink Kutayba Alghanim, Forbes, April 12, 2016, Charles Simonyi (Microsoft), Cher Wang (HTC, wealthiest Taiwanese), Robert Haas (Levi Strauss & Co.), Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor (Interbank, Peru),WEB, Robinson, Edward,weblink Publicity Shy Tycoon Forging Modern Peru Amid Expanding Economy, Bloomberg, August 3, 2011, August 17, 2014, Fayez Sarofim, Daniel S. Loeb, Paul Merage, Victor Koo, and Lowell Milken.

Controversies

  • Originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose. In 1917, Berkeley's ROTC program was establishedWEB,weblink History of Army ROTC, UC Berkeley Army ROTC, July 18, 2016, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with a B.A. in 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from Berkeley's ROTC program, earning B.A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively. In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training Program and naval training school for diesel engineering.WEB,weblink U.S. Naval Activities World War II by State, Patrick Clancey, March 19, 2012, The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962.
  • Various human and animal rights groups have conflicted with Berkeley. Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology.NEWS,weblink UC Berkeley's bones of contention, Paddock, Richard, January 12, 2008, Los Angeles Times, January 18, 2018,weblink 2008, Animal-rights activists have threatened faculty members using animals for research.NEWS,weblink Animal rights activists protest at Cal, Krupnik, Matt, January 11, 2008, The Daily Argus, January 13, 2008, The school's response to tree sitters protesting construction caused controversy in the local community.NEWS,weblink University Fences In a Berkeley Protest, and a New One Arises, McKinley, Jesse, September 7, 2007, New York Times, January 11, 2008,
  • Cal's seismically unsafe Memorial Stadium reopened September 2012 after a $321 million renovation. The university incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it planned to finance with the sale of special stadium endowment seats. However, in June 2013 news surfaced that the university has had trouble selling the seats.WEB,weblink Cal's new stadium renovation leaves school with huge debt to pay off, Schwab, Frank, June 17, 2013, Yahoo! Sports, June 28, 2013, The roughly $18 million interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal's athletics' budget; principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.NEWS,weblink Cal scrambling to cover stadium bill, Asimov, Nanette, June 17, 2013, San Francisco Chronicle, July 20, 2013,
  • On May 1, 2014, Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault.WEB,weblink U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations, U.S. Department of Education, July 14, 2014, Investigations have continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff.WEB,weblink Disturbing details of sexual harassment scandal at UC Berkeley revealed in files, Sam Levin, The Guardian,
  • On July 25, 2019, Berkeley was removed from the U.S. News Best Colleges Ranking for misreporting statistics. Berkeley had originally reported that its two-year average alumni giving rate for fiscal years 2017 and 2016 was 11.6%, U.S. News said. The school later told U.S. News the correct average alumni giving rate for the 2016 fiscal year was just 7.9%. The school incorrectly overstated its alumni giving data to U.S. News since at least 2014. The alumni giving rate accounts for 5% of the Best Colleges ranking.WEB,weblink UC Berkeley and four other schools removed from Best Colleges list for misreporting statistics, www.cbsnews.com, en-US, 2019-07-30,

See also

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Gray, Brechin, Gray Brechin, 1999, Imperial San Francisco, UC Press Ltd, 0-520-21568-0,
  • BOOK, Susan Dinkelspiel, Cerny, 2001, Berkeley Landmarks: An Illustrated Guide to Berkeley, California's Architectural Heritage, Berkeley Architectural Heritage Association, 0-9706676-0-4,
  • BOOK, Jo, Freeman, 2003, At Berkeley in the Sixties: The Education of an Activist, 1961–1965, Indiana University Press, 0-253-21622-2,
  • BOOK, Harvey, Helfand, 2001, University of California, Berkeley, Princeton Architectural Press, 1-56898-293-3,
  • BOOK, MFEM, Owens, 2004, America's Best Value Colleges, The Princeton Review, 0-375-76373-2,weblink
  • BOOK, W. J., Rorabaugh, 1990, Berkeley at War: The 1960s, Oxford University Press, 0-19-506667-7,
  • AV MEDIA, Frederick Wiseman, Wiseman, Frederick (Director), 2013, At Berkeley, Motion picture, Zipporah Films,
  • BOOK, Geoffrey, Wong, May 2001, A Golden State of Mind, Trafford Publishing, 1-55212-635-8,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official website}}
  • California Bears Athletics website
  • COLLIER'S, California, University of, x,
  • NSRW, University of California, x,
  • {{curlie|Reference/Education/Colleges_and_Universities/North_America/United_States/California/University_of_California/Berkeley/}}
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