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United States Department of Energy
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{{Redirect|USDOE|the U.S. Department of Education|United States Department of Education}}{{short description|Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with U.S. policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material}}{{Use American English|date=December 2016}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2017}}







factoids
WORK=PARTNERSHIP FOR PUBLIC SERVICE, December 25, 2016, 93,094 contract (2008)WEBSITE=DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150226034459/HTTP://WWW.WHITEHOUSE.GOV/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/OMB/BUDGET/FY2015/ASSETS/ENERGY.PDF URL-STATUS=DEAD, mdy-all, |chief1_name = Rick PerryUnited States Secretary of Energy>Secretary of Energy |chief2_name = Dan Brouillette|chief2_position = Deputy Secretary of Energyenergy.gov}}group=note}}}}The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material. Its responsibilities include the nation's nuclear weapons program, nuclear reactor production for the United States Navy, energy conservation, energy-related research, radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics; the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative.WEB,weblink Genomes to Life, Black Bag, Spring 2002, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE sponsors more research in the physical sciences than any other U.S. federal agency, the majority of which is conducted through its system of National Laboratories.WEB,weblink NSF Science and Engineering Indicators 2012, National Science Foundation, dead,weblink July 6, 2017, The agency is administered by the United States Secretary of Energy, and its headquarters are located in Southwest Washington, D.C., on Independence Avenue in the James V. Forrestal Building, named for James Forrestal, as well as in Germantown, Maryland.Former Governor of Texas Rick Perry is the current Secretary of Energy. He was confirmed by a 62 to 37 vote in the United States Senate on March 2, 2017.NEWS,weblink Senate Confirms Rick Perry as Energy Secretary, Davenport, Coral, March 2, 2017, The New York Times,

History

Formation and consolidation

In 1942, during World War II, the United States started the Manhattan Project, a project to develop the atomic bomb, under the eye of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. After the war in 1946, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was created to control the future of the project.WEB,weblink Manhattan Project Background Information and Preservation Work, Department of Energy, July 11, 2016, WEB,weblink The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb, Gosling, F. G., January 2010, Department of Energy, July 11, 2016, Among other nuclear projects, the AEC produced fabricated uranium fuel cores at locations such as Fernald Feed Materials Production Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.National Lead Company of Ohio, Contract Operator of the Feed Materials Production Center for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The Feed Materials Production Center. NCLO-950. n. d.WEB,weblink Fernald Closure Project: The End of Secrecy, Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, December 27, 2016, WEB,weblink History of the Fernand Site, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, December 27, 2016, In 1974, the AEC gave way to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which was tasked with regulating the nuclear power industry, and the Energy Research and Development Administration, which was tasked to manage the nuclear weapon, naval reactor, and energy development programs.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}}The 1973 oil crisis called attention to the need to consolidate energy policy.MAGAZINE,weblink Environment: The Energy Crisis: Time for Action, May 7, 1973, TIME, NEWS,weblink Energy Crisis: Shortages Amid Plenty, Smith, William D., April 17, 1973, The New York Times, New York, September 5, 2016, NEWS,weblink The Energy Crisis, Welles, Chris, February 25, 1973, The New York Times, New York, September 5, 2016, On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 ({{USStatute|95|91|91|565|1977|08|04}}), which created the Department of Energy.BOOK, Relyea, Harold, Carr, Thomas P., The Executive Branch, Creation and Reorganization, 2003, Nova Publishers, 29, The new agency, which began operations on October 1, 1977, consolidated the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, and programs of various other agencies. Former Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, who served under Presidents Nixon and Ford during the Vietnam War, was appointed as the first secretary.

Weapon plans stolen

In December 1999, the FBI was investigating how China obtained plans for a specific nuclear device. Wen Ho Lee was accused of stealing nuclear secrets from Los Alamos National Laboratory for the People's Republic of China. Federal officials, including then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson, publicly named Lee as a suspect before he was charged with a crime. The U.S. Congress held hearings to investigate the Department of Energy's mishandling of his case. Republican senators thought that an independent agency should be in charge of nuclear weapons and security issues, not the Department of Energy.NEWS,weblink Energy Secretary Bill Richardson. He schmoozes. He loses, Plotz, David, June 23, 2000, Slate.com, November 7, 2008, All but one of the 59 charges against Lee were eventually dropped because the investigation finally proved that the plans the Chinese obtained could not have come from Lee. Lee filed suit and won a $1.6 million settlement against the federal government and news agencies.NEWS,weblink Deal in Wen Ho Lee case may be imminent, Mears, Bill, May 22, 2006, CNN, November 7, 2008, dead,weblink February 7, 2007,

Loan guarantee program of 2005

In 2001, American Solar Challenge was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.WEB, State Energy Advisory Board resolution,weblink US Department of Energy, May 26, 2017, After the 2005 race, the U.S. Department of Energy discontinued its sponsorship.WEB,weblink Toyota Sponsors World's Longest Solar Car Race, July 30, 2008, Toyota, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927150915weblink">weblink September 27, 2011, Title XVII of Energy Policy Act of 2005 authorizes the DOE to issue loan guarantees to eligible projects that "avoid, reduce, or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or significantly improved technologies as compared to technologies in service in the United States at the time the guarantee is issued".WEB,weblink Loan Guarantee Program, December 31, 2006, Department of Energy, August 25, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100201210313weblink">weblink February 1, 2010, In loan guarantees, a conditional commitment requires to meet an equity commitment, as well as other conditions, before the loan guarantee is completed.WEB,weblink DOE Offers $535 Million Loan Guarantee to Solyndra, Inc, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, March 20, 2009, August 25, 2009, The United States Department of Energy, the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) partnered to develop and launch the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) in September 2008. WINS is an international non-governmental organization designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive materials and facilities.WEB,weblink Institute To Strengthen Security for Nuclear Materials, September 30, 2008, Security Today,

Recent

On March 28, 2017, a supervisor in the Office of International Climate and Clean Energy asked staff to avoid the phrases "climate change," "emissions reduction," or "Paris Agreement" in written memos, briefings or other written communication. A DOE spokesperson denied that phrases had been banned.WEB,weblink Energy Department climate office bans use of phrase 'climate change', Eric, Wolff, March 29, 2017, Politico, March 30, 2017, NEWS,weblink US Energy Department tells staff not to use words like climate change and Paris agreement, Pavitra, Dwibhashyam, March 30, 2017, International Business Times, March 30, 2017, In a May 2019 press release concerning natural gas exports from a Texas facility, the DOE used the term 'freedom gas' to refer to natural gas. The phrase originated from a speech made by Secretary Rick Perry in Brussels earlier that month. Washington Governor Jay Inslee decried the term "a joke".NEWS,weblink Trump energy officials label natural gas 'freedom gas', Bowden, John, May 29, 2019, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, en, May 29, 2019, NEWS,weblink Department of Energy refers to 'freedom gas' and 'molecules of U.S. freedom' in press release, Nicholas, Wu, May 29, 2019, USA Today, en, May 29, 2019, WEB,weblink The Department of Energy Is Now Calling Fossil Fuels "Molecules of Freedom" and "Freedom Gas", Weissmann, Jordan, May 29, 2019, Slate, en, May 29, 2019,

Organization

Structure and positions

{{unreferenced section|date=June 2016}}(File:US Department of Energy organizational chart July 2015.svg|thumb|250px|Organizational chart of the U.S. Department of Energy as of July 2015)

Energy{| class"wikitable sortable"

! scope="col" colspan="2" | Program! scope="row" rowspan="22" | Secretary of EnergyUnited States Deputy Secretary of Energy>Deputy Secretary of Energy*Associate Deputy Secretary of EnergyOffice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy>Assistant Secretary of Energy (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy)Assistant Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Energy>Assistant Secretary of Energy (Nuclear Energy)Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability>Assistant Secretary of Energy (Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability)| Assistant Secretary of Energy (International Affairs)| Assistant Secretary of Energy (Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs)DATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2018 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 16, 2018, | Office of the General Counsel | Office of the Chief Financial Officer| Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy| Energy Information Administration| Bonneville Power Administration| Southeastern Power Administration| Southwestern Power Administration| Western Area Power Administration| Federal Energy Regulatory Commission| Enterprise Assessments| Energy Policy and System AnalysisOffice of Intelligence and Counterintelligence>Intelligence and Counterintelligence| Loan Programs Office| Public Affairs| Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization! scope="row" rowspan="4" | Under Secretary of Energy for Science| Office of ScienceAssistant Secretary for Fossil Energy>Assistant Secretary of Energy (Fossil Energy)| Indian Energy Policy and Programs| Technology Transitions ! scope="row" | Under Secretary of Energy for Nuclear Security| National Nuclear Security Administration! scope="row" rowspan="8" | Under Secretary of Energy | National Laboratory Operations Board| Associate Under Secretary of Energy (Environment, Health, Safety and Security)| Office of Management | Chief Human Capital Officer| Chief Information Officer| Economic Impact and Diversity| Hearings and Appeals| Assistant Secretary of Energy (Environmental Management)*Legacy Management The department is under the control and supervision of a United States Secretary of Energy, a political appointee of the President of the United States. The Energy Secretary is assisted in managing the department by a United States Deputy Secretary of Energy, also appointed by the president, who assumes the duties of the secretary in his absence. The department also has three under secretaries, each appointed by the president, who oversee the major areas of the department's work. The president also appoints seven officials with the rank of Assistant Secretary of Energy who have line management responsibility for major organizational elements of the Department. The Energy Secretary assigns their functions and duties.

Symbolism in the seal

Excerpt from the Code of Federal Regulations, in (Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations|Title 10: Energy):WEB, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 - Energy, Part 1002 - Official Seal and Distinguishing Flag, U.S. Government Publishing Office,weblink The official seal of the Department of energy "includes a green shield bisected by a gold-colored lightning bolt, on which is emblazoned a gold-colored symbolic sun, atom, oil derrick, windmill, and dynamo. It is crested by the white head of an eagle, atop a white rope. Both appear on a blue field surrounded by concentric circles in which the name of the agency, in gold, appears on a green background.""The eagle represents the care in planning and the purposefulness of efforts required to respond to the Nation's increasing demands for energy. The sun, atom, oil derrick, windmill, and dynamo serve as representative technologies whose enhanced development can help meet these demands. The rope represents the cohesiveness in the development of the technologies and their link to our future capabilities. The lightning bolt represents the power of the natural forces from which energy is derived and the Nation's challenge in harnessing the forces.""The color scheme is derived from nature, symbolizing both the source of energy and the support of man's existence. The blue field represents air and water, green represents mineral resources and the earth itself, and gold represents the creation of energy in the release of natural forces. By invoking this symbolism, the color scheme represents the Nation's commitment to meet its energy needs in a manner consistent with the preservation of the natural environment."

Facilities

{{Unreferenced section|date=June 2016}}The Department of Energy operates a system of national laboratories and technical facilities for research and development, as follows: Other major DOE facilities include: Other:

Nuclear weapons sites

{{unreferenced section|date=January 2017}}The DOE/NNSA has federal responsibility for the design, testing and production of all nuclear weapons. NNSA in turn uses contractors to carry out its responsibilities at the following government owned sites:

Related legislation

File:Department of Energy Sign.jpg|thumb|240px|Sign in front of the United States Department of Energy Forrestal Building on 1000 Independence Avenue in Washington D.C.Washington D.C.

Budget

President Barack Obama unveiled on May 7, 2009, a $26.4 billion budget request for DOE for fiscal year (FY) 2010, including $2.3 billion for the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The budget aims to substantially expand the use of renewable energy sources while improving energy transmission infrastructure. It also makes significant investments{{Clarify|reason=vague|date=December 2016}} in hybrids and plug-in hybrids, in smart grid technologies, and in scientific research and innovation.WEB,weblink DOE Requests $2.3 Billion for Efficiency, Renewable Energy in FY 2010, May 13, 2009, EERE News, August 25, 2009, As part of the $789 billion economic stimulus package in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Congress provided Energy with an additional $38.3 billion for fiscal years 2009 and 2010, adding about 75 percent to Energy's annual budgets. Most of the stimulus spending was in the form of grants and contracts.{{citation needed|date=May 2017}} For fiscal year 2013, each of the operating units of the Department of Energy operated with the following budgets:WEB,weblink Department of Energy: FY 2014 Congressional Budget Request, Department of Energy – Office of the Chief Financial Officer, April 2013, {| cellpadding="5" class="wikitable"!Division!Funding|Nuclear Security|$11.5|Energy and Environment|$9.5|Science|$4.9|Management|$0.25|Other|$0.85|Total|$28In March 2018, Energy Secretary Rick Perry testified to a Senate panel about the Trump administration's DOE budget request for fiscal year 2019. The budget request prioritizes nuclear security while making large cuts to energy efficiency and renewable energy programs. The proposal is a $500 million increase in funds over fiscal year 2017. It "promotes innovations like a new Office of Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER) and gains for the Office of Fossil Energy. Investments would be made to strengthen the National Nuclear Security Administration and modernize the nuclear force, as well as in weapons activities and advanced computing." However, the budget for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy would be lowered to $696 million under the plan, down from $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2017. Overall, the department's energy and related programs would be cut by $1.9 billion.NEWS,weblink Perry defends nuclear investment and cuts to renewables in $30.6 bln DOE budget proposal, Galford, Chris, March 20, 2018, Daily Energy Insider, March 22, 2018,

Programs and contracts

Energy Savings Performance Contract

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) are contracts under which a contractor designs, constructs, and obtains the necessary financing for an energy savings project, and the federal agency makes payments over time to the contractor from the savings in the agency's utility bills. The contractor guarantees the energy improvements will generate savings, and after the contract ends, all continuing cost savings accrue to the federal agency.WEB,weblink DOE Awards 16 Contracts for Energy Savings at Federal Facilities, January 7, 2009, EERE News, August 25, 2009,

Energy Innovation Hubs

Energy Innovation Hubs are multi-disciplinary meant to advance highly promising areas of energy science and technology from their early stages of research to the point that the risk level will be low enough for industry to commercialize the technologies. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was the first DOE Energy Innovation Hub established in July 2010, for the purpose of providing advanced modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions for commercial nuclear reactors.JOURNAL, Kulesza, Joel, Franceschini, Fausto, Evans, Thomas, Gehin, Jess, Overview of the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), EPJ Web of Conferences, 3 February 2016, 106, 10.1051/epjconf/201610603002,weblink 8 February 2019, The 2009 DOE budget includes $280 million to fund eight Energy Innovation Hubs, each of which is focused on a particular energy challenge. Two of the eight hubs are included in the EERE budget and will focus on integrating smart materials, designs, and systems into buildings to better conserve energy and on designing and discovering new concepts and materials needed to convert solar energy into electricity. Another two hubs, included in the DOE Office of Science budget, were created to tackle the challenges of devising advanced methods of energy storage and creating fuels directly from sunlight without the use of plants or microbes. Yet another hub was made to develop "smart" materials to allow the electrical grid to adapt and respond to changing conditions.In 2012, The DOE awarded $120 million to the Ames Laboratory to start a new EIH, the Critical Materials Institute, which will focus on improving the supply of rare earth elements, which is controlled by China.WEB,weblink US spots $120M for lab to tackle rare earth shortages, Michael, Cooney, January 9, 2013, Network World, January 16, 2013,

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

{{See also|ARPA-E}}ARPA-E was officially created by the America COMPETES Act , authored by Congressman Bart Gordon,WEB,weblink H.R.5325 - 111th Congress (2009-2010): America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010, Bart, Gordon, May 19, 2010, United States Congress, within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in 2007, though without a budget. The initial budget of about $400 million was a part of the economic stimulus bill of February 2009.NEWS,weblink Stimulus: Energy Department scrambles to build new R&D agency, George, Leopold, February 23, 2009, EE Times, August 14, 2011,

Other

List of Secretaries of Energy {| class"wikitable"

! rowspan="2" | #! rowspan="2" | Name! colspan="2" | Term! rowspan="2" | President served! Start! End| 1| James R. Schlesinger| August 6, 1977| August 23, 1979Jimmy Carter| 2| Charles W. Duncan, Jr.| August 24, 1979| January 20, 1981| 3| James B. Edwards| January 23, 1981| November 5, 1982Ronald Reagan| 4| Donald Paul Hodel| November 5, 1982| February 7, 1985| 5| John S. Herrington| February 7, 1985| January 20, 1989| 6| James D. Watkins| March 1, 1989| January 20, 1993| George H. W. Bush| 7| Hazel R. O'Leary| January 22, 1993| January 20, 1997Bill Clinton| 8| Federico F. Peña| March 12, 1997| June 30, 1998| 9| Bill Richardson| August 18, 1998| January 20, 2001| 10| Spencer Abraham| January 20, 2001| January 31, 2005George W. Bush| 11| Samuel W. Bodman| February 1, 2005| January 20, 2009| 12| Steven Chu| January 21, 2009| April 22, 2013Barack Obama| 13| Ernest Moniz| May 16, 2013| January 20, 2017| 14| Rick Perry| March 2, 2017| Incumbent| Donald Trump

See also

Notes

{{Noteslist}}

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

External links

{{Commons category|United States Department of Energy}} {{United States Department of Energy}}{{Energy in the United States}}{{United States federal executive departments}}{{Public utilities commissions}}{{Authority control}}

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