Los Angeles Times

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Los Angeles Times
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{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California}}{{lead too short|date=October 2017}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2017}}

| circulation_date = | ISSN = 0458-3035| eISSN = 2165-1736| oclc = 3638237weblink}}}}The Los Angeles Times (sometimes abbreviated as LA Times or L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast.WEB, The 10 Most Popular Daily Newspapers In The United States,weblink October 24, 2017, The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. {{as of|2018|June|18|df=US}}, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.NEWS,weblink Norman Pearlstine Named Editor of The Los Angeles Times, Arango, Tim, 2018-06-18, The New York Times, 2018-06-18, en, In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize and finalized their first union contractWEB,weblink Los Angeles Times reaches historic agreement with its newsroom union, 2019-10-17, Los Angeles Times, en-US, 2019-11-15, in Oct 16, 2019, and in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.{{TOC limit|limit=3}}


{{See also|List of Los Angeles Times publishers}}(File:Chandler and Otis 001.jpg|thumb|left|Chandler and Otis 1917)

Otis era

The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T.J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill, Cole and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, and it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor."Mirror Acorn, 'Times' Oak," Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1923, page II-1 Access to this link requires the use of a library card. Otis made the Times a financial success.Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment".BOOK, Starr, Kevin, Kevin Starr, Inventing the Dream: California Through the Progressive Era,weblink registration, 1985, Oxford University Press, New York, 0-19-503489-9, 11089240, 228,
Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley.NEWS,weblink A Paper Tears Apart in a City That Never Quite Came Together, Arango, Tim, 2018-01-30, The New York Times, 2019-04-03, Nagourney, Adam, en-US, 0362-4331,
File:Photo-los-angeles-times-building-post-bombing.jpg|thumb|right|Rubble of the L.A. Times building after the 1910 bombing ]]The efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people. Two union leaders, James and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who eventually pleaded guilty.Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True."BOOK, Berges, Marshall, The Life and Times of Los Angeles: A Newspaper, A Family and A City, Atheneum, New York, 25, Clarence Darrow: Biography and Much More from at

Chandler era

Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios. The site also includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims.File:1984-Newspaper-Vending-Machine.jpg|thumb|left|Times Newspaper vending machine featuring news of the 1984 Summer Olympics1984 Summer OlympicsThe fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980. Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper, often forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business",BOOK, McDougal, Dennis, Dennis McDougal, Privileged Son: Otis Chandler and the Rise and Fall of the L.A. Times Dynasty, 2002, Da Capo, Cambridge, Mass., 0-306-81161-8, 49594139,
Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations. He also toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance.
During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined.Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that:The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and also social and political influence (which often brought more profits). Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the later generations found that only one or two branches got the power, and everyone else got a share of the money. Eventually the coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies went public, or split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family.NEWS,weblink Washington Post Buy: Can Jeff Bezos Fix Newspapers' Business Model?, Los Angeles Times, October 6, 2014, Michael, Hiltzik, August 6, 2013, The paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big (1977, {{ISBN|0-399-11766-0}}), and was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be (1979, {{ISBN|0-394-50381-3}}; 2000 reprint {{ISBN|0-252-06941-2}}). It has also been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades.ProQuest Dissertation Abstracts. Retrieved June 8, 2007.


The Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992.Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation. They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada, Arizona and then the San Diego edition.

Modern era

File:LATimesBuilding.jpg|thumb|right|Los Angeles Times BuildingLos Angeles Times BuildingThe Los Angeles Times was beset in the first decade of the 21st century by a change in ownership, a bankruptcy, a rapid succession of editors, reductions in staff, decreases in paid circulation, the need to increase its Web presence, and a series of controversies.For two days in 2005, the Times experimented with Wikitorial, the first Wiki by a major news organization to allow readers to combine forces to produce their own editorial pieces. It was shut down after being besieged with inappropriate material.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}}The newspaper moved to a new headquarters building in El Segundo, near Los Angeles International Airport, in July 2018.NEWS, Chang, Andrea, April 17, 2018, L.A. Times will move to 2300 E. Imperial Highway in El Segundo,weblink Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2018, NEWS, June 18, 2018, Biotech billionaire takes control of the LA Times, names new executive editor,weblink Orange County Register, Associated Press, July 19, 2018, NEWS, Curwen, Thomas, For a brief, shining moment, Times Mirror Square was L.A.'s Camelot,weblink 21 July 2018, Los Angeles Times, 20 July 2018, NEWS, Miranda, Carolina, Ugly carpets and green marble: The design of the Los Angeles Times buildings changed along with the city, though not always gracefully,weblink 21 July 2018, Los Angeles Times, 17 July 2018,


In 2000, the Times-Mirror Company, publisher of the Times, was purchased by the Tribune Company of Chicago, Illinois, placing the paper in co-ownership with then-WB (now CW)-affiliated KTLA, which Tribune acquired in 1985.NEWS, Tribune called on to sell L.A. Times,weblink June 19, 2012, CNN, September 18, 2006, On April 2, 2007, the Tribune Company announced its acceptance of real estate entrepreneur Sam Zell's offer to buy the Chicago Tribune, the Los Angeles Times, and all other company assets. Zell announced that he would sell the Chicago Cubs baseball club. He put up for sale the company's 25 percent interest in Comcast SportsNet Chicago. Until shareholder approval was received, Los Angeles billionaires Ron Burkle and Eli Broad had the right to submit a higher bid, in which case Zell would have received a $25 million buyout fee.NEWS,weblink Tribune goes to Zell, Chicago Sun-Times, April 3, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2008, In December 2008, the Tribune Company filed for bankruptcy protection. The bankruptcy was a result of declining advertising revenue and a debt load of $12.9 billion, much of it incurred when the paper was taken private by Zell.WEB,weblink Owner of L.A. Times files for bankruptcy, James Rainey, Michael A. Hiltzik, yes, December 9, 2008, Los Angeles Times, On February 7, 2018, Tribune Publishing, formerly Tronc Inc. agreed to sell the Los Angeles Times along with other southern California properties (The San Diego Union-Tribune, Hoy) to billionaire biotech investor Patrick Soon-Shiong.WEB,weblink Billionaire Patrick Soon-Shiong reaches deal to buy L.A. Times and San Diego Union-Tribune, Koren, Meg James, James Rufus,, 2018-02-08, NEWS,weblink Tronc in Talks to Sell Flagship Los Angeles Times to Billionaire Investor, February 6, 2018, February 6, 2018, This purchase by Soon-Shiong through his Nant Capital investment fund is for $500 million, as well as the assumption of $90 million in pension liabilities.NEWS,weblink Tronc Pushes Into Digital Future After Los Angeles Times Sale, February 7, 2018, February 7, 2018, NEWS,weblink Patrick Soon-Shiong plans to move Los Angeles Times to new campus in El Segundo, Los Angeles Times, Meg, James, Andrea, Chang, April 13, 2018, 13 April 2018, The sale to Soon-Shiong closed on June 16, 2018.

Editorial changes and staff reductions

John Carroll, former editor of the Baltimore Sun, was brought in to restore the luster of the newspaper. During his reign at the Times he eliminated more than 200 jobs, but despite an operating profit margin of 20 percent, the Tribune executives were unsatisfied with returns, and by 2005 Carroll had left the newspaper. His successor, Dean Baquet, refused to impose the additional cutbacks mandated by the Tribune Company.Baquet was the first African-American to hold this type of editorial position at a top-tier daily. During Baquet and Carroll's time at the paper, it won 13 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other paper but The New York Times.NEWS, Pappu, Sridhar, Reckless Disregard: Dean Baquet on the gutting of the Los Angeles Times,weblink Mother Jones, March–April 2007,
However, Baquet was removed from the editorship for not meeting the demands of the Tribune Group—as was publisher Jeffrey Johnson—and was replaced by James O'Shea of the Chicago Tribune. O'Shea himself left in January 2008 after a budget dispute with publisher David Hiller.
The paper's content and design style was overhauled several times in attempts to increase circulation. In 2000, a major change reorganized the news sections (related news was put closer together) and changed the "Local" section to the "California" section with more extensive coverage. Another major change in 2005 saw the Sunday "Opinion" section retitled the Sunday "Current" section, with a radical change in its presentation and featured columnists. There were regular cross-promotions with Tribune-owned television station KTLA to bring evening-news viewers into the Times fold.The paper reported on July 3, 2008, that it planned to cut 250 jobs by Labor Day and reduce the number of published pages by 15 percent.NEWS, Hiltzik, Michael A., Los Angeles Times to cut 250 jobs, including 150 from news staff: The newspaper cites falling ad revenue in economic slowdown,weblink Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2008, WEB, Politi, Daniel, Today's Papers: "You Have Been Liberated",weblink, July 3, 2008,
That included about 17 percent of the news staff, as part of the newly private media company's mandate to reduce costs. "We've tried to get ahead of all the change that's occurring in the business and get to an organization and size that will be sustainable," Hiller said.{{citation needed|date=November 2010}}
In January 2009, the Times increased its single-copy price from 50 to 75 centsWEB, TJ Sullivan,weblink Los Angeles Times Ups Newsstand Price,, January 13, 2009, August 8, 2016, and eliminated the separate California/Metro section, folding it into the front section of the newspaper. The Times also announced seventy job cuts in news and editorial, or a 10 percent cut in payroll.WEB, Roderick, Kevin,weblink Los Angeles Times kills local news section, LA Observed, January 30, 2009, August 8, 2016, In September 2015, in an apparent struggle over localized versus corporate control,NEWS, Ravi Somaiya, A Firing at The Los Angeles Times Focuses Discontent,weblink September 21, 2015, The New York Times, September 20, 2015, Austin Beutner, the publisher and chief executive, was replaced by Timothy E. Ryan.NEWS, Somaiya, Ravi, Austin Beutner Ousted as Los Angeles Times Publisher,weblink New York Times, September 8, 2015, On October 5, 2015, Poynter Institute reported that "{{'}}At least 50' editorial positions will be culled from the Los Angeles Times" through a buyout.WEB, Mullin, Benjamin,weblink Tribune Publishing CEO announces buyouts, Poynter, October 5, 2015, August 8, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, On this subject, the Los Angeles Times reported with foresight: "For the 'funemployed,' unemployment is welcome."WEB,weblink For the 'funemployed,' unemployment is welcome, LA Times, June 4, 2009, August 8, 2016, Nancy Cleeland,NEWS, E&P Staff, Pulitzer Winner Explains Why She Took 'L.A. Times' Buyout,weblink Editor & Publisher, Nielsen Business Media, Inc., May 28, 2007, May 28, 2007,
who took O'Shea's buyout offer, did so because of "frustration with the paper's coverage of working people and organized labor"
WEB, Cleeland, Nancy, Why I'm Leaving The L.A. Times,weblink Huffington Post, May 28, 2007,
(the beat that earned her Pulitzer). She speculated that the paper's revenue shortfall could be reversed by expanding coverage of economic justice topics, which she believed were increasingly relevant to Southern California; she cited the paper's attempted hiring of a "celebrity justice reporter" as an example of the wrong approach.
On August 21, 2017, Ross Levinsohn, then aged 54, was named publisher and CEO, replacing Davan Maharaj, who had been both publisher and editor.NEWS,weblink Ross Levinsohn is named the new publisher and CEO of the L.A. Times as top editors are ousted, Meg, James, August 21, 2017, August 21, 2017, On June 16, 2018, the same day the sale to Patrick Soon-Shiong closed, Norman Pearlstine was named executive editor.UnionizationOn January 19, 2018, employees of the news department voted 248–44 in a National Labor Relations Board election to be represented by the NewsGuild-CWA.NEWS,weblink Union Is Formed at Los Angeles Times and Publisher Put on Leave, Ember, Sydney, 2018, The New York Times, 2018-01-20, en-US, 0362-4331, The vote came despite aggressive opposition from the paper's management team, reversing more than a century of anti-union sentiment at one of the biggest newspapers in the country.


The Times's reported daily circulation in October 2010 was 600,449,WEB, Bill Cromwell,weblink Like Newspaper Revenue, the Decline in Circ Shows Signs of Slowing,, April 26, 2010, April 26, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2010, mdy-all, down from a peak of 1,225,189 daily and 1,514,096 Sunday in April 1990.NEWS,weblink The Los Angeles Times' history, Los Angeles Times, May 15, 2017, en-US, 0458-3035, WEB, As told to RJ Smith,weblink Ripped from the headlines - Los Angeles Magazine,, January 12, 2009, Some observers believed that the drop was due to the retirement of circulation director Bert Tiffany. Still others thought the decline was a side effect of a succession of short-lived editors who were appointed by publisher Mark Willes after publisher Otis Chandler relinquished day-to-day control in 1995. Willes, the former president of General Mills, was criticized for his lack of understanding of the newspaper business, and was derisively referred to by reporters and editors as The Cereal Killer.WEB, Shaw, David,weblink Crossing the Line, Los Angeles Times, October 3, 2016, (File:AbandonedLosAngelesTimesVendingMachine2011.jpg|thumb|Abandoned Los Angeles Times vending machine in Covina, California, in 2011)Other reasons offered for the circulation drop included an increase in the single-copy price from 25 cents to 50 centsShah, Diane, "The New Los Angeles Times" Columbia Journalism Review 2002, 3. and a rise in the proportion of readers preferring to read the online version instead of the print version.Rainey, James, "Newspaper Circulation Continues to Fall," Los Angeles Times May 1, 2007: D1. Editor Jim O'Shea, in an internal memo announcing a May 2007, mostly voluntary, reduction in force, characterized the decrease in circulation as an "industry-wide problem" which the paper had to counter by "growing rapidly on-line," "break[ing] news on the Web and explain[ing] and analyz[ing] it in our newspaper."NEWS, E&P Staff, California Split: 57 More Job Cuts at 'L.A. Times',weblink Editor & Publisher, Nielsen Business Media, Inc., May 25, 2007, May 28, 2007, In early 2006, the Times closed its San Fernando Valley printing plant, leaving press operations to the Olympic plant and to Orange County. Also in 2006, the Times announced its circulation had fallen to 851,532, down 5.4 percent from 2005. The Times's loss of circulation was the largest of the top ten newspapers in the U.S.NEWS, Lieberman, David,weblink Newspaper sales dip, but websites gainUSA Today>, May 9, 2006, Despite the circulation decline, many in the media industry lauded the newspaper's effort to decrease its reliance on "other-paid" circulation in favor of building its "individually paid" circulation base—which showed a marginal increase in a circulation audit. This distinction reflected the difference between, for example, copies distributed to hotel guests free of charge (other-paid) versus subscriptions and single-copy sales (individually paid).{{citation needed|date=November 2010}}

Internet presence and free weeklies

In December 2006, a team of Times reporters delivered management with a critique of the paper's online news efforts known as the Spring Street Project.NEWS
, Saar
, Mayrav
, LAT's Scathing Internal Memo. Read It Here.
, FishbowlLA
, January 26, 2007
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, October 30, 2007
, mdy-all
The report, which condemned the Times as a "web-stupid" organization,"
was followed by a shakeup in management of the paper's website,NEWS, Roderick, Kevin, Times retools on web — again,weblink LA Observed, January 24, 2007,, and a rebuke of print staffers who had assertedly "treated change as a threat."NEWS, Welch, Matt, Spring Street Project unveiled!,weblink [weblink], January 24, 2007, On July 10, 2007, Times launched a local Metromix site targeting live entertainment for young adults.NEWS, Metromix Makes Cool Debut,weblink [weblink], July 10, 2007, October 3, 2013, A free weekly tabloid print edition of Metromix Los Angeles followed in February 2008; the publication was the newspaper's first stand-alone print weekly.NEWS, Ives, Nate, Los Angeles Times Launches Free Weekly,weblink Advertising Age, February 13, 2008, October 3, 2013, In 2009, the Times shut down Metromix and replaced it with Brand X, a blog site and free weekly tabloid targeting young, social networking readers.NEWS, Editor announces weekly tabloid aimed at social-networking readers,weblink [weblink], March 25, 2009, October 3, 2013, Brand X launched in March 2009; the Brand X tabloid ceased publication in June 2011 and the website was shut down the following month.NEWS, Roderick, Kevin, L.A. Times folds Brand X,weblink LA Observed, June 29, 2011, October 3, 2013, In May 2018, the Times blocked access to its online edition from most of Europe because of the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation.NEWS,weblink LA Times takes down website in Europe as privacy rules bite, Alanna, Petroff, CNN, NEWS,weblink Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times block European users due to GDPR, Newcomb, Alyssa, 25 May 2018, 8 June 2018, CBS News, NBC Universal,

Other controversies

It was revealed in 1999 that a revenue-sharing arrangement was in place between the Times and Staples Center in the preparation of a 168-page magazine about the opening of the sports arena. The magazine's editors and writers were not informed of the agreement, which breached the Chinese wall that traditionally has separated advertising from journalistic functions at American newspapers. Publisher Mark Willes also had not prevented advertisers from pressuring reporters in other sections of the newspaper to write stories favorable to their point of view.NEWS, Elder, Sean, Meltdown at the L.A. Times,weblink, November 5, 1999, March 26, 2007, (File:Los angeles times building downtown.JPG|thumb|The Los Angeles Times building)Michael Kinsley was hired as the Opinion and Editorial (Op-Ed) Editor in April 2004 to help improve the quality of the opinion pieces. His role was controversial, as he forced writers to take a more decisive stance on issues. In 2005, he created a Wikitorial, the first Wiki by a major news organization. Although it failed, readers could combine forces to produce their own editorial pieces. He resigned later that year.The Times drew fire for a last-minute story before the 2003 California recall election alleging that gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger groped scores of women during his movie career. Columnist Jill Stewart wrote on the American Reporter website that the Times did not do a story on allegations that former Governor Gray Davis had verbally and physically abused women in his office and that the Schwarzenegger story relied on a number of anonymous sources. Further, she said, four of the six alleged victims were not named. She also said that in the case of the Davis allegations, the Times decided against printing the Davis story because of its reliance on anonymous sources.NEWS, Stewart, Jill, October 14, 2003, How the Los Angeles Times Really Decided to Publish its Accounts of Women Who Said They Were Groped,weblink,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2008, dead, mdy-all, COHN, GARY >AUTHOR2=HALL, CARLA DATE=OCTOBER 2, 2003, Women Say Schwarzenegger Groped, Humiliated Them,weblink The Los Angeles Times,weblink October 2, 2003, The American Society of Newspaper Editors said that the Times lost more than 10,000 subscribers because of the negative publicity surrounding the Schwarzenegger article.NEWS
, ASNE recognizes Los Angeles Times editor for leadership
, American Society of Newspaper Editors
, March 24, 2004
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, November 15, 2007
, mdy-all
, On November 12, 2005, new Op-Ed Editor Andrés Martinez announced the dismissal of liberal op-ed columnist Robert Scheer and conservative editorial cartoonist Michael Ramirez.NEWS,weblink LA Times Fires Longtime Progressive Columnist Robert Scheer, Democracy Now!, 2018-10-15, en, The Times has also come under controversy for its decision to drop the weekday edition of the Garfield comic strip in 2005, in favor of a hipper comic strip Brevity, while retaining the Sunday edition. Garfield was dropped altogether shortly thereafter.NEWS, Astor, Dave, 'L.A. Times' Drops Daily 'Garfield' as the Comic Is Blasted and Praised,weblink Editor & Publisher, Nielsen Business Media, Inc., January 5, 2005, March 26, 2007,weblink January 7, 2005, Following the Republican Party's defeat in the 2006 mid-term elections, an Opinion piece published on November 19, 2006, by Joshua Muravchik, a leading neoconservative and a resident scholar at the conservative American Enterprise Institute, was titled BOMB IRAN. The article shocked some readers, with its hawkish comments in support of more unilateral action by the United States, this time against Iran.NEWS, Muravchik, Joshua, Bomb Iran,weblink Los Angeles Times, November 19, 2006, March 26, 2007, On March 22, 2007, editorial page editor Andrés Martinez resigned following an alleged scandal centering on his girlfriend's professional relationship with a Hollywood producer who had been asked to guest edit a section in the newspaper.NEWS
, Rainey, James
, Editor Resigns over Killed Opinion Section
, Los Angeles Times
, March 22, 2007
, March 26, 2007
,weblink" title="">weblink
, March 25, 2007
, dead
In an open letter written upon leaving the paper, Martinez criticized the publication for allowing the Chinese Wall between the news and editorial departments to be weakened, accusing news staffers of lobbying the opinion desk.
NEWS, Martinez, Andrés, Grazergate, an Epilogue,weblink Los Angeles Times, March 22, 2007, March 26, 2007, {{Further|Andrés_Martinez_(editor)#.22Grazergate.22_Controversy}}In November 2017, Walt Disney Studios blacklisted the Times from attending press screenings of its films, in retaliation for September 2017 reportage by the paper on Disney's political influence in the Anaheim area. The company considered the coverage to be "biased and inaccurate". As a sign of condemnation and solidarity, a number of major publications and writers, including The New York Times, Boston Globe critic Ty Burr, Washington Post blogger Alyssa Rosenberg, and the websites The A.V. Club and Flavorwire, announced that they would boycott press screenings of future Disney films. The National Society of Film Critics, Los Angeles Film Critics Association, New York Film Critics Circle, and Boston Society of Film Critics jointly announced that Disney's films would be ineligible for their respective year-end awards unless the decision was reversed, condemning the decision as being "antithetical to the principles of a free press and [setting] a dangerous precedent in a time of already heightened hostility towards journalists". On November 7, 2017, Disney reversed its decision, stating that the company "had productive discussions with the newly installed leadership at the Los Angeles Times regarding our specific concerns".NEWS,weblink Disney's blackout of LA Times triggers boycott from media outlets, Carroll, Rory, 2017-11-07, The Guardian, 2017-11-07, en-GB, 0261-3077, WEB,weblink Why I won’t be reviewing ‘The Last Jedi,’ or any other Disney movie, in advance, Washington Post, 2017-11-07, NEWS,weblink Disney ends blackout of LA Times after boycott from media outlets, Carroll, Rory, 2017-11-07, The Guardian, 2017-11-07, en-GB, 0261-3077,

Pulitzer Prizes

File:1923.04.22-Los Angeles Times Front Page.jpg|thumb|upright|Partial front page of the Los Angeles Times for Monday, April 24, 1922, displaying coverage of a Ku Klux Klan raid in an L.A. suburb ]]Through 2014, the Times had won 41 Pulitzers, including four in editorial cartooning, and one each in spot news reporting for the 1965 Watts Riots and the 1992 Los Angeles riots.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times – Media Center, Los Angeles Times, January 17, 1994, January 12, 2009, The 1984 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service, The Pulitzer Prizes, 2018-07-22,
  • Times sportswriter Jim Murray won a Pulitzer in 1990.
  • Times investigative reporters Chuck Philips and Michael Hiltzik won the Pulitzer in 1999WEB, 1999 Pulitzer Prize winners for beat reporting,weblink Columbia journalism review, May 29, 2012, for a year-long series that exposed corruption in the music business.NEWS, Shaw, David, 2 Times Staffers Share Pulitzer for Beat Reporting,weblink July 30, 2012, Los Angeles Times, April 13, 1999,
  • Times journalist David Willman won the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting; the organization cited "his pioneering expose of seven unsafe prescription drugs that had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and an analysis of the policy reforms that had reduced the agency's effectiveness."WEB,weblink The Pulitzer Prizes &124; Biography,, October 18, 1956, August 16, 2010, In 2004, the paper won five prizes, which is the third-most by any paper in one year (behind The New York Times in 2002 (7) and The Washington Post in 2008 (6)).
  • Times reporters Bettina Boxall and Julie Cart won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting in 2009 "for their fresh and painstaking exploration into the cost and effectiveness of attempts to combat the growing menace of wildfires across the western United States."NEWS,weblink 2009 Pulitzer Prizes: Journalism, Reuters, October 6, 2014, April 20, 2009,
  • In 2011 Barbara Davidson was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography "for her intimate story of innocent victims trapped in the city's crossfire of deadly gang violence."WEB, The Pulitzer Prizes {{!, Citation|url =weblink|website =|accessdate = November 13, 2015}}
  • In 2016, the Times won the breaking news Pulitzer prize for its coverage of the mass shooting in San Bernardino, California.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, April 18, 2016, April 18, 2016,
  • In 2019, three Los Angeles Times reporters - Harriet Ryan, Matt Hamilton and Paul Pringle - have won a Pulitzer Prize for their investigation into a gynecologist accused of abusing hundreds of students at the University of Southern California.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, April 15, 2019, April 17, 2016,

Competition and rivalry

In the 19th century, the chief competition to the Times was the Los Angeles Herald, followed by the smaller Los Angeles Tribune. In December 1903, newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst began publishing the Los Angeles Examiner as a direct morning competitor to the Times.WEB,weblink December 1903: Hearst's Examiner comes to L.A,, October 21, 2012, In the 20th century, the Los Angeles Express was an afternoon competitor, as was Manchester Boddy's Los Angeles Daily News, a Democratic newspaper.Red Ink, White Lies: The Rise and Fall of Los Angeles Newspapers, 1920–1962 by Rob Leicester Wagner, Dragonflyer Press, 2000.By the mid-1940s, the Times was the leading newspaper in terms of circulation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. In 1948, it launched the Los Angeles Mirror, an afternoon tabloid, to compete with both the Daily News and the merged Herald-Express. In 1954, the Mirror absorbed the Daily News. The combined paper, the Mirror-News, ceased publication in 1962, when the Hearst afternoon Herald-Express and the morning Los Angeles Examiner merged to become the Herald-Examiner.Leonard Pitt and Dale Pitt, Los Angeles: A to Z, University of California Press, {{ISBN|0-520-20274-0}}. The Herald-Examiner published its last number in 1989. In 2014, the Los Angeles Register, published by Freedom Communications, then-parent company of the Orange County Register was launched as a daily newspaper to compete with the Times. By late September of the same year, the Los Angeles Register was folded.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Register newspaper ends publication, five months after launch, 2014-09-23, Reuters, 2019-11-08, en, WEB,weblink Los Angeles Register to launch as new daily newspaper, 2013-12-13, Orange County Register, en-US, 2019-11-08,

Special editions

Midwinter and midsummer


For 69 years, from 1885WEB,weblink Harrison Gray Otis Southern California Historical Society,, May 25, 2016, August 8, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 2015, dead, mdy-all, until 1954, the Times issued on New Year's Day a special annual Midwinter Number or Midwinter Edition that extolled the virtues of Southern California. At first it was called the "Trade Number," and in 1886 it featured a special press run of "extra scope and proportions"; that is, "a twenty-four-page paper, and we hope to make it the finest exponent of this [Southern California] country that ever existed.""Our Annual Trade Number," Los Angeles Times, December 18, 1886, page 4 Access to this link requires the use of a library card. Two years later, the edition had grown to "forty-eight handsome pages (9x15 inches), [which] stitched for convenience and better preservation," was "equivalent to a 150-page book.""Our Annual Edition," Los Angeles Times, December 21, 1888, page 4 Access to this link requires the use of a library card. The last use of the phrase Trade Number was in 1895, when the edition had grown to thirty-six pages split among three separate sections."General Contents," Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1895 Access to this link requires the use of a library card.The Midwinter Number drew acclamations from other newspapers, including this one from The Kansas City Star in 1923:In 1948 the Midwinter Edition, as it was then called, had grown to "7 big picture magazines in beautiful rotogravure reproduction."Display advertisement, Los Angeles Times, December 13, 1947 Access to this link requires the use of a library card. The last mention of the Midwinter Edition was in a Times advertisement on January 10, 1954."Bigger and Better Than Ever," page F-10 Access to this link requires the use of a library card.


Between 1891 and 1895, the Times also issued a similar Midsummer Number, the first one with the theme "The Land and Its Fruits"."'The Land and Its Fruits' — Our Harvest Number," Los Angeles Times, September 5, 1891, page 6 Access to this link requires the use of a library card. Because of its issue date in September, the edition was in 1891 called the Midsummer Harvest Number."Ready Tomorrow," Los Angeles Times, September 4, 1891, page 4 Access to this link requires the use of a library card.

Zoned editions and subsidiaries

(File:Avalon Wireless front page - 25MAR1903.jpg|thumb|Front page of the debut (March 25, 1903) issue of the short-lived The Wireless, published in Avalon.The four pages of the debut March 25, 1903 issue of The Wireless were reproduced on page 11 of the March 27, 1903 Times.)In 1903, the Pacific Wireless Telegraph Company established a radiotelegraph link between the California mainland and Santa Catalina Island. In the summer of that year, the Times made use of this link to establish a local daily paper, based in Avalon, called The Wireless, which featured local news plus excerpts which had been transmitted via Morse code from the parent paper."The Wireless Daily Achieved" by C. E. Howell, The Independent, October 15, 1903, pages 2436-2440. However, this effort apparently survived for only a little more than one year."Wireless Newspaper, Avalon, Santa Catalina Island" ( the 1990s, the Times published various editions catering to far-flung areas. Editions included those from the San Fernando Valley, Ventura County, Inland Empire, Orange County, San Diego County & a "National Edition" that was distributed to Washington, D.C. and the San Francisco Bay Area. The National Edition was closed in December 2004.Some of these editions{{howmany|date=September 2017}} were folded into Our Times, a group of community supplements included in editions of the regular Los Angeles Metro newspaper.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}A subsidiary, Times Community Newspapers, publishes the Burbank Leader, Coastline Pilot of Laguna Beach, Daily Pilot of Newport Beach and Costa Mesa, Glendale News-Press, Huntington Beach Independent and La Cañada Valley Sun.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times website, April 17, 2014,, October 6, 2014, NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times Community Newspapers Add New Title, Increase Coverage and Circulation with Sunday News-Press & Leader, Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2011, Los Angeles Times Community Newspapers (TCN) include the Glendale News-Press, Burbank Leader, La Cañada Valley Sun, Huntington Beach Independent, Daily Pilot (Costa Mesa, Newport and Irvine) and Laguna Beach Coastline Pilot. TCN newspapers maintain separate editorial and business staffs from that of The Times, and focus exclusively on in-depth local coverage of their respective communities., From 2011 to 2013, the Times had also published the Pasadena Sun.NEWS,weblink The Pasadena Sun Publishes Last Issue, Editor & Publisher, July 1, 2013,


Among the Times{{'}} staff are columnists Steve Lopez and Patt Morrison, television critic Mary McNamara and film critic Kenneth Turan. Sports columnists include Bill Plaschke, who is also a panelist on ESPN's Around the Horn, and Helene Elliott, the first female sportswriter to be inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.One of the Times{{'}} features is "Column One", a feature that appears daily on the front page to the left-hand side. Established in September 1968, it is a place for the weird and the interesting; in the How Far Can a Piano Fly? (a compilation of Column One stories) introduction, Patt Morrison writes that the column's purpose is to elicit a "Gee, that's interesting, I didn't know that" type of reaction.The Times also embarked on a number of investigative journalism pieces. A series in December 2004 on the King/Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles led to a Pulitzer Prize and a more thorough coverage of the hospital's troubled history. Lopez wrote a five-part series on the civic and humanitarian disgrace of Los Angeles' Skid Row, which became the focus of a 2009 motion picture, The Soloist. It also won 62 awards at the SND awards.From 1967 to 1972, the Times produced a Sunday supplement called West magazine. West was recognized for its art design, which was directed by Mike Salisbury (who later went on to become art director of Rolling Stone magazine).Heller, Steven. "Go West, Young Art Director," Design Observer (Sept. 23, 2008). From 2000 to 2012, the Times published the Los Angeles Times Magazine, which started as a weekly and then became a monthly supplement. The magazine focused on stories and photos of people, places, style, and other cultural affairs occurring in Los Angeles and its surrounding cities and communities. Since 2014, The California Sunday Magazine has been included in the Sunday L.A. Times edition.


Festival of Books

File:Fest of Books 2009.jpg|thumb|2009 Los Angeles Times Festival of Books on the UCLAUCLAIn 1996, the Times started the annual Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, in association with the University of California, Los Angeles. It has panel discussions, exhibits, and stages during two days at the end of April each year.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, October 6, 2014, In 2011, the Festival of Books was moved to the University of Southern California.NEWS, rebecca Buddingh, Daily Trojan,weblink L.A. Times fair comes to USC, University of Southern California, September 26, 2010, October 21, 2012,

Book prizes

Since 1980, the Times has awarded annual book prizes. The categories are now biography, current interest, fiction, first fiction, history, mystery/thriller, poetry, science and technology, and young adult fiction. In addition, the Robert Kirsch Award is presented annually to a living author with a substantial connection to the American West whose contribution to American letters deserves special recognition".NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times Book Prizes home page, October 6, 2014,

Book publishing

The Times Mirror Corporation has also owned a number of book publishers over the years including New American Library, C.V. Mosby, as well as Harry N. Abrams, Matthew Bender, and Jeppesen.In 1960, Times Mirror of Los Angeles bought the book publisher New American Library known for publishing affordable paperback reprints of classics and other scholarly works.BOOK, Korda, Michael, Another life : a memoir of other people,weblink registration, 1999, Random House, New York, 0679456597, 103, 1st, The NAL continued to operate autonomously from New York and within the Mirror Company. And in 1983 Odyssey Partners and Ira J. Hechler bought NAL from the Times Mirror Company for over $50 million.NEWS, McDowell, Edwin, Times Mirror is Selling New American Library,weblink October 3, 2015, The New York Times, August 11, 1983, In 1967, Times Mirror acquired C.V. Mosby Company, a professional publisher and merged it over the years with several other professional publishers including Resource Application, Inc., Year Book Medical Publishers, Wolfe Publishing Ltd., PSG Publishing Company, B.C. Decker, Inc., among others. Eventually in 1998 Mosby was sold to Harcourt Brace & Company to form the Elsevier Health Sciences group.WEB, Mosby Company History,weblink Elsevier, October 3, 2015,

Broadcasting activities

The Times-Mirror Company was a founding owner of television station KTTV in Los Angeles, which opened in January 1949. It became that station's sole owner in 1951, after re-acquiring the minority shares it had sold to CBS in 1948. Times-Mirror also purchased a former motion picture studio, Nassour Studios, in Hollywood in 1950, which was then used to consolidate KTTV's operations. Later to be known as Metromedia Square, the studio was sold along with KTTV to Metromedia in 1963.After a seven-year hiatus from the medium, the firm reactivated Times-Mirror Broadcasting Company with its 1970 purchase of the Dallas Times Herald and its radio and television stations, KRLD-AM-FM-TV in Dallas.NEWS, Storch, Charles, Times Mirror Selling Dallas Times Herald,weblink June 26, 2012, Chicago Tribune, June 27, 1986, The Federal Communications Commission granted an exemption of its cross-ownership policy and allowed Times-Mirror to retain the newspaper and the television outlet, which was renamed KDFW-TV.Times-Mirror Broadcasting later acquired KTBC-TV in Austin, Texas in 1973;"Johnson family sells Austin TV."{{dead link|date=August 2017 |bot=Red Director |fix-attempted=yes }} Broadcasting, September 4, 1972, pg. 6. and in 1980 purchased a group of stations owned by Newhouse Newspapers: WAPI-TV (now WVTM-TV) in Birmingham, Alabama; KTVI in St. Louis; WSYR-TV (now WSTM-TV) in Syracuse, New York and its satellite station WSYE-TV (now WETM-TV) in Elmira, New York; and WTPA-TV (now WHTM-TV) in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania."Times Mirror's deal for Newhouse's TVs gets FCC approval."{{dead link|date=August 2017 |bot=Red Director |fix-attempted=yes }} Broadcasting, March 31, 1980, pg. 30. The company also entered the field of cable television, servicing the Phoenix and San Diego areas, amongst others. They were originally titled Times-Mirror Cable, and were later renamed to Dimension Cable Television. Similarly, they also attempted to enter the pay-TV market, with the Spotlight movie network; it wasn't successful and was quickly shut down. The cable systems were sold in the mid-1990s to Cox Communications.Times-Mirror also pared its station group down, selling off the Syracuse, Elmira and Harrisburg properties in 1986."Changing hands: Proposed."{{dead link|date=August 2017 |bot=Red Director |fix-attempted=yes }} Broadcasting, September 30, 1985, pg. 109. The remaining four outlets were packaged to a new upstart holding company, Argyle Television, in 1993."Times Mirror set to sell four TV'." {{webarchive|url= |date=June 9, 2015 }} Broadcasting and Cable, March 22, 1993, pg. 7. These stations were acquired by New World Communications shortly thereafter and became key components in a sweeping shift of network-station affiliations which occurred between 1994–1995.

Stations{| class"toccolours" class"wikitable"

style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"!style="background: #e3e3e3;"| City of license / market!style="background: #e3e3e3;"| Station!style="background: #e3e3e3;"| ChannelTV / (RF)!style="background: #e3e3e3;"| Years owned!style="background: #e3e3e3;"| Current ownership status style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"Birmingham, Alabama>Birmingham| WVTM-TV| 13 (13)| 1980–1993| NBC affiliate owned by Hearst Television style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"| Los Angeles| KTTV 1| 11 (11)| 1949–1963Fox Broadcasting Company>Fox owned-and-operated (O&O) style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"St. Louis, Missouri>St. Louis| KTVI| 2 (43)| 1980–1993| Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"| Elmira, New York| WETM-TV| 18 (18)| 1980–1986| NBC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"| Syracuse, New York| WSTM-TV| 3 (24)| 1980–1986| NBC affiliate owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"Harrisburg, Pennsylvania>Harrisburg - Lancaster, Pennsylvania -Lebanon, Pennsylvania>Lebanon - York| WHTM-TV| 27 (10)| 1980–1986American Broadcasting Company>ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"| Austin, Texas| KTBC-TV| 7 (7)| 1973–1993| Fox owned-and-operated (O&O) style="vertical-align: top; text-align: left;"Dallas, Texas>Dallas - Fort Worth| KDFW-TV 2| 4 (35)| 1970–1993| Fox owned-and-operated (O&O)Notes:
  • 1 Co-owned with CBS until 1951 in a joint venture (51% owned by Times-Mirror, 49% owned by CBS);
  • 2 Purchased along with KRLD-AM-FM as part of Times-Mirror's acquisition of the Dallas Times Herald. Times-Mirror sold the radio stations to comply with FCC cross-ownership restrictions.

Notable employees

Writers and editors

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Further reading

External links

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