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{{short description|American multinational Internet and technology corporation}}{{About|the company|the search engine|Google Search|other uses}}{{Distinguish|Googol}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=July 2018}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2018}}

| image = Googleplex_HQ.jpg| image_size = 250px| image_caption = Google's headquarters, the Googleplex| former_name = Google Inc. (1998–2017)| type = Subsidiary| industry = {{Unbulleted list| Internet| Software| Computer hardware}}Menlo Park, California, CaliforniaHTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/INTL/EN/ABOUT/COMPANY/ DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=COMPANY – GOOGLE ACCESS-DATE=2018-09-13, THOMAS >LAST=CLABURN URL=HTTPS://WWW.INFORMATIONWEEK.COM/APPLICATIONS/GOOGLE-FOUNDED-BY-SERGEY-BRIN-LARRY-PAGE-AND-HUBERT-CHANG!/D/D-ID/1072309 WEBSITE=INFORMATIONWEEK UBM PLC >DATE=SEPTEMBER 24, 2008 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 22, 2017, no, | founders = {{Unbulleted list| Larry Page| Sergey Brin}}| hq_location = 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway| hq_location_city = Mountain View, CaliforniaACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 27, 2013, | area_served = Worldwide| key_people = {{Unbulleted listSundar Pichai (Chief executive officer>CEO)Ruth Porat (Chief financial officer>CFO)}}| products = List of Google productsURL=HTTPS://ABC.XYZ/INVESTOR/STATIC/PDF/2018Q4_ALPHABET_EARNINGS_RELEASE.PDF FORMAT=PDF LOCATION=MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIFORNIA ALPHABET INC. >PAGE=1 ARCHIVE-DATE=FEBRUARY 4, 2019 QUOTE=ALPHABET INC. (NASDAQ: GOOG, GOOGL) TODAY ANNOUNCED FINANCIAL RESULTS FOR THE QUARTER AND FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018. [...] Q1 2018 FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS[:] THE FOLLOWING SUMMARIZES OUR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL RESULTS FOR THE QUARTERS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017 AND 2018 [...]: [...] NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES [AS OF] THREE MONTHS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018 [IS] 98,771[.], 201831|alt=Q4 2018}}| parent = Alphabet Inc. (2015–present)List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet>List of subsidiariesweblink}}}}Google LLCWEB,weblink Alphabet Finishes Reorganization With New XXVI Company, September 1, 2017, Bloomberg L.P., October 31, 2017, is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon, Apple and Facebook.WEB,weblink Ranking The Big Four Tech Stocks: Google Is No. 1, Apple Comes In Last, Rivas, Teresa,, en-US, 2018-12-27, WEB,weblink Bloomberg - Are you a robot?,, 2018-12-27, Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine (Google Search). It offers services designed for work and productivity (Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides), email (Gmail/Inbox), scheduling and time management (Google Calendar), cloud storage (Google Drive), social networking (Google+), instant messaging and video chat (Google Allo, Duo, Hangouts), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and navigation (Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, Street View), video sharing (YouTube), note-taking (Google Keep), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos). The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in October 2016, including the Google Pixel smartphone, Google Home smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router, and Google Daydream virtual reality headset. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (Google Fiber, Project Fi, and Google Station).Sam Byford, The Verge. "Google Station is a new platform that aims to make public Wi-Fi better." September 27, 2016. Retrieved May 22, is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google is the most valuable brand in the world {{as of|2017|lc=y|post=,}}NEWS,weblink Google is now the world's most valuable brand, February 1, 2017, The Independent, August 31, 2017, en-GB, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful", and its unofficial slogan was "Don't be evil" until the phrase was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018.WEB,weblink Google Removes 'Don't Be Evil' Clause From Its Code of Conduct, Kate, Conger,


File:Google1998.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Google's original homepage had a simple design because the company founders had little experience in HTML, the (markup language]] used for designing web pages.WEB,weblinkweblink September 21, 2011, An evening with Google's Marissa Mayer, Williamson, Alan, Alan Williamson, January 12, 2005, July 5, 2010, yes, |alt=Google's homepage in 1998) Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California.WEB, Our history in depth,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink Google Company, April 1, 2012, July 15, 2017, yes, While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites.WEB,weblink The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web, Page, Lawrence, Brin, Sergey, Motwani, Rajeev, Winograd, Terry, November 11, 1999, Stanford University, February 15, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink November 18, 2009, yes, mdy-all, They called this new technology PageRank; it determined a website's relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages that linked back to the original site.WEB,weblink Technology Overview, Google, Inc., February 15, 2010, WEB,weblink PageRank: Bringing Order to the Web, Page, Larry, Stanford Digital Library Project, August 18, 1997,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2002, November 27, 2010, yes, Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site.NEWS, The Birth of Google, John, Battelle, Wired, August 2005,weblink October 12, 2010, WEB, Trex, Ethan, 9 People, Places & Things That Changed Their Names,weblink Mental Floss, August 4, 2014, WEB,weblink Backrub search engine at Stanford University,weblink" title="">weblink December 24, 1996, March 12, 2011, Eventually, they changed the name to Google; the name of the search engine originated from a misspelling of the word "googol",WEB,weblink Origin of the name "Google", Koller, David, January 2004, Stanford University, July 4, 2012,weblink July 4, 2012, yes, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2010, From Googol to Google, Hanley, Rachael, February 12, 2003, The Stanford Daily, Stanford University, February 15, 2010, the number 1 followed by 100 zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine was intended to provide large quantities of information.WEB,weblink Google! Beta website, Google, Inc.,weblink February 21, 1999, October 12, 2010, yes, Originally, Google ran under Stanford University's website, with the domains google.stanford.eduWEB,weblink Google! Search Engine,weblink" title="">weblink Stanford University, November 11, 1998, October 12, 2010, and,weblink Google! Search Engine,weblink" title="">weblink Stanford University, December 1, 1998, August 14, 2012, The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997,WEB,weblink WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools, WHOIS, July 11, 2016, and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of a friend (Susan Wojcicki) in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.WEB,weblink Craig Silverstein's website,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 1999, Stanford University, October 12, 2010, yes, NEWS, Kopytoff, Verne,weblink Craig Silverstein grew a decade with Google, San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst Communications, Inc., September 7, 2008, October 12, 2010,

Financing (1998) and initial public offering (2004)

(File:Google’s First Production Server.jpg|upright|thumb|Google's first production server.WEB,weblink Google Server Assembly, Computer History Museum, July 4, 2010, |alt=Google's first servers, showing lots of exposed wiring and circuit boards)Google was initially funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems; the money was given before Google was incorporated.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2009, For early Googlers, key word is $$, Kopytoff, Verne, April 29, 2004, San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst Communications, February 19, 2010, San Francisco, yes, Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, and entrepreneur Ram Shriram.On September 7, 1998, the day Google officially incorporated, he [Shriram] wrote out a check for just over $250,000, one of four of this size the founders received. BOOK, Googled: The End of the World As We Know It, Auletta, Ken, October 26, 2010, Penguin Books, 9780143118046, Reprint, New York, N.Y., English, Between these initial investors, friends, and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, which is what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, Califorina WEB, Hosch, William L., Hall, Mark, Google Inc.,weblink Britannica, Britannica, 17 March 2019, After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999,PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink March 9, 2000, Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding, June 7, 1999, Palo Alto, Calif., Google, February 16, 2009, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital.Early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million. He rejected the offer. Vinod Khosla, one of Excite's venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it.WEB, MG, Siegler, When Google Wanted To Sell To Excite For Under $1 Million — And They Passed,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 29, 2010, November 29, 2016, Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later, on August 19, 2004. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024.NEWS,weblink Google wins again, January 29, 2008, Fortune, Time Warner, January 22, 2011, Adam, Lashinsky, At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share.NEWS,weblink Google: Whiz Kids or Naughty Boys?, Elgin, Ben, August 19, 2004, BusinessWeek, Bloomberg L.P., February 19, 2010,weblink June 12, 2009, yes, WEB,weblink 2004 Annual Report, 2004, Google, Inc., 29, February 19, 2010, Mountain View, California, Shares were sold in an online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal.NEWS,weblink Google sets $2.7 billion IPO, La Monica, Paul R., April 30, 2004, CNN Money, February 19, 2010, WEB,weblink Want In on Google's IPO?, Kawamoto, Dawn, April 29, 2004, ZDNet, February 19, 2010, The sale of $1.67 bn (billion) gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23bn.NEWS,weblink Google's IPO: Grate Expectations, Webb, Cynthia L., The Washington Post, February 19, 2010, Washington, D.C., August 19, 2004, By January 2014, its market capitalization had grown to $397bn.WEB, Google Overview,weblink Marketwatch, February 2, 2014, The vast majority of the 271 million shares remained under the control of Google, and many Google employees became instant paper millionaires. Yahoo!, a competitor of Google, also benefitted because it owned 8.4 million shares of Google before the IPO took place.WEB,weblink Yahoo and Google Settle, Kuchinskas, Susan, August 9, 2004,, February 19, 2010, There were concerns that Google's IPO would lead to changes in company culture. Reasons ranged from shareholder pressure for employee benefit reductions to the fact that many company executives would become instant paper millionaires.NEWS, Associated Press,weblink Quirky Google Culture Endangered?, Wired, April 28, 2004, November 27, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2010, As a reply to this concern, co-founders Brin and Page promised in a report to potential investors that the IPO would not change the company's culture.NEWS, Olsen, Stefanie, Kawamoto, Dawn,weblink Google IPO at $2.7 billion, CNET, CBS Interactive, April 30, 2004, November 27, 2010, In 2005, articles in The New York TimesWEB, Gary, Rivlin, Relax, Bill Gates; It's Google's Turn as the Villain,weblink The New York Times, August 24, 2005, March 9, 2017, and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.JOURNAL, Utz, Richard, The Good Corporation? Google's Medievalism and Why It Matters, Studies in Medievalism, 23, 2013, 21–28, NEWS, Gibson, Owen, Wray, Richard,weblink Search giant may outgrow its fans, The Sydney Morning Herald, August 25, 2005, November 27, 2010, WEB, Ranka, Mohit,weblink Google â€“ Don't Be Evil, OSNews, May 17, 2007, November 27, 2010, In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer, who also serves as the Director of Human Resources. The purpose of the Chief Culture Officer is to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on: a flat organization with a collaborative environment.WEB, Mills, Elinor,weblink Google's culture czar, ZDNet, April 30, 2007, November 27, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2010, Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees.NEWS, Kawamoto, Dawn,weblink Google hit with job discrimination lawsuit, CNET, CBS Interactive, July 27, 2005, November 27, 2010, WEB, Google accused of ageism in reinstated lawsuit,weblink,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2007, October 11, 2007, January 22, 2017, yes, In 2013, a class action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Google, was filed for alleged "no cold call" agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees.WEB, Seth, Rosenblatt, Judge approves first payout in antitrust wage-fixing lawsuit,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, May 16, 2014, January 22, 2017, The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $350 for the first time on October 31, 2007,NEWS,weblink Google shares hit $700, October 31, 2007, Hancock, Jay, The Baltimore Sun, November 27, 2010, primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market.NEWS, La Monica, Paul R.,weblink Bowling for Google, CNN, May 25, 2005, February 28, 2007, The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds. GOOG shares split into GOOG class C shares and GOOGL class A shares.WEB, This could cost Google more than $500 million,weblink CNBC, December 30, 2015, The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1. These ticker symbols now refer to Alphabet Inc., Google's holding company, {{as of|2015|8|10|alt=since the fourth quarter of 2015.}}NEWS, Jacob, Pramuk,weblink Google to become part of new company, Alphabet, August 10, 2015, August 11, 2015, CNBC,


In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California,WEB, Matt, Weinberger, 38 photos of Google's rise from a Stanford dorm room to world domination,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, October 12, 2015, July 15, 2017, which is home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups.WEB, A building blessed with tech success,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, July 15, 2017, The next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine.BOOK, Stross, Randall, Planet Google: One Company's Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know, Free Press, New York, September 2008, 3–4, Introduction, 978-1-4165-4691-7,weblink February 14, 2010,weblink To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were solely text-based.WEB, Google Launches Self-Service Advertising Program,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink News from Google, October 23, 2000, April 1, 2012, July 15, 2017, This model of selling keyword advertising was first pioneered by, an Idealab spin-off created by Bill Gross.WEB,weblink GoTo Going Strong, Sullivan, Danny, July 1, 1998, SearchEngineWatch, February 18, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2009, NEWS,weblink Pay-for-placement gets another shot, Pelline, Jeff, February 19, 1998, CNET, CBS Interactive, February 18, 2010, When the company changed names to Overture Services, it sued Google over alleged infringements of the company's pay-per-click and bidding patents. Overture Services would later be bought by Yahoo! and renamed Yahoo! Search Marketing. The case was then settled out of court; Google agreed to issue shares of common stock to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license.NEWS,weblink Google, Yahoo bury the legal hatchet, Olsen, Stephanie, August 9, 2004, CNET, CBS Interactive, February 18, 2010, In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.WEB,weblink Why's Yahoo gone to Google? Search me, John, Naughton, July 2, 2000,, WEB,weblink Yahoo! Selects Google as its Default Search Engine Provider – News announcements – News from Google – Google,, In 2001, Google received a patent for its PageRank mechanism.{{Ref patent |country=US |number=6285999 |status=patent |title=Method for node ranking in a linked database |gdate=September 4, 2001 |fdate=January 9, 1998 |invent1=Page, Lawrence |assign1=The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University |class=G06F17/30}} The patent was officially assigned to Stanford University and lists Lawrence Page as the inventor. In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California.NEWS,weblink Google's movin' on up, Olsen, Stephanie, July 11, 2003, CNET, CBS Interactive, February 15, 2010, The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. The Googleplex interiors were designed by Clive Wilkinson Architects. Three years later, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million.NEWS,weblink Google to buy headquarters building from Silicon Graphics, June 16, 2006, Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal, American City Business Journals, February 15, 2010, San Jose, By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as: "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet".WEB,weblink Do You "Google"?, Krantz, Michael, October 25, 2006, Google, Inc., February 17, 2010, WEB,weblink To Google or Not to Google, Bylund, Anders, July 5, 2006,, February 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2006, The first use of "Google" as a verb in pop culture happened on the TV series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, in 2002.NEWS, The Atlantic,weblink The First Use of 'to Google' on Television? Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Meyer, Robinson, en-US, September 28, 2016, Additionally, in 2001 Google's Investors felt the need to have a strong internal management, and they agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the Chairman and CEO of Google WEB, Hosch, William L., Hall, Mark, Google Inc.,weblink Britannica, Britannica, 17 March 2019, In 2005, The Washington Post reported on a 700 percent increase in third-quarter profit for Google, largely thanks to large companies shifting their advertising strategies from newspapers, magazines, and television to the Internet.NEWS, David, Vise, Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit,weblink The Washington Post, October 21, 2005, November 27, 2016, In January 2008, all the data that passed through Google's MapReduce software component had an aggregated size of 20 petabytes per day.WEB, Jeffrey, Dean, Sanjay, Ghemawat, MapReduce: simplified data processing on large clusters,weblink ACM Digital Library, January 1, 2008, December 6, 2016, WEB, Grzegorz, Czajkowski, Sorting 1PB with MapReduce,weblink Official Google Blog, November 21, 2008, December 6, 2016, WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Google Processing 20,000 Terabytes A Day, And Growing,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 9, 2008, December 6, 2016, In 2009, a CNN report about top political searches of 2009 noted that "more than a billion searches" are being typed into Google on a daily basis.WEB, Eric, Kuhn, Google unveils top political searches of 2009,weblink CNN, December 18, 2009, December 6, 2016, In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time, an 8.4 percent increase from May 2010 (931 million).WEB, Ben, Google's new record, 1 billion visitors in May,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink It's All Tech, June 2, 2011, January 16, 2013, November 30, 2016, By 2011, Google was handling approximately 3 billion searches per day, to handle this workload, Google built 11 datacenters around the world with some several thousand servers in each. These datacenters allowed Google to handle the ever changing workload more efficiently. WEB, Hosch, William L., Hall, Mark, Google Inc.,weblink Britannica, Britannica, 17 March 2019, (File:Google Datacenter.png|thumb|left|A Google Datacenter in Oklohama)The year 2012 was the first time that Google generated $50 billion in annual revenue, generating $38 billion the previous year. In January 2013, then-CEO Larry Page commented, "We ended 2012 with a strong quarter ... Revenues were up 36% year-on-year, and 8% quarter-on-quarter. And we hit $50 billion in revenues for the first time last year – not a bad achievement in just a decade and a half."WEB, Seth, Fiegerman, Google Has Its First $50 Billion Year,weblink Mashable, January 22, 2013, November 30, 2016, In November 2018, Google announced its plan to expand its New York City office to a capacity of 12,000 employees.NEWS,weblink Google Plans Large New York City Expansion, Grant, Douglas MacMillan, Eliot Brown and Peter, WSJ, 2018-11-08, en-US,

2013 onward

(File:Logo Google 2013 Official.svg|thumb|200px|Google's logo from 2013-2015)(File:Google logo 2014.tiff|thumb|Screenshot of the Google homepage in 2015)Google announced the launch of a new company, called Calico, on September 19, 2013, to be led by Apple, Inc. chairman Arthur Levinson. In the official public statement, Page explained that the "health and well-being" company would focus on "the challenge of ageing and associated diseases".NEWS, Google spin-off Calico to search for answers to ageing,weblink September 20, 2013, BBC News, September 19, 2013, Jane Wakefield, Google celebrated its 15-year anniversary on September 27, 2013, and in 2016 it celebrated its 18th birthday with an animated version of its logo (a "Google Doodle"),NEWS, Google celebrates 18th birthday with a Doodle - amid some confusion over the correct date,weblink September 27, 2016, Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group Limited, although it has used other dates for its official birthday.WEB,weblink, Google Is 10 Years Old? Finding The Real Google Birthday, Sullivan, Danny, September 14, 2007, September 28, 2013, The reason for the choice of September 27 remains unclear, and a dispute with rival search engine Yahoo! Search in 2005 has been suggested as the cause.NEWS, Peterson, Andrea,weblink Is today really Google's birthday?, Washington Post, September 27, 2013, September 28, 2013, NEWS, Google celebrates 15th birthday with interactive piñata 'doodle',weblink September 28, 2013, The Independent, September 26, 2013, Hall, John, London, The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) was launched in October 2013; Google is part of the coalition of public and private organizations that also includes Facebook, Intel, and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease Internet access prices so they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.WEB, Samuel, Gibbs, Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, October 7, 2013, March 15, 2017, The corporation's consolidated revenue for the third quarter of 2013 was reported in mid-October 2013 as $14.89 billion, a 12 percent increase compared to the previous quarter.WEB, Ryan, Whitwam, Google Beats Analyst Estimates For Third Quarter Results, Stock Passes $1000 Per Share,weblink Android Police, October 18, 2013, March 15, 2017, Google's Internet business was responsible for $10.8 billion of this total, with an increase in the number of users' clicks on advertisements.NEWS, Google earnings up 12% in third quarter even as Motorola losses deepen,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, October 17, 2013, October 18, 2013, The Guardian, October 17, 2013, Reuters, According to Interbrand's annual Best Global Brands report, Google has been the second most valuable brand in the world (behind Apple Inc.) in 2013,WEB, Rankings - 2013 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016, 2014,WEB, Rankings - 2014 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016, 2015,WEB, Rankings - 2015 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016, and 2016, with a valuation of $133 billion.WEB, Rankings - 2016 - Best Global Brands,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016, In September 2015, Google engineering manager Rachel Potvin revealed details about Google's software code at an engineering conference. She revealed that the entire Google codebase, which spans every single service it develops, consists of over 2 billion lines of code. All that code is stored in a code repository available to all 25,000 Google engineers, and the code is regularly copied and updated on 10 Google data centers. To keep control, Potvin said Google has built its own "version control system", called "Piper", and that "when you start a new project, you have a wealth of libraries already available to you. Almost everything has already been done." Engineers can make a single code change and deploy it on all services at the same time. The only major exceptions are that the PageRank search results algorithm is stored separately with only specific employee access, and the code for the Android operating system and the Google Chrome browser are also stored separately, as they don't run on the Internet. The "Piper" system spans 85 TB of data. Google engineers make 25,000 changes to the code each day and on a weekly basis change approximately 15 million lines of code across 250,000 files. With that much code, automated bots have to help. Potvin reported, "You need to make a concerted effort to maintain code health. And this is not just humans maintaining code health, but robots too.” Bots aren't writing code, but generating a lot of the data and configuration files needed to run the company's software. "Not only is the size of the repository increasing," Potvin explained, "but the rate of change is also increasing. This is an exponential curve."WEB, Cade, Metz, Google is 2 billion lines of code - and it's all in one place,weblink Wired, September 16, 2015, October 23, 2016, WEB, Andrew, Tarantola, Google's codebase is ludicrously huge for good reason,weblink Engadget, AOL, September 18, 2015, October 23, 2016, {{As of|2016|10|post=,}} Google operates 70 offices in more than 40 countries.WEB, Google locations,weblink Google, Inc., October 23, 2016, Alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists as the most visited website in the world.WEB, Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016, Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTubeWEB, Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016, and Blogger.WEB, Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016,

Acquisitions and partnerships

File:Google page brin.jpg|thumb|left|Larry Page and Sergey BrinSergey Brin


In 2001, Google acquired Deja News, the operators of a large archive of materials from Usenet.WEB, Google acquires Deja,weblink, Ziff Davis, February 12, 2001, May 10, 2017, WEB, Drew, Cullen, Google saves Usenet service,weblink The Register, Situation Publishing, February 12, 2001, May 10, 2017, Google rebranded the archive as Google Groups, and by the end of the year, it had expanded the history back to 1981.WEB, Digital history saved,weblink BBC News, BBC, December 14, 2001, May 10, 2017, Edwards, D. (2011) (I'm Feeling Lucky (book)|I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59). {{ISBN|978-0-547-41699-1}}In April 2003, Google acquired Applied Semantics, a company specializing in making software applications for the online advertising space.WEB, Brian, Morrissey, Today in History: Google Buys Applied Semantics,weblink Digiday, April 23, 2013, May 10, 2017, WEB, Alex, Bracetti, The 15 Most Important Tech Acquisitions of All Time,weblink Complex (magazine), Complex, Verizon Hearst Media Partners, January 8, 2013, May 10, 2017, The AdSense contextual advertising technology developed by Applied Semantics was adopted into Google's advertising efforts.WEB, Danny, Sullivan, AdSense Turns 10: Reflections On Google's Great Leap Beyond Search Ads,weblink Marketing Land, February 27, 2013, May 10, 2017, In 2004, Google acquired Keyhole, Inc.PRESS RELEASE, Google Acquires Keyhole Corp, Google, Inc., October 27, 2004,weblink November 27, 2010, Keyhole's eponymous product was later renamed Google Earth.In April 2005, Google acquired Urchin Software, using their Urchin on Demand product (along with ideas from Adaptive Path's Measure Map) to create Google Analytics in 2006.In October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google Has Acquired YouTube,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 9, 2006, March 15, 2017, WEB, Andrew Ross, Sorkin, Jeremy W., Peters, Google to Acquire YouTube for $1.65 Billion,weblink The New York Times, October 9, 2006, March 15, 2017, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google Closes YouTube Acquisition,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 13, 2006, March 15, 2017, WEB, Eric, Auchard, Google closes YouTube deal,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, November 14, 2006, March 15, 2017, On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.WEB, Louise, Story, Miguel, Helft, Google Buys DoubleClick for $3.1 Billion,weblink The New York Times, April 14, 2007, March 9, 2017, The deal was approved despite anti-trust concerns raised by competitors Microsoft and AT&T.BOOK, Googled: The End of the World As We Know It, Auletta, Ken, 2009, The Penguin Press, 9780753522431, New York, English, In addition to the many companies Google has purchased, the firm has partnered with other organizations for research, advertising, and other activities. In 2005, Google partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to build {{convert|1000000|sqft|m2|-3}} of offices.WEB,weblink Can Google beat the new-office curse?, Mills, Elinor, September 29, 2005, CNET, February 26, 2010, In 2005 Google partnered with AOLWEB,weblink What the Google-AOL deal means for users, Mills, Elinor, December 28, 2005, CNET, CBS Interactive, February 26, 2010, to enhance each other's video search services. In 2006 Google and Fox Interactive Media of News Corporation entered into a $900 million agreement to provide search and advertising on the then-popular social networking site MySpace.WEB, Fox Interactive Media Enters Into Landmark Agreement with Google Inc,weblink News from Google, August 7, 2006, January 22, 2017, In 2007, Google began sponsoring NORAD Tracks Santa, displacing the former sponsor AOL. NORAD Tracks Santa purports to follow Santa Claus' progress on Christmas Eve,WEB,weblink Tracking Santa: NORAD & Google Team Up For Christmas, December 1, 2007, Danny Sullivan, July 5, 2010, Search Engine Land, using Google Earth to "track Santa" in 3-D for the first time.NEWS,weblink Behind the scenes: NORAD's Santa tracker for Thur, December 21, 2009 By Daniel Terdiman, CNET, December 31, 2009, CNET, CBS Interactive, WEB,weblink Instructions On Tracking Santa With NORAD & Google: The 2007 Edition, December 24, 2007, Danny Sullivan, July 5, 2010, Search Engine Land, In 2008, Google developed a partnership with GeoEye to launch a satellite providing Google with high-resolution (0.41 m monochrome, 1.65 m color) imagery for Google Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on September 6, 2008.NEWS,weblink GeoEye launches high-resolution satellite, Shalal-Esa, Andrea, September 6, 2008, Reuters, February 26, 2010, Washington, Google also announced in 2008 that it was hosting an archive of Life Magazine{{'}}s photographs.NEWS, Google gives online life to Life mag's photos,weblink Google Inc. has opened an online photo gallery that will include millions of images from Life (magazine), Life magazine's archives that have never been seen by the public before, Associated Press, November 20, 2008, February 25, 2010, Mountain View, California, WEB,weblink Google Hosting Time-Life Photo Archive, 10 Million Unpublished Images Now Live, Search Engine Land, Stirling, Greg, November 18, 2008, July 5, 2010,


In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of power, enough to supply 55,000 homes. The farms, which were developed by NextEra Energy Resources, will reduce fossil fuel use in the region and return profits. NextEra Energy Resources sold Google a twenty-percent stake in the project to get funding for its development.NEWS, Google Invests in Two Wind Farms, Scott, Morrison, Cassandra, Sweet, The Wall Street Journal, May 4, 2010,weblink November 27, 2010, In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authorization to buy and sell energy at market rates.NEWS,weblink Google Energy can now buy and sell energy,, The order specifically states that Google Energy—a subsidiary of Google—holds the rights "for the sale of energy, capacity, and ancillary services at market-based rates", but acknowledges that neither Google Energy nor its affiliates "own or control any generation or transmission" facilities.NEWS, Google gets go-ahead to buy, sell energy,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, September 23, 2013, Lombardi, Candace, February 19, 2010, The corporation exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced it would purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt Happy Hereford wind farm.NEWS, Google is on the way to quietly becoming an electric utility,weblink September 23, 2013, Quartz, September 18, 2013, Todd Woody, Also in 2010, Google purchased Global IP Solutions, a Norway-based company that provides web-based teleconferencing and other related services. This acquisition enabled Google to add telephone-style services to its list of products.NEWS, Gomes, Lee, May 18, 2010, Google's Latest Telephony Play, Forbes,weblink November 27, 2010, On May 27, 2010, Google announced it had also closed the acquisition of the mobile ad network AdMob. This occurred days after the Federal Trade Commission closed its investigation into the purchase.WEB,weblink Google Closes Acquisition of AdMob, Albanesius, Chloe, May 27, 2010, AppScout, June 16, 2010, Google acquired the company for an undisclosed amount.NEWS,weblink Google Acquires Mobile Display Ad Firm AdMob, Albanesius, Chloe, November 9, 2010, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis Publishing Holdings Inc., June 16, 2010, In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatts of energy for 20 years.WEB,weblink Google buys power from Iowa wind farm,, July 21, 2010, October 26, 2010, On April 4, 2011, The Globe and Mail reported that Google bid $900 million for 6000 Nortel Networks patents.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2011, Bid for Nortel patents marks Google's new push into mobile world, Globe and Mail, April 4, 2011, April 25, 2011, Toronto, On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest-ever acquisition to date when it announced that it would acquire Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billionNEWS,weblink Google agrees to acquire Motorola Mobility, Tsukayama, Hayley, The Washington Post, August 15, 2011, August 17, 2011, WEB,weblink Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility â€” Google Investor Relations, Google, August 17, 2011, subject to approval from regulators in the United States and Europe. In a post on Google's blog, Google Chief Executive and co-founder Larry Page revealed that the acquisition was a strategic move to strengthen Google's patent portfolio. The company's Android operating system has come under fire in an industry-wide patent battle, as Apple and Microsoft have sued Android device makers such as HTC, Samsung, and Motorola.WEB, Hughes, Neil,weblink Google CEO: 'Anticompetitive' Apple, Microsoft forced Motorola deal, AppleInsider, August 17, 2011, The merger was completed on May 22, 2012, after the approval of China.NEWS,weblink Google, May 23, 2012, BBC News, May 22, 2012, This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies,WEB, Page, Larry,weblink Official Google Blog: Supercharging Android: Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility, Google Blog at, August 17, 2011, mainly Apple and Microsoft, and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android.WEB, Google to buy Motorola Mobility for $12.5B,weblink$12.5b/, Roger, Cheng, August 15, 2011, CNet News, After the acquisition closed, Google began to restructure the Motorola business to fit Google's strategy. On August 13, 2012, Google announced plans to lay off 4000 Motorola Mobility employees.NEWS,weblink Google to cut 4,000 Motorola Mobility jobs, shares rise, August 13, 2012, Reuters, On December 10, 2012, Google sold the manufacturing operations of Motorola Mobility to Flextronics for $75 million.WEB, Daniel, Cooper, Motorola's retreat continues, sells factories in China and Brazil to Flextronics for $75 million,weblink Engadget, AOL, December 11, 2012, March 9, 2017, As a part of the agreement, Flextronics will manufacture undisclosed Android and other mobile devices.NEWS,weblink Flextronics acquires Motorola Mobility's plants in China, Brazil, ZDNet, December 11, 2012, On December 19, 2012, Google sold the Motorola Home business division of Motorola Mobility to Arris Group for $2.35 billion in a cash-and-stock transaction. As a part of this deal, Google acquired a 15.7% stake in Arris Group valued at $300 million.WEB, Dan, Seifert, Google sells Motorola Home set top box division to Arris for $2.35 billion,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 19, 2012, April 7, 2017, WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Motorola Home Finds A New Home At Arris. Google Sells Broadband Unit For $2.35B To Double Down On Mobile,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, December 19, 2012, April 7, 2017, In June 2013, Google acquired Waze, a $966 million deal.WEB, Dara, Kerr, Google reveals it spent $966 million in Waze acquisition,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, July 25, 2013, June 12, 2017, While Waze would remain an independent entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced location platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and Google Maps, Google's own mapping service.WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Google Bought Waze For $1.1B, Giving A Social Data Boost To Its Mapping Business,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 11, 2013, June 12, 2017, (File:Google-Deep Mind headquarters in London, 6 Pancras Square.jpg|thumb|Entrance of building where Google and its subsidiary Deep Mind are located at 6 Pancras Square, London, UK.)On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London. DeepMind describes itself as having the ability to combine the best techniques from machine learning and systems neuroscience to build general-purpose learning algorithms. DeepMind's first commercial applications were used in simulations, e-commerce and games. {{As of|2013|12|post=,}} it was reported that DeepMind had roughly 75 employees.NEWS, Chowdhry, Amit, Google To Acquire Artificial Intelligence Company DeepMind,weblink January 27, 2014, Forbes, January 27, 2014, Technology news website Recode reported that the company was purchased for $400 million though it was not disclosed where the information came from. A Google spokesman would not comment of the price.NEWS, Helgren, Chris, Google to buy artificial intelligence company DeepMind,weblink January 27, 2014, Reuters, January 27, 2014, NEWS, Ribeiro, Jon, Google buys artificial intelligence company DeepMind,weblink January 27, 2014, PC World, January 27, 2014, The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google's recent growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics community.WEB, Kwame, Opam, Google buying AI startup DeepMind for a reported $400 million,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 26, 2014, March 9, 2017, On January 29, 2014, Google announced that it would divest Motorola Mobility to Lenovo for $2.91 billion, a fraction of the original $12.5 billion price paid by Google to acquire the company. Google retained all but 2000 of Motorola's patents and entered into cross-licensing deals.NEWS, Google sells Motorola Mobility to Lenovo for $2.91 billion,weblink January 30, 2014, The Washington Post, January 30, 2014, Cecilia, Kang, On September 21, 2017, HTC announced a "cooperation agreement" in which it would sell non-exclusive rights to certain intellectual property, as well as smartphone talent, to Google for $1.1 billion.NEWS,weblink Google agrees to buy part of HTC for $1.1 billion, Balakrishnan, Saheli Roy Choudhury, Anita, September 20, 2017, CNBC, September 21, 2017, NEWS,weblink Google is buying part of HTC’s smartphone team for $1.1 billion, The Verge, September 21, 2017, NEWS,weblink Google signs agreement with HTC, continuing our big bet on hardware, September 21, 2017, Google, September 21, 2017, en, On December 6, 2017, Google made its first investment in India and picked up a significant minority stake in hyper-local concierge and delivery player Dunzo.NEWS,weblink Google makes first direct investment in India, funds hyper local startup Dunzo, Chanchani, Madhav, December 9, 2017, The Economic Times, June 6, 2018, The Benguluru-based startup received $12 million investment in Google's series B funding round.WEB,weblink Google invests Rs 65 crore in hyper local app Dunzo, its first direct investment in an Indian startup,, June 6, 2018, On March 29, 2018, Google led a Series C funding round into online-to-offline fashion e-commerce start-up Fynd.WEB,weblink Google backs O2O fashion commerce platform Fynd - ETtech,,, en, June 6, 2018, It was its second direct investment in India with an undisclosed amount.NEWS,weblink Online fashion firm Fynd secures funding round led by Google, Vijayakumar, Sanjay, March 29, 2018, The Hindu, June 6, 2018, en-IN, 0971-751X, NEWS,weblink Google invests in O2O e-commerce startup Fynd - Times of India, The Times of India, June 6, 2018, In this way, Google is also looking to build an ecosystem in India across high-frequency hyper-local transactions as well as in the healthcare, financial services, and education sectors.On August 23, 2018, Google deleted 39 YouTube accounts, 13 Google+ accounts and 6 blogs on Blogger due to their engagement in politically motivated phishing, the deleted accounts were found to be tied with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).NEWS,weblink Google deletes 58 accounts with ties to Iran from YouTube and other sites, Salinas, Sara, August 23, 2018, CNBC, August 27, 2018, NEWS,weblink Google Deletes 39 YouTube Channels Linked to Iranian Influence Operation, August 27, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Google took down 39 YouTube channels linked to Iranian influence campaign, The Verge, August 27, 2018,

Google data centers

{{see also|Google data centers}}Google data centers are located in North and South America, Asia, Europe.WEB,weblink Data center locations,weblink May 17, 2018, no, May 17, 2018, Traditionally, Google relied on parallel computing on commodity hardwareWEB, May 26, 2018, Google's Secret: 'Cheap and Fast' Hardware,weblink PCWorld, October 10, 2003, like mainstream x86 computers similar to home PCsJOURNAL, L.A., Barroso, J., Dean, U., Holzle, Web search for a planet: the google cluster architecture, IEEE Micro, April 29, 2003, 0272-1732, 22–28, 23, 2, 10.1109/mm.2003.1196112, We believe that the best price/performance tradeoff for our applications comes from fashioning a reliable computing infrastructure from clusters of unreliable commodity PCs., to keep costs per query low.NEWS, May 26, 2018, Google uncloaks once-secret server,weblink CNET, April 1, 2009, Mainstream servers with x86 processors were the only option, he added. "Ten years was clear the only way to make (search) work as free product was to run on relatively cheap hardware. You can't run it on a mainframe server, mainframe. The margins just don't work out," he said., In 2005, it started developing its own designs, which were only revealed in 2009.In October 2013, The Washington Post reported that the U.S. National Security Agency intercepted communications between Google's data centers, as part of a program named MUSCULAR.NEWS,weblink NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say, Barton, Gellman, Ashkan, Soltani, The Washington Post, October 30, 2013, November 1, 2013, WEB, Charlie, Savage, Claire Cain, Miller, Nicole, Perlroth, N.S.A. Said to Tap Google and Yahoo Abroad,weblink The New York Times, October 30, 2013, March 9, 2017, This wiretapping was made possible because Google did not encrypt data passed inside its own network.WEB, Sean, Gallagher, How the NSA's MUSCULAR tapped Google's and Yahoo's private networks,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, October 31, 2013, March 9, 2017, Google began encrypting data sent between data centers in 2013.WEB, Claire Cain, Miller, Angry Over U.S. Surveillance, Tech Giants Bolster Defenses,weblink The New York Times, October 31, 2013, March 9, 2017, Google's most efficient data center runs at {{convert|35|C}} using only fresh air cooling, requiring no electrically powered air conditioning; the servers run so hot that humans cannot go near them for extended periods.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2016,weblink Google's most efficient data center runs at 95 degrees,, March 27, 2012, Humphries, Matthew, June 13, 2016, An August 2011 report estimated that Google had about 900,000 servers in their data centers, based on energy usage. The report does state that "Google never says how many servers are running in its data centers."WEB, Rich, Miller, Report: Google Uses About 900,000 Servers,weblink Data Center Knowledge, August 1, 2011, December 6, 2016, In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it will power all of its data centers, as well as all of its offices, from 100% renewable energy. The commitment will make Google "the world's largest corporate buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts (2,600 megawatts) of wind and solar energy". Google also stated that it does not count that as its final goal; it says that "since the wind doesn't blow 24 hours a day, we'll also broaden our purchases to a variety of energy sources that can enable renewable power, every hour of every day". Additionally, the project will "help support communities" around the world, as the purchase commitments will "result in infrastructure investments of more than $3.5 billion globally", and will "generate tens of millions of dollars per year in revenue to local property owners, and tens of millions more to local and national governments in tax revenue".WEB, Urs, Hölzle, We're set to reach 100% renewable energy — and it's just the beginning,weblink The Keyword Google Blog, December 6, 2016, December 8, 2016, WEB, Nick, Statt, Google just notched a big victory in the fight against climate change,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 6, 2016, December 8, 2016, WEB, Darrell, Etherington, Google says it will hit 100% renewable energy by 2017,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, December 7, 2016, December 8, 2016,


On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet. Google became Alphabet's leading subsidiary, and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became CEO of Alphabet.WEB, Brian, Womack, Google Rises After Creating Holding Company Called Alphabet,weblink Bloomberg L.P., August 10, 2015, November 22, 2016, WEB, Alistair, Barr, Rolf, Winkler, Google Creates Parent Company Called Alphabet in Restructuring,weblink The Wall Street Journal, August 10, 2015, November 22, 2016, WEB, Conor, Dougherty, Google to Reorganize as Alphabet to Keep Its Lead as an Innovator,weblink The New York Times, August 10, 2015, November 22, 2016, On September 1, 2017, Google Inc. announced its plans of restructuring as a limited liability company, Google LLC, as a wholly owned subsidiary of XXVI Holdings Inc., which is formed as a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. to hold the equity of its other subsidiaries, including Google LLC and other bets.NEWS,weblink Alphabet Finishes Reorganization With New XXVI Company, September 1, 2017, Bloomberg L.P., September 2, 2017,

Products and services

{{See also|List of Google products}}


(File:Ad-tech London 2010 (2).JPG|thumb|Google on ad-tech London, 2010)As per its 2017 Annual report, Google generates most of its revenues from advertising. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on google and YouTube, android and licensing and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. 46% of this was from clicks (cost per clicks), amounting to US$109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob, AdSense (such as AdSense for Content, AdSense for Search, etc.) and DoubleClick AdExchange.BOOK, Annualg report (Alphabet Inc.) - 2017, 1 March 2018, Alphabet Inc. Investor relations,weblink 3 December 2018, For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported $10.492{{nbsp}}billion in total advertising revenues and only $112{{nbsp}}million in licensing and other revenues.WEB,weblink Form 10-K{{nbsp, – Annual Report |accessdate=July 5, 2010 |publisher=SEC}} In 2011, 96% of Google's revenue was derived from its advertising programs.WEB,weblink Google Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date January 26, 2012,, March 8, 2013, In addition to its own algorithms for understanding search requests, Google uses technology from the company DoubleClick, to project user interest and target advertising to the search context and the user history.NEWS, Nakashima, Ellen, Some Web Firms Say They Track Behavior Without Explicit Consent,weblink August 12, 2008, The Washington Post, July 5, 2010, WEB, Miguel, Helft, Google to Offer Ads Based on Interests,weblink The New York Times, March 11, 2009, March 9, 2017, In 2007, Google launched "AdSense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market.WEB,weblink Google AdSense for Mobile unlocks the potential of the mobile advertising market, September 17, 2007, Google, Inc., February 26, 2010, Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page.WEB, Peter, Bright, Surfing on the sly with IE8's new "InPrivate" Internet,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, August 27, 2008, March 9, 2017, Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through a cost-per-click scheme.WEB, Vangie, Beal, AdWords - Google AdWords,weblink Webopedia, QuinStreet Inc., May 27, 2017, The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website and earn money every time ads are clicked.WEB, Vangie, Beal, AdSense - Google AdSense,weblink Webopedia, QuinStreet Inc., May 27, 2017, One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being interested in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20  percent of clicks were fraudulent or invalid.NEWS, Mills, Elinor,weblink Google to offer advertisers click fraud stats,, CNET, July 25, 2006, July 29, 2006, In February 2003, Google stopped showing the advertisements of Oceana, a non-profit organization protesting a major cruise ship's sewage treatment practices. Google cited its editorial policy at the time, stating "Google does not accept advertising if the ad or site advocates against other individuals, groups, or organizations."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2009, Google Somewhat Lifts Oceana Ad Ban,, In June 2008, Google reached an advertising agreement with Yahoo!, which would have allowed Yahoo! to feature Google advertisements on its web pages. The alliance between the two companies was never completely realized because of antitrust concerns by the U.S. Department of Justice. As a result, Google pulled out of the deal in November 2008.WEB,weblink Yahoo and Google may dump their deal, Mclntyre, Douglas,, October 31, 2008, October 26, 2010, WEB,weblink Ending our agreement with Yahoo!, Drummond, David, November 5, 2008, October 26, 2010, Google, Inc, In July 2016, Google started rejecting all flash-based adverts replacing them by HTML5. Google's plan was to go “100% HTML5” beginning on January 2, 2017.NEWS,weblink Google Will Reject All Flash Based Adverts In a Push For HTML5 • Latest Gadgets, February 11, 2016, Latest Gadgets, June 13, 2018, en-US,

Search engine

(File:Google web search.png|thumb|left|upright=1.15|Google Search homepage {{as of|2016|12|2|df=|lc=y}})According to comScore market research from November 2009, Google Search is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6%.NEWS, December 16, 2006, comScore Releases November 2009 U.S. Search Engine Rankings,weblink July 5, 2010, Google indexes billions of web pages to allow users to search for the information they desire through the use of keywords and operators.WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google's Misleading Blog Post: The Size Of The Web And The Size Of Their Index Are Very Different,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 25, 2008, March 9, 2017, In 2003, The New York Times complained about Google's indexing, claiming that Google's caching of content on its site infringed its copyright for the content.WEB,weblink Google cache raises copyright concerns, Olsen, Stefanie, July 9, 2003, CNET, CBS Interactive, June 13, 2010, In both Field v. Google and Parker v. Google, the United States District Court of Nevada ruled in favor of Google.COURT, Field v. Google, CV-S-04-0413-RCJ-LRL, Nevada United States district court, District Court, January 19, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2007, COURT, Parker v. Google, 04-CV-3918, United States district court, Eastern Pennsylvania District Court, March 10, 2006,weblink The publication (2600: The Hacker Quarterly) has compiled a list of words that google's new instant search feature will not search.NEWS,weblink Google Instant Censorship: The Strangest Terms Blacklisted By Google, The Huffington Post, September 29, 2010, October 26, 2010, Bianca, Bosker, Google also hosts Google Books. The company began scanning books and uploading limited previews, and full books were allowed, into its new book search engine. The Authors Guild, a group that represents 8,000 U.S. authors, filed a class action suit in a New York City federal court against Google in 2005 over this service. Google replied that it is in compliance with all existing and historical applications of copyright laws regarding books.WEB, China, Martin,weblink Google hit with second lawsuit over Library project, InfoWorld, November 26, 2007, Google eventually reached a revised settlement in 2009 to limit its scans to books from the U.S., the UK, Australia, and Canada.NEWS, Pettersson, Edvard, Google Wins Preliminary Approval of Online Books Settlement,weblinkweblink May 5, 2012, Bloomberg L.P., November 20, 2009, December 18, 2009, yes, Furthermore, the Paris Civil Court ruled against Google in late 2009, asking it to remove the works of La Martinière (Éditions du Seuil) from its database.NEWS, Smith, Heather, Google's French Book Scanning Project Halted by Court,weblinkweblink May 5, 2012, Bloomberg L.P., December 18, 2009, December 18, 2009, yes, In competition with, Google sells digital versions of new books.WEB, Motoko, Rich, Preparing to Sell E-Books, Google Takes on Amazon,weblink The New York Times, May 31, 2009, March 9, 2017, On July 21, 2010, in response to Bing, Google updated its image search to display a streaming sequence of thumbnails that enlarge when pointed at. Although web searches still appear in a batch per page format, on July 23, 2010, dictionary definitions for certain English words began appearing above the linked results for web searches.WEB,weblink This Week in Search 7/25/10, Mayer, Marissa, Google, Inc., July 25, 2010, July 28, 2010, The "Hummingbird" update to the Google search engine was announced in September 2013. The update was introduced over the month prior to the announcement and allows users ask the search engine a question in natural language rather than entering keywords into the search box.NEWS, Google introduces the biggest algorithm change in three years,weblink September 29, 2013, Guardian, September 27, 2013, Samuel Gibbs, In August 2016, Google announced two major changes to its mobile search results. The first change removes the "mobile-friendly" label that highlighted easy to read pages from its mobile search results page. For the second change, the company—starting on January 10, 2017—will punish mobile pages that show intrusive interstitial advertisements when a user first opens a page. Such pages will also rank lower in Google search results.WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google will soon start punishing mobile sites that show hard-to-dismiss popups,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, August 23, 2016, March 9, 2017, In May 2017, Google enabled a new "Personal" tab in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts' various services, including email messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos.WEB, Barry, Schwartz, Google Adds Personal Tab To Search Filters,weblink Search Engine Roundtable, RustyBrick, May 26, 2017, May 27, 2017, WEB, Chaim, Gartenberg, Google adds new Personal tab to search results to show Gmail and Photos content,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 26, 2017, May 27, 2017,

Enterprise services{{anchor|Enterprise_products}}

G Suite is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support.WEB, Choose a Plan,weblink G Suite by Google Cloud, December 2, 2016, File:Google Appliance.jpg|thumb|upright=0.6|Google's search appliance at the 2008 alt=Google's search applianceGoogle Search Appliance was launched in February 2002, targeted toward providing search technology for larger organizations. Google launched the Mini three years later, which was targeted at smaller organizations. Late in 2006, Google began to sell Custom Search Business Edition, providing customers with an advertising-free window into's index. The service was renamed Google Site Search in 2008.WEB,weblink Google Rebrands Custom Search "Business Edition" As "Google Site Search", Sterling, Greg, June 3, 2008, Search Engine Land, June 16, 2010, Site Search customers were notified by email in late March 2017 that no new licenses for Site Search would be sold after April 1, 2017, but that customer and technical support would be provided for the duration of existing license agreements.WEB, Barb, Darrow, Google Plans To Discontinue Yet Another Product,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., February 21, 2017, March 27, 2017, WEB, Abner, Li, Google reportedly discontinuing paid Site Search in favor of ad-supported version,weblink 9to5Google, February 21, 2017, March 27, 2017, On March 15, 2016, Google announced the introduction of Google Analytics 360 Suite, "a set of integrated data and marketing analytics products, designed specifically for the needs of enterprise-class marketers" which can be integrated with BigQuery on the Google Cloud Platform. Among other things, the suite is designed to help "enterprise class marketers" "see the complete customer journey", generate "useful insights", and "deliver engaging experiences to the right people".WEB, Paul, Muret, Introducing the Google Analytics 360 Suite,weblink March 15, 2016, January 22, 2017, Jack Marshall of The Wall Street Journal wrote that the suite competes with existing marketing cloud offerings by companies including Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, and IBM.WEB, Jack, Marshall, Google Launches New Data Tools for Marketers,weblink The Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2016, January 22, 2017,

Business incubator

On September 24, 2012,WEB,weblink Celebrating the spirit of entrepreneurship with the new Google for Entrepreneurs, Official Google Blog, en, March 20, 2018, Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely not-for-profit business incubator providing startups with co-working spaces known as Campuses, with assistance to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships.NEWS,weblink How Google Wants to Make Starting Up Easier for Entrepreneurs, Fell, Jason, September 27, 2012, Entrepreneur, March 20, 2018, en, Presently, there are 7 Campus locations in Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw.

Consumer services

Web-based services

Google offers Gmail, and the newer variant InboxWEB, Darrell, Etherington, Google's Inbox is A New Email App From The Gmail Team Designed Not To Be Gmail,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 22, 2014, June 12, 2017, for email,WEB, Chris, Gayomali, When Gmail Launched On April 1, 2004, People Thought It Was A Joke,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, April 1, 2014, June 12, 2017, (Inbox has plans to shut down by the end of March 2019) WEB, Schoon, Ben, Google ‘Spring Cleaning’ kills off Inbox, Allo, URL shortener, and Google+ in the next few weeks,weblink 9to5 Google, 17 March 2019, Google Calendar for time-management and scheduling,WEB, James, Vincent, Google Calendar update makes it easier to track your New Year's fitness goals,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 5, 2017, June 12, 2017, Google Maps for mapping, navigation and satellite imagery,WEB, Mitchel, Broussard, Google Maps Introduces New Location Sharing Feature With Real-Time Friend Tracking,weblink MacRumors, March 22, 2017, June 12, 2017, Google Drive for cloud storage of files,WEB, T.C., Sottek, Google Drive officially launches with 5GB free storage, Google Docs integration,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 24, 2012, June 12, 2017, Google Docs, Sheets and Slides for productivity, Google Photos for photo storage and sharing,WEB, Sarah, Perez, Google Photos Breaks Free Of Google+, Now Offers Free, Unlimited Storage,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 28, 2015, June 12, 2017, Google Keep for note-taking,WEB, Dan, Graziano, Google launches Google Keep note-taking service [video],weblink Boy Genius Report, BGR, Penske Media Corporation, March 20, 2013, June 12, 2017, Google Translate for language translation,WEB, Lisa, Eadicicco, Google's Translation App Is About To Get Much Better,weblink Time (magazine), Time, November 16, 2016, June 12, 2017, YouTube for video viewing and sharing,WEB, Saba, Hamedy, People now spend 1 billion hours watching YouTube every day,weblink Mashable, February 28, 2017, June 12, 2017, Google My Business for managing public business information,WEB,weblink Google My Business - Stand Out on Google for Free,, 2019-02-06, and Google+ (which will be closing down on April 2, 2019),WEB,weblink Website Owners Have 2 Weeks to Prepare for Google+ Shutdown, Peter, Roesler, February 18, 2019,, WEB,weblink Is Your Google Account Going Away? No, But Your Google+ Account Is,, Allo, and Duo for social interaction.WEB, Steven, Levy, Inside Google+ - How the search giant plans to go social,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, June 28, 2011, June 12, 2017, Allo has officially shut down as of March 12, 2019. WEB, Schoon, Ben, Google ‘Spring Cleaning’ kills off Inbox, Allo, URL shortener, and Google+ in the next few weeks,weblink 9to5 Google, 17 March 2019, WEB, Ingrid, Lunden, Google debuts Allo, an AI-based chat app using its new assistant bot, smart replies and more,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 18, 2016, June 12, 2017, WEB, Dieter, Bohn, Google Duo makes mobile video calls fast and simple,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 18, 2016, June 12, 2017,


Google develops the Android mobile operating system,WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Breaking: Google Announces Android and Open Handset Alliance,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 5, 2007, June 12, 2017, as well as its smartwatch,WEB, Dante, D'Orazio, Google reveals Android Wear, an operating system for smartwatches,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 18, 2014, April 4, 2017, television,WEB, Josh, Ong, Google announces Android TV to bring 'voice input, user experience and content' to the living room,weblink The Next Web, June 25, 2014, April 4, 2017, car,WEB, Alex, Wilhelm, Google Announces Android Auto, Promises Enabled Cars By The End Of 2014,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 25, 2014, April 4, 2017, and Internet of things-enabled smart devices variations.WEB, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Android Things is Google's new OS for smart devices,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 13, 2016, April 4, 2017, It also develops the Google Chrome web browser,WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, A fresh take on the browser,weblink Official Google Blog, September 1, 2008, November 22, 2016, and Chrome OS, an operating system based on Chrome.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, Introducing the Google Chrome OS,weblink Official Google Blog, July 7, 2009, November 22, 2016,


In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own, "Nexus", brand.WEB, MG, Siegler, The Droid You're Looking For: Live From The Nexus One Event,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 5, 2010, November 22, 2016, It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the "Nexus" brandingWEB, Florence, Ion, From Nexus One to Nexus 10: a brief history of Google's flagship devices,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, May 15, 2013, June 12, 2017, until its eventual discontinuation in 2016, replaced by a new brand called, Pixel.WEB, Dieter, Bohn, The Google Phone: The inside story of Google's bold bet on hardware,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 12, 2017, (File:Google's Pixel 3.jpg|thumb|right)In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, described as a "new kind of computer" running Chrome OS.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, A new kind of computer: Chromebook,weblink Official Google Blog, May 11, 2011, November 22, 2016, In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, that allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions.WEB, Adi, Robertson, Google reveals Chromecast: video streaming to your TV from any device for $35,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, July 24, 2013, November 29, 2016, WEB, Google Chromecast takes on streaming content to TV,weblink BBC News, BBC, July 31, 2013, November 29, 2016, In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media.WEB, James, O'Toole, Google's cardboard virtual-reality goggles,weblink CNN, June 26, 2014, November 29, 2016, WEB, Erik, Kain, Google Cardboard Is Google's Awesomely Weird Answer To Virtual Reality,weblink Forbes, June 26, 2014, November 29, 2016, In April 2016, Recode reported that Google had hired Rick Osterloh, Motorola Mobility's former President, to head Google's new hardware division.WEB, Mark, Bergen, Ina, Fried, Google is building a new hardware division under former Motorola chief Rick Osterloh,weblink Recode, Vox Media, April 28, 2016, October 9, 2016, In October 2016, Osterloh stated that "a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience", and Google announced several hardware platforms:
  • The Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones with the Google Assistant, a next-generation contextual voice assistant, built-in.WEB, Vlad, Savov, Pixel 'phone by Google' announced,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,
  • Google Home, an Amazon Echo-like voice assistant placed in the house that can answer voice queries, play music, find information from apps (calendar, weather etc.), and control third-party smart home appliances (users can tell it to turn on the lights, for example). The Google Home line also includes variants such as the Google Home Hub, Google Home Mini, and Google Home MaxWEB, Dieter, Bohn, Google Home is smart, loud, and kind of cute,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,
  • Daydream View virtual reality headset that lets Android users with compatible Daydream-ready smartphones put their phones in the headset and enjoy VR content.WEB, Adi, Robertson, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Google's Daydream View VR headset goes on sale next month for $79,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,
  • Google Wifi, a connected set of Wi-Fi routers to simplify and extend coverage of home Wi-Fi.WEB, Dieter, Bohn, The Google Wifi routers are little white pucks you can scatter throughout your house,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,

Internet services

In February 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project, with experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more American cities.WEB, Minnie, Ingersoll, James, Kelly, Think big with a gig: Our experimental fiber network,weblink Official Google Blog, February 10, 2010, November 29, 2016, WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Google Plans To Deliver 1Gb/sec Fiber-Optic Broadband Network To More Than 50,000 Homes,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 10, 2010, November 29, 2016, Following Google's corporate restructure to make Alphabet Inc. its parent company, Google Fiber was moved to Alphabet's Access division.WEB, Kevin, McLaughlin, Inside the Battle Over Google Fiber,weblink The Information, August 25, 2016, November 29, 2016, WEB, Nick, Statt, Alphabet is putting serious pressure on Google Fiber to cut costs,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, August 25, 2016, November 29, 2016, In April 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual network operator, that combines Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different telecommunication providers in an effort to enable seamless connectivity and fast Internet signal.WEB, Nick, Fox, Say hi to Fi: A new way to say hello,weblink Official Google Blog, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016, WEB, David, Goldman, Google launches 'Project Fi' wireless service,weblink CNN, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016, WEB, Ellen, Huet, Google Unveils Its 'Project Fi' Wireless Service,weblink Forbes, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016, In September 2016, Google began its Google Station initiative, a project for public Wi-Fi at railway stations in India. Caesar Sengupta, VP for Google's next billion users, told The Verge that 15,000 people get online for the first time thanks to Google Station and that 3.5 million people use the service every month. The expansion meant that Google was looking for partners around the world to further develop the initiative, which promised "high-quality, secure, easily accessible Wi-Fi".WEB, Sam, Byford, Google Station is a new platform that aims to make public Wi-Fi better,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 27, 2016, October 23, 2016, By December, Google Station had been deployed at 100 railway stations,WEB, Brian, Heater, After arriving at 100th railway station in India, Google's WiFi is set to hit another 100 in 2017,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, December 29, 2016, June 12, 2017, and in February, Google announced its intention to expand beyond railway stations, with a plan to bring citywide Wi-Fi to Pune.WEB, Stephen, Hall, Google Station expands beyond rail stations to bring citywide WiFi to Pune, India,weblink 9to5Google, February 9, 2017, June 12, 2017, WEB, Manish, Singh, Indian city to become the first in the world to get Google Station public Wi-Fi network,weblink Mashable, February 9, 2017, June 12, 2017, {{as of|2018|October|}}, Orange has teamed up with Google in order to create a transatlantic undersea cable to share data between the United States and France at faster speeds. Planned to begin operation in 2020, the cable is purported to transfer information at rates “more than 30 terabits per second, per [fibre] pair”. The cable will span approximately 6600 kilometers in length.WEB, Google and Orange building cable between US and France,weblink

Other products

Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from various websites.NEWS, Joshua, Macht, Automatic for the People,weblink Time, September 30, 2002, In March 2005, Agence France Presse (AFP) sued Google for copyright infringement in federal court in the District of Columbia, a case which Google settled for an undisclosed amount in a pact that included a license of the full text of AFP articles for use on Google News.JOURNAL, Hannibal, Travis, Opting Out of the Internet in the United States and the European Union: Copyright, Safe Harbors, and International Law, 1221642, Notre Dame Law Review, 55, 391–92, 2008, In May 2011, Google announced Google Wallet, a mobile application for wireless payments.NEWS, Tara, Bernard, Google Unveils App for Paying With Phone,weblink The New York Times, May 26, 2011, November 29, 2016, In 2013, Google launched Google Shopping Express, a delivery service initially available only in San Francisco and Silicon Valley.NEWS, Somerville, Heather,weblink Google same-day delivery makes public debut, Mercury News, September 25, 2013, Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service, offered by the search engine company Google. The service sends emails to the user when it finds new results—such as web pages, newspaper articles, or blogs—that match the user's search term.WEB, What are Google Alerts?,weblink July 29, 2014, WEB,weblink How to Use Google Alerts for a Live Job Search, The Under Cover Recruiter, WEB,weblink This Little Service Absolutely Crushes Google Alerts, Forbes, In July 2015 Google released DeepDream, an image recognition software capable of creating psychedelic images using a convolutional neural network.WEB, Alexander, Mordvintsev, Christopher, Olah, Mike, Tyka, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 8, 2015,weblink DeepDream â€” a code example for visualizing Neural Networks, Google Research, WEB,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2015,weblink Inceptionism: Going Deeper into Neural Networks, Google Research, Alexander, Mordvintsev, Christopher, Olah, Mike, Tyka, 2015, NEWS,weblink Google unleashes machine dreaming software on the public, nightmarish images flood the internet, July 2, 2015, July 25, 2015, The Telegraph, James Titcomb, {{anchor|Family Link}}Google introduced its Family Link service in March 2017, letting parents buy Android Nougat-based Android devices for kids under 13 years of age and create a Google account through the app, with the parents controlling the apps installed, monitor the time spent using the device, and setting a "Bedtime" feature that remotely locks the device.WEB, Pavni, Diwanji, Introducing the Family Link app: Helping families navigate technology together,weblink The Keyword Google Blog, March 15, 2017, March 16, 2017, WEB, Ashley, Carman, Google built a new app so your kids can have a Google account, too,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 15, 2017, March 16, 2017, WEB, Sarah, Perez, Google introduces Family Link, its own parental control software for Android,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 15, 2017, March 16, 2017, {{anchor|AutoDraw}}In April 2017, Google launched AutoDraw, a web-based tool using artificial intelligence and machine learning to recognize users' drawings and replace scribbles with related stock images that have been created by professional artists.WEB, Stefanie, Fogel, Google's AutoDraw turns your clumsy scribbles into art,weblink Engadget, AOL, April 11, 2017, April 12, 2017, WEB, James, Titcomb, Google's new drawing app can turn your terrible sketches into works of art,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 12, 2017, April 12, 2017, WEB, Claire, Reilly, Does Google's AutoDraw AI grasp modern art better than you?,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, April 11, 2017, April 12, 2017, The tool is built using the same technology as QuickDraw, an experimental game from Google's Creative Lab where users were tasked with drawing objects that algorithms would recognize within 20 seconds.WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google's AutoDraw uses machine learning to help you draw like a pro,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, April 11, 2017, April 12, 2017, In May 2017, Google added "Family Groups" to several of its services. The feature, which lets users create a group consisting of their family members' individual Google accounts, lets users add their "Family Group" as a collaborator to shared albums in Google Photos, shared notes in Google Keep, and common events in Google Calendar. At announcement, the feature is limited to Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom and United States.WEB, Chris, Welch, Google adds easy, simple family sharing to Calendar, Keep, and Photos,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 23, 2017, May 24, 2017, WEB, Ryan, Whitwam, Google family groups make it easy to share photos, calendars, Keep, YouTube TV, and more,weblink Android Police, May 23, 2017, May 24, 2017,


Google APIs are a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) developed by Google which allow communication with Google Services and their integration to other services. Examples of these include Search, Gmail, Translate or Google Maps. Third-party apps can use these APIs to take advantage of or extend the functionality of the existing services.

Other websites

Google Developers is Google's site for software development tools, APIs, and technical resources. The site contains documentation on using Google developer tools and APIs—including discussion groups and blogs for developers using Google's developer products.Google Labs was a page created by Google to demonstrate and test new projects.Google owns the top-level domain which is used for some servers within Google's network. The name is a reference to the scientific E notation representation for 1 googol, {{math|1E100 {{=}} 1 × 10100}}.WEB,weblink What is, Google Support, December 10, 2015, In March 2017, Google launched a new website,, to publish its internal documentation for Google Open Source projects.WEB, Frederic, Lardinois, Google launches new site to showcase its open source projects and processes,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 28, 2017, March 29, 2017, WEB, Steven J., Vaughan-Nichols, Google presents its open-source goodies to the world,weblink ZDNet, CBS Interactive, March 29, 2017, March 29, 2017, In June 2017, Google launched "We Wear Culture", a searchable archive of 3,000 years of global fashion. The archive, a result of collaboration between Google and over 180 museums, schools, fashion institutes, and other organizations, also offers curated exhibits of specific fashion topics and their impact on society.WEB, Marc, Bain, Google has built a stunning, searchable archive of 3,000 years of world fashion,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, June 11, 2017, June 11, 2017, WEB, Maria, Ward, Anna Wintour, Andrew Bolton, and More Celebrate the Launch of We Wear Culture,weblink Vogue (magazine), Vogue, Condé Nast, June 9, 2017, June 11, 2017,

Corporate affairs and culture

File:Eric Schmidt at the 37th G8 Summit in Deauville 037.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Eric SchmidtEric SchmidtFile:Schmidt-Brin-Page-20080520.jpg|thumb|Then-CEO, now Chairman of Google Eric Schmidt with cofounders Sergey Brin and alt=Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page sitting together(File:20 colleges with the most alumni at Google.png|upright=1.35|frameless|right)On Fortune magazine's list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012,JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, Andrew, Serwer, Andrew Serwer, January 22, 2007, In good company, Fortune Magazine, 155, 1,weblink June 19, 2010, JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, Andrew, Serwer, Andrew Serwer, February 4, 2008, The 2008 list, Fortune Magazine, 157, 2,weblink June 19, 2010, JOURNAL, The 2012 list, Fortune Magazine,weblink February 26, 2012, and fourth in 2009 and 2010.JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, Andrew, Serwer, Andrew Serwer, February 2, 2009, The 2009 list, Fortune Magazine, 159, 2,weblink June 19, 2010, JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, Andrew, Serwer, Andrew Serwer, February 8, 2010, The 2010 list, Fortune Magazine, 161, 2,weblink June 19, 2010, Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world's most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index.WEB,weblink The World's Most Attractive Employers 2010, September 28, 2010, Universum Global, October 28, 2010, Google's corporate philosophy includes principles such as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun."WEB,weblink Our Philosophy, Google, Inc., June 20, 2010,

Innovation Time Off policy

{{Anchor|Innovation Time Off}}As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy known as Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google's services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors.WEB, Bharat, Mediratta, Julie, Bick, The Google Way: Give Engineers Room,weblink The New York Times, October 21, 2007, March 9, 2017, In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice-President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches in the second half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off.VIDEO, Mayer, Marissa (speaker), June 30, 2006, Marissa Mayer at Stanford University,weblink Seminar, Martin Lafrance, June 20, 2010, 11:33, Fifty percent of what Google launched in the second half of 2005 actually got built out of 20% time.,

The New York Times exposé (2018)

On 25 October 2018, The New York Times published the exposé, "How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android’". The company subsequently announced that "48 employees have been fired over the last two years" for sexual misconduct.NEWS, Welch, Chris, Google says 48 people have been fired for sexual harassment in the last two years,weblink 31 October 2018, The Verge, 25 October 2018, A week after the article appeared, Google X (renamed X Development LLC in 2015) executive Rich DeVaul resigned pursuant to a complaint of sexual harassment.NEWS, Musil, Steven, Google exec accused of sexual harassment leaves company,weblink 31 October 2018, CNET, 30 October 2018,


File:Noogler.png|thumb|upright|alt=Asian man in his twenties wearing a blue, green, yellow, and red propeller hat that says "Noogle"|New employees are called "Nooglers," and are given a propeller beanie cap to wear on their first Friday.WEB,weblink Noogler chez Google, French, ]]{{As of|2018|12|31|alt=As of December 2018,}} Google has 98,771 employees. Google's {{as of|2017|6|29|alt=2017}} diversity report states that 31 percent of its workforce are women and 69 percent are men, with the ethnicity of its workforce being predominantly white (56%) and Asian (35%).BLOG,weblink Making progress on diversity and inclusion, Naughton, Eileen, June 29, 2017, Diversity, The Keyword, Google,weblink May 17, 2018, no, May 17, 2018, {{pb}}NEWS, Yurieff, Kaya, June 29, 2017, Google struggles to increase workforce diversity,weblink no, CNNTech, CNNMoney, Time Warner, New York,weblink May 17, 2018, May 17, 2018, Within tech roles, however, 20 percent were women; and 25 percent of leadership roles were held by women. The report also announced that Intel's former vice-president, CDO, and CHRO Danielle Brown would be joining Google as its new Vice-President of Diversity. {{update inline span|text=A March 2013 report was presented at EclipseCon2013 which detailed that Google had over 10,000 developers based in more than 40 offices.WEB,weblink Continuous Integration at Google Scale, Micco, John, March 24, 2013, EclipseCon, Eclipse Foundation, 2,weblink May 17, 2018, no, May 17, 2018, Speed and Scale[:] >10,000 developers in 40+ offices, |date=May 2018|reason=This information is over five years old and the growth of Google since then suggests that the number might have doubled or tripled since then. Google's Form 10-Q SEC filing for Q1 of 2018 does not appear to break down employee numbers.}}Google's employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range "from entry-level data center workers at level one to managers and experienced engineers at level six."NEWS,weblink Google workers collected data showing their male colleagues make more than women, Wakabayashi, Daisuke, September 8, 2017, CNBC, September 25, 2017, Following the company's IPO in 2004, founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt requested that their base salary be cut to One-dollar salary. Subsequent offers by the company to increase their salaries were turned down, primarily because their main compensation continues to come from owning stock in Google. Before 2004, Schmidt made $250,000 per year, and Page and Brin each received an annual salary of $150,000.WEB, Paul R., La Monica, Google leaders stick with $1 salary,weblink CNN Money, CNN, March 31, 2006, April 25, 2017, In March 2008, Sheryl Sandberg, then vice-president of global online sales and operations, began her position as chief operating officer of Facebook.NEWS,weblink Facebook Raids Google for Executive, The Washington Post, March 5, 2008, March 31, 2008, Michael, Liedtke, WEB,weblink Another Googler goes to Facebook: Sheryl Sandberg becomes new COO, Venture Beat, March 4, 2008, March 31, 2008, In 2009, early employee Tim Armstrong left to become CEO of AOL. In July 2012, Google's first female engineer, Marissa Mayer, left Google to become Yahoo!'s CEO.NEWS, Rushie, Dominic, Google executive Marissa Mayer to become Yahoo CEO in surprise move,weblink September 1, 2012, The Guardian, July 16, 2012, London, In January 2017, Google employees donated over $2 million to a crisis fund in support of refugees; the company matched the donation with an additional $2 million. Employees then organized a global workplace walk-out, aided by the hashtag #GooglersUnite, to protest U.S. President Donald Trump's Muslim travel ban.NEWS, Newton, Casey, Google employees staged a protest over Trump’s immigration ban,weblink 7 November 2018, VOX Media Inc., The Verge, 30 January 2017, NEWS, Elias, Jennifer, Google employees walk out in protest of Trump travel ban,weblink 7 November 2018, American City Business Journals, Silicon Valley Business Journal, 30 January 2017, In late 2017, former Intel executive Diane Bryant became Chief Operating Officer of Google Cloud.WEB, Miller, Ron, Google Cloud brings in former Intel exec Diane Bryant as COO, TechCrunch, December 31, 2017,weblink On 1 November 2018, Google employees staged a global walk-out to protest the company's handling of sexual harassment complaints, including the golden parachute exit of former executive Andy Rubin;NEWS,weblink Hamilton, etal, Isobel Asher, PHOTOS: Google employees all over the world left their desk and walked out in protest over sexual misconduct, 6 November 2018, Business Insider, 1 November 2018, more than 20,000 employees and contractors participated.NEWS, Segarra, Lisa Marie, More Than 20,000 Google Employees Participated in Walkout Over Sexual Harassment Policy,weblink 6 November 2018, Fortune, 3 November 2018, CEO Sundar Pichai was reported to be in support of the protests.NEWS, Liedtke, Michael, Google workers walk out to protest sexual misconduct,weblink 6 November 2018, The Associated Press, Akron Beacon/Journal, 1 November 2018, San Francisco, Calf.,

Office locations and headquarters

File:Google Mountain View campus garden.jpg|thumb|right|Google Mountain ViewGoogle Mountain View(File:Google bike.jpg|thumb|left|Bicycles painted in the corporate color scheme are available for free use by any employee traveling around the Googleplex)

Mountain View

Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California is referred to as "the Googleplex", a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. The lobby is decorated with a piano, lava lamps, old server clusters, and a projection of search queries on the wall. The hallways are full of exercise balls and bicycles. Many employees have access to the corporate recreation center. Recreational amenities are scattered throughout the campus and include a workout room with weights and rowing machines, locker rooms, washers and dryers, a massage room, assorted video games, table football, a baby grand piano, a billiard table, and ping pong. In addition to the recreation room, there are snack rooms stocked with various foods and drinks, with special emphasis placed on nutrition.WEB,weblink About the Googleplex, March 5, 2008, Free food is available to employees 24/7, with the offerings provided by paid vending machines prorated based on and favoring those of better nutritional value.NEWS,weblink What Google's Famous Cafeterias Can Teach Us About Health, The Atlantic, Marion Nestle, July 2011, May 8, 2013, Google's extensive amenities are not available to all of its workers. Temporary workers such as book scanners do not have access to shuttles, Google cafes, or other perks.NEWS,weblink Does Google Have A Class System For Googlers?, SearchEngineLand, Barry Schwartz (technologist), Barry Schwartz, May 2, 2011, April 22, 2013,

New York City

(File:PONYA Inland Term 1 jeh.JPG|thumb|Google's New York City office building houses its largest advertising sales team.)In 2006, Google moved into about {{convert|300000|sqft|m2|-2}} of office space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan. The office was designed and built specially for Google, and houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in securing large partnerships.WEB, Marguerite, Reardon, Google takes a bigger bite of Big Apple,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 11, 2006, June 13, 2017, The New York headquarters includes a game room, micro-kitchens, and a video game area.WEB, Annie Georgia, Greenberg, The Ultimate Office: Inside Google's NYC Compound,weblink Refinery29, September 11, 2012, June 13, 2017, In 2010, Google bought the building housing the headquarter, in a deal that valued the property at around $1.9 billion, the biggest for a single building in the United States that year.WEB, Peter, Grant, Google to Buy New York Office Building,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, December 3, 2010, June 13, 2017, {{subscription required}}WEB, Sam, Gustin, Google buys giant New York building for $1.9 billion,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, December 22, 2010, June 13, 2017, In February 2012, Google moved additional employees to the New York City campus, with a total of around 2,750 employees.WEB, Emily, Glazer, Google Web Grows in City,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, February 29, 2012, June 13, 2017, {{subscription required}}Google's New York City location continued to expand in 2018. In March of that year, Google's parent company Alphabet bought Chelsea Market building for $2.4 billion nearby its current New York HQ. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive real estate transactions for a single building in the history of New York.NEWS,weblink Google buys NYC's Chelsea Market building for $2.4 bn, June 1, 2018, WEB,weblink Google bought Manhattan's Chelsea Market building for $2.4 billion – TechCrunch,, en-US, June 1, 2018, NEWS,weblink Google closes $2.4 billion Chelsea Market deal to expand New York..., Editorial, Reuters, U.S., June 1, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink Report: Alphabet Is Buying Chelsea Market for Over $2B, February 9, 2018, PCMag UK, June 1, 2018, en-GB, The same December, it was announced that a $1 billion, {{convert|1,700,000|ft2|m2|adj=on}} headquarters for Google would be built in Manhattan's Hudson Square neighborhood.WEB, Google To Build New $1 Billion Campus In NYC, CBS New York, December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018, WEB, Gartenberg, Chaim, Google announces a new $1 billion NYC campus in Hudson Square, The Verge, December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018, Called Google Hudson Square, the new campus is projected to more than double the number of Google employees working in New York City.WEB,weblink Google Will Spend $1 Billion For New York City Campus On Hudson River,, en, 2018-12-17,

Other U.S. cities

By late 2006, Google established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan.WEB, Mary Hayes, Weier, Inside Google's Michigan Office,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink InformationWeek, UBM plc, October 24, 2007, May 3, 2008, January 22, 2017, yes, In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related advertisement coding and smartphone applications and programs.NEWS,weblinkweblink June 4, 2009, Google Completes Pittsburgh Office, Holds Open House, November 17, 2006, January 13, 2008, WTAE TV, WTAE, yes, WEB,weblink Google search: Tech-minded workers, Olson, Thomas, December 8, 2010, Trib Total Media, December 8, 2010, Other office locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Boulder, Colorado; Cambridge, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Kirkland, Washington; Birmingham, Michigan; Reston, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.WEB,weblink Google locations, In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs.WEB, Richmond, Riva,weblink Google plans to build huge solar energy system for headquarters,, MarketWatch, October 17, 2006, October 17, 2006, yes,weblink May 19, 2016, The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world. In addition, Google announced in 2009 that it was deploying herds of goats to keep grassland around the Googleplex short, helping to prevent the threat from seasonal bush fires while also reducing the carbon footprint of mowing the extensive grounds.WEB,weblink Official Google Blog: Mowing with goats, May 1, 2009, NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, My Day With The Google Goats, MG, Siegler, May 3, 2009, May 3, 2010, The idea of trimming lawns using goats originated from Bob Widlar, an engineer who worked for National Semiconductor.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink May 6, 1999, Sheep Mow Lawns, National Semiconductor, July 5, 2010, In 2008, Google faced accusations in Harper's Magazine of being an "energy glutton". The company was accused of employing its "Don't be evil" motto and its public energy-saving campaigns to cover up or make up for the massive amounts of energy its servers require.WEB, Ginger Strand, Strand, Ginger,weblink Keyword: Evil, April 9, 2008, yes,weblink June 12, 2009,

International locations

Internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries.WEB,weblink Google: Our Offices, April 19, 2018, It also has product research and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney (birthplace location of Google Maps)WEB, Sydney,weblink Google Careers, June 4, 2017, and London (part of Android development).WEB, London,weblink Google Careers, June 4, 2017, In November 2013, Google announced plans for a new London headquarter, a notable 1 million square foot office able to accommodate 4,500 employees. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions at the time of the deal's announcement in January,WEB, Leo, Mirani, Inside Google's new 1-million-square-foot London office—three years before it's ready,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, November 1, 2013, March 15, 2017, Google submitted plans for the new headquarter to the Camden Council in June 2017. The new building, if approved, will feature a rooftop garden with a running track, giant moving blinds, a swimming pool, and a multi-use games area for sports.WEB, James, Vincent, Google's new London HQ is a 'landscraper' with a rooftop garden,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 1, 2017, June 4, 2017, WEB, Matt, Brian, Google's 'innovative' new London HQ features giant moving blinds,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 1, 2017, June 4, 2017, In May 2015, Google announced its intention to create its own campus in Hyderabad, India. The new campus, reported to be the company's largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13,000 employees.WEB, Google to build biggest campus outside US in Hyderabad,weblink The Indian Express, May 12, 2015, June 13, 2017, WEB, Google's upcoming campus in Hyderabad to be its biggest outside the US,weblink Firstpost, Network 18, May 13, 2015, June 13, 2017,


{{As of|1998|since=y|post=,}} Google has been designing special, temporary alternate logos to place on their homepage intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998.WEB,weblink Doodle 4 Google, April 23, 2014, WEB,weblink Burning Man Festival, August 30, 1998, April 23, 2014, The doodle was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then-intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point onward, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed "Doodlers".WEB,weblink Meet the people behind the Google Doodles, The Guardian, April 12, 2014, September 27, 2014,

Easter eggs and April Fools' Day jokes

Google has a tradition of creating April Fools' Day jokes. On April 1, 2000, Google MentalPlex allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web.WEB,weblink Google MentalPlex, April 1, 2000, Google, Inc., July 5, 2010, In 2007, Google announced a free Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet.WEB,weblink Welcome to Google TiSP, April 1, 2007, Google, Inc., July 5, 2010, Also in 2007, Google's Gmail page displayed an announcement for Gmail Paper, allowing users to have email messages printed and shipped to them.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, March 15, 2008, Google Paper, April 1, 2000, Google, Inc., July 4, 2010, In 2008, Google announced Gmail Custom time where users could change the time that the email was sent.NEWS,weblink Gmail Custom Time: Google makes custom time, April 14, 2011, Google, April 14, 2011, In 2010, Google changed its company name to Topeka in honor of Topeka, Kansas, whose mayor changed the city's name to Google for a short amount of time in an attempt to sway Google's decision in its new Google Fiber Project.WEB,weblink A different kind of company name, Schmidt, Eric, April 1, 2010, Google, Inc., July 4, 2010, NEWS,weblink April Fools: Google Changes Name to Topeka, April 1, 2010, CBS News, July 4, 2010, In 2011, Google announced Gmail Motion, an interactive way of controlling Gmail and the computer with body movements via the user's webcam.NEWS,weblink Google's GMail Motion launched April 1, April 1, 2011, GMA News, Google's services contain easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker" or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as language selections for its search engine.WEB,weblinkweblink June 12, 2009, Language Tools, Google, Inc., July 4, 2010, yes, The search engine calculator provides the Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything from Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.WEB,weblink Google Search Results for 'answer to life the universe and everything', Google, Inc., July 4, 2010, When searching the word "recursion", the spell-checker's result for the properly spelled word is exactly the same word, creating a recursive link.WEB,weblink Google Search Results for 'recursion', Google, Inc., July 4, 2010, When searching for the word "anagram," meaning a rearrangement of letters from one word to form other valid words, Google's suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?"WEB,weblink anagram search, Google, Inc., September 22, 2010, In Google Maps, searching for directions between places separated by large bodies of water, such as Los Angeles and Tokyo, results in instructions to "kayak across the Pacific Ocean." During FIFA World Cup 2010, search queries including "World Cup" and "FIFA" caused the "" page indicator at the bottom of every result page to read "!" instead.WEB,weblink Google celebrates World Cup with Gooooooooooal!, CNET Asia, June 9, 2010, May 18, 2011, Chan, John,


In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic, with a start-up fund of $1 billion.WEB,weblink About the Foundation, Google, Inc., July 16, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2010, The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program's executive director in 2004WEB, Katie, Hafner, Philanthropy Google's Way: Not the Usual,weblink The New York Times, September 14, 2006, March 9, 2017, and Megan Smith has {{as of|2009|2|23|alt=since}} replaced him has director.WEB, Miguel, Helft, Google Chief for Charity Steps Down on Revamp,weblink The New York Times, February 23, 2009, March 9, 2017, In 2008, Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites.WEB,weblinkweblink June 12, 2009, Project 10 to the 100th, Google, Inc., July 16, 2010, yes, After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program,NEWS,weblink Google Struggles to Give Away $10 million, Van Burskirk, Elliot, June 28, 2010, Wired (website), Wired, September 26, 2010, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.WEB,weblink $10 million for Project 10^100 winners, September 24, 2010, Twohill, Lorraine, Google, Inc., September 26, 2010, In March 2007, in partnership with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI), Google hosted the first Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at its headquarters in Mountain View.The 2007 Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival] at Google was the founding of this event for middle school and high school students.] video In 2011, Google donated 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads (2011–2015).WEB, Jill, Duffy, Mathletes Receive €1M Donation from Google,weblink PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, January 21, 2011, March 23, 2017, WEB,weblink Google donating 1 million euros to IMO, January 20, 2011, February 4, 2011, yes,weblink July 24, 2011, In July 2012, Google launched a "Legalize Love" campaign in support of gay rights.WEB,weblink Google launches 'Legalise Love' gay rights campaign,, September 9, 2014,

Tax avoidance

{{Further|Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland#Multinational tax schemes}}Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. Out of the five largest American technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. Google between 2007 and 2010 saved $3.1 billion in taxes by shuttling non-U.S. profits through Ireland and the Netherlands and then to Bermuda. Such techniques lower its non-U.S. tax rate to 2.3 per cent, while normally the corporate tax rate in for instance the UK is 28 per cent.NEWS, Metz, Cade,weblink Google slips $3.1bn through 'Double Irish' tax loophole., The Register, October 22, 2010, This has reportedly sparked a French investigation into Google's transfer pricing practices.WEB, Leach, Anna,weblink French gov 'plans to hand Google €1bn tax bill' â€“ report,, October 31, 2012, January 2, 2013, Following criticism of the amount of corporate taxes that Google paid in the United Kingdom, Chairman Eric Schmidt said, "It's called capitalism. We are proudly capitalistic." During the same December 2012 interview, Schmidt confirmed that the company had no intention of paying more to the UK exchequer.NEWS,weblink Google boss: I'm very proud of our tax avoidance scheme, Kumar, Nikhil, Wright, Oliver, December 13, 2012, The Independent, December 17, 2012, London, Google Vice-President Matt Brittin testified to the Public Accounts Committee of the UK House of Commons that his UK sales team made no sales and hence owed no sales taxes to the UK.WEB, Brid-Aine Parnell, May 17, 2013,weblink I think you DO do evil, using smoke and mirrors to avoid tax,, May 17, 2013, March 13, 2014, In January 2016, Google reached a settlement with the UK to pay £130m in back taxes plus higher taxes in future.WEB, John Gapper, January 23, 2016,weblink Google strikes £130m back tax deal,, January 24, 2016, In 2017, Google channeled $22.7 billion from the Netherlands to Bermuda to reduce its tax bill.NEWS, Bart Meijer, Google shifted $23 billion to tax haven Bermuda in 2017: filing,weblink 3 January 2019, Reuters, 3 January 2019, Google moved 19.9 billion euros ($22.7 billion) through a Dutch shell company to Bermuda in 2017, as part of an arrangement that allows it to reduce its foreign tax bill,


{{As of|2007|since=y|post=,}} Google has aimed for carbon neutrality in regard to its operations.WEB, Jack, McGrath, Google's Green Initiative: Environmentally Conscious Technology,weblink TechnoBuffalo, May 18, 2011, January 22, 2017, Google disclosed in September 2011 that it "continuously uses enough electricity to power 200,000 homes", almost 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant. Total carbon emissions for 2010 were just under 1.5 million metric tons, mostly due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percent of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An average search uses only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5% of the total electricity consumption by Google.WEB, James, Glanz, Google Details, and Defends, Its Use of Electricity,weblink The New York Times, September 8, 2011, March 9, 2017, In 2007, Google launched a project centered on developing renewable energy, titled the "Renewable Energy Cheaper than Coal (RE

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