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Google
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{{short description|American multinational Internet and technology corporation}}{{About|the company|the search engine|Google Search|other uses}}{{Distinguish|Googol}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=July 2018}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2019}}







factoids
| image = Googleplex HQ (cropped).jpg| image_size = 250px| image_caption = Google's headquarters, the Googleplex| former_name = Google Inc. (1998–2017)| type = Subsidiary| industry = {{Unbulleted list| Internet | Cloud computing| Computer software| Computer hardware| Artificial intelligence| Advertising}}Menlo Park, California| founders = {{Unbulleted list| Larry Page| Sergey Brin}}| hq_location = 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway| hq_location_city = Mountain View, California| hq_location_country = U.S.| area_served = Worldwide| key_people = {{Unbulleted listSundar Pichai (Chief executive officer>CEO)Ruth Porat (Chief financial officer>CFO)}}| products = List of Google products| num_employees = 98,771201831|alt=Q4 2018}}| parent = Alphabet Inc. (2015–present)List of mergers and acquisitions by Alphabet>List of subsidiariesweblink|google.com}}DEAD-URL=YES TITLE=COMPANY – GOOGLE ACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 13, 2018, THOMAS >LAST=CLABURN URL=HTTPS://WWW.INFORMATIONWEEK.COM/APPLICATIONS/GOOGLE-FOUNDED-BY-SERGEY-BRIN-LARRY-PAGE-AND-HUBERT-CHANG!/D/D-ID/1072309 WEBSITE=INFORMATIONWEEK UBM PLC >DATE=SEPTEMBER 24, 2008 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 22, 2017 ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 27, 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=SEPTEMBER 30, 2013 URL=HTTPS://ABC.XYZ/INVESTOR/STATIC/PDF/2018Q4_ALPHABET_EARNINGS_RELEASE.PDF FORMAT=PDF LOCATION=MOUNTAIN VIEW, CALIFORNIA ALPHABET INC. >PAGE=1 ARCHIVE-DATE=FEBRUARY 4, 2019 QUOTE=ALPHABET INC. (NASDAQ: GOOG, GOOGL) TODAY ANNOUNCED FINANCIAL RESULTS FOR THE QUARTER AND FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018. [...] Q1 2018 FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS[:] THE FOLLOWING SUMMARIZES OUR CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL RESULTS FOR THE QUARTERS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017 AND 2018 [...]: [...] NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES [AS OF] THREE MONTHS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018 [IS] 98,771[.], }}Google LLCWEB,weblink Alphabet Finishes Reorganization With New XXVI Company, September 1, 2017, Bloomberg L.P., October 31, 2017,weblink October 19, 2017, no, is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies, alongside Amazon, Apple and Facebook.WEB,weblink Ranking The Big Four Tech Stocks: Google Is No. 1, Apple Comes In Last, Rivas, Teresa, www.barrons.com, en-US, December 27, 2018,weblink December 28, 2018, no, WEB,weblink Bloomberg - Are you a robot?, www.bloomberg.com, December 27, 2018,weblink February 14, 2019, no, Google was founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University in California. Together they own about 14 percent of its shares and control 56 percent of the stockholder voting power through supervoting stock. They incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4, 1998. An initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004, and Google moved to its headquarters in Mountain View, California, nicknamed the Googleplex. In August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google is Alphabet's leading subsidiary and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Sundar Pichai was appointed CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page who became the CEO of Alphabet.The company's rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products, acquisitions, and partnerships beyond Google's core search engine (Google Search). It offers services designed for work and productivity (Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Slides), email (Gmail/Inbox), scheduling and time management (Google Calendar), cloud storage (Google Drive), instant messaging and video chat (Google Allo, Duo, Hangouts), language translation (Google Translate), mapping and navigation (Google Maps, Waze, Google Earth, Street View), video sharing (YouTube), note-taking (Google Keep), and photo organizing and editing (Google Photos). The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, a lightweight operating system based on the Chrome browser. Google has moved increasingly into hardware; from 2010 to 2015, it partnered with major electronics manufacturers in the production of its Nexus devices, and it released multiple hardware products in October 2016, including the Google Pixel smartphone, Google Home smart speaker, Google Wifi mesh wireless router, and Google Daydream virtual reality headset. Google has also experimented with becoming an Internet carrier (Google Fiber, Google Fi, and Google Station).Sam Byford, The Verge. "Google Station is a new platform that aims to make public Wi-Fi better {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170903210758weblink |date=September 3, 2017 }}." September 27, 2016. Retrieved May 22, 2018.Google.com is the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube and Blogger. Google was the most valuable brand in the world {{as of|2017|lc=y|post=,}}NEWS,weblink Google is now the world's most valuable brand, February 1, 2017, The Independent, August 31, 2017, en-GB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170831172223weblink">weblink August 31, 2017, no, but has received significant criticism involving issues such as privacy concerns, tax avoidance, antitrust, censorship, and search neutrality. Google's mission statement is "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful". The company's unofficial slogan "Don't be evil" was removed from the company's code of conduct around May 2018, but reinstated by July 31, 2018.WEB,weblink Google Code of Conduct, Alphabet, August 31, 2017,weblink February 11, 2017, no, WEB,weblink Google Removes 'Don't Be Evil' Clause From Its Code of Conduct, Kate, Conger, May 24, 2018,weblink May 25, 2018, no,

History

{{See also|Alphabet Inc.}}

Early years

File:Google page brin.jpg|thumb|Larry Page and alt=|leftGoogle began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California.WEB, Our history in depth,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120401005940weblink">weblink Google Company, April 1, 2012, July 15, 2017, yes, While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships among websites.WEB,weblink The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web, Page, Lawrence, Brin, Sergey, Motwani, Rajeev, Winograd, Terry, November 11, 1999, Stanford University, February 15, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091118014915weblink">weblink November 18, 2009, yes, They called this algorithm PageRank; it determined a website's relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages that linked back to the original site.WEB,weblink Technology Overview, Google, Inc., February 15, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100210175913weblink">weblink February 10, 2010, no, WEB,weblink PageRank: Bringing Order to the Web, Page, Larry, Stanford Digital Library Project, August 18, 1997,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020506051802weblink">weblink May 6, 2002, November 27, 2010, yes, PageRank was influenced by a similar page-ranking and site-scoring algorithm earlier used for RankDex, developed by Robin Li in 1996, with Larry Page's PageRank patent including a citation to Li's earlier RankDex patent; Li later went on to create the Chinese search engine Baidu."About: RankDex" {{webarchive|url=weblink |date= 2012-02-02 }}, RankDexWEB, Altucher, James, 10 Unusual Things About Google,weblink March 18, 2011, Forbes, 16 June 2019, WEB, Method for node ranking in a linked database,weblink Google Patents, 19 October 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151015185034weblink">weblink 15 October 2015, Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site.NEWS, The Birth of Google, John, Battelle, Wired, August 2005,weblink October 12, 2010,weblink October 20, 2012, no, WEB, Trex, Ethan, 9 People, Places & Things That Changed Their Names,weblink Mental Floss, August 4, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140810100639weblink">weblink August 10, 2014, no, WEB,weblink Backrub search engine at Stanford University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19961224105215weblink">weblink December 24, 1996, March 12, 2011, Eventually, they changed the name to Google; the name of the search engine originated from a misspelling of the word "googol",WEB,weblink Origin of the name "Google", Koller, David, January 2004, Stanford University, July 4, 2012,weblink July 4, 2012, yes, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100327141327weblink">weblink March 27, 2010, From Googol to Google, Hanley, Rachael, February 12, 2003, The Stanford Daily, Stanford University, February 15, 2010, the number 1 followed by 100 zeros, which was picked to signify that the search engine was intended to provide large quantities of information.WEB,weblink Google! Beta website, Google, Inc.,weblink February 21, 1999, October 12, 2010, yes, File:Google1998.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Google's original homepage had a simple design because the company founders had little experience in HTML, the (markup language]] used for designing web pages.WEB,weblinkweblink September 21, 2011, An evening with Google's Marissa Mayer, Williamson, Alan, Alan Williamson, January 12, 2005, July 5, 2010, yes, |alt=Google's homepage in 1998)The domain name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997,WEB,weblink Google.com WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools, WHOIS, July 11, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160314084453weblink">weblink March 14, 2016, no, and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. It was based in the garage of a friend (Susan Wojcicki) in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee.WEB,weblink Craig Silverstein's website,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19991002122809weblink">weblink October 2, 1999, Stanford University, October 12, 2010, yes, NEWS, Kopytoff, Verne,weblink Craig Silverstein grew a decade with Google, San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst Communications, Inc., September 7, 2008, October 12, 2010,weblink October 20, 2012, no, Google was initially funded by an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems; the money was given before Google was incorporated.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090919030812weblink">weblink September 19, 2009, For early Googlers, key word is $, Kopytoff, Verne, April 29, 2004, San Francisco Chronicle, Hearst Communications, February 19, 2010, San Francisco, yes, Google received money from three other angel investors in 1998: Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton, and entrepreneur Ram Shriram.On September 7, 1998, the day Google officially incorporated, he [Shriram] wrote out a check for just over $250,000, one of four of this size the founders received. BOOK, Googled: The End of the World As We Know It, Auletta, Ken, October 26, 2010, Penguin Books, 9780143118046, Reprint, New York, N.Y., English, Between these initial investors, friends, and family Google raised around 1 million dollars, which is what allowed them to open up their original shop in Menlo Park, California WEB, Hosch, William L., Hall, Mark, Google Inc.,weblink Britannica, Britannica, March 17, 2019,weblink February 20, 2019, no, After some additional, small investments through the end of 1998 to early 1999, a new $25 million round of funding was announced on June 7, 1999,PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010212052759weblink">weblink February 12, 2001, Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding, June 7, 1999, Palo Alto, Calif., Google, February 16, 2009, no, with major investors including the venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins and Sequoia Capital.

Growth

In March 1999, the company moved its offices to Palo Alto, California,WEB,weblink 38 photos of Google's rise from a Stanford dorm room to world domination, Weinberger, Matt, October 12, 2015, Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, July 15, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170819101107weblink">weblink August 19, 2017, no, which is home to several prominent Silicon Valley technology start-ups.WEB,weblink A building blessed with tech success, CNET, CBS Interactive, July 15, 2017,weblink May 23, 2017, no, The next year, Google began selling advertisements associated with search keywords against Page and Brin's initial opposition toward an advertising-funded search engine.BOOK,weblink Planet Google: One Company's Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know, Stross, Randall, September 2008, Free Press, 978-1-4165-4691-7, New York, 3–4, Introduction, February 14, 2010,weblink To maintain an uncluttered page design, advertisements were solely text-based.WEB,weblink Google Launches Self-Service Advertising Program, October 23, 2000, News from Google,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120401005413weblink">weblink April 1, 2012, July 15, 2017, In June 2000, it was announced that Google would become the default search engine provider for Yahoo!, one of the most popular websites at the time, replacing Inktomi.WEB,weblink Why's Yahoo gone to Google? Search me, Naughton, John, July 2, 2000, www.theguardian.com, January 30, 2019,weblink January 31, 2019, no, WEB,weblink Yahoo! Selects Google as its Default Search Engine Provider – News announcements – News from Google – Google, googlepress.blogspot.com, January 30, 2019,weblink January 31, 2019, no, (File:Google’s First Production Server.jpg|upright|thumb|Google's first production server.WEB,weblink Google Server Assembly, Computer History Museum, July 4, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100722083804weblink">weblink July 22, 2010, no, |alt=Google's first servers, showing lots of exposed wiring and circuit boards)In 2003, after outgrowing two other locations, the company leased an office complex from Silicon Graphics, at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California.NEWS,weblink Google's movin' on up, Olsen, Stephanie, July 11, 2003, CNET, February 15, 2010, CBS Interactive,weblink October 20, 2012, no, The complex became known as the Googleplex, a play on the word googolplex, the number one followed by a googol zeroes. Three years later, Google bought the property from SGI for $319 million.NEWS,weblink Google to buy headquarters building from Silicon Graphics, June 16, 2006, Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal, February 15, 2010, American City Business Journals, San Jose,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100418071152weblink">weblink April 18, 2010, no, By that time, the name "Google" had found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "google" to be added to the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary, denoted as: "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet".WEB,weblink Do You "Google"?, Krantz, Michael, October 25, 2006, Google, Inc., February 17, 2010,weblink" title="archive.is/20120530weblink">weblink May 30, 2012, no, WEB,weblink To Google or Not to Google, Bylund, Anders, July 5, 2006, msnbc.com,weblink" title="archive.is/20060707062623weblink">weblink July 7, 2006, February 17, 2010, Additionally, in 2001 Google's Investors felt the need to have a strong internal management, and they agreed to hire Eric Schmidt as the Chairman and CEO of Google WEB,weblink Google Inc., Hosch, William L., Hall, Mark, Britannica, Britannica, March 17, 2019,weblink February 20, 2019, no,

Initial public offering

Google's initial public offering (IPO) took place five years later, on August 19, 2004. At that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024.NEWS,weblink Google wins again, January 29, 2008, Fortune, Time Warner, January 22, 2011, Adam, Lashinsky,weblink October 20, 2012, no, At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share.NEWS,weblink Google: Whiz Kids or Naughty Boys?, Elgin, Ben, August 19, 2004, BusinessWeek, Bloomberg L.P., February 19, 2010,weblink June 12, 2009, yes, WEB,weblink 2004 Annual Report, 2004, Google, Inc., 29, February 19, 2010, Mountain View, California,weblink February 2, 2012, no, Shares were sold in an online auction format using a system built by Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse, underwriters for the deal.NEWS,weblink Google sets $2.7 billion IPO, La Monica, Paul R., April 30, 2004, CNN Money, February 19, 2010,weblink October 20, 2012, no, WEB,weblink Want In on Google's IPO?, Kawamoto, Dawn, April 29, 2004, ZDNet, February 19, 2010,weblink February 2, 2012, no, The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion.NEWS,weblink Google's IPO: Grate Expectations, Webb, Cynthia L., The Washington Post, February 19, 2010, Washington, D.C., August 19, 2004,weblink October 20, 2012, no, File:Eric Schmidt at the 37th G8 Summit in Deauville 037.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Eric SchmidtEric SchmidtIn October 2006, Google announced that it had acquired the video-sharing site YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,WEB,weblink Google Has Acquired YouTube, Arrington, Michael, October 9, 2006, TechCrunch, AOL, March 15, 2017,weblink March 16, 2017, no, WEB,weblink Google to Acquire YouTube for $1.65 Billion, Sorkin, Andrew Ross, Peters, Jeremy W., October 9, 2006, The New York Times, March 15, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170609080519weblink">weblink June 9, 2017, no, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.WEB,weblink Google Closes YouTube Acquisition, Arrington, Michael, November 13, 2006, TechCrunch, AOL, March 15, 2017,weblink March 16, 2017, no, WEB,weblink Google closes YouTube deal, Auchard, Eric, November 14, 2006, Reuters, Thomson Reuters, March 15, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170316113147weblink">weblink March 16, 2017, no, On April 13, 2007, Google reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $3.1 billion, transferring to Google valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with Web publishers and advertising agencies.WEB,weblink Google Buys DoubleClick for $3.1 Billion, Story, Louise, Helft, Miguel, April 14, 2007, The New York Times, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170404014741weblink">weblink April 4, 2017, no, In 2005, The Washington Post reported on a 700 percent increase in third-quarter profit for Google, largely thanks to large companies shifting their advertising strategies from newspapers, magazines, and television to the Internet.NEWS,weblink Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit, Vise, David, October 21, 2005, The Washington Post, November 27, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161020134416weblink">weblink October 20, 2016, no, In May 2011, the number of monthly unique visitors to Google surpassed one billion for the first time.WEB,weblink Google's new record, 1 billion visitors in May, Ben, June 2, 2011, It's All Tech,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116035631weblink">weblink January 16, 2013, November 30, 2016, By 2011, Google was handling approximately 3 billion searches per day. To handle this workload, Google built 11 datacenters around the world with some several thousand servers in each. These datacenters allowed Google to handle the ever changing workload more efficiently.On August 15, 2011, Google made its largest-ever acquisition to date when it announced that it would acquire Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billionNEWS,weblink Google agrees to acquire Motorola Mobility, Tsukayama, Hayley, August 15, 2011, The Washington Post, August 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113035358weblink">weblink November 13, 2012, no, WEB,weblink Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility â€” Google Investor Relations, Google, August 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110817101741weblink">weblink August 17, 2011, no, This purchase was made in part to help Google gain Motorola's considerable patent portfolio on mobile phones and wireless technologies, to help protect Google in its ongoing patent disputes with other companies,WEB,weblink Official Google Blog: Supercharging Android: Google to Acquire Motorola Mobility, Page, Larry, Google Blog at Blogspot.com, August 17, 2011,weblink July 28, 2012, no, mainly Apple and Microsoft,WEB,weblink Google CEO: 'Anticompetitive' Apple, Microsoft forced Motorola deal, Hughes, Neil, AppleInsider, August 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111210181127weblink">weblink December 10, 2011, no, and to allow it to continue to freely offer Android.WEB,weblink$12.5b/, Google to buy Motorola Mobility for $12.5B, Cheng, Roger, August 15, 2011, CNet News, August 15, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111006062539weblink">weblink$12.5b/, October 6, 2011, no,

2012 onward

The year 2012 was the first time that Google generated $50 billion in annual revenue, generating $38 billion the previous year. In January 2013, then-CEO Larry Page commented, "We ended 2012 with a strong quarter ... Revenues were up 36% year-on-year, and 8% quarter-on-quarter. And we hit $50 billion in revenues for the first time last year – not a bad achievement in just a decade and a half."WEB,weblink Google Has Its First $50 Billion Year, Fiegerman, Seth, January 22, 2013, Mashable, November 30, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161201014741weblink">weblink December 1, 2016, no, In June 2013, Google acquired Waze, a $966 million deal.WEB,weblink Google reveals it spent $966 million in Waze acquisition, Kerr, Dara, July 25, 2013, CNET, CBS Interactive, June 12, 2017,weblink February 16, 2017, no, While Waze would remain an independent entity, its social features, such as its crowdsourced location platform, were reportedly valuable integrations between Waze and Google Maps, Google's own mapping service.WEB,weblink Google Bought Waze For $1.1B, Giving A Social Data Boost To Its Mapping Business, Lunden, Ingrid, June 11, 2013, TechCrunch, AOL, June 12, 2017,weblink July 6, 2017, no, Google announced the launch of a new company, called Calico, on September 19, 2013, to be led by Apple, Inc. chairman Arthur Levinson. In the official public statement, Page explained that the "health and well-being" company would focus on "the challenge of ageing and associated diseases".NEWS, Google spin-off Calico to search for answers to ageing,weblink September 20, 2013, BBC News, September 19, 2013, Jane Wakefield,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130919201510weblink">weblink September 19, 2013, no, (File:Google-Deep Mind headquarters in London, 6 Pancras Square.jpg|thumb|upright|Entrance of building where Google and its subsidiary Deep Mind are located at 6 Pancras Square, London, UK.|alt=)On January 26, 2014, Google announced it had agreed to acquire DeepMind Technologies, a privately held artificial intelligence company from London.NEWS,weblink Google To Acquire Artificial Intelligence Company DeepMind, Chowdhry, Amit, January 27, 2014, Forbes, January 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140129142153weblink">weblink January 29, 2014, no, Technology news website Recode reported that the company was purchased for $400 million though it was not disclosed where the information came from. A Google spokesman would not comment of the price.NEWS,weblink Google to buy artificial intelligence company DeepMind, Helgren, Chris, January 27, 2014, Reuters, January 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140127042513weblink">weblink January 27, 2014, no, NEWS,weblink Google buys artificial intelligence company DeepMind, Ribeiro, Jon, January 27, 2014, PC World, January 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140130042946weblink">weblink January 30, 2014, no, The purchase of DeepMind aids in Google's recent growth in the artificial intelligence and robotics community.WEB,weblink Google buying AI startup DeepMind for a reported $400 million, Opam, Kwame, January 26, 2014, The Verge, Vox Media, March 9, 2017,weblink July 8, 2017, no, According to Interbrand's annual Best Global Brands report, Google has been the second most valuable brand in the world (behind Apple Inc.) in 2013,WEB, Rankings - 2013 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161022013506weblink">weblink October 22, 2016, no, 2014,WEB, Rankings - 2014 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161103140119weblink">weblink November 3, 2016, no, 2015,WEB, Rankings - 2015 - Best Global Brands - Interbrand,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161021100708weblink">weblink October 21, 2016, no, and 2016, with a valuation of $133 billion.WEB, Rankings - 2016 - Best Global Brands,weblink Interbrand, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="archive.is/20161220191226weblink">weblink December 20, 2016, no, On August 10, 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet. Google became Alphabet's leading subsidiary, and will continue to be the umbrella company for Alphabet's Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, who became CEO of Alphabet.WEB,weblink Google Rises After Creating Holding Company Called Alphabet, Womack, Brian, August 10, 2015, Bloomberg L.P., November 22, 2016,weblink November 23, 2016, no, NEWS,weblink Google Creates Parent Company Called Alphabet in Restructuring, Barr, Alistair, Winkler, Rolf, August 10, 2015, The Wall Street Journal, November 22, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161128112043weblink">weblink November 28, 2016, no, WEB,weblink Google to Reorganize as Alphabet to Keep Its Lead as an Innovator, Dougherty, Conor, August 10, 2015, The New York Times, November 22, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161019164806weblink">weblink October 19, 2016, no, {{As of|2016|10|post=,}} Google operates 70 offices in more than 40 countries.WEB, Google locations,weblink Google, Inc., October 23, 2016,weblink August 15, 2013, no, Alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google.com as the most visited website in the world.WEB, google.com Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016,weblink February 2, 2012, no, Several other Google services also figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTubeWEB, youtube.com Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161127004253weblink">weblink November 27, 2016, no, and Blogger.WEB, blogger.com Traffic Statistics,weblink Alexa Internet, November 25, 2016, November 27, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161112072306weblink">weblink November 12, 2016, no, On August 8, 2017, Google fired employee James Damore after he distributed a memo throughout the company which argued that "Google's ideological echo chamber" and bias clouded their thinking about diversity and inclusion, and that it is also biological factors, not discrimination alone, that cause the average woman to be less interested than men in technical positions."Google Fires Engineer Who Wrote Memo Questioning Women in Tech" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810185646weblink |date=August 10, 2017 }}. The New York Times, August 7, 2017 Google CEO Sundar Pichai accused Damore in violating company policy by "advancing harmful gender stereotypes in our workplace", and he was fired on the same day.Contentious Memo Strikes Nerve Inside Google and Out {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170809012140weblink |date=August 9, 2017 }}. The New York Times, August 8, 2017diversitymemo.comWEB,weblink The Most Common Error in Media Coverage of the Google Memo, Friedersdorf, Conor, August 9, 2017,weblink August 8, 2017, no, New York Times columnist David Brooks argued Pichai had mishandled the case, and called for his resignation.WEB,weblink Sundar Pichai Should Resign as Google's C.E.O, Brooks, David, August 11, 2017, The New York Times, limited,weblink August 11, 2017, no, August 11, 2017, WEB,weblink New York Times columnist David Brooks wants Google's CEO to resign, Business Insider, en,weblink" title="archive.is/20170812131604weblink">weblink August 12, 2017, no, August 12, 2017, On October 25, 2018, The New York Times published the exposé, "How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android’". The company subsequently announced that "48 employees have been fired over the last two years" for sexual misconduct.WEB,weblink Google says 48 people have been fired for sexual harassment in the last two years, Welch, Chris, October 25, 2018, October 31, 2018, The Verge,weblink October 31, 2018, no, On November 1, 2018, more than 20,000 Google employees and contractors staged a global walk-out to protest the company's handling of sexual harassment complaints.WEB,weblink PHOTOS: Google employees all over the world left their desk and walked out in protest over sexual misconduct, Hamilton, Isobel Asher, November 1, 2018, November 6, 2018, Business Insider, etal,weblink November 2, 2018, no, NEWS,weblink More Than 20,000 Google Employees Participated in Walkout Over Sexual Harassment Policy, Segarra, Lisa Marie, November 3, 2018, November 6, 2018, Fortune,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181107013331weblink">weblink November 7, 2018, no, On March 19, 2019, Google announced that it would enter the video game market, launching a cloud gaming platform called Google Stadia.On June 3, 2019, the United States Department of Justice reported that it would investigate Google for antitrust violations.WEB,weblink Google shares take a dive with reports of US DoJ 'competition' probe,

Products and services

Search engine

(File:2019 Google Homepage.png|alt=|left|thumb|Google Search homepage {{as of|2019|4|30|df=|lc=y}})Google indexes billions of web pages to allow users to search for the information they desire through the use of keywords and operators.WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google's Misleading Blog Post: The Size Of The Web And The Size Of Their Index Are Very Different,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 25, 2008, March 9, 2017,weblink March 12, 2017, no, According to comScore market research from November 2009, Google Search is the dominant search engine in the United States market, with a market share of 65.6%.NEWS, December 16, 2006, comScore Releases November 2009 U.S. Search Engine Rankings,weblink July 5, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100225142724weblink">weblink February 25, 2010, no, In May 2017, Google enabled a new "Personal" tab in Google Search, letting users search for content in their Google accounts' various services, including email messages from Gmail and photos from Google Photos.WEB, Barry, Schwartz, Google Adds Personal Tab To Search Filters,weblink Search Engine Roundtable, RustyBrick, May 26, 2017, May 27, 2017,weblink May 27, 2017, no, WEB, Chaim, Gartenberg, Google adds new Personal tab to search results to show Gmail and Photos content,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 26, 2017, May 27, 2017,weblink May 26, 2017, no, Google launched its Google News service in 2002, an automated service which summarizes news articles from various websites.NEWS,weblink Automatic for the People, Macht, Joshua, September 30, 2002, Time, June 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101022094519weblink">weblink October 22, 2010, no, Google also hosts Google Books, a service which searches the text found in books in its database and shows limited previews or and the full book where allowed.WEB,weblink Google hit with second lawsuit over Library project, Martin, China, November 26, 2007, InfoWorld, July 5, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510022853weblink">weblink May 10, 2011, no,

Advertising

(File:Ad-tech London 2010 (2).JPG|thumb|Google on ad-tech London, 2010)As per its 2017 Annual report, Google generates most of its revenues from advertising. This includes sales of apps, purchases made in-app, digital content products on google and YouTube, android and licensing and service fees, including fees received for Google Cloud offerings. 46% of this was from clicks (cost per clicks), amounting to US$109,652 million in 2017. This includes three principal methods, namely AdMob, AdSense (such as AdSense for Content, AdSense for Search, etc.) and DoubleClick AdExchange.BOOK, Annualg report (Alphabet Inc.) - 2017, March 1, 2018, Alphabet Inc. Investor relations,weblink December 3, 2018,weblink February 3, 2016, no, For the 2006 fiscal year, the company reported $10.492{{nbsp}}billion in total advertising revenues and only $112{{nbsp}}million in licensing and other revenues.WEB,weblink Form 10-K{{nbsp, – Annual Report |accessdate=July 5, 2010 |publisher=SEC |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101106152355weblink |archive-date=November 6, 2010 |dead-url=no}} In 2011, 96% of Google's revenue was derived from its advertising programs.WEB,weblink Google Inc, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date January 26, 2012, secdatabase.com, March 8, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130502193637weblink">weblink May 2, 2013, no, In addition to its own algorithms for understanding search requests, Google uses technology from the company DoubleClick, to project user interest and target advertising to the search context and the user history.NEWS, Nakashima, Ellen, Some Web Firms Say They Track Behavior Without Explicit Consent,weblink August 12, 2008, The Washington Post, July 5, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121112172756weblink">weblink November 12, 2012, no, WEB, Miguel, Helft, Google to Offer Ads Based on Interests,weblink The New York Times, March 11, 2009, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170328214358weblink">weblink March 28, 2017, no, In 2007, Google launched "AdSense for Mobile", taking advantage of the emerging mobile advertising market.WEB,weblink Google AdSense for Mobile unlocks the potential of the mobile advertising market, September 17, 2007, Google, Inc., February 26, 2010,weblink June 20, 2012, no, Google Analytics allows website owners to track where and how people use their website, for example by examining click rates for all the links on a page.WEB, Peter, Bright, Surfing on the sly with IE8's new "InPrivate" Internet,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, August 27, 2008, March 9, 2017,weblink March 12, 2017, no, Google advertisements can be placed on third-party websites in a two-part program. Google's AdWords allows advertisers to display their advertisements in the Google content network, through a cost-per-click scheme.WEB, Vangie, Beal, AdWords - Google AdWords,weblink Webopedia, QuinStreet Inc., May 27, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170629163240weblink">weblink June 29, 2017, no, The sister service, Google AdSense, allows website owners to display these advertisements on their website and earn money every time ads are clicked.WEB, Vangie, Beal, AdSense - Google AdSense,weblink Webopedia, QuinStreet Inc., May 27, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170502044751weblink">weblink May 2, 2017, no, One of the criticisms of this program is the possibility of click fraud, which occurs when a person or automated script clicks on advertisements without being interested in the product, causing the advertiser to pay money to Google unduly. Industry reports in 2006 claimed that approximately 14 to 20 percent of clicks were fraudulent or invalid.NEWS, Mills, Elinor,weblink Google to offer advertisers click fraud stats, news.cnet.com, CNET, July 25, 2006, July 29, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510075216weblink">weblink May 10, 2011, no,

Consumer services

Web-based services

Google offers Gmail for email,WEB, Chris, Gayomali, When Gmail Launched On April 1, 2004, People Thought It Was A Joke,weblink Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures, April 1, 2014, June 12, 2017,weblink October 18, 2017, no, Google Calendar for time-management and scheduling,WEB, James, Vincent, Google Calendar update makes it easier to track your New Year's fitness goals,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, January 5, 2017, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170113025213weblink">weblink January 13, 2017, no, Google Maps for mapping, navigation and satellite imagery,WEB, Mitchel, Broussard, Google Maps Introduces New Location Sharing Feature With Real-Time Friend Tracking,weblink MacRumors, March 22, 2017, June 12, 2017,weblink March 27, 2017, no, Google Drive for cloud storage of files,WEB, T.C., Sottek, Google Drive officially launches with 5GB free storage, Google Docs integration,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 24, 2012, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161226161807weblink">weblink December 26, 2016, no, Google Docs, Sheets and Slides for productivity, Google Photos for photo storage and sharing,WEB, Sarah, Perez, Google Photos Breaks Free Of Google+, Now Offers Free, Unlimited Storage,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 28, 2015, June 12, 2017,weblink July 6, 2017, no, Google Keep for note-taking,WEB, Dan, Graziano, Google launches Google Keep note-taking service [video],weblink Boy Genius Report, BGR, Penske Media Corporation, March 20, 2013, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161008154306weblink">weblink October 8, 2016, no, Google Translate for language translation,WEB, Lisa, Eadicicco, Google's Translation App Is About To Get Much Better,weblink Time (magazine), Time, November 16, 2016, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170401152526weblink">weblink April 1, 2017, no, YouTube for video viewing and sharing,WEB, Saba, Hamedy, People now spend 1 billion hours watching YouTube every day,weblink Mashable, February 28, 2017, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170517233015weblink">weblink May 17, 2017, no, Google My Business for managing public business information,WEB,weblink Google My Business - Stand Out on Google for Free, www.google.com, February 6, 2019,weblink February 7, 2019, no, and Duo for social interaction.WEB, Steven, Levy, Inside Google+ - How the search giant plans to go social,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, June 28, 2011, June 12, 2017,weblink April 5, 2017, no, In March 2019, Google unveiled a cloud gaming service named Stadia.WEB,weblink Google unveils Stadia cloud gaming service, launches in 2019, Warren, Tom, March 19, 2019, The Verge, April 8, 2019,weblink March 19, 2019, no,

Software

Google develops the Android mobile operating system,WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Breaking: Google Announces Android and Open Handset Alliance,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 5, 2007, June 12, 2017,weblink June 22, 2017, no, as well as its smartwatch,WEB, Dante, D'Orazio, Google reveals Android Wear, an operating system for smartwatches,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 18, 2014, April 4, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210034323weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, no, television,WEB, Josh, Ong, Google announces Android TV to bring 'voice input, user experience and content' to the living room,weblink The Next Web, June 25, 2014, April 4, 2017,weblink March 13, 2017, no, car,WEB, Alex, Wilhelm, Google Announces Android Auto, Promises Enabled Cars By The End Of 2014,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, June 25, 2014, April 4, 2017,weblink June 22, 2017, no, and Internet of things-enabled smart devices variations.WEB, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Android Things is Google's new OS for smart devices,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, December 13, 2016, April 4, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170217131058weblink">weblink February 17, 2017, no, It also develops the Google Chrome web browser,WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, A fresh take on the browser,weblink Official Google Blog, September 1, 2008, November 22, 2016,weblink March 15, 2016, no, and Chrome OS, an operating system based on Chrome.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, Introducing the Google Chrome OS,weblink Official Google Blog, July 7, 2009, November 22, 2016,weblink November 22, 2016, no,

Hardware

(File:Pixel 3 と Pixel 3 XL を初触。本体をギュッと握ると Google Assistant が立ち上がるのがおもしろい。 ワシントンDC (44519013945).jpg|alt=|thumb|Google Pixel smartphones on display in a store)In January 2010, Google released Nexus One, the first Android phone under its own brand, "Nexus".WEB, MG, Siegler, The Droid You're Looking For: Live From The Nexus One Event,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 5, 2010, November 22, 2016,weblink November 23, 2016, no, It spawned a number of phones and tablets under the "Nexus" brandingWEB, Florence, Ion, From Nexus One to Nexus 10: a brief history of Google's flagship devices,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, May 15, 2013, June 12, 2017,weblink June 24, 2017, no, until its eventual discontinuation in 2016, replaced by a new brand called Pixel.WEB, Dieter, Bohn, The Google Phone: The inside story of Google's bold bet on hardware,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170106213353weblink">weblink January 6, 2017, no, In 2011, the Chromebook was introduced, described as a "new kind of computer" running Chrome OS.WEB, Sundar, Pichai, Linus, Upson, A new kind of computer: Chromebook,weblink Official Google Blog, May 11, 2011, November 22, 2016,weblink November 22, 2016, no, In July 2013, Google introduced the Chromecast dongle, that allows users to stream content from their smartphones to televisions.WEB, Adi, Robertson, Google reveals Chromecast: video streaming to your TV from any device for $35,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, July 24, 2013, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161226065215weblink">weblink December 26, 2016, no, WEB, Google Chromecast takes on streaming content to TV,weblink BBC News, BBC, July 31, 2013, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129205929weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, In June 2014, Google announced Google Cardboard, a simple cardboard viewer that lets user place their smartphone in a special front compartment to view virtual reality (VR) media.WEB, James, O'Toole, Google's cardboard virtual-reality goggles,weblink CNN, June 26, 2014, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129145138weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, WEB, Erik, Kain, Google Cardboard Is Google's Awesomely Weird Answer To Virtual Reality,weblink Forbes, June 26, 2014, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129151747weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no,
  • The Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones with the Google Assistant, a next-generation contextual voice assistant, built-in.WEB, Vlad, Savov, Pixel 'phone by Google' announced,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170210094337weblink">weblink February 10, 2017, no,
  • Google Home, an Amazon Echo-like voice assistant placed in the house that can answer voice queries, play music, find information from apps (calendar, weather etc.), and control third-party smart home appliances (users can tell it to turn on the lights, for example). The Google Home line also includes variants such as the Google Home Hub, Google Home Mini, and Google Home MaxWEB, Dieter, Bohn, Google Home is smart, loud, and kind of cute,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161007204916weblink">weblink October 7, 2016, no,
  • Daydream View virtual reality headset that lets Android users with compatible Daydream-ready smartphones put their phones in the headset and enjoy VR content.WEB, Adi, Robertson, Jacob, Kastrenakes, Google's Daydream View VR headset goes on sale next month for $79,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161007203651weblink">weblink October 7, 2016, no,
  • Google Wifi, a connected set of Wi-Fi routers to simplify and extend coverage of home Wi-Fi.WEB, Dieter, Bohn, The Google Wifi routers are little white pucks you can scatter throughout your house,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 4, 2016, October 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161007180430weblink">weblink October 7, 2016, no,

Enterprise services{{anchor|Enterprise_products}}

G Suite is a monthly subscription offering for organizations and businesses to get access to a collection of Google's services, including Gmail, Google Drive and Google Docs, Google Sheets and Google Slides, with additional administrative tools, unique domain names, and 24/7 support.WEB, Choose a Plan,weblink G Suite by Google Cloud, December 2, 2016,weblink December 12, 2016, no, On September 24, 2012,WEB,weblink Celebrating the spirit of entrepreneurship with the new Google for Entrepreneurs, Official Google Blog, en, March 20, 2018,weblink March 20, 2018, no, Google launched Google for Entrepreneurs, a largely not-for-profit business incubator providing startups with co-working spaces known as Campuses, with assistance to startup founders that may include workshops, conferences, and mentorships.NEWS,weblink How Google Wants to Make Starting Up Easier for Entrepreneurs, Fell, Jason, September 27, 2012, Entrepreneur, March 20, 2018, en,weblink March 20, 2018, no, Presently, there are 7 Campus locations in Berlin, London, Madrid, Seoul, São Paulo, Tel Aviv, and Warsaw.On March 15, 2016, Google announced the introduction of Google Analytics 360 Suite, "a set of integrated data and marketing analytics products, designed specifically for the needs of enterprise-class marketers" which can be integrated with BigQuery on the Google Cloud Platform. Among other things, the suite is designed to help "enterprise class marketers" "see the complete customer journey", generate "useful insights", and "deliver engaging experiences to the right people".WEB, Paul, Muret, Introducing the Google Analytics 360 Suite,weblink March 15, 2016, January 22, 2017,weblink January 12, 2017, no, Jack Marshall of The Wall Street Journal wrote that the suite competes with existing marketing cloud offerings by companies including Adobe, Oracle, Salesforce, and IBM.NEWS, Jack, Marshall, Google Launches New Data Tools for Marketers,weblink The Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2016, January 22, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113150024weblink">weblink November 13, 2016, no,

Internet services

In February 2010, Google announced the Google Fiber project, with experimental plans to build an ultra-high-speed broadband network for 50,000 to 500,000 customers in one or more American cities.WEB, Minnie, Ingersoll, James, Kelly, Think big with a gig: Our experimental fiber network,weblink Official Google Blog, February 10, 2010, November 29, 2016,weblink November 29, 2016, no, WEB, Erick, Schonfeld, Google Plans To Deliver 1Gb/sec Fiber-Optic Broadband Network To More Than 50,000 Homes,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 10, 2010, November 29, 2016,weblink November 29, 2016, no, Following Google's corporate restructure to make Alphabet Inc. its parent company, Google Fiber was moved to Alphabet's Access division.WEB, Kevin, McLaughlin, Inside the Battle Over Google Fiber,weblink The Information, August 25, 2016, November 29, 2016,weblink November 29, 2016, no, WEB, Nick, Statt, Alphabet is putting serious pressure on Google Fiber to cut costs,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, August 25, 2016, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129145849weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, In April 2015, Google announced Project Fi, a mobile virtual network operator, that combines Wi-Fi and cellular networks from different telecommunication providers in an effort to enable seamless connectivity and fast Internet signal.WEB, Nick, Fox, Say hi to Fi: A new way to say hello,weblink Official Google Blog, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016,weblink November 29, 2016, no, WEB, David, Goldman, Google launches 'Project Fi' wireless service,weblink CNN, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129150255weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, WEB, Ellen, Huet, Google Unveils Its 'Project Fi' Wireless Service,weblink Forbes, April 22, 2015, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129152041weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, In September 2016, Google began its Google Station initiative, a project for public Wi-Fi at railway stations in India. Caesar Sengupta, VP for Google's next billion users, told The Verge that 15,000 people get online for the first time thanks to Google Station and that 3.5 million people use the service every month. The expansion meant that Google was looking for partners around the world to further develop the initiative, which promised "high-quality, secure, easily accessible Wi-Fi".WEB, Sam, Byford, Google Station is a new platform that aims to make public Wi-Fi better,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 27, 2016, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161023203300weblink">weblink October 23, 2016, no, By December, Google Station had been deployed at 100 railway stations,WEB, Brian, Heater, After arriving at 100th railway station in India, Google's WiFi is set to hit another 100 in 2017,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, December 29, 2016, June 12, 2017,weblink May 10, 2017, no, and in February, Google announced its intention to expand beyond railway stations, with a plan to bring citywide Wi-Fi to Pune.WEB, Stephen, Hall, Google Station expands beyond rail stations to bring citywide WiFi to Pune, India,weblink 9to5Google, February 9, 2017, June 12, 2017,weblink February 10, 2017, no, WEB, Manish, Singh, Indian city to become the first in the world to get Google Station public Wi-Fi network,weblink Mashable, February 9, 2017, June 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170223153245weblink">weblink February 23, 2017, no,

Other products

In May 2011, Google announced Google Wallet, a mobile application for wireless payments.NEWS, Tara, Bernard, Google Unveils App for Paying With Phone,weblink The New York Times, May 26, 2011, November 29, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161012171341weblink">weblink October 12, 2016, no, In 2013, Google launched Google Shopping Express, a delivery service initially available only in San Francisco and Silicon Valley.NEWS, Somerville, Heather,weblink Google same-day delivery makes public debut, Mercury News, September 25, 2013, October 6, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131001221830weblink">weblink October 1, 2013, no,

Corporate affairs

Finance

{{Further|Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland#Multinational tax schemes|Google tax}}File:Schmidt-Brin-Page-20080520.jpg|thumb|Then-CEO, now Chairman of Google Eric Schmidt with cofounders Sergey Brin and alt=Eric Schmidt, Sergey Brin, and Larry Page sitting togetherGoogle's initial public offering (IPO) took place on August 19, 2004. At IPO, the company offered 19,605,052 shares at a price of $85 per share. The sale of $1.67 billion gave Google a market capitalization of more than $23 billion. The stock performed well after the IPO, with shares hitting $350 for the first time on October 31, 2007,NEWS,weblink Google shares hit $700, Hancock, Jay, October 31, 2007, The Baltimore Sun, November 27, 2010,weblink February 2, 2012, no, primarily because of strong sales and earnings in the online advertising market.NEWS,weblink Bowling for Google, La Monica, Paul R., May 25, 2005, CNN, February 28, 2007,weblink February 2, 2012, no, The surge in stock price was fueled mainly by individual investors, as opposed to large institutional investors and mutual funds. GOOG shares split into GOOG class C shares and GOOGL class A shares.WEB,weblink This could cost Google more than $500 million, CNBC, December 30, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151226080454weblink">weblink December 26, 2015, no, The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbols GOOGL and GOOG, and on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol GGQ1. These ticker symbols now refer to Alphabet Inc., Google's holding company, {{as of|2015|8|10|alt=since the fourth quarter of 2015.}}NEWS,weblink Google to become part of new company, Alphabet, Pramuk, Jacob, August 10, 2015, CNBC, August 11, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150811000128weblink">weblink August 11, 2015, no, The corporation's consolidated revenue for the third quarter of 2013 was reported in mid-October 2013 as $14.89 billion, a 12 percent increase compared to the previous quarter.WEB,weblink Google Beats Analyst Estimates For Third Quarter Results, Stock Passes $1000 Per Share, Whitwam, Ryan, October 18, 2013, Android Police, March 15, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170316025733weblink">weblink March 16, 2017, no, Google's Internet business was responsible for $10.8 billion of this total, with an increase in the number of users' clicks on advertisements.NEWS,weblink Google earnings up 12% in third quarter even as Motorola losses deepen, Reuters, October 17, 2013, The Guardian, October 18, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131017221536weblink">weblink October 17, 2013, yes, By January 2014, Google's market capitalization had grown to $397 billion.WEB,weblink Google Overview, Marketwatch, February 2, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140202073406weblink">weblink February 2, 2014, no, Google uses various tax avoidance strategies. Out of the five largest American technology companies, it pays the lowest taxes to the countries of origin of its revenues. Google between 2007 and 2010 saved $3.1 billion in taxes by shuttling non-U.S. profits through Ireland and the Netherlands and then to Bermuda. Such techniques lower its non-U.S. tax rate to 2.3 per cent, while normally the corporate tax rate in for instance the UK is 28 per cent.WEB,weblink Google slips $3.1bn through 'Double Irish' tax loophole., Metz, Cade, October 22, 2010, The Register, August 10, 2017,weblink July 6, 2017, no, This has reportedly sparked a French investigation into Google's transfer pricing practices.WEB,weblink French gov 'plans to hand Google €1bn tax bill' â€“ report, Leach, Anna, October 31, 2012, Theregister.co.uk, January 2, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130104002014weblink">weblink January 4, 2013, no, Google Vice-President Matt Brittin testified to the Public Accounts Committee of the UK House of Commons that his UK sales team made no sales and hence owed no sales taxes to the UK.WEB,weblink I think you DO do evil, using smoke and mirrors to avoid tax, Brid-Aine Parnell, May 17, 2013, May 17, 2013, Theregister.co.uk, March 13, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131226090028weblink">weblink December 26, 2013, no, In January 2016, Google reached a settlement with the UK to pay £130m in back taxes plus higher taxes in future.WEB,weblink Google strikes £130m back tax deal, John Gapper, January 23, 2016, FT.com, January 24, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160124195612weblink">weblink January 24, 2016, no, In 2017, Google channeled $22.7 billion from the Netherlands to Bermuda to reduce its tax bill.NEWS,weblink Google shifted $23 billion to tax haven Bermuda in 2017: filing, Bart Meijer, January 3, 2019, Reuters, January 3, 2019, Google moved 19.9 billion euros ($22.7 billion) through a Dutch shell company to Bermuda in 2017, as part of an arrangement that allows it to reduce its foreign tax bill,weblink January 3, 2019, no, In 2013, Google ranked 5th in lobbying spending, up from 213th in 2003. In 2012, the company ranked 2nd in campaign donations of technology and Internet sections.NEWS,weblink Google, once disdainful of lobbying, now a master of Washington influence, Hamburger, Tom, April 13, 2014, The Washington Post, Gold, Matea, August 22, 2017,weblink October 27, 2017, no,

Corporate identity

(File:Logo Google 2013 Official.svg|thumb|200px|Google's logo from 2013-2015)The name "Google" originated from a misspelling of "googol",Koller, David. "Origin of the name, "Google." {{webarchive|url=https://www.webcitation.org/68ubHzYs7?url=http://graphics.stanford.edu/~dk/google_name_origin.html|date=2012-07-04}} Stanford University. January, 2004.Hanley, Rachael. "From Googol to Google: Co-founder returns {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100330004631weblink|date=March 30, 2010}}." The Stanford Daily. February 12, 2003. Retrieved on August 26, 2010. which refers to the number represented by a 1 followed by one-hundred zeros. Page and Brin write in their original paper on PageRank:JOURNAL, Brin, S., Page, L., Larry Page, 1998, The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine,weblink Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 30, 1–7, 107–117, 10.1.1.115.5930, 10.1016/S0169-7552(98)00110-X, 0169-7552, Sergey Brin, April 7, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150927004511weblink">weblink September 27, 2015, no, "We chose our systems name, Google, because it is a common spelling of googol, or 10100 and fits well with our goal of building very large-scale search engines." Having found its way increasingly into everyday language, the verb "google" was added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary in 2006, meaning "to use the Google search engine to obtain information on the Internet."Harris, Scott D. "Dictionary adds verb: to google]." San Jose Mercury News. July 7, 2006. WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070206065348weblink">weblink February 6, 2007, bot: unknown, July 7, 2006, Bylund, Anders. "To Google or Not to Google {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20060707062623weblink|date=July 7, 2006}}." The Motley Fool via MSNBC. July 5, 2006. Retrieved on July 7, 2006. Google's mission statement, from the outset, was "to organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful",WEB,weblink Google has 'outgrown' its 14-year old mission statement, says Larry Page, Gibbs, Samuel, November 3, 2014, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, March 25, 2017,weblink March 26, 2017, no, and its unofficial slogan is "Don't be evil".WEB,weblink Google Code of Conduct, April 11, 2012, Alphabet Investor Relations, Alphabet Inc., March 25, 2017,weblink February 11, 2017, no, In October 2015, a related motto was adopted in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase: "Do the right thing".WEB,weblink Alphabet replaces Google's 'Don't be evil' with 'Do the right thing', Lawler, Richard, October 2, 2015, Engadget, AOL, March 25, 2017,weblink July 1, 2017, no, The original motto was retained in the code of conduct of Google, now a subsidiary of Alphabet.The original Google logo was designed by Sergey Brin.NEWS,weblink Happy Birthday Google!, April 28, 2016, ndtv.com, NDTV Convergence Limited,weblink April 7, 2019, no, {{As of|1998|since=y|post=,}} Google has been designing special, temporary alternate logos to place on their homepage intended to celebrate holidays, events, achievements and people. The first Google Doodle was in honor of the Burning Man Festival of 1998.WEB,weblink Doodle 4 Google, April 23, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140427143948weblink">weblink April 27, 2014, no, WEB,weblink Burning Man Festival, August 30, 1998, April 23, 2014,weblink April 25, 2014, no, The doodle was designed by Larry Page and Sergey Brin to notify users of their absence in case the servers crashed. Subsequent Google Doodles were designed by an outside contractor, until Larry and Sergey asked then-intern Dennis Hwang to design a logo for Bastille Day in 2000. From that point onward, Doodles have been organized and created by a team of employees termed "Doodlers".NEWS,weblink Meet the people behind the Google Doodles, April 12, 2014, The Guardian, September 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006222909weblink">weblink October 6, 2014, no, Google has a tradition of creating April Fools' Day jokes. Its first on April 1, 2000 was Google MentalPlex which allegedly featured the use of mental power to search the web.WEB,weblink Google MentalPlex, April 1, 2000, Google, Inc., July 5, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100921223048weblink">weblink September 21, 2010, no, In 2007, Google announced a free Internet service called TiSP, or Toilet Internet Service Provider, where one obtained a connection by flushing one end of a fiber-optic cable down their toilet.WEB,weblink Welcome to Google TiSP, April 1, 2007, Google, Inc., July 5, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100709034300weblink">weblink July 9, 2010, no, Google's services contain easter eggs, such as the Swedish Chef's "Bork bork bork," Pig Latin, "Hacker" or leetspeak, Elmer Fudd, Pirate, and Klingon as language selections for its search engine.WEB,weblink Language Tools, Google, Inc.,weblink June 12, 2009, yes, July 4, 2010, When searching for the word "anagram," meaning a rearrangement of letters from one word to form other valid words, Google's suggestion feature displays "Did you mean: nag a ram?"WEB,weblink anagram search, Google, Inc., September 22, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130624205429weblink">weblink June 24, 2013, no,

Workplace culture{{Anchor|Innovation Time Off|Employees}}

File:Pride in London 2016 - Google participating in the parade.png|alt=|left|thumb|Google employees marching in the Pride in LondonPride in LondonOn Fortune magazine's list of the best companies to work for, Google ranked first in 2007, 2008 and 2012,JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, January 22, 2007, Serwer, Andrew, In good company,weblink Fortune Magazine, 155, 1, June 19, 2010, Andrew Serwer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100301175257weblink">weblink March 1, 2010, no, JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, February 4, 2008, Serwer, Andrew, The 2008 list,weblink Fortune Magazine, 157, 2, June 19, 2010, Andrew Serwer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100723223729weblink">weblink July 23, 2010, no, JOURNAL, The 2012 list,weblink Fortune Magazine, February 26, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121031135647weblink">weblink October 31, 2012, no, and fourth in 2009 and 2010.JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, February 2, 2009, Serwer, Andrew, The 2009 list,weblink Fortune Magazine, 159, 2, June 19, 2010, Andrew Serwer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100726042849weblink">weblink July 26, 2010, no, JOURNAL, Levering, Robert, Moskowitz, Milton, February 8, 2010, Serwer, Andrew, The 2010 list,weblink Fortune Magazine, 161, 2, June 19, 2010, Andrew Serwer,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100618125312weblink">weblink June 18, 2010, no, Google was also nominated in 2010 to be the world's most attractive employer to graduating students in the Universum Communications talent attraction index.WEB,weblink The World's Most Attractive Employers 2010, September 28, 2010, Universum Global, October 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101112131208weblink">weblink November 12, 2010, yes, Google's corporate philosophy includes principles such as "you can make money without doing evil," "you can be serious without a suit," and "work should be challenging and the challenge should be fun."WEB,weblink Our Philosophy, Google, Inc., June 20, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100709041157weblink">weblink July 9, 2010, no, {{As of|2018|12|31|alt=As of December 2018,}} Google has 98,771 employees. Google's {{as of|2017|6|29|alt=2017}} diversity report states that 31 percent of its workforce are women and 69 percent are men, with the ethnicity of its workforce being predominantly white (56%) and Asian (35%).BLOG,weblink Making progress on diversity and inclusion, Naughton, Eileen, June 29, 2017, Diversity, The Keyword, Google,weblink May 17, 2018, no, May 17, 2018, {{pb}}NEWS, Yurieff, Kaya, June 29, 2017, Google struggles to increase workforce diversity,weblink no, CNNTech, CNNMoney, Time Warner, New York,weblink May 17, 2018, May 17, 2018, Within tech roles, however, 20 percent were women; and 25 percent of leadership roles were held by women.Google's employees are hired based on a hierarchical system. Employees are split into six hierarchies based on experience and can range "from entry-level data center workers at level one to managers and experienced engineers at level six."NEWS,weblink Google workers collected data showing their male colleagues make more than women, Wakabayashi, Daisuke, September 8, 2017, CNBC, September 25, 2017,weblink September 26, 2017, no, As a motivation technique, Google uses a policy known as Innovation Time Off, where Google engineers are encouraged to spend 20% of their work time on projects that interest them. Some of Google's services, such as Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and AdSense originated from these independent endeavors.WEB,weblink The Google Way: Give Engineers Room, Mediratta, Bharat, Bick, Julie, October 21, 2007, The New York Times, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402201354weblink">weblink April 2, 2017, no, In a talk at Stanford University, Marissa Mayer, Google's Vice-President of Search Products and User Experience until July 2012, showed that half of all new product launches in the second half of 2005 had originated from the Innovation Time Off.VIDEO, Mayer, Marissa (speaker), June 30, 2006, Marissa Mayer at Stanford University,weblink Seminar, Martin Lafrance, June 20, 2010, 11:33, Fifty percent of what Google launched in the second half of 2005 actually got built out of 20% time.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100816150501weblink">weblink August 16, 2010, no, In 2005, articles in The New York TimesWEB,weblink Relax, Bill Gates; It's Google's Turn as the Villain, Rivlin, Gary, August 24, 2005, The New York Times, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170403014314weblink">weblink April 3, 2017, no, and other sources began suggesting that Google had lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.JOURNAL, Utz, Richard, 2013, The Good Corporation? Google's Medievalism and Why It Matters, Studies in Medievalism, 23, 21–28, NEWS,weblink Search giant may outgrow its fans, Gibson, Owen, August 25, 2005, The Sydney Morning Herald, November 27, 2010, Wray, Richard,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100517075346weblink">weblink May 17, 2010, no, WEB,weblink Google â€“ Don't Be Evil, Ranka, Mohit, May 17, 2007, OSNews, November 27, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100706224751weblink">weblink July 6, 2010, no, In an effort to maintain the company's unique culture, Google designated a Chief Culture Officer whose purpose was to develop and maintain the culture and work on ways to keep true to the core values that the company was founded on.WEB,weblink Google's culture czar, Mills, Elinor, April 30, 2007, ZDNet,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101031155723weblink">weblink October 31, 2010, yes, November 27, 2010, Google has also faced allegations of sexism and ageism from former employees.NEWS,weblink Google hit with job discrimination lawsuit, Kawamoto, Dawn, July 27, 2005, CNET, November 27, 2010, CBS Interactive, WEB,weblink Google accused of ageism in reinstated lawsuit, October 6, 2007, ctv.ca,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011205140weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, yes, January 22, 2017, In 2013, a class action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Google, was filed for alleged "no cold call" agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees.WEB,weblink Judge approves first payout in antitrust wage-fixing lawsuit, Rosenblatt, Seth, May 16, 2014, CNET, CBS Interactive, January 22, 2017,weblink February 2, 2017, no,

Office locations{{Anchor|Office locations and headquarters}}

{{Further|Googleplex}}(File:111 Eighth Avenue.jpg|alt=|thumb|Google's New York City office building houses its largest advertising sales team.)File:Google at 111 Richmond Street West in Toronto (cropped).jpg|thumb|Google's TorontoTorontoGoogle's headquarters in Mountain View, California is referred to as "the Googleplex", a play on words on the number googolplex and the headquarters itself being a complex of buildings. Internationally, Google has over 78 offices in more than 50 countries.WEB,weblink Google: Our Offices, April 19, 2018,weblink July 26, 2018, no, In 2006, Google moved into about {{convert|300000|sqft|m2|-2}} of office space in New York City, at 111 Eighth Avenue in Manhattan. The office was designed and built specially for Google, and houses its largest advertising sales team, which has been instrumental in securing large partnerships.WEB, Marguerite, Reardon, Google takes a bigger bite of Big Apple,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 11, 2006, June 13, 2017,weblink October 12, 2016, no, In 2010, Google bought the building housing the headquarter, in a deal that valued the property at around $1.9 billion.WEB, Peter, Grant, Google to Buy New York Office Building,weblink The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, December 3, 2010, June 13, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161010041640weblink">weblink October 10, 2016, no, {{subscription required}}WEB, Sam, Gustin, Google buys giant New York building for $1.9 billion,weblink Wired (website), Wired, Condé Nast, December 22, 2010, June 13, 2017,weblink January 2, 2017, no, In March 2018, Google's parent company Alphabet bought the nearby Chelsea Market building for $2.4 billion. The sale is touted as one of the most expensive real estate transactions for a single building in the history of New York.NEWS,weblink Google buys NYC's Chelsea Market building for $2.4 bn, June 1, 2018,weblink June 13, 2018, no, WEB,weblink Google bought Manhattan's Chelsea Market building for $2.4 billion – TechCrunch, techcrunch.com, en-US, June 1, 2018,weblink June 8, 2018, no, NEWS,weblink Google closes $2.4 billion Chelsea Market deal to expand New York..., Editorial, Reuters, U.S., June 1, 2018, en-US,weblink May 27, 2018, no, NEWS,weblink Report: Alphabet Is Buying Chelsea Market for Over $2B, February 9, 2018, PCMag UK, June 1, 2018, en-GB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180613210609weblink">weblink June 13, 2018, no, In November 2018, Google announced its plan to expand its New York City office to a capacity of 12,000 employees.NEWS,weblink Google Plans Large New York City Expansion, Grant, Douglas MacMillan, Eliot Brown and Peter, WSJ, November 8, 2018, en-US,weblink November 8, 2018, no, The same December, it was announced that a $1 billion, {{convert|1,700,000|ft2|m2|adj=on}} headquarters for Google would be built in Manhattan's Hudson Square neighborhood.WEB, Google To Build New $1 Billion Campus In NYC, CBS New York, December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018, no, WEB, Gartenberg, Chaim, Google announces a new $1 billion NYC campus in Hudson Square, The Verge, December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018, no, Called Google Hudson Square, the new campus is projected to more than double the number of Google employees working in New York City.WEB,weblink Google Will Spend $1 Billion For New York City Campus On Hudson River, NPR.org, en, December 17, 2018,weblink December 17, 2018, no, By late 2006, Google established a new headquarters for its AdWords division in Ann Arbor, Michigan.WEB, Mary Hayes, Weier, Inside Google's Michigan Office,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080503233009weblink">weblink InformationWeek, UBM plc, October 24, 2007, May 3, 2008, January 22, 2017, yes, In November 2006, Google opened offices on Carnegie Mellon's campus in Pittsburgh, focusing on shopping-related advertisement coding and smartphone applications and programs.NEWS,weblinkweblink June 4, 2009, Google Completes Pittsburgh Office, Holds Open House, November 17, 2006, January 13, 2008, WTAE TV, WTAE, yes, WEB,weblink Google search: Tech-minded workers, Olson, Thomas, December 8, 2010, Trib Total Media, December 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130603080308weblink">weblink June 3, 2013, no, Other office locations in the U.S. include Atlanta, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Boulder, Colorado; Cambridge, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Kirkland, Washington; Birmingham, Michigan; Reston, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.WEB,weblink Google locations, March 16, 2016,weblink August 15, 2013, no, It also has product research and development operations in cities around the world, namely Sydney (birthplace location of Google Maps)WEB, Sydney,weblink Google Careers, June 4, 2017,weblink May 5, 2017, no, and London (part of Android development).WEB, London,weblink Google Careers, June 4, 2017,weblink February 14, 2017, no, In November 2013, Google announced plans for a new London headquarter, a 1 million square foot office able to accommodate 4,500 employees. Recognized as one of the biggest ever commercial property acquisitions at the time of the deal's announcement in January,WEB, Leo, Mirani, Inside Google's new 1-million-square-foot London office—three years before it's ready,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, Atlantic Media, November 1, 2013, March 15, 2017,weblink March 16, 2017, no, Google submitted plans for the new headquarter to the Camden Council in June 2017.WEB, James, Vincent, Google's new London HQ is a 'landscraper' with a rooftop garden,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 1, 2017, June 4, 2017,weblink June 3, 2017, no, WEB, Matt, Brian, Google's 'innovative' new London HQ features giant moving blinds,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 1, 2017, June 4, 2017,weblink June 4, 2017, no, In May 2015, Google announced its intention to create its own campus in Hyderabad, India. The new campus, reported to be the company's largest outside the United States, will accommodate 13,000 employees.WEB, Google to build biggest campus outside US in Hyderabad,weblink The Indian Express, May 12, 2015, June 13, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118040601weblink">weblink November 18, 2015, no, WEB, Google's upcoming campus in Hyderabad to be its biggest outside the US,weblink Firstpost, Network 18, May 13, 2015, June 13, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161118003932weblink">weblink November 18, 2016, no,

Infrastructure

{{Further|Google data centers}}Google data centers are located in North and South America, Asia, Europe.WEB,weblink Data center locations,weblink May 17, 2018, no, May 17, 2018, There’s no official data on how many servers there are in Google data centers, but Gartner estimated in a July 2016 report that Google at the time had 2.5 million servers.WEB,weblink How Many Servers Does Google Have?, Data Center Knowledge, September 20, 2018,weblink February 17, 2019, no, Traditionally, Google relied on parallel computing on commodity hardwareWEB,weblink Google's Secret: 'Cheap and Fast' Hardware, October 10, 2003, PCWorld, May 26, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091214182753weblink">weblink December 14, 2009, no, like mainstream x86 computers similar to home PCsJOURNAL, Barroso, L.A., Dean, J., Holzle, U., April 29, 2003, Web search for a planet: the google cluster architecture, IEEE Micro, 23, 2, 22–28, 10.1109/mm.2003.1196112, 0272-1732, We believe that the best price/performance tradeoff for our applications comes from fashioning a reliable computing infrastructure from clusters of unreliable commodity PCs., to keep costs per query low.NEWS,weblink Google uncloaks once-secret server, April 1, 2009, CNET, May 26, 2018, Mainstream servers with x86 processors were the only option, he added. "Ten years ago...it was clear the only way to make (search) work as free product was to run on relatively cheap hardware. You can't run it on a mainframe server, mainframe. The margins just don't work out," he said.,weblink June 6, 2018, no, In 2005, it started developing its own designs, which were only revealed in 2009.In the late 2010s, Google began to build its own private submarine communications cables. The first, named Curie, connects California with Chile and is to be completed in 2019.WEB,weblink Google and other tech giants are quietly buying up the most important part of the internet, April 6, 2019, VentureBeat, en-US, April 25, 2019,weblink April 25, 2019, no, mdy-all, The second fully Google-owned undersea cable, named Dunant, connects the United States with France and is planned to begin operation in 2020.WEB,weblink How Google is building its huge subsea cable infrastructure, Sawers, Paul, April 24, 2019, VentureBeat,weblink April 26, 2019, no, April 26, 2019,

Environment

In October 2006, the company announced plans to install thousands of solar panels to provide up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, enough to satisfy approximately 30% of the campus' energy needs.WEB,weblink Google plans to build huge solar energy system for headquarters, Richmond, Riva, October 17, 2006, post1.net, MarketWatch,weblink May 19, 2016, yes, October 17, 2006, The system will be the largest solar power system constructed on a U.S. corporate campus and one of the largest on any corporate site in the world. {{As of|2007|since=y|post=,}} Google has aimed for carbon neutrality in regard to its operations.WEB, Jack, McGrath, Google's Green Initiative: Environmentally Conscious Technology,weblink TechnoBuffalo, May 18, 2011, January 22, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161012172247weblink">weblink October 12, 2016, no, Google disclosed in September 2011 that it "continuously uses enough electricity to power 200,000 homes", almost 260 million watts or about a quarter of the output of a nuclear power plant. Total carbon emissions for 2010 were just under 1.5 million metric tons, mostly due to fossil fuels that provide electricity for the data centers. Google said that 25 percent of its energy was supplied by renewable fuels in 2010. An average search uses only 0.3 watt-hours of electricity, so all global searches are only 12.5 million watts or 5% of the total electricity consumption by Google.WEB, James, Glanz, Google Details, and Defends, Its Use of Electricity,weblink The New York Times, September 8, 2011, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170312053616weblink">weblink March 12, 2017, no, In 2010, Google Energy made its first investment in a renewable energy project, putting $38.8 million into two wind farms in North Dakota. The company announced the two locations will generate 169.5 megawatts of power, enough to supply 55,000 homes.NEWS,weblink Google Invests in Two Wind Farms, Morrison, Scott, May 4, 2010, The Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2010, Sweet, Cassandra,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150213232857weblink">weblink February 13, 2015, no, In February 2010, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FERC granted Google an authorization to buy and sell energy at market rates.NEWS,weblink Google Energy can now buy and sell energy, Cnet.com, September 23, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130919091407weblink">weblink September 19, 2013, no, The corporation exercised this authorization in September 2013 when it announced it would purchase all the electricity produced by the not-yet-built 240-megawatt Happy Hereford wind farm.NEWS,weblink Google is on the way to quietly becoming an electric utility, Todd Woody, September 18, 2013, Quartz, September 23, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130921050811weblink">weblink September 21, 2013, no, In July 2010, Google signed an agreement with an Iowa wind farm to buy 114 megawatts of energy for 20 years.WEB,weblink Google buys power from Iowa wind farm, July 21, 2010, News.techworld.com, October 26, 2010,weblink February 2, 2012, no, In December 2016, Google announced that—starting in 2017—it will power all of its data centers, as well as all of its offices, from 100% renewable energy. The commitment will make Google "the world's largest corporate buyer of renewable power, with commitments reaching 2.6 gigawatts (2,600 megawatts) of wind and solar energy". Google also stated that it does not count that as its final goal; it says that "since the wind doesn't blow 24 hours a day, we'll also broaden our purchases to a variety of energy sources that can enable renewable power, every hour of every day". Additionally, the project will "help support communities" around the world, as the purchase commitments will "result in infrastructure investments of more than $3.5 billion globally", and will "generate tens of millions of dollars per year in revenue to local property owners, and tens of millions more to local and national governments in tax revenue".WEB,weblink We're set to reach 100% renewable energy — and it's just the beginning, Hölzle, Urs, December 6, 2016, The Keyword Google Blog, December 8, 2016,weblink December 8, 2016, no, WEB,weblink Google just notched a big victory in the fight against climate change, Statt, Nick, December 6, 2016, The Verge, Vox Media, December 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161208001307weblink">weblink December 8, 2016, no, WEB,weblink Google says it will hit 100% renewable energy by 2017, Etherington, Darrell, December 7, 2016, TechCrunch, AOL, December 8, 2016,weblink December 7, 2016, no, In November 2017, Google bought 536 megawatts of wind power. The purchase made the firm reach 100% renewable energy. The wind energy comes from two power plants in South Dakota, one in Iowa and one in Oklahoma.NEWS,weblink Google Just Bought Enough Wind Power to Run 100% On Renewable Energy, November 30, 2017, Donnelly, Grace, Fortune, December 1, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201172833weblink">weblink December 1, 2017, no,

Philanthropy

In 2004, Google formed the not-for-profit philanthropic Google.org, with a start-up fund of $1 billion.WEB,weblink About the Foundation, Google, Inc.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100714080922weblink">weblink July 14, 2010, yes, July 16, 2010, The mission of the organization is to create awareness about climate change, global public health, and global poverty. One of its first projects was to develop a viable plug-in hybrid electric vehicle that can attain 100 miles per gallon. Google hired Larry Brilliant as the program's executive director in 2004WEB,weblink Philanthropy Google's Way: Not the Usual, Hafner, Katie, September 14, 2006, The New York Times, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160723065526weblink">weblink July 23, 2016, no, and Megan Smith has {{as of|2009|2|23|alt=since}} replaced him as director.WEB,weblink Google Chief for Charity Steps Down on Revamp, Helft, Miguel, February 23, 2009, The New York Times, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170422112540weblink">weblink April 22, 2017, no, In 2008, Google announced its "project 10100" which accepted ideas for how to help the community and then allowed Google users to vote on their favorites.WEB,weblink Project 10 to the 100th, Google, Inc.,weblink June 12, 2009, yes, July 16, 2010, After two years of silence, during which many wondered what had happened to the program,NEWS,weblink Google Struggles to Give Away $10 million, Van Burskirk, Elliot, June 28, 2010, Wired (website), Wired, September 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100831172215weblink">weblink August 31, 2010, no, Google revealed the winners of the project, giving a total of ten million dollars to various ideas ranging from non-profit organizations that promote education to a website that intends to make all legal documents public and online.WEB,weblink $10 million for Project 10^100 winners, Twohill, Lorraine, September 24, 2010, Google, Inc., September 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100926020623weblink">weblink September 26, 2010, no, In March 2007, in partnership with the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI), Google hosted the first Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at its headquarters in Mountain View.The 2007 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181120090220weblink |date=November 20, 2018 }} Julia Robinson Mathematics Festival at Google was the founding of this event for middle school and high school students. video In 2011, Google donated 1 million euros to International Mathematical Olympiad to support the next five annual International Mathematical Olympiads (2011–2015).WEB,weblink Mathletes Receive €1M Donation from Google, Duffy, Jill, January 21, 2011, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, March 23, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170323234649weblink">weblink March 23, 2017, no, WEB,weblink Google donating 1 million euros to IMO, January 20, 2011,weblink July 24, 2011, yes, February 4, 2011, In July 2012, Google launched a "Legalize Love" campaign in support of gay rights.WEB,weblink Google launches 'Legalise Love' gay rights campaign, PinkNews.co.uk, September 9, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140819044558weblink">weblink August 19, 2014, no,

Criticism and controversy

{{summarize|from|Criticism of Google|better=y|section=y|date=April 2019}}File:Google bus protest.jpg|thumb|San Francisco activists protest privately-owned shuttle buses that transport workers for tech companies such as Google from their homes in San Francisco and Oakland to corporate campuses in Silicon Valley.]]Google's market dominance has led to prominent media coverage, including criticism of the company over issues such as aggressive tax avoidance,WEB, Jesse, Drucker, Google 2.4% Rate Shows How $60 Billion Is Lost to Tax Loopholes,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg L.P., October 21, 2010, January 22, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160922035532weblink">weblink September 22, 2016, no, {{subscription required}} search neutrality, copyright, censorship of search results and content,WEB,weblink The Case Against Google, nytimes.com, February 20, 2018, March 21, 2018,weblink March 19, 2018, no, and privacy.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Google ranked 'worst' on privacy, June 11, 2007, April 30, 2010,weblink October 20, 2012, no, WEB, Jeffrey, Rosen, Google's Gatekeepers,weblink The New York Times, November 28, 2008, March 9, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170228140546weblink">weblink February 28, 2017, no, Other criticisms include alleged misuse and manipulation of search results, its use of others' intellectual property, concerns that its compilation of data may violate people's privacy, and the energy consumption of its servers, as well as concerns over traditional business issues such as monopoly, restraint of trade, anti-competitive practices, and patent infringement.Google adhered to the Internet censorship policies of China,NEWS,weblink Google censors itself for China, January 25, 2006, BBC News, August 4, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181119073206weblink">weblink November 19, 2018, no, enforced by means of filters colloquially known as "The Great Firewall of China". As a result, all Google services except for Chinese Google Maps are blocked from access within mainland China without the aid of VPNs, proxy servers, or other similar technologies. The Intercept reported in August 2018 that Google is developing for the people's Republic of China a censored version of its search engine (known as Dragonfly) "that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest".NEWS, Google Plans to Launch Censored Search Engine in China, Leaked Documents Reveal · Ryan Gallagher,weblink The Intercept, August 1, 2018, August 4, 2018,weblink August 1, 2018, no, NEWS, Disis, Jill, Google grilled over 'Project Dragonfly' at Senate hearing on data privacy, September 26, 2018, CNN,weblinkweblink September 26, 2018, no, However, the project had been withheld due to privacy concerns.
WEB,weblink Google’s Secret China Project "Effectively Ended" After Internal Confrontation, Gallagher, Ryan, December 17, 2018, The Intercept, en-US, December 17, 2018,weblink March 21, 2019, no,
Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Google.WEB, Edward Snowden: Leaks that exposed US spy programme,weblink BBC News, January 17, 2014, March 25, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170320171345weblink">weblink March 20, 2017, no, According to leaks of said program, Google joined the PRISM program in 2009.WEB, Glenn, Greenwald, Ewen, MacAskill, NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, June 7, 2013, March 25, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060818114650weblink">weblink August 18, 2006, no, Google has worked with the United States Department of Defense on drone software through the 2017 "Project Maven" that could be used to improve the accuracy of drone strikes."Google employees revolt, say company should shut down military drone project {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180408141509weblink |date=April 8, 2018 }}". Ars Technica. April 4, 2018. Thousands of Google employees, including senior engineers, have signed a letter urging Google CEO Sundar Pichai to end a controversial contract with the Pentagon."Google staff protest company's involvement with Pentagon drones programme {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180409174803weblink |date=April 9, 2018 }}". The Independent. April 4, 2018. In response to the backlash, Google ultimately decided to not renew their DoD contract, set to expire in 2019.WEB, Wakabayashi, Daisuke, Shane, Scott, Google Will Not Renew Pentagon Contract That Upset Employees,weblink nytimes.com, The New York Times Company, October 16, 2018, June 1, 2018,weblink October 16, 2018, no, Shona Ghosh, a journalist for Business Insider, noted that an increasing digital resistance movement against Google has grown. A major hub for critics of Google in order to organize to abstain from using Google products is the Reddit page for the subreddit /r/degoogle.WEB,weblink Thousands of Reddit users are trying to delete Google from their lives, but they're finding it impossible because Google is everywhere, April 24, 2019,weblink March 25, 2019, no,

Litigation

Google has been involved in a number of lawsuits including the High-Tech Employee Antitrust Litigation which resulted in Google being one of four companies to pay a $415 million settlement to employees.NEWS, Rosenblatt, Joel, Apple-Google $415 Million No-Poaching Accord Wins Approval,weblink January 24, 2016, Bloomberg L.P., March 2, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160130214110weblink">weblink January 30, 2016, no, On June 27, 2017, the company received a record fine of {{€|2.42 billion|link=yes}} from the European Union for "promoting its own shopping comparison service at the top of search results."WEB,weblink Google hit with record EU fine over Shopping service, Leo, Kelion, June 27, 2017, bbc.co.uk, June 29, 2017,weblink June 27, 2017, no, Commenting on the penalty, New Scientist magazine said: "The hefty sum – the largest ever doled out by the EU's competition regulators – will sting in the short term, but Google can handle it. Alphabet, Google’s parent company, made a profit of $2.5 billion (€2.2 billion) in the first six weeks of 2017 alone. The real impact of the ruling is that Google must stop using its dominance as a search engine to give itself the edge in another market: online price comparisons." The company disputed the ruling.WEB,weblink Google's €2.4bn fine is small change – the EU has bigger plans, newscientist.com, June 29, 2017,weblink January 24, 2019, no, On July 18, 2018,WEB,weblink Antitrust: Commission fines Google €4.34 billion for illegal practices regarding Android mobile devices to strengthen dominance of Google's search engine, Bruxelles, July 18, 2018, European Commission,weblink July 18, 2018, no, the European Commission fined Google €4.34 billion for breaching EU antitrust rules. The abuse of dominant position has been referred to Google's constraint applied on Android device manufacturers and network operators to ensure that traffic on Android devices goes to the Google search engine. On October 9, 2018, Google confirmedWEB,weblink Google appeals $5 billion EU fine in Android antitrust case, APNews.com, October 10, 2018, en, Bruxelles,weblink October 10, 2018, no, that it had appealed the fine to the General Court of the European Union.WEB, Foo Yun Chee,weblink Google challenges record $5 billion EU antitrust fine, May 13, 2014,weblink December 22, 2018, no, On January 21, 2019, French data regulator CNIL imposed a record €50 million fine on Google for breaching the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation. The judgment claimed Google had failed to sufficiently inform users of its methods for collecting data to personalize advertising. Google issued a statement saying it was “deeply committed” to transparency and was “studying the decision” before determining its response.WEB, Fox, Chris, Google hit with £44m GDPR fine,weblink BBC, January 22, 2019, January 21, 2019,weblink January 21, 2019, no, On March 20, 2019, the European Commission imposed a €1.49 billion ($1.69 billion) fine on Google for preventing rivals from being able to “compete and innovate fairly” in the online advertising market.WEB, Europe hits Google with a third, $1.7 billion antitrust fine,weblink CNN, March 21, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no, European Union competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager said Google had violated EU antitrust rules by “imposing anti-competitive contractual restrictions on third-party websites” that required them to exclude search results from Google’s rivals. Kent Walker, Google’s senior vice-president of global affairs, said the company had “already made a wide range of changes to our products to address the Commission’s concerns,” and that "we'll be making further updates to give more visibility to rivals in Europe."WEB, Reid, David, EU regulators hit Google with $1.7 billion fine for blocking ad rivals,weblink CNBC.com, March 20, 2019,weblink March 20, 2019, no,

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, The Mobile Wave: How Mobile Intelligence Will Change Everything, Saylor, Michael, Michael J. Saylor, 2012, Perseus Books/Vanguard Press, 978-1593157203, harv,

External links

{{sisterlinks|n=Category:Google|s=no|b=Google Services And Products|voy=no|species=no|d=Q95|m=Google}}
  • {{Official website}}
  • WEB,weblink Google website, September 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19981111183552weblink">weblink November 11, 1998, bot: unknown,
  • JOURNAL, Carr, David F., How Google Works, Baseline Magazine, 6, 6, 2006,weblink
  • {{Crunchbase|google|Google}}
  • {{OpenCorp|Google|Google}}
{{Finance links|name = Google, Inc.|symbol = GOOG|sec_cik = 1288776|hoovers = Google_Inc.fb3f79c4d1791506}}{{Google LLC|corporate=yes|products=yes}}{{Alphabet Inc.}}{{Navboxes|list1={{Open Handset Alliance Members}}{{Google Lunar X Prize}}{{Major mobile device companies}}{{Major Internet companies}}{{Major software companies}}}}{{Authority control}}

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