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Andy Warhol
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{{for|the song by David Bowie|Andy Warhol (song)}}{{pp-vandalism|expiry=indef|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Short description|American artist}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019}}







factoids
| birth_place = Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.| field = Printmaking, painting, cinema, photography| training = Carnegie Institute of Technology (Carnegie Mellon University)| movement = Pop art| works = Chelsea Girls (1966 film)Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966 event)Campbell's Soup Cans (1962 painting) Marilyn Diptych (1962 painting)1987228mf=yes}}| death_place = New York City, U.S.}}Andy Warhol ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|w|ɔːr|h|É’|l}};Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: "Warhol" born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 â€“ February 22, 1987) was an American artist, director, and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, advertising, and celebrity culture that flourished by the 1960s, and span a variety of media, including painting, silkscreening, photography, film, and sculpture. Some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans (1962) and Marilyn Diptych (1962), the experimental film Chelsea Girls (1966), and the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable (1966–67).Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol initially pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist. His New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy patrons.NEWS, Trebay, Guy, La Ferla, Ruth, Tales From the Warhol Factory - In each of three successive spaces called the Factory, Andy Warhol created movies, paintings, time capsules and psychosexual dramas with a half-life of many decades. Here his collaborators recall the places, the times and the man.,weblink November 12, 2018, The New York Times, November 13, 2018, WEB, Pescovitz, David, Memories from Warhol's Factory,weblink November 12, 2018, Boing Boing, November 13, 2018, WEB, Rosen, Miss, Juicy Stories About What Andy Warhol Was Really Like - "Andy seemed to be floating through space. He had this magical energy and looked like nobody else.",weblink November 13, 2018, Vice (magazine), Vice, November 13, 2018, He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, and is credited with inspiring the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame." In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and (Popism: The Warhol Sixties). He lived openly as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58.Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster); his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold.NEWS,weblink Andy Warhol painting sells for $105M, New York Daily News, November 13, 2013, November 13, 2013, A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market".NEWS,weblink A special report on the art market: The Pop master's highs and lows, The Economist, November 26, 2009, August 14, 2010,

Biography

Early life and beginnings (1928–49)

File:Andy Warhol's childhood home in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Warhol's childhood home. 3252 Dawson Street, South Oakland neighborhood of PittsburghPittsburghWarhol was born on August 6, 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.WEB,weblink Andy Warhol: Biography, Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, 2002, He was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola (Americanized as Andrew Warhola, Sr., 1889–1942)WEB,weblink Biography, Warhola.com, August 14, 2010, V. Bockris, Warhol: The Biography, Da Capo Press, 2009, p. 15. and Julia (née Zavacká, 1892–1972),WEB,weblink Mother, Warhola.com, August 14, 2010, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.S.His parents were working-class LemkoPaul Robert Magocsi, Ivan Pop, Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture, University of Toronto Press, 2002.Jane Daggett Dillenberger, Religious Art of Andy Warhol, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002, p. 7. emigrants from Mikó, Austria-Hungary (now called Miková, located in today's northeastern Slovakia). Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine. The family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh.BOOK, Victor, Bockris, Victor Bockris, The life and death of Andy Warhol, Bantam Books, New York City, 1989, 4–5, 0-553-05708-1, 19631216,weblink The family was Ruthenian Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol (Paul), the oldest, was born before the family emigrated; Ján was born in Pittsburgh. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator.In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea (also known as St. Vitus' Dance), the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, which is believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness.WEB,weblink biography, warhol.org, January 13, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130106165536weblink">weblink January 6, 2013, At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident.WEB,weblink The Prince of Pop Art, Arthistoryarchive.com, August 14, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100707153626weblink">weblink July 7, 2010, live, As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945. Also as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award.PRESS RELEASE, Scholastic Inc, March 14, 2016, America's Most Creative Teens Names as National 2016 Scholastic Art & Writing Award Recipients,weblink {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Modern Dance Club and Beaux Arts Society.WEB, Andy Warhol: The College Years,weblink The Andy Warhol Museum, February 9, 2015, warholmuse, He also served as art director of the student art magazine, Cano, illustrating a cover in 1948WEB,weblink Sprite Heads Playing Violins, 1948, the warhol, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150209190850weblink">weblink February 9, 2015, and a full-page interior illustration in 1949.WEB, Gopnik, Blake, Feb 9, 2015: The Daily Pic,weblink Blake Gopnik on Art, February 9, 2015, gopnik, These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949.Colacello, Bob (1990), p. 19. Later that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising.

1950s

Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s. In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller.Benstock, Shari and Suzanne Ferriss (editors). Footnotes: On Shoes; Rutgers University Press; February 1, 2001; {{ISBN|978-0813528717}}; pp. 44–48.For Israel Miller see i.a. "A Little Jewel Box of a Shoe Store" by Christopher Gray, The New York Times, February 10, 2008. American photographer John Coplans recalled thatWarhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York.Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan."Max Arthur Cohn" at SAAM. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and then blotting the ink while still wet, which was akin to a printmaking process on the most rudimentary scale. His use of tracing paper and ink allowed him to repeat the basic image and also to create endless variations on the theme, a method that prefigures his 1960s silk-screen canvas. In his book (Popism: The Warhol Sixties), Warhol writes: "When you do something exactly wrong, you always turn up something."BOOK,weblink Pop: The Genius of Andy Warhol, Tony Scherman, David Dalton, HarperCollins, 2010, 9780060936631, Warhol habitually used the expedient of tracing photographs projected with an epidiascope.{{Citation | author1=Warhol, Andy | author2=Glozer, Laslo, 1936- | author3=Schellmann, Jörg | author4=Edition Schellmann | title=Andy Warhol, art from art | date=1994 | publisher=Edition Schellmann; München : Schirmer/Mosel | isbn=978-3-88814-725-8 }} Using prints by Edward Wallowitch, his 'first boyfriend'{{Citation | author1=Koestenbaun, Wayne | title=Andy Warhol : a biography | date=2015 | publisher=New York, NY Open Road Integrated Media, Inc | isbn=978-1-4976-9989-2 }} the photographs would undergo a subtle transformation during Warhol's often cursory tracing of contours and hatching of shadows. Warhol used Wallowitch's photograph Young Man Smoking a Cigarette (c.1956),WEB,weblink Edward Wallowitch Young Man Smoking a Cigarette (c.1956 Gelatin silver print). The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, August 28, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180816061841weblink">weblink August 16, 2018, dead, for a 1958 design for a book cover he submitted to Simon and Schuster for the Walter Ross pulp novel The Immortal, and later used others for his dollar bill series,Three one-dollar bills mounted on cardboard (1962). Photograph by Edward Wallowitch. The Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh; Founding Collection, Contribution The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts, Inc.Printz, N. (2014). Making Money/Printing Painting: Warhol's Dollar Bill Paintings. Criticism, 56(3), 535-557. and for Big Campbell's Soup Can with Can Opener (Vegetable), of 1962 which initiated Warhol's most sustained motif, the soup can.With the rapid expansion of the record industry, RCA Records hired Warhol, along with another freelance artist, Sid Maurer, to design album covers and promotional materials.BOOK, Andrew, Oldham, Andrew Loog Oldham, Simon Spence, Christine Ohlman, 2Stoned, Secker and Warburg, London, 2002, 0-436-28015-9, 50215773, 137,

1960s

File:Andy Warhol and Tennessee Williams NYWTS.jpg|thumb|Warhol (left) and Tennessee Williams (right) talking on the SS France, 1967.]]He began exhibiting his work during the 1950s. He held exhibitions at the Hugo GalleryWarhol biography, Gagosian Gallery. Retrieved March 24, 2011. and the Bodley GalleryBodley Gallery Warhol exhibition announcement {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110716064331weblink |date=July 16, 2011 }}. Retrieved March 24, 2011. in New York City; in California, his first West Coast gallery exhibitionBOOK, Callie, Angell, Andy Warhol screen tests: the films of Andy Warhol: catalogue raisonné, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York City, 2006, 38, 0-8109-5539-3, 61162132, BOOK, Marco, Livingstone, Pop art: an international perspective, Rizzoli, New York City, 1992, 32, 0-8478-1475-0, 25649248, was on July 9, 1962, in the Ferus Gallery of Los Angeles with Campbell's Soup Cans. The exhibition marked his West Coast debut of pop art.BOOK, Lucy R., Lippard, Lucy R. Lippard, Pop art, Thames & Hudson, London, 1970, 158, 0-500-20052-1, 220727847, Andy Warhol's first New York solo pop art exhibition was hosted at Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery November 6–24, 1962. The exhibit included the works Marilyn Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke Bottles, and 100 Dollar Bills. At the Stable Gallery exhibit, the artist met for the first time poet John Giorno who would star in Warhol's first film, Sleep, in 1963.WEB,weblink www.warholstars.org, John Giorno, It was during the 1960s that Warhol began to make paintings of iconic American objects such as dollar bills, mushroom clouds, electric chairs, Campbell's Soup Cans, Coca-Cola bottles, celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Marlon Brando, Troy Donahue, Muhammad Ali, and Elizabeth Taylor, as well as newspaper headlines or photographs of police dogs attacking African-American protesters during the Birmingham campaign in the civil rights movement. During these years, he founded his studio, "The Factory" and gathered about him a wide range of artists, writers, musicians, and underground celebrities. His work became popular and controversial. Warhol had this to say about Coca-Cola:}}(File:Warhol-Campbell Soup-1-screenprint-1968.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Campbell's Soup I (1968))New York City's Museum of Modern Art hosted a Symposium on pop art in December 1962 during which artists such as Warhol were attacked for "capitulating" to consumerism. Critics were scandalized by Warhol's open embrace of market culture. This symposium set the tone for Warhol's reception.A pivotal event was the 1964 exhibit The American Supermarket, a show held in Paul Bianchini's Upper East Side gallery. The show was presented as a typical U.S. small supermarket environment, except that everything in it—from the produce, canned goods, meat, posters on the wall, etc.—was created by six prominent pop artists of the time, among them the controversial (and like-minded) Billy Apple, Mary Inman, and Robert Watts. Warhol's painting of a can of Campbell's soup cost $1,500 while each autographed can sold for $6. The exhibit was one of the first mass events that directly confronted the general public with both pop art and the perennial question of what art is.{{Citation needed|date=January 2009}}(File:Andy Warhol by Jack Mitchell.jpg|thumb|Andy Warhol, between 1966 and 1977)As an advertisement illustrator in the 1950s, Warhol used assistants to increase his productivity. Collaboration would remain a defining (and controversial) aspect of his working methods throughout his career; this was particularly true in the 1960s. One of the most important collaborators during this period was Gerard Malanga. Malanga assisted the artist with the production of silkscreens, films, sculpture, and other works at "The Factory", Warhol's aluminum foil-and-silver-paint-lined studio on 47th Street (later moved to Broadway). Other members of Warhol's Factory crowd included Freddie Herko, Ondine, Ronald Tavel, Mary Woronov, Billy Name, and Brigid Berlin (from whom he apparently got the idea to tape-record his phone conversations).Colacello, Bob (1990), p. 67.During the 1960s, Warhol also groomed a retinue of bohemian and counterculture eccentrics upon whom he bestowed the designation "Superstars", including Nico, Joe Dallesandro, Edie Sedgwick, Viva, Ultra Violet, Holly Woodlawn, Jackie Curtis, and Candy Darling. These people all participated in the Factory films, and some—like Berlin—remained friends with Warhol until his death. Important figures in the New York underground art/cinema world, such as writer John Giorno and film-maker Jack Smith, also appear in Warhol films (many premiering at the New Andy Warhol Garrick Theatre and 55th Street Playhouse) of the 1960s, revealing Warhol's connections to a diverse range of artistic scenes during this time. Less well known was his support and collaboration with several teenagers during this era, who would achieve prominence later in life including writer David Dalton,NEWS, Menand, Louis, Top of the Pops, New Yorker,weblink January 11, 2010, photographer Stephen ShoreNEWS, Grow, Krystal, Time Lightbox,weblink Time Inc., September 23, 2014, and artist Bibbe Hansen (mother of pop musician Beck).BOOK, James, Dagon, Billy Name:The Silver Age Black and White Photographs of Andy Warhol's Factory, 2014, Reel Art Press, 978-1909526174, 127,

Attempted murder (1968)

On June 3, 1968, radical feminist writer Valerie Solanas shot Warhol and Mario Amaya, art critic and curator, at Warhol's studio.BOOK, Schaffner, Ingrid, Ingrid Schaffner, The Essential Andy Warhol, Harry N. Abrams, New York City, 79, 1999, 0-8109-5806-6, Before the shooting, Solanas had been a marginal figure in the Factory scene. She authored in 1967 the S.C.U.M. Manifesto,BOOK, Valerie, Solanas, Valerie Solanas, SCUM Manifesto, Verso, London, 1967, 2004, 1-85984-553-3, 53932627, SCUM Manifesto, a separatist feminist tract that advocated the elimination of men; and appeared in the 1968 Warhol film I, a Man. Earlier on the day of the attack, Solanas had been turned away from the Factory after asking for the return of a script she had given to Warhol. The script had apparently been misplaced.Jobey, Liz, "Solanas and Son," The Guardian (Manchester, England), August 24, 1996, p, T10 and following.Amaya received only minor injuries and was released from the hospital later the same day. Warhol was seriously wounded by the attack and barely survived: surgeons opened his chest and massaged his heart to help stimulate its movement again. He suffered physical effects for the rest of his life, including being required to wear a surgical corset. The shooting had a profound effect on Warhol's life and art.JOURNAL, Harding, James, The Simplest Surrealist Act: Valerie Solanas and the (Re)Assertion of Avantgarde Priorities, TDR (journal), TDR/The Drama Review, 45, 4; Winter 2001, 142–162, 10.1162/105420401772990388, 2001, BOOK, Andy, Warhol, Pat Hacket, POPism: the Warhol '60s, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, 1980, 287–295, 0-15-173095-4, 5673923, Solanas was arrested the day after the assault, after turning herself in to police. By way of explanation, she said that Warhol "had too much control over my life." She was subsequently diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and eventually sentenced to three years under the control of the Department of Corrections. After the shooting, the Factory scene heavily increased security, and for many the "Factory 60s" ended.Warhol had this to say about the attack: "Before I was shot, I always thought that I was more half-there than all-there—I always suspected that I was watching TV instead of living life. People sometimes say that the way things happen in movies is unreal, but actually it's the way things happen in life that's unreal. The movies make emotions look so strong and real, whereas when things really do happen to you, it's like watching television—you don't feel anything. Right when I was being shot and ever since, I knew that I was watching television. The channels switch, but it's all television."BOOK, Kristine Stiles, Peter Howard Selz, Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: a Sourcebook of Artists' Writings,weblink January 13, 2013, 1996, University of California Press, 978-0-520-20251-1, 345–,

1970s

File:Jimmy Carter Andy Warhol 1977.jpg|thumb|President Jimmy CarterJimmy CarterCompared to the success and scandal of Warhol's work in the 1960s, the 1970s were a much quieter decade, as he became more entrepreneurial. According to Bob Colacello, Warhol devoted much of his time to rounding up new, rich patrons for portrait commissions—including Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, his wife Empress Farah Pahlavi, his sister Princess Ashraf Pahlavi, Mick Jagger, Liza Minnelli, John Lennon, Diana Ross, and Brigitte Bardot.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Warhol's Jackson goes on display, August 7, 2009, March 30, 2010, WEB,weblink Andy Warhol Expert art authentication, certificates of authenticity and expert appraisers, www.artexpertswebsite.com, February 26, 2018, Warhol's famous portrait of Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong was created in 1973. He also founded, with Gerard Malanga, Interview magazine, and published The Philosophy of Andy Warhol (1975). An idea expressed in the book: "Making money is art, and working is art and good business is the best art."BOOK, Broughton, Philip Delves, The Art of the Sale, 2012, The Penguin Press, New York, NY, 165, Warhol socialized at various nightspots in New York City, including Max's Kansas City; and, later in the 1970s, Studio 54.WEB,weblink Andy Warhol Biography: From The Velvet Underground To Basquiat, January 6, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090107015819weblink">weblink January 7, 2009, live, {{Unreliable source?|date=January 2009}} He was generally regarded as quiet, shy, and a meticulous observer. Art critic Robert Hughes called him "the white mole of Union Square."MAGAZINE, Robert, Hughes, Robert Hughes (critic), February 18, 1982, The Rise of Andy Warhol,weblink The New York Review of Books, In 1979, along with his longtime friend Stuart Pivar, Warhol founded the New York Academy of Art.MAGAZINE,weblink What happened to Andy's Treasures, New York Magazine, New York Media, January 27, 1992, 25, 4, 28, December 4, 2013, Alexander, Paul, MAGAZINE,weblink School for Scandal, New York Magazine, New York Media, April 8, 1996, 29, 14, 24, December 4, 2013, Connolly, John,

1980s

Warhol had a re-emergence of critical and financial success in the 1980s, partially due to his affiliation and friendships with a number of prolific younger artists, who were dominating the "bull market" of 1980s New York art: Jean-Michel Basquiat, Julian Schnabel, David Salle and other so-called Neo-Expressionists, as well as members of the Transavantgarde movement in Europe, including Francesco Clemente and Enzo Cucchi. Before the 1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics, he teamed with 15 other artists, including David Hockney and Cy Twombly, and contributed a Speed Skater print to the Art and Sport collection. The Speed Skater was used for the official Sarajevo Winter Olympics poster.WEB,weblink "Speed Skater" official 1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics poster by Andy Warhol, By this time, graffiti artist Fab Five Freddy paid homage to Warhol when he painted an entire train with Campbell soup cans. This was instrumental in Freddy becoming involved in the underground NYC art scene and becoming an affiliate of Basquiat.BOOK, Hip Hop Family Tree, Piskor, Ed, Fantagraphics, 2013, 978-1606996904, By this period, Warhol was being criticized for becoming merely a "business artist".NEWS, Michal, Lando, April 8, 2008, Reexamining Warhol's Jews,weblink The Jerusalem Post, January 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110703204535weblink">weblink July 3, 2011, In 1979, reviewers disliked his exhibits of portraits of 1970s personalities and celebrities, calling them superficial, facile and commercial, with no depth or indication of the significance of the subjects. They also criticized his 1980 exhibit of 10 portraits at the Jewish Museum in Manhattan, entitled Jewish Geniuses, which Warhol—who was uninterested in Judaism and Jews—had described in his diary as "They're going to sell." In hindsight, however, some critics have come to view Warhol's superficiality and commerciality as "the most brilliant mirror of our times," contending that "Warhol had captured something irresistible about the zeitgeist of American culture in the 1970s."Warhol also had an appreciation for intense Hollywood glamour. He once said: "I love Los Angeles. I love Hollywood. They're so beautiful. Everything's plastic, but I love plastic. I want to be plastic."BOOK, Victor, Bockris, Victor Bockris, Gerard Malanga, Up-tight: the Velvet Underground story, Omnibus Press, London, 2002, 66, 0-7119-9170-7, 49906101, Gerard Malanga, In 1984 Vanity Fair commissioned Warhol to produce a portrait of Prince, in order to accompany an article that celebrated the success of Purple Rain and its accompanying movie.NEWS,weblink Purple Fame: An Appreciation of Prince at the Height of His Powers. Vanity Fair 1984 article, with especially commissioned portrait commissioned from Andy Warhol, Vox, Tristan, Vanity Fair, March 12, 2018, en, Referencing the many celebrity portraits produced by Warhol across his career, Orange Prince (1984) was created using a similar composition to the Marilyn "Flavors" series from 1962, among some of Warhol's very first celebrity portraits.WEB,weblink Art historian, Thomas E Crow, analysis of Warhol's portrait of Prince, May 2018, www.pacermonitor.com, June 9, 2018, Prince is depicted in a pop color palette commonly used by Warhol, in bright orange with highlights of bright green and blue. The facial features and hair are screen-printed in black over the orange background.WEB,weblink Andy Warhol's Orange Marilyn 1962. Essay on the Warhol portrait style across three decades, www.christies.com, en, March 11, 2018, WEB,weblink Prince (1984) : Andy Warhol : Artimage, www.artimage.org.uk, en, March 11, 2018, WEB,weblink Andy Warhol and His Process: Screenprinting: sothebys.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160413051307weblink">weblink April 13, 2016, dead, In the Andy Warhol Diaries, Warhol recorded how excited he was to see Prince and Billy Idol together at a party in the mid 1980s, and he compared them to the Hollywood movie stars of the 1950s and 1960s who also inspired his portraits: "...{{nbsp}}seeing these two glamour boys, its like boys are the new Hollywood glamour girls, like Jean Harlow and Marilyn Monroe".BOOK, The Andy Warhol diaries, 2014, Warhol, Andy, Hackett, Pat, 9781455561452, 1st Twelve, New York, NY, Twelve, 881024850,

Works

Paintings

By the beginning of the 1960s, pop art was an experimental form that several artists were independently adopting; some of these pioneers, such as Roy Lichtenstein, would later become synonymous with the movement. Warhol, who would become famous as the "Pope of Pop", turned to this new style, where popular subjects could be part of the artist's palette. His early paintings show images taken from cartoons and advertisements, hand-painted with paint drips. Marilyn Monroe was a pop art painting that Warhol had done and it was very popular. Those drips emulated the style of successful abstract expressionists (such as Willem de Kooning). Warhol's first pop art paintings were displayed in April 1961, serving as the backdrop for New York Department Store Bonwit Teller's window display. This was the same stage his Pop Art contemporaries Jasper Johns, James Rosenquist and Robert Rauschenberg had also once graced.Smith, Patrick S (1986). Andy Warhol's Art and Films; UMI Research Press; p.98; {{ISBN|0-8357-1733-X}}(File:LuigiAccameAndyWarhol1974.png|thumb|upright|left|Andy Warhol: Portrait of Dr. Luigi Accame)It was the gallerist Muriel Latow who came up with the ideas for both the soup cans and Warhol's dollar paintings. On November 23, 1961, Warhol wrote Latow a check for $50 which, according to the 2009 Warhol biography, Pop, The Genius of Warhol, was payment for coming up with the idea of the soup cans as subject matter.WEB,weblink The Soup Cans—Andy Warhol, Warholstars.org, August 14, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100801234441weblink">weblink August 1, 2010, live, For his first major exhibition, Warhol painted his famous cans of Campbell's soup, which he claimed to have had for lunch for most of his life. A 1964 Large Campbell's Soup Can was sold in a 2007 Sotheby's auction to a South American collector for £5.1 million ($7.4 million)."Early Lucian Freud Painting Leads Sotheby’s $100 Million Contemporary Art Evening Sale" by Colin Gleadell, Artnet, February 10, 2016He loved celebrities, so he painted them as well. From these beginnings he developed his later style and subjects. Instead of working on a signature subject matter, as he started out to do, he worked more and more on a signature style, slowly eliminating the handmade from the artistic process. Warhol frequently used silk-screening; his later drawings were traced from slide projections. At the height of his fame as a painter, Warhol had several assistants who produced his silk-screen multiples, following his directions to make different versions and variations.Colacello, Bob (1990), p. 28.In 1979, Warhol was commissioned by BMW to paint a Group-4 race version of the then "elite supercar" BMW M1 for the fourth installment in the BMW Art Car Project. It was reported at the time that, unlike the three artists before him, Warhol opted to paint directly onto the automobile himself instead of letting technicians transfer his scale-model design to the car.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060525054033weblink">Bmw Art Car 1979: M1 by Andy Warhol, Car Body Design, March 27, 2006 (archived) It was indicated that Warhol spent only a total of 23 minutes to paint the entire car.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100213000309weblink">weblink February 13, 2010, Bmw Art Car 1979: M1 by Andy Warhol, carbodydesign.com, dead, Warhol produced both comic and serious works; his subject could be a soup can or an electric chair. Warhol used the same techniques—silkscreens, reproduced serially, and often painted with bright colors—whether he painted celebrities, everyday objects, or images of suicide, car crashes, and disasters, as in the 1962–63 Death and Disaster series. The Death and Disaster paintings included Red Car Crash, Purple Jumping Man, and Orange Disaster. One of these paintings, the diptych Silver Car Crash, became the highest priced work of his when it sold at Sotheby's Contemporary Art Auction on Wednesday, November 13, 2013, for $105.4 million.WEB,weblink Record Warhol Leads Contemporary Sale, Sotheby's, November 14, 2013, December 4, 2013, Some of Warhol's work, as well as his own personality, has been described as being Keatonesque. Warhol has been described as playing dumb to the media. He sometimes refused to explain his work. He has suggested that all one needs to know about his work is "already there 'on the surface'."WEB,weblink Andy Warhol Biography (1928–1987), Art Experts, January 15, 2014, His Rorschach inkblots are intended as pop comments on art and what art could be. His cow wallpaper (literally, wallpaper with a cow motif) and his oxidation paintings (canvases prepared with copper paint that was then oxidized with urine) are also noteworthy in this context. Equally noteworthy is the way these works—and their means of production—mirrored the atmosphere at Andy's New York "Factory". Biographer Bob Colacello provides some details on Andy's "piss paintings":|sign=|source=}}Warhol's first portrait of Basquiat (1982) is a black photo-silkscreen over an oxidized copper "piss painting".After many years of silkscreen, oxidation, photography, etc., Warhol returned to painting with a brush in hand in a series of more than 50 large collaborative works done with Jean-Michel Basquiat between 1984 and 1986.Chiappini, Rudi (ed.), Jean-Michel Basquiat. Museo d'Arte Moderna /Skira, 2005.Fairbrother, Trevor. "Double Feature—Collaborative Paintings, Andy Warhol, Jean-Michel Basquiat," Art in America, September 1969. Despite negative criticism when these were first shown, Warhol called some of them "masterpieces," and they were influential for his later work.Fretz, Eric, Jean-Michel Basquiat: A Biography. Greenwood Press, 2010. {{ISBN|978-0-313-38056-3}}.Andy Warhol was commissioned in 1984 by collector and gallerist Alexander Iolas to produce work based on Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper for an exhibition at the old refectory of the Palazzo delle Stelline in Milan, opposite from the Santa Maria delle Grazie where Leonardo da Vinci's mural can be seen.Claudia Schmuckli, "Andy Warhol: The Last Supper" (June 1999 – December 2001) Guggenheim Museum SoHo. Retrieved September 21, 2014. Warhol exceeded the demands of the commission and produced nearly 100 variations on the theme, mostly silkscreens and paintings, and among them a collaborative sculpture with Basquiat, the Ten Punching Bags (Last Supper).Collaboration with Andy Warhol: Jean Michel Basquiat {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304082251weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }}, The Andy Warhol Museum. Retrieved September 21, 2014.The Milan exhibition that opened in January 1987 with a set of 22 silk-screens, was the last exhibition for both the artist and the gallerist.Court dispute over Alexander Iolas' estate: "Anagnostou vs. Stifel Case – Supreme Court of the State of New York", Leagle, Inc., December 6, 1990. Retrieved September 21, 2014. The series of The Last Supper was seen by some as "arguably his greatest,"BOOK, Jane, Dillenberger, The Religious Art of Andy Warhol, Continuum, London, 2001, 10–11, 0-8264-1334-X, 59540326, but by others as "wishy-washy, religiose" and "spiritless."Anthony Haden-Guest, "Warhol's Last Supper", ArtNet, 1999. It is the largest series of religious-themed works by any U.S. artist.Artist Maurizio Cattelan describes that it is difficult to separate daily encounters from the art of Andy Warhol: "That's probably the greatest thing about Warhol: the way he penetrated and summarized our world, to the point that distinguishing between him and our everyday life is basically impossible, and in any case useless." Warhol was an inspiration towards Cattelan's magazine and photography compilations, such as Permanent Food, Charley, and Toilet Paper.Spector, Nancy. Maurizio Cattelan: All. New York, NY: Guggenheim Museum Publications, 2011In the period just before his death, Warhol was working on Cars, a series of paintings for Mercedes-Benz.NEWS,weblink Warhol: Cars, September 1, 2001, April 24, 2010, The Guardian, London, Maev, Kennedy, A self-portrait by Andy Warhol (1963–64), which sold in New York at the May Post-War and Contemporary evening sale in Christie's, fetched $38.4 million.NEWS,weblink Andy Warhol self-portrait fetches $38.4m, May 12, 2011, BBC News, January 30, 2017, On May 9, 2012, his classic painting Double Elvis (Ferus Type) sold at auction at Sotheby's in New York for US$33 million. With commission, the sale price totaled US$37,042,500, short of the $50 million that Sotheby's had predicted the painting might bring. The piece (silkscreen ink and spray paint on canvas) shows Elvis Presley in a gunslinger pose. It was first exhibited in 1963 at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles. Warhol made 22 versions of the Double Elvis, nine of which are held in museums.NEWS, AP, Warhol 'Elvis' sells for $37M; Lichtenstein, Weiwei works break own records at NYC auction,weblink Washington Post, May 10, 2012,weblink December 31, 2018, dead, {{deadlink|date=September 2019}}WEB, Andy Warhol’s ‘Double Elvis’ sells for $37M, Lichtenstein’s ‘Sleeping Girl’ gets $44M, AP, May 10, 2012, Daily News,weblink 2019-09-29, In November 2013, his Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster) diptych sold at Sotheby's Contemporary Art Auction for $105.4 million, a new record for the pop artist (pre-auction estimates were at $80 million). Created in 1963, this work had rarely been seen in public in the previous years.NEWS,weblink Warhol painting fetches record $105M at NYC auction, Fox News, November 13, 2013, December 4, 2013, In November 2014, Triple Elvis sold for $81.9m (£51.9m) at an auction in New York.WEB,weblink Andy Warhol's Elvis triptych sells for $81.9m, November 13, 2014, BBC News,

Filmography

{{more citations needed|section|date=May 2019}}File:Empire Screenshot Warhol.jpg|thumb|Screenshot from the 1964 film EmpireEmpireWarhol worked across a wide range of media—painting, photography, drawing, and sculpture. In addition, he was a highly prolific filmmaker. Between 1963 and 1968, he made more than 60 films,WEB,weblink Andy Warhol Filmography, The Internet Movie Database, September 29, 2009, plus some 500 short black-and-white "screen test" portraits of Factory visitors.Schaffner (1999), p. 73. One of his most famous films, Sleep, monitors poet John Giorno sleeping for six hours. The 35-minute film Blow Job is one continuous shot of the face of DeVeren Bookwalter supposedly receiving oral sex from filmmaker Willard Maas, although the camera never tilts down to see this. Another, Empire (1964), consists of eight hours of footage of the Empire State Building in New York City at dusk. The film Eat consists of a man eating a mushroom for 45 minutes. Warhol attended the 1962 premiere of the static composition by LaMonte Young called Trio for Strings and subsequently created his famous series of static films including Kiss, Eat, and Sleep (for which Young initially was commissioned to provide music). Uwe Husslein cites filmmaker Jonas Mekas, who accompanied Warhol to the Trio premiere, and who claims Warhol's static films were directly inspired by the performance.BOOK, Uwe, Husslein, Pop goes art: Andy Warhol & Velvet Underground, Wuppertal, 1990, 165575494, {{Page needed|date=August 2010}}Batman Dracula is a 1964 film that was produced and directed by Warhol, without the permission of DC Comics. It was screened only at his art exhibits. A fan of the Batman series, Warhol's movie was an "homage" to the series, and is considered the first appearance of a blatantly campy Batman. The film was until recently thought to have been lost, until scenes from the picture were shown at some length in the 2006 documentary Jack Smith and the Destruction of Atlantis.Warhol's 1965 film Vinyl is an adaptation of Anthony Burgess' popular dystopian novel A Clockwork Orange. Others record improvised encounters between Factory regulars such as Brigid Berlin, Viva, Edie Sedgwick, Candy Darling, Holly Woodlawn, Ondine, Nico, and Jackie Curtis. Legendary underground artist Jack Smith appears in the film Camp.His most popular and critically successful film was Chelsea Girls (1966). The film was highly innovative in that it consisted of two 16 mm-films being projected simultaneously, with two different stories being shown in tandem. From the projection booth, the sound would be raised for one film to elucidate that "story" while it was lowered for the other. The multiplication of images evoked Warhol's seminal silk-screen works of the early 1960s.Warhol was a fan of filmmaker Radley Metzger{{'s}} film workWEB, Hudson, David, This Is Softcore: The Art Cinema Erotica of Radley Metzger,weblink August 7, 2014, Fandor (film site), Fandor, February 29, 2016, and commented that Metzger's film, The Lickerish Quartet, was "an outrageously kinky masterpiece".NEWS, Sandmir, Richard, Radley Metzger, Whose Artful Erotica Turned Explicit, Dies at 88,weblink April 4, 2017, The New York Times, April 5, 2017, NEWS, Metzger, Juliette, Feldman, Caryl, West, Ashley, Press Release: Radley Metzger, pioneering filmmaker, dies at 88,weblink April 2, 2017, The Rialto Report, April 2, 2017, WEB, The Lickerish Quartet,weblink August 8, 2014, Film Society of Lincoln Center, May 24, 2015, Blue Movie—a film in which Warhol superstar Viva makes love in bed with Louis Waldon, another Warhol superstar—was Warhol's last film as director.NEWS, Canby, Vincent, Vincent Canby, Movie Review – Blue Movie (1968) Screen: Andy Warhol's 'Blue Movie',weblink July 22, 1969, The New York Times, December 29, 2015, NEWS, Canby, Vincent, Vincent Canby, Warhol's Red Hot and 'Blue' Movie. D1. Print. (behind paywall),weblink August 10, 1969, The New York Times, December 29, 2015, The film, a seminal film in the Golden Age of Porn, was, at the time, controversial for its frank approach to a sexual encounter.WEB, Comenas, Gary, Blue Movie (1968)date=2005 accessdate=December 29, 2015, >TITLE=BLUE MOVIE (1969) DATE= IMDB >ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 29, 2015, Blue Movie was publicly screened in New York City in 2005, for the first time in more than 30 years.>TITLE=BLUE MOVIE + VIVA AT NY FILM FESTIVAL DATE=OCTOBER 2005 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 20, 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151027085125/HTTPS://WWW.WARHOLSTARS.ORG/NEWS/OCTOBER2005.HTML, October 27, 2015, After his June 3, 1968 shooting, a reclusive Warhol relinquished his personal involvement in filmmaking. His acolyte and assistant director, Paul Morrissey, took over the film-making chores for the Factory collective, steering Warhol-branded cinema towards more mainstream, narrative-based, B-movie exploitation fare with Flesh, Trash, and Heat. All of these films, including the later Andy Warhol's Dracula and Andy Warhol's Frankenstein, were far more mainstream than anything Warhol as a director had attempted. These latter "Warhol" films starred Joe Dallesandro—more of a Morrissey star than a true Warhol superstar.In the early 1970s, most of the films directed by Warhol were pulled out of circulation by Warhol and the people around him who ran his business. After Warhol's death, the films were slowly restored by the Whitney Museum and are occasionally projected at museums and film festivals. Few of the Warhol-directed films are available on video or DVD.

Factory in New York

  • Factory: 1342 Lexington Avenue (the first Factory)
  • The Factory: 231 East 47th Street, 1963–67 (the building no longer exists)
  • Factory: 33 Union Square, 1967–73 (Decker Building)
  • Factory: 860 Broadway (near 33 Union Square), 1973–84 (the building has now been completely remodeled and was for a time (2000–2001) the headquarters of the dot-com consultancy Scient)
  • Factory: 22 East 33rd Street, 1984–87 (the building no longer exists)
  • Home: 1342 Lexington Avenue
  • Home: 57 East 66th Street (Warhol's last home)
  • Last personal studio: 158 Madison Avenue

Music

In the mid-1960s, Warhol adopted the band the Velvet Underground, making them a crucial element of the Exploding Plastic Inevitable multimedia performance art show. Warhol, with Paul Morrissey, acted as the band's manager, introducing them to Nico (who would perform with the band at Warhol's request). While managing The Velvet Underground, Andy would have them dressed in all black to perform in front of movies that he was also presenting.BOOK, Please kill me : the uncensored oral history of punk, McNeil, Legs,, McCain, Gillian, 9780802125361, Twentieth anniversary, New York, 955634990, McNeil, Legs, 2016, In 1966 he "produced" their first album The Velvet Underground & Nico, as well as providing its album art. His actual participation in the album's production amounted to simply paying for the studio time. After the band's first album, Warhol and band leader Lou Reed started to disagree more about the direction the band should take, and their artistic friendship ended.{{Citation needed|date=January 2009}} In 1989, after Warhol's death, Reed and John Cale re-united for the first time since 1972 to write, perform, record and release the concept album Songs for Drella, a tribute to Warhol. In October 2019, an audio tape of publicly unknown music by Reed, based on Warhols' 1975 book, “(The Philosophy of Andy Warhol|The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: From A to B and Back Again)”, was reported to have been discovered in an archive at the Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh.

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