SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

2008 Summer Olympics

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
2008 Summer Olympics
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Redirect|Beijing 2008|the video game|Beijing 2008 (video game)|the Summer Paralympics|2008 Summer Paralympics}}{{pp-move-indef}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2018}}







factoids
)| nations = 204| athletes = 10,942 (4,637 women & 6,305 men)Olympic sports>sports (41 disciplines)| opening = 8 August| closing = 24 AugustPresident of the People's Republic of China>President Hu JintaoFACTSHEET - OPENING CEREMONY OF THE GAMES OF THE OLYMPIAD>URL=HTTPS://STILLMED.OLYMPIC.ORG/DOCUMENTS/REFERENCE_DOCUMENTS_FACTSHEETS/OPENING_CEREMONY_OF_THE_GAMES_OF_THE_OLYMPIAD.PDFPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160814215458/HTTPS://STILLMED.OLYMPIC.ORG/DOCUMENTS/REFERENCE_DOCUMENTS_FACTSHEETS/OPENING_CEREMONY_OF_THE_GAMES_OF_THE_OLYMPIAD.PDF ACCESS-DATE=22 DECEMBER 2018, {{efnList of people who have opened the Olympic Games state Hu Jintao opened the Beijing Games as "President of the People's Republic of China>President", de jure head of state. Though Hu Jintao was also de facto ruler as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, that title is not reflected in IOC records.}}| cauldron = Li Ning| stadium = Beijing National Stadium2004 Summer Olympics>Athens 20042012 Summer Olympics>London 20122006 Winter Olympics>Turin 20062010 Winter Olympics>Vancouver 2010}}{{2008 Summer Olympics}}
The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad ({{zh|c=第二十九届夏季奥林匹克运动会|p=Dì Èrshíjiǔ Jiè Xiàjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì}}) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8–24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.{{efn|Although the games officially started on 8 August 2008, the first football matches were held on 6 August.}}
A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (one event more than those scheduled for the 2004 Games).WEB,weblink Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics Games, International Olympic Committee, 5 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110623041355weblink">weblink 23 June 2011, live, This was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the second summer Olympic Games staged in a Communist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow and the third in a developing country after the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico and the 1980 Summer Olympics in the Soviet Union.
Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting.NEWS,weblink New York Times, OLYMPICS; Beijing Wins Bid for 2008 Olympic Games, Jere, Longman, 14 July 2001, 4 February 2011, The Government of the People's Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transport systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed specifically for the 2008 Olympics. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs.{{efn|The other two instances were: the 1956 Olympic Games, where the equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden, due to strict Australian quarantine rules, and the other Olympic events were held in Melbourne, Australia; and the 1920 Olympic Games, which were hosted by Antwerp, Belgium, but the final two races of the {{convert|12|ft|m|abbr=on}} dinghy event in sailing took place in the Netherlands.}} The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place across several different cities.
The official logo for the 2008 Games, titled "Dancing Beijing", featured a stylised calligraphic character jīng ({{zh|c=京|labels=no}}, means capital) in reference to the host city. The Beijing Olympics was watched by 3,500,000,000 people worldwide and featured the longest distance for an Olympic Torch relay.WEB,weblink Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay, Guinness World Records, NEWS, Most participants at a Summer Olympic Games,weblink Guinness World Records, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090919155334weblink">weblink 19 September 2009, Bloomberg News, Bloomberg, Beijing Olympics Attracted Most Viewers, Nielsen Says, Andy, Fixmer, 5 September 2008, 4 February 2011, WEB,weblink Largest TV audience for an event, Guinness World Records, 24 October 2014, NEWS, Beijing olympics draws largest ever TV audience,weblink NEWS, Beijing olympics draw largest ever US television audience for an event,weblink The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, and is also the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second-most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.NEWS, Rabinovitch, Simon, Beijing Games to be costliest, but no debt legacy,weblink U.S., WEB, #1: 2008 Beijing Games - $40 billion - pg.2,weblink Forbes, en, The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, and by many accounts "the greatest ever in the history of Olympics".WEB,weblink Press hails 'greatest ever' Olympic opening show, Agence France-Presse, 9 August 2008, 9 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080812004040weblink">weblink 12 August 2008, NEWS, World records set in Beijing Olympics,weblink www.chinadaily.com.cn, NEWS, China to showcase art performance directed by Zhang Yimou at Pyeongchang Winter Olympics,weblink The Straits Times, 27 January 2018, en,
An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, and became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall. The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia.
Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics; it will become the first city to ever host both a Summer and Winter Games following it.

Organization

Bid

Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (Bangkok, Cairo, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and Seville) had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds.WEB,weblink Beijing 2008: Election, International Olympic Committee, 18 December 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061205234608weblink">weblink 5 December 2006, live, Toronto's bid was their 5th failure since 1960 (failed bid for 1960, 1964, 1976 and 1996 games losing to Rome, Tokyo, Montreal and Atlanta).WEB,weblink Toronto has made 5 attempts to host the Olympics. Could the sixth be the winner?, Peter Edwards, thestar.com, Toronto Star, 24 July 2015, 7 September 2015, Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China's selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums. The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision.NEWS,weblink OLYMPICS; Beijing Wins Bid for 2008 Olympic Games, The New York Times, 14 July 2001, 11 June 2009, Longman, Jere, Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round.NEWS,weblink Olympics; 2000 Olympics Go to Sydney In Surprise Setback for China, The New York Times, 24 September 1993, 5 June 2009, Riding, Alan, Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application.{| class="wikitable"! colspan="4" | 2008 Summer Olympics bidding results! City! NationRound 1Round 2| BeijingChina}} 44 56| Toronto Canada}} 20 22| ParisFrance}} 15 18| IstanbulTurkey}} 17 9| OsakaJapan}} 6 —

Costs

The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms.BOOK, 2804554, The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games, Flyvbjerg, Bent, Stewart, Allison, Budzier, Alexander, Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford), 2016, Oxford, 18–20, This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics' cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion.On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was "generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games", which was equivalent to about US$15 billion. They went on to claim that surplus revenues from the Games would exceed the original target of $16 million.WEB, Surplus of Beijing Olympic Games exceeds 16 million USD,weblink People's Daily Online, 6 March 2009, 5 June 2009, Other reports, however, estimated the total costs from $40 billion to $44 billion, which would make the Games "far and away the most expensive ever".NEWS,weblink Beijing Games to be costliest, but no debt legacy, Reuters, 5 August 2008, 5 June 2009, Rabinovitch, Simon, NEWS,weblink Beijing Olympics to cost China 44 billion dollars, Pravda, 8 August 2008, 29 July 2012, NEWS,weblink The cost of the Beijing Olympics, The Guardian, London, 28 July 2008, 5 June 2009, Its budget has since been exceeded by the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, which suffered from major cost overruns, causing the budget to exceed US$51 billion.WEB, Most expensive Olympics in history: Sochi 2014 Games to cost over $50 billion,weblink Russia Today, 5 December 2013, WEB, Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?,weblink The Guardian, 5 December 2013, Canadian Solar Constructed the 2000m Landscape Avenue Project for the Beijing Olympic Games Stadium in 2008.WEB,weblink Solar Project: Beijing Olympics, China, Canadian Solar, 27 August 2018,weblink 27 August 2018, dead,

Venues

By May 2007 the construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080126161002weblink">weblink 26 January 2008, All Beijing-based Olympic venues under construction, BOCOG, 11 May 2007, 11 May 2007, The Chinese government renovated and constructed six venues outside Beijing as well as 59 training centres. The largest structures built were the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Indoor Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Peking University Gymnasium, Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Green, and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by $2.1 billion (RMBÂ¥17.4 billion) in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the Olympics.WEB, Beijing Olympics funding exceeds $43 bn, NDTV.com, 4 August 2008,weblink 10 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090818060103weblink">weblink 18 August 2009, Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin; sailing in Qingdao; and, because of the "uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone", the equestrian events were held in Hong Kong.WEB, Hong Kong Olympic Equestrian Venue, Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad,weblink 10 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080809223815weblink">weblink 9 August 2008, dead, File:Birds Nest Cropped.jpg|thumb|left|The Beijing National StadiumBeijing National StadiumFile:国家游泳中心夜景.jpg|thumb|left|The Beijing National Aquatics CenterBeijing National Aquatics CenterThe centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed "The Bird's Nest" because of its nest-like skeletal structure. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition.NEWS,weblink Supporters, protesters greet Olympic torch's arrival in Beijing, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBC News, 6 August 2009, 20 June 2009, Construction of the venue began on 24 December 2003. The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing.WEB,weblink China's Banner Stadium, Libby, Brian, 1 May 2002, Architecture Week, 5 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090423073050weblink">weblink 23 April 2009, dead, dmy-all, In 2001, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs.NEWS, Arthur, Lubow, Arthur Lubow, The China Syndrome,weblink New York Times, 6 May 2006, 5 June 2009, The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs.WEB,weblink Presentation of Competation, 28 August 2008, Beijing Municipal Commission of Urban Planning,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080619150023weblink">weblink 19 June 2008, dead, The bird's nest model submitted by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron in collaboration with Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG) was selected as the top design by both a professional panel and by a broader audience during a public exhibition. The selection of the design became official in April 2003. Construction of the stadium was a joint venture among the original designers, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and a group of CADG architects led by Li Xinggang. Its $423 million cost was funded by the state-owned corporate conglomerate CITIC and the Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Company.JOURNAL, Pasternack, Alex, Clifford A. Pearson, July 2008, National Stadium, Archit. Rec., Architectural Record, 92–9,weblink 5 June 2009, The 2008 Beijing Olympics caused traditional Hutong neighborhoods to be cleared for the construction of modern Olympic stadiums. In an effort to ensure success for the games, the government invested billions in building new infrastructure, although clearance to tiny, outdated neighborhoods in Beijing called hutongs resulted (Petrun). Jim Yardley, a New York Times reporter interviews Pan Jinyu, a 64-year-old local resident: "They [the government] don't want foreigners to see this scarred old face". Feng Shuqin and her husband, Zheng Zhanlin have lived in their house for 50 years and the family has owned the property before the Communists took control in 1949. The government, trying to clear the area, has offered them to move with a compensatory sum of US$175,000, but the family insists the land is worth US$1.4 million (Yardley). Michael Meyer, an American who lives in the hutongs reported that a total of 500,000 residents were relocated from their homes before the Olympics began (Meyer).

Transport

File:Beijing 2008 olympic venue.svg|thumb|A map of the Olympic venues in Beijing. Several expressways encircle the center of the city, providing for quick transportation around the city and between venues.]]To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing's transportation infrastructure was expanded. Beijing's airport underwent a major renovation with the addition of the new Terminal 3, designed by architect Norman Foster.NEWS,weblink Beijing Terminal 3 by Foster, Jo Baker, Architecture Week, 16 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080815025557weblink">weblink 15 August 2008, dead, dmy-all, Within the city itself, Beijing's subway was doubled in capacity and length, with the addition of 7 lines and 80 stations to the previously existing 4 lines and 64 stations. Included in this expansion was a new link connecting to the city's airport. A fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses, and official cars transported spectators, athletes, and officials between venues.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080512000702weblink">weblink 12 May 2008, 38 public transit routes to the Olympic venues, BOCOG, 22 January 2007, 29 January 2007, NEWS,weblink Volkswagen claims 'Green' medal at 2008 Olympic Games, AUSmotive.com, 2 August 2008, 2 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080819044237weblink">weblink 19 August 2008, live, In an effort to improve air quality, the city placed restrictions on construction sites and gas stations, and limited the use of commercial and passenger vehicles in Beijing.NEWS,weblink Traffic Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics, Andrew Jacobs, 14 April 2008, New York Times, 14 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514130722weblink">weblink 14 May 2013, live, Andrew Jacobs (journalist), From 20 July through 20 September, passenger vehicle restrictions were placed on alternative days depending on the terminal digit of the car's license plate. It was anticipated that this measure would take 45% of Beijing's 3.3 million cars off the streets. The boosted public transport network was expected to absorb the demand created by these restrictions and the influx of visitors, which was estimated at more than 4 million additional passengers per day.NEWS,weblink Beijing to launch Olympic 'odd-even' car ban, Reuters, 23 June 2008, ABC news, 23 June 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080625095341weblink">weblink 25 June 2008, live,

Marketing

File:Beijing Birds Nest Olympics track .jpg|thumb|Inside Beijing National Stadium during the Games. Olympic cauldronOlympic cauldronThe 2008 Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The emblem combined a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of the calligraphic character jīng ((wikt:京|京), "national capital", also the second character of Beijing's Chinese name) with athletic features. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolized the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, "Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people."NEWS,weblink Rogge's Message for Beijing Olympics Emblem Unveiling, People's Daily Online, 3 August 2003, 19 December 2006, The official motto for the 2008 Olympics was "One World, One Dream" (同一个世界 同一个梦想).NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408065343weblink">weblink 8 April 2008, 'One World One Dream' selected as the Theme Slogan for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, BOCOG, 25 December 2005, 5 May 2007, It called upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity, and was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world.NEWS, New Olympic slogan: One World, One Dream,weblink 27 April 2005, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 June 2009, Following the announcement of the motto, the phrase was used by international advocates of Tibetan secession. Banners reading "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet" were unfurled from various structures around the globe in the lead up to the Beijing Olympics, such as from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and the Sydney Opera House in Australia.NEWS,weblink Beijing Olympics: Let the politics begin, Yardley, Jim, 13 August 2007, 30 November 2012, The New York Times, The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa, each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released).WEB,weblink Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, BOCOG, 2006, 22 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822030710weblink">weblink 22 August 2008, dead, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080308102735weblink">weblink 8 March 2008, Pictograms of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games unveiled, BOCOG, 7 August 2006, 12 July 2012, This set of sport icons was named the beauty of seal characters, because of each pictogram's likeness to Chinese seal script.

Media coverage

{{Further|List of 2008 Summer Olympics broadcasters}}The 2008 Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition by the host broadcaster.NEWS,weblink Telegraph, The first high-definition Olympics, 1 August 2008, London, Claudine, Beaumont, 4 February 2011, In comparison, American broadcaster NBC broadcast only half of the 2006 Turin Winter Games in HD.NEWS,weblink Network goes to great lengths to pump Beijing Olympic Games action to myriad pipes., Broadcasting & Cable, 4 August 2008, 17 August 2008, Dickson, Glen,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091214054812weblink">weblink 14 December 2009, live, NEWS,weblink Seeing clearly: Panasonic ushers in first HDTV Game, China Daily, 6 July 2007, 24 March 2008, In their bid for the Olympic Games in 2001, Beijing stated to the Olympic Evaluation Commission that there would be "no restrictions on media reporting and movement of journalists up to and including the Olympic Games."WEB, Report of the IOC Evaluation Commission for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in 2008, International Olympic Committee,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20031229012633weblink">weblink 29 December 2003, 10 June 2009, dead, However, some media outlets claimed that organizers ultimately failed to live up to this commitment.{{efn|The New York Times, for instance, said that "those promises have been contradicted by strict visa rules, lengthy application processes and worries about censorship."NEWS, Stelter, Brian, Networks Fight Shorter Olympic Leash,weblink The New York Times, 21 July 2008, 21 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110813155823weblink">weblink 13 August 2011, live, }}According to Nielsen Media Research, 4.7 billion viewers worldwide tuned into some of the television coverage, one-fifth larger than the 3.9 billion who watched the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. American broadcaster NBC produced only 2 hours of online streaming video for the 2006 Winter Games but produced approximately 2,200 hours of coverage for the 2008 Summer Games. CNN reported that, for the first time, "live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall 'broadcast rights.'" The new media of the digital economy was said to be growing "nine times faster than the rest of the advertising market."NEWS,weblink Olympics enter the '2.0' era, 25 August 2008, 10 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080908023843weblink">weblink 8 September 2008, live, CNN, The international European Broadcasting Union (EBU) provided live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain territories on their website, Eurovisionsports.tv.WEB,weblink Beijing LIVE, 25 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822214328weblink">weblink 22 August 2008, dead, Many national broadcasters likewise restricted the viewing of online events to their domestic audiences.NEWS,weblink Delighted Cooke gets gold medal, 10 August 2008, 25 August 2008, BBC News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080815105838weblink">weblink 15 August 2008, live, The General National Copyright Administration of China announced that "individual (sic) and websites will face fines as high as 100,000 yuan for uploading recordings of Olympic Games video to the internet",WEB, Wallace, Lydia,weblink 100,000 yuan fine for uploading Olympic videos?, Danwei.org, 29 November 2010, part of an extensive campaign to protect the pertinent intellectual property rights.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080623054529weblink">weblink 23 June 2008, The New York Times, For Olympics, China Ramps Up Copyright Infringement Campaign – Rings Blog – NYTimes.com, 4 February 2011, Campbell, Robertson, live, WEB,weblink zh:我国启动打击网络侵权盗版专项行动 为期四个月, News.xinhuanet.com, 29 November 2010, Chinese, The Olympic Committee also set up a separate YouTube channel at Beijing 2008.WEB,weblink beijing2008, YouTube,

Theme song

The theme song of the 2008 Olympic Games was "You and Me," which was composed by Chen Qigang, the musical director of the opening ceremony. It was performed during the opening ceremony by Chinese singer Liu Huan and British singer Sarah Brightmanweblink"刘欢莎拉布莱曼演唱奥运会主题歌《我和你》." _网易奥运. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 December 2015.WEB,weblink Beijing Ceremony Introduces Olympic Theme Song, Billboard,

Torch relay

File:Official 2008 Summer Olympics Torch in Vilnius.jpg|thumb|2008 Olympic Torch in VilniusVilniusThe design of the 2008 Olympic Torch was based on traditional scrolls and used a traditional Chinese design known as the "Propitious Clouds" (祥云). The torch was designed to remain lit in 65 km/h (40 mph) winds, and in rain of up to 50 mm (2 in) per hour.NEWS,weblink The Image and Look – The Torch, BOCOG, 16 January 2008, 24 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514013509weblink">weblink 14 May 2013, The relay, with the theme "Journey of Harmony", was met with protests and demonstrations by pro-Tibet supporters throughout its journey. It lasted 130 days and carried the torch {{convert|137000|km|mi|abbr=on}}—the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the tradition began at the 1936 Berlin Games.NEWS, 26 April 2007, Beijing 2008: BOCOG Announces Olympic Torch Relay Route,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070429032528weblink">weblink 29 April 2007, International Olympic Committee, 26 April 2007, live, NEWS,weblink Officials Expect Olympic Torch to Continue on Route, The New York Times, Graham, Bowley, John, Sullivan, 9 April 2008, 4 February 2011, The torch relay was described as a "public relations disaster" for China by USA Today,NEWS,weblink Vietnamese cheer torch, last int'l stop, 29 April 2008, 20 June 2009, USA Today, with protests against China's human rights record, particularly focused on Tibet. The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays.NEWS, Zinser, Lynn, I.O.C. Bars International Torch Relays, New York Times, 27 March 2009,weblink 28 March 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130514135658weblink">weblink 14 May 2013, live, The relay began 24 March 2008, in Olympia, Greece. From there, it traveled across Greece to Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on 31 March. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. A total of 21,880 torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080308103032weblink">weblink 8 March 2008, Beijing 2008 Olympic Torch Relay Planned Route and Torch Design unveiled, BOCOG, 26 April 2007, 26 April 2007, The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour encountered wide-scale anti-Chinese protests. After trouble in London involving attempts by protesters to put out the flame, the torch was extinguished in Paris the following day.NEWS,weblink Olympic torch extinguished three times, 20 June 2009, The Daily Telegraph, London, Samuel, Henry, 7 April 2008, The American leg in San Francisco on 9 April was altered without prior warning to avoid such disturbances, although there were still demonstrations along the original route.NEWS,weblink Confusion strikes US torch relay, 9 April 2008, BBC News, 4 February 2011, The relay was further delayed and simplified after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake hit western China.WEB,weblink ESPN, Organizers not saying why torch's arrival in Tibet delayed, 16 June 2006, 20 June 2009, (File:Beijing 2008 Torch Relay Route.png|left|thumb|Route of the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay)The flame was carried to the top of Mount Everest on a {{convert|108|km|mi|abbr=on}} long "highway" scaling the Tibetan side of the mountain, built especially for the relay. The $19.7 million blacktop project spanned from Tingri County of Xigazê Prefecture to the Everest Base Camp.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080111221824weblink">weblink 11 January 2008, China to build highway on Mt Everest for 2008 Olympics, 20 June 2007, 25 June 2007, The Hindu, India, In March 2008, China banned mountaineers from climbing its side of Mount Everest, and later persuaded the Nepalese government to close their side as well, officially citing environmental concerns.NEWS,weblink Climbers banned from Everest as China seeks to stop protests on summit, 17 March 2008, 23 March 2008, The Independent, London, Michael, McCarthy, Jack, Geldard,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080405092649weblink">weblink 5 April 2008, dead, It also reflected concerns by the Chinese government that Tibet activists may try to disrupt its plans to carry the Olympic torch up the world's tallest peak.NEWS,weblink Nepal: Everest pro-Tibet protesters may be shot, CNN, 20 April 2008, 20 June 2009, The originally proposed route would have taken the torch through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong. However, the government of Taiwan (then led by the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party) objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch's domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route.NEWS,weblink Taiwan rejects 'domestic' Olympic torch route, Taiwan Journal, 4 May 2007, 15 August 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411165900weblink">weblink 11 April 2008, This dispute, as well as Chinese demands that the flag and the national anthem of the Republic of China be banned along the route led the government of Taiwan to reject the proposal that it be part of the relay route, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait subsequently blamed each other for injecting politics into the event.NEWS,weblink Olympic torch will bypass Taiwan, BBC News, 21 September 2007, 20 June 2009,

Calendar

In the following calendar for the 2008 Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held. Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that were contested on that day. On the left the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, and at the right how many gold medals were won in that sport. There is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader.WEB,weblink Olympic Games Competition Schedule, BOCOG, 5 July 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070618095401weblink">weblink 18 June 2007, dead, {{2008 Summer Olympics calendar}}

Olympic and world records

125 Olympic records including 37 world records were set in various events at the Games. In swimming, sixty-five Olympic swimming records including 25 world records were broken due to the use of the LZR Racer, a specialized swimming suit developed by NASA and the Australian Institute of Sport.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919084240weblink">weblink 19 September 2008, Engineering the world's fastest swimsuit, Physorg, 28 February 2008, 30 August 2008, dead, Only two swimming Olympic records remained intact after the Games.

Games

{{Further|Chronological summary of the 2008 Summer Olympics}}

Opening ceremony

(File:Beijing Olympics 2008.jpg|thumb|Opening Ceremony.)The opening ceremony officially began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on 8 August 2008 in the Beijing National Stadium.WEB,weblink Opening Ceremony plan released, 6 August 2008, Official website, 8 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080808103425weblink">weblink 8 August 2008, dead, The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture, and here it was a triple eight for the date and one extra for time (close to 08:08:08 pm).WEB,weblink The Number Eight And The Chinese, 22 April 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070427201943weblink">weblink 27 April 2007, dead, The ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang JigangWEB,weblink Zhang Yimou and his five creative generals, 23 August 2007, Beijing2008.cn, 5 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090428200852weblink">weblink 28 April 2009, dead, and featured a cast of over 15,000 performers.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121210071905weblink">weblink 10 December 2012, Olympics opening ceremony to have 15,000 performers, The Hollywood Reporter, 12 December 2012, 21 July 2007, The ceremony lasted over four hours and was reported to have cost over US$100 million to produce.WEB, China Celebrates Opening Of Summer Olympics : NPR,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100122052643weblink">weblink 22 January 2010, live, 9 September 2009, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and leaders from 95 countries attended this ceremony.A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony. It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show's centerpiece. The official song of the 2008 Olympics, titled "You and Me", was performed by Britain's Sarah Brightman and China's Liu Huan, on a large spinning rendition of the globe.NEWS,weblink Fears, foul-ups and triumphs at past Olympic openings, 7 August 2008, Reuters, 5 June 2009, The last recipient in the Olympic Torch relay, former Chinese gymnast Li Ning ignited the cauldron, after being suspended into the air by wires and completing a lap of the National Stadium at roof height.WEB,weblink China strides onto Olympic stage, 8 August 2008, ESPN, 5 June 2009, The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as "spectacular" and "spellbinding".NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080812004040weblink">weblink 12 August 2008, Press hails 'greatest ever' Olympic opening show, Agence France-Presse, 9 August 2008, 9 August 2008, Hein Verbruggen, chairman of the IOC Coordination Commission for the XXIX Olympiad, called the ceremony "a grand, unprecedented success."WEB,weblink Verbruggen: Opening Ceremony a grand success, Beijing2008.cn, 9 August 2008, 5 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090428182913weblink">weblink 28 April 2009, dead,

Sports

The program for the Beijing Games was quite similar to that of the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. There were 28 sports and 302 events at the 2008 Games. Nine new events were held, including two from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Women competed in the 3000 metre steeplechase for the first time. Open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of {{convert|10|km|mi}}, were added to the swimming discipline. Team events (men and women) in table tennis replaced the doubles events.NEWS,weblink A 2008 Summer Olympics primer, 10 August 2008, New York Daily News, 8 June 2009, In fencing, women's team foil and women's team sabre replaced men's team foil and women's team épée.{{efn|The fencing programme included six individual events and four team events; the FIE's rules call for the set of team events to be different from those held in the previous Games and for at least one team event in each weapon to be contested. The fourth event is determined by a vote. In 2004, the three men's team events (foil, sabre, épée) and the women's épée were held, so in 2008 the women's foil and sabre events were automatically selected, as well as the men's épée. The fourth event, men's sabre, was chosen over men's foil by a 45:20 vote.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307170803weblink">weblink 7 March 2008, List of decisions of the 2006 General Assembly, 8 April 2006, Fédération Internationale d'Escrime, 7 June 2009, }} Two sports were open only to men, baseball and boxing, while one sport and one discipline were open only to women, softball and synchronized swimming. Equestrian and mixed badminton are the only sports in which men and women compete together, although three events in the Sailing allowed the opportunity for both males and female participants. However, only male participants took part in all three events.NEWS,weblink Beijing 2008: Games Programme Finalised, International Olympic Committee, 27 April 2006, 7 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080914051210weblink">weblink 14 September 2008, live, WEB,weblink Programme of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, Beijing 2008, International Olympic Committee, 25 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723070956weblink">weblink 23 July 2011, dead, The following were the 302 events in 28 sports that were contested at the Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses (in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC,WEB,weblink Home > Sports, olympic.org, 24 October 2014, these are also specified).{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em|
  • {{GamesSport|Aquatics|Format=d{edih}
    • {{GamesSport|Diving|Events=8|Image=No|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Swimming|Events=34|Image=No|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Synchronized swimming|Events=2|Image=No|Format=d}}
    • {{GamesSport|Water polo|Events=2|Image=No|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Archery|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Athletics|Events=47|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Badminton|Events=5|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Baseball|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Basketball|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Boxing|Events=11|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Canoeing|Format=d}}
    • Slalom (4)
    • Sprint (12)
  • {{GamesSport|Cycling|Format=d}}
    • BMX (2)
    • Road (4)
    • Track (10)
    • Mountain bike (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Equestrian|Format=d}}
    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Fencing|Events=10|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Field hockey|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Football|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Gymnastics|Format=d}}
    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (2)
    • Trampoline (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Handball|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Judo|Events=14|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Modern pentathlon|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Rowing|Events=14|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Sailing|Events=11|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Shooting|Events=15|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Softball|Events=1|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Table tennis|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Taekwondo|Events=8|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Tennis|Events=4|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Triathlon|Events=2|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Volleyball|Format=d}}
    • Beach volleyball (2)
    • Volleyball (2)
  • {{GamesSport|Weightlifting|Events=15|Format=d}}
  • {{GamesSport|Wrestling|Format=d}}
    • Freestyle (11)
    • Greco-Roman (7)
}}In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 saw 128 athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the 2008 Olympic Games.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080808100337weblink">weblink 8 August 2008, Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 to begin August 21, en.beijing2008.cn, 5 August 2008,

Closing ceremony

The 2008 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games on 24 August 2008. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8), and took place at the Beijing National Stadium.The Ceremony included handover of the Games from Beijing to London. Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, followed by a performance organized by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG). This presentation included performances by guitarist Jimmy Page, and recording artist Leona Lewis. Footballer David Beckham was also featured during London's presentation.NEWS, London Takes Over as Olympic Host, 24 August 2008, The BBC,weblink 10 January 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080929000606weblink">weblink 29 September 2008, live,

Medal table

{{Further|List of 2008 Summer Olympics medal winners}}File:Beijingolympicsmedals.jpg|thumb|The reverse side of the medals of the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver (left), gold (center), bronze (right). Each medal has a ring of jadejadeOf the 204 nations that participated in the 2008 Games, 87 earned medals and 54 of those won at least one gold medal, both of these figures setting new records for Olympic Games.NEWS, Crary, David, The final count: China's gold rush, NBCOlympics.com, NBC, 24 August 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714161128weblink">weblink 14 July 2011, 6 June 2009, Associated Press, dead, WEB,weblink China confirm place as leading superpower after topping Olympic Games medal table, Telegraph Media Group, 25 August 2008, Kaz, Mochlinski, 2 July 2018, There were 117 participating countries that did not win any medals. Athletes from China won the highest number of gold medals of any nation at these Games, with 48, thus making China the seventh nation to rank top in the medal table in the history of the modern Olympics, along with the United States (fifteen times), France (in 1900), Great Britain (in 1908), Germany (in 1936), the Soviet Union (six times), and the Unified Team (in 1992).The United States team won the most medals overall, with 112. Afghanistan,NEWS, Afghans win first Olympic medal, BBC,weblink 20 August 2008, 5 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080821064824weblink">weblink 21 August 2008, live, Mauritius,NEWS, Mauritian delight at first ever medal,weblink The Brunei Times, Brunei, 23 August 2008, 13 April 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160421235456weblink">weblink 21 April 2016, Sudan,NEWS, Darfur runner wins Sudan's first Olympic medal,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110714220216weblink">weblink 14 July 2011, Osman, Mohamed, The New York Times, 5 June 2009, 24 August 2008, dead, TajikistanNEWS, Italy, Azerbaijan win golds, Talmadge, Eric, The New York Times,weblink 5 June 2009, 11 August 2008, and TogoNEWS, Togo claims first Olympic medal, BBC,weblink 12 August 2008, 5 June 2009, won their first ever Olympic medals. Mongolia (which previously held the record for most medals without a gold)NEWS, Naidan wins Mongolia's first gold, BBC,weblink 5 June 2009, 14 August 2008, and PanamaNEWS, Liu out, Isinbayeva gets world record, The New York Times,weblink 5 June 2009, 18 August 2008, won their first gold medals. Four members of the water polo team from Serbia won the first medal for their country under its new name, having previously won medals representing Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.WEB, Serbian PM congratulates swimmer on winning medal in Beijing Olympics, Chinaview.cn,weblink 5 June 2009, 17 August 2008, American swimmer Michael Phelps won a total of eight gold medals, more than any other athlete in a single Olympic games, setting numerous world and Olympic records in the process. Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt also set records in several different events, completing the 100 m final with a time of 9.69 seconds, beating his own previous world record.NEWS,weblink Bolt surges to gold in new record, BBC, 16 August 2008, 7 January 2013, Russian-born American gymnast Nastia Liukin won the all-around gold medal in artistic gymnastics, becoming the third American female to do so, following in the footsteps of Mary Lou Retton in 1984 and Carly Patterson in 2004.WEB,weblink Gabby Douglas poses with Nastia Liukin, Carly Patterson, and Mary Lou Retton, Scwartz, Alison, People, 30 August 2012, 7 January 2013, These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2008 Games.{{color box|#ccccff|border=darkgray}} Host nation{hide}Medals table
| caption =
| host =
| show_limit =
| remaining_text =
| flag_template = flagIOC
| event = 2008 Summer
| team =
| gold_CHN = 48 | silver_CHN = 22 | bronze_CHN = 30 | host_CHN = yes
| gold_USA = 36 | silver_USA = 39 | bronze_USA = 37
| gold_RUS = 24 | silver_RUS = 13 | bronze_RUS = 23
| gold_GBR = 19 | silver_GBR = 13 | bronze_GBR = 19
| gold_GER = 16 | silver_GER = 11 | bronze_GER = 14
| gold_AUS = 14 | silver_AUS = 15 | bronze_AUS = 17
| gold_KOR = 13 | silver_KOR = 11 | bronze_KOR = 8
| gold_JPN = 9 | silver_JPN = 7 | bronze_JPN = 9
| gold_ITA = 8 | silver_ITA = 9 | bronze_ITA = 10
| gold_FRA = 7 | silver_FRA = 16 | bronze_FRA = 20
{edih}

Podium Sweeps{| class"wikitable"|+

!Date!Sport!Event!NOC!Gold!Silver!Bronze|17 AugustAthletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics>Athletics Athletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's 100 metres>Women's 100 metresJAM|2008 Summer}}|Shelly-Ann Fraser|Sherone SimpsonKerron Stewart|Not awarded|17 AugustTennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics>TennisTennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's singles>Women's singlesRUS|2008 Summer}}|Elena Dementieva|Dinara Safina|Vera Zvonareva|18 AugustAthletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics>AthleticsAthletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres hurdles>Men's 400 metres hurdlesUSA|2008 Summer}}|Angelo Taylor|Kerron Clement|Bershawn Jackson|21 AugustAthletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics>AthleticsAthletics at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 400 metres>Men's 400 metresUSA|2008 Summer}}|LaShawn Merritt|Jeremy WarinerDavid Neville (sprinter)>David Neville|22 AugustTable tennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's singles>Table tennisTable tennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Women's singles>Women's singlesCHN|2008 Summer}}|Zhang YiningWang Nan (table tennis)>Wang Nan Guo Yue (table tennis)>Guo Yue|23 AugustTable tennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics>Table tennisTable tennis at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's singles>Men's singlesCHN|2008 Summer}}Ma Lin (table tennis)>Ma LinWang Hao (table tennis, born 1983)>Wang Hao|Wang Liqin

Participating National Olympic Committees

File:2008 Summer Olympic games countries.svg|thumb|Participating nationsBlue = Participating for the first time.Green = Have previously participated.Yellow square is host city (BeijingBeijing(File:2008 Summer olympics team numbers.gif|thumb|Team sizes)All but one of the 205 recognized National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that existed {{as of|2008|lc=y}} participated in the 2008 Summer Olympics, the exception being Brunei.WEB,weblink National Olympic Committees, International Olympic Committee, 11 March 2008, Three countries participated in the Olympic Games for their first time: the Marshall Islands, Montenegro and Tuvalu.WEB, Beijing 2008, Olympic Games, International Olympic Committee,weblink 6 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090526073745weblink">weblink 26 May 2009, live, While not a full member recognized by the IOC and thus not allowed to compete formally in the Olympics, the Macau Sports and Olympic Committee sent a delegation to participate in the Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008, being the only unrecognized National Olympic Committee to have taken part in the 2008 Summer Olympics. It also coordinated efforts with the Chinese Olympic Committee to organize the torch relay through Macau.The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and 2008 was the first games in which they were eligible to participate.NEWS, Robert Meets IOC President,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051018032511weblink">weblink 18 October 2005, ONOC, 2 April 2005, 17 December 2006, dead, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071112130845weblink">weblink 12 November 2007, Two new National Olympic Committees on board!, International Olympic Committee, 6 July 2007, 8 July 2007, dead, The states of Serbia and Montenegro, which participated at the 2004 Games jointly as Serbia and Montenegro, competed separately for the first time. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was accepted as a new National Olympic Committee in 2007. Neighboring Kosovo, however, did not participate. After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, the IOC specified requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognized by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognized as independent by the United Nations.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090205124500weblink">weblink 5 February 2009, IOC: Kosovo Olympic Team 'Unlikely', Associated Press, 18 February 2008, 20 February 2008, live, WEB, 2008 United States Olympic Team Entered Into XXVIV Olympic Games in Beijing, China, United States Olympic Committee, 24 July 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090503065123weblink">weblink 3 May 2009, 15 June 2009, dead, NEWS, Host China announces biggest-ever Olympic team of 639 athletes, Xinhua News, 25 July 2008,weblink 28 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907021534weblink">weblink 7 September 2008, live, More than 100 sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as 170 Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games.WEB, IOC President to meet with world leaders,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907020146weblink">weblink 7 September 2008, live, 9 September 2009, {| class="wikitable collapsible" style="width:100%;"! Participating (:Category:Nations at the 2008 Summer Olympics|National Olympic Committees)|{{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • {{flagIOC|AFG|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALB|2008 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|ALG|2008 Summer|62}}
  • {{flagIOC|ASA|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|AND|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|ANG|2008 Summer|32}}
  • {{flagIOC|ANT|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARG|2008 Summer|137}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARM|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|ARU|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUS|2008 Summer|433}}
  • {{flagIOC|AUT|2008 Summer|70}}
  • {{flagIOC|AZE|2008 Summer|44}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAH|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRN|2008 Summer|15}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAN|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|BAR|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BLR|2008 Summer|181}}
  • {{flagIOC|BEL|2008 Summer|96}}
  • {{flagIOC|BIZ|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|BEN|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|BER|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BHU|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BOL|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|BIH|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|BOT|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|BRA|2008 Summer|277}}
  • {{flagIOC|IVB|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUL|2008 Summer|72}}
  • {{flagIOC|BUR|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|BDI|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAM|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|CMR|2008 Summer|33}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAN|2008 Summer|332}}
  • {{flagIOC|CPV|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAY|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|CAF|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHA|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHI|2008 Summer|27}}
  • {{flagIOC|CHN|2008 Summer|639}} (host)
  • {{flagIOC|COL|2008 Summer|64}}
  • {{flagIOC|COM|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|CGO|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|COD|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|COK|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRC|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|CRO|2008 Summer|105}}
  • {{flagIOC|CUB|2008 Summer|149}}
  • {{flagIOC|CYP|2008 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|CZE|2008 Summer|134}}
  • {{flagIOC|DEN|2008 Summer|84}}
  • {{flagIOC|DJI|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|DMA|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|DOM|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|ECU|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|EGY|2008 Summer|103}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESA|2008 Summer|11}}
  • {{flagIOC|GEQ|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|ERI|2008 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|EST|2008 Summer|47}}
  • {{flagIOC|ETH|2008 Summer|22}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIJ|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|FIN|2008 Summer|58}}
  • {{flagIOC|FRA|2008 Summer|323}}
  • {{flagIOC|GAB|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|GAM|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|GEO|2008 Summer|35}}
  • {{flagIOC|GER|2008 Summer|463}}
  • {{flagIOC|GHA|2008 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|GBR|2008 Summer|311}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRE|2008 Summer|156}}
  • {{flagIOC|GRN|2008 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUM|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUA|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUI|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|GBS|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|GUY|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|HAI|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|HON|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|HKG|2008 Summer|34}}
  • {{flagIOC|HUN|2008 Summer|171}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISL|2008 Summer|28}}
  • {{flagIOC|IND|2008 Summer|57}}
  • {{flagIOC|INA|2008 Summer|24}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRI|2008 Summer|55}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRQ|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|IRL|2008 Summer|54}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISR|2008 Summer|43}}
  • {{flagIOC|ITA|2008 Summer|344}}
  • {{flagIOC|CIV|2008 Summer|20}}
  • {{flagIOC|JAM|2008 Summer|50}}
  • {{flagIOC|JPN|2008 Summer|351}}
  • {{flagIOC|JOR|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|KAZ|2008 Summer|132}}
  • {{flagIOC|KEN|2008 Summer|56}}
  • {{flagIOC|KIR|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|PRK|2008 Summer|63}}
  • {{flagIOC|KOR|2008 Summer|267}}
  • {{flagIOC|KUW|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|KGZ|2008 Summer|21}}
  • {{flagIOC|LAO|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|LAT|2008 Summer|50}}
  • {{flagIOC|LIB|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|LES|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|LBR|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|LBA|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|LIE|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|LTU|2008 Summer|71}}
  • {{flagIOC|LUX|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|MKD|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAD|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAW|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAS|2008 Summer|33}}
  • {{flagIOC|MDV|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|MLI|2008 Summer|17}}
  • {{flagIOC|MLT|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|MHL|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|MTN|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|MRI|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|MEX|2008 Summer|85}}
  • {{flagIOC|FSM|2008 Summer|5|name=Micronesia}}
  • {{flagIOC|MDA|2008 Summer|31}}
  • {{flagIOC|MON|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|MGL|2008 Summer|29}}
  • {{flagIOC|MNE|2008 Summer|31}}
  • {{flagIOC|MAR|2008 Summer|57}}
  • {{flagIOC|MOZ|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|MYA|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|NAM|2008 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|NRU|2008 Summer|1}}
  • {{flagIOC|NEP|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|NED|2008 Summer|245}}
  • {{flagIOC|AHO|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|NZL|2008 Summer|182}}
  • {{flagIOC|NCA|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|NIG|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|NGR|2008 Summer|33}}
  • {{flagIOC|NOR|2008 Summer|85}}
  • {{flagIOC|OMA|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAK|2008 Summer|21}}
  • {{flagIOC|PLW|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|PLE|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAN|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|PNG|2008 Summer|7}}
  • {{flagIOC|PAR|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|PER|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|PHI|2008 Summer|15}}
  • {{flagIOC|POL|2008 Summer|268}}
  • {{flagIOC|POR|2008 Summer|77}}
  • {{flagIOC|PUR|2008 Summer|22}}
  • {{flagIOC|QAT|2008 Summer|22}}
  • {{flagIOC|ROU|2008 Summer|102}}
  • {{flagIOC|RUS|2008 Summer|467}}
  • {{flagIOC|RWA|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|SKN|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|LCA|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|VIN|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|SAM|2008 Summer|6}}
  • {{flagIOC|SMR|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|STP|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|KSA|2008 Summer|16}}
  • {{flagIOC|SEN|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|SRB|2008 Summer|92}}
  • {{flagIOC|SEY|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|SLE|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|SIN|2008 Summer|25}}
  • {{flagIOC|SVK|2008 Summer|57}}
  • {{flagIOC|SLO|2008 Summer|62}}
  • {{flagIOC|SOL|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|SOM|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|RSA|2008 Summer|136}}
  • {{flagIOC|ESP|2008 Summer|286}}
  • {{flagIOC|SRI|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUD|2008 Summer|9}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUR|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|SWZ|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|SWE|2008 Summer|134}}
  • {{flagIOC|SUI|2008 Summer|84}}
  • {{flagIOC|SYR|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|TPE|2008 Summer|80}}
  • {{flagIOC|TJK|2008 Summer|13}}
  • {{flagIOC|TAN|2008 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|THA|2008 Summer|51}}
  • {{flagIOC|TLS|2008 Summer|2}}
  • {{flagIOC|TOG|2008 Summer|4}}
  • {{flagIOC|TGA|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|TRI|2008 Summer|30}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUN|2008 Summer|32}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUR|2008 Summer|68}}
  • {{flagIOC|TKM|2008 Summer|10}}
  • {{flagIOC|TUV|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|UGA|2008 Summer|15}}
  • {{flagIOC|UKR|2008 Summer|254}}
  • {{flagIOC|UAE|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|USA|2008 Summer|596}}
  • {{flagIOC|URU|2008 Summer|12}}
  • {{flagIOC|UZB|2008 Summer|58}}
  • {{flagIOC|VAN|2008 Summer|3}}
  • {{flagIOC|VEN|2008 Summer|109}}
  • {{flagIOC|VIE|2008 Summer|21}}
  • {{flagIOC|ISV|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|YEM|2008 Summer|5}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZAM|2008 Summer|8}}
  • {{flagIOC|ZIM|2008 Summer|13}}
{{div col end}}

National participation changes

(File:Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg|thumb|Flag of the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee.)Athletes from the Republic of China (Taiwan) competed at the 2008 Games as Chinese Taipei (TPE) under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag and used the National Banner Song as their official anthem. The participation of Taiwan was briefly in doubt because of disagreements over the name of their team in the Chinese language and concerns about Taiwan marching in the Opening Ceremony next to the special administrative region of Hong Kong. A compromise on the naming was reached, and Taiwan was referred to during the games as "Chinese Taipei," rather than "Taipei, China," as the mainland China government had proposed. In addition, the Central African Republic was placed between Chinese Taipei and the Special Administrative Regions during the march of nations.NEWS, Callick, Rowan, Taiwan clears Games hurdle, The Australian, 4 August 2008,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120526213717weblink">weblink dead, 26 May 2012, 15 June 2009, Starting in 2005, North Korea and South Korea held meetings to discuss the possibility of sending a united team to the 2008 Olympics.NEWS, Koreas 'to unify Olympics teams',weblink BBC, 14 May 2006, 17 December 2006, NEWS, Two Koreas Make Progress in Creation of Unified Team,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071029024041weblink">weblink 29 October 2007, International Olympic Committee, 5 September 2006, 10 September 2006, live, The proposal failed, because of disagreements about how athletes would be chosen; North Korea was demanding a certain percentage representation for its athletes. A subsequent attempt to broker an agreement for the two nations to walk together during the March of Nations failed as well, despite their having done so during the 2000 and 2004 Games.NEWS, Wilson, Stephen, North, South Korea Fail To Broker Joint Olympics March, Associated Press, 7 August 2008,weblink 15 June 2009, On 24 July 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Iraq from competing in the 2008 Olympic Summer Games because of "political interference by the government in sports."NEWS, Iraq banned from Summer Olympics, CNN, 24 July 2008,weblink 24 July 2008, NEWS, Iraq banned from Beijing Olympics, BBC Sport, 24 July 2008,weblink 24 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725001202weblink">weblink 25 July 2008, live, The IOC reversed its decision five days later and allowed the nation to compete after a pledge by Iraq to ensure "the independence of its national Olympics panel" by instituting fair elections before the end of November. In the meantime, Iraq's Olympic Organisation was run by "an interim committee proposed by its national sports federations and approved by the IOC."NEWS,weblink Olympic panel ends ban, says Iraq can go to games, Jordans, Frank, USA Today, 29 July 2008, 20 June 2009, Brunei Darussalam was due to take part in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. However, they were disqualified on 8 August, having failed to register either of their two athletes.NEWS, Brunei Darussalam excluded from Beijing Olympic Games, Xinhua, 8 August 2008,weblink 8 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080813082320weblink">weblink 13 August 2008, live, The IOC spokeswoman Emmanuelle Moreau said in a statement that "it is a great shame and very sad for the athletes who lose out because of the decision by their team not to register them. The IOC tried up until the last minute, midday Friday August 8, 2008, the day of the official opening, to have them register, but to no avail."NEWS, Brunei excluded from Beijing Games, Reuters, 8 August 2008,weblink 15 June 2009, Brunei's Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports issued a press release stating that their decision not to participate was due to an injury to one of their athletes.NEWS, Thomas, Jason, Begawan, Bandar Seri, Brunei not in China because ..., The Brunei Times, 10 August 2008,weblink 15 June 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201090922weblink">weblink 1 December 2008, Georgia announced on 9 August 2008, that it was considering withdrawing from the Beijing Olympic Games because of the 2008 South Ossetia war, but it went on to compete while the conflict was still ongoing.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080825021441weblink">weblink 25 August 2008, 24.com – Olympics 2008 – Georgia poised to leave Beijing, 8 September 2008, 25 August 2008, dead,

Participation of athletes with disabilities

South African swimmer Natalie du Toit, whose left leg was amputated following a motor scooter accident, qualified to compete at the Beijing Olympics. The five time gold medalist at the Athens Paralympics in 2004 made history by becoming the first amputee to qualify for the Olympic Games since Olivér Halassy in 1936. She was able to compete in the Olympics rather than the Paralympics because she does not use a prosthetic leg while swimming.NEWS, Hart, Simon, Dreams carry Natalie Du Toit to Beijing, The Telegraph, 4 May 2008,weblink 15 June 2009, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090530170103weblink">weblink 30 May 2009, live, Polish athlete Natalia Partyka, who was born without a right forearm, competed in Table Tennis in both the 2008 Olympic Games and 2008 Paralympic Games.WEB,weblink Natalia: Paralympic AND Olympic athlete, 15 June 2009, dead,weblink" title="archive.today/20120906040512weblink">weblink 6 September 2012,

Concerns and controversies

File:Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics.jpg|thumb|The banner reads: "Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics", picture taken during the opening of the alt=A crowd of protestors along a street displays a banner reading "Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics". Near the centre of the image, a photographer holds a camera level with the banner while looking through the viewfinder.A variety of concerns over the Games, or China's hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities, including claims that China violated its pledge to allow open media access,NEWS, Yardley, Jim,weblink Two Concerns for Olympics – Air and Access –, Beijing (China), The New York Times, 9 July 2008, 16 May 2011, various supposed human rights violations,NEWS,weblink Protestors Rally in Europe on Eve of China Olympics, Deutsche Welle, 7 August 2008, 9 August 2008, NEWS,weblink China's un-Olympic human rights record, Calgary Herald, 9 August 2008, 9 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090625133402weblink">weblink 25 June 2009, its alleged continuous support of repressive regimes (such as Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Sudan and North Korea), air pollution in both the city of Beijing and in neighbouring areas,WEB,weblink Ji Xinpeng: Beijing welcomes you with its blue sky, 8 August 2008, China Daily, 7 August 2008, proposed boycotts,WEB, Kosyrev, Dmitry,weblink Beijing Olympics as a diplomatic convention, 9 August 2008, RIA Novosti, 6 August 2008, NEWS,weblink Saul, Newman, Why Grandpa boycotted the Olympics, Haaretz, 9 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080814031036weblink">weblink 14 August 2008, live, warnings of the possibility that the Beijing Olympics could be targeted by terrorist groups,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20080509082147weblink">weblink dead, 9 May 2008, Interpol says Olympic terror attack 'real possibility', The Globe and Mail, Canada, 29 November 2010, {{subscription required}} disruption from pro-Tibetan protesters,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121102082128weblink">weblink 2 November 2012, Interpol chief warns of Olympic terror threat, intelasia.net, 13 July 2012, and religious persecutions.WEB,weblink Bush Olympic Visit Highlights Religion in China, 10 August 2008, Voice of America, Mike, O'Sullivan,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090826095001weblink">weblink 26 August 2009, dead, 2 July 2009, There were also claims that several members of China's women's gymnastics team, including double gold medal winner He Kexin, were too young to compete under the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique's rules for Olympic eligibility, but all were exonerated after an official IOC investigation.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160124054938weblink">weblink 24 January 2016, AsianWeek's Most Memorable Moments of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, asianweek.com, WEB,weblink Olympic probe into age-fixing of Chinese gymnasts, 21 August 2008, 29 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101207052845weblink">weblink 7 December 2010, dead, NEWS, 2008 Chinese gymnasts cleared, but 2000 team eyed, ESPN, Associated Press, 1 October 2008,weblink 1 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081004050946weblink">weblink 4 October 2008, live, Collectively, the Beijing Olympics are associated with a variety of problematic topics: the ecological impact, residential displacement due to construction, treatment of migrant workers, the government's political stance on Tibet, etc.JOURNAL, Kang, Jaeho, Traganou, Jilly, 2011, The Beijing National Stadium as Media-space, Design and Culture, 3, 2, 145–163, 10.2752/175470811X13002771867761, In the lead-up to the Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for their reporting during the Games: most political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed; topics such as pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements were not to be reported on, as were food safety issues such as "cancer-causing mineral water".Stephen Hutcheon, "Was China's milk scandal hushed up?", "The full list of edicts", New Zealand Herald (15 September 2008) As the 2008 Chinese milk scandal broke in September 2008, there was widespread speculation that China's desire for a perfect Games may have been a factor contributing towards the delayed recall of contaminated infant formula.WEB,weblink China accused over contaminated baby milk, Richard Spencer in Beijing, 15 September 2008, Telegraph.co.uk, NEWS,weblink China Says Complaints About Milk Began in 2007, 24 September 2008, The New York Times, The games were hit by a number of doping scandals before and after the games had commenced. Seven Russian track and field stars were suspended just before the start of the games for allegedly tampering with their urine samples, only five of the seven were due to take part in the games. Eleven Greek weightlifters also failed tests in the run up to the games and the entire Bulgarian weightlifting team had to withdraw after eleven of their weightlifters also failed tests. A small number of athletes from other nations also failed pre-games tests.NEWS,weblink Bulgaria withdraws lifting team, BBC Sport, 27 June 2008, 27 August 2018, NEWS,weblink Greek 'B' samples test positive, BBC Sport, 2 May 2008, 27 August 2018, NEWS,weblink Seven Russians handed doping bans, BBC Sport, 20 October 2008, 27 August 2018, Urine samples taken from the games were re-analysed in 2016–17 using more advanced technologies that were not available at the time of competition. 61 athletes failed these re-tests, with 50 medals being stripped.{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}

Legacy

{{update|date=December 2018}}(File:Pebetero de Beijing 2008.JPG|thumb|right|Beijing 2008 cauldron in 2013.)The 2008 Olympic Games have been generally accepted by the world's media as a logistical success.WEB, Top events of 2008 – After the Games: China's Olympic legacy,weblink 4 February 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090119044023weblink">weblink 19 January 2009, NEWS, Skalij, Wally, Beijing Olympics were logistically successful and sneaky, too,weblink LA Times, 29 August 2008, 24 August 2008, Many of the worst fears about the games failed to materialize: no terrorists struck Beijing; no athlete protested at the podium (though Swedish wrestler Ara Abrahamian tossed his bronze medal in disgust over judging), and the air quality – due largely to favorable weather patterns – was not as bad as many had feared beforehand despite being the worst in Olympics history.WEB, China Launches Olympic-Size Headache, 20 August 2008,weblink 31 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080829000445weblink">weblink 29 August 2008, live, NEWS, Beijing Olympics were the most polluted games ever, researchers say, 22 June 2009,weblink The Daily Telegraph, London, 26 June 2009, Alastair, Jamieson,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090626074823weblink">weblink 26 June 2009, dead, Hopes that hosting the Games would lead to improvements in human rights protections and rule of law in China, however, went unfulfilled.WEB, China a finalist for 2022 Olympics but facing human rights criticism, 11 September 2014,weblink The Washington Post, 2 October 2014, Many in China viewed the Olympics as "an affirmation of a single nationalistic dream" and saw protests during the international torch relay as an insult to China.NEWS,weblink →Beijing Olympic Games all about China, Chinese Leaders keen to impress, inspire their own people, April Rabkin, 1 August 2008, San Francisco Chronicle, 17 March 2010, The Games also bolstered domestic support for the Chinese government, and for the policies of the Communist Party, giving rise to concerns that the Olympics would give the state more leverage to suppress political dissent, at least temporarily.WEB, Gardner, Dinah, China's Olympic legacy, 25 August 2008,weblink 29 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080829090422weblink">weblink 29 August 2008, live, Efforts to quell any unrest before and during the Games also contributed to a rapid expansion in the size and political clout of China's internal security forces, and this growth continued through the following years.NEWS, China's new rulers, Princelings and the goon state, The rise and rise of the princelings, the country's revolutionary aristocracy, 14 April 2011,weblink The Economist, 22 July 2012, Reports also indicated that the Olympics boosted the political careers of pro-Beijing politicians in Hong Kong, as many Chinese gold medal winners campaigned on behalf of the pro-Beijing DAB during the 2008 election,WEB, Democrats perform well despite 'Olympic factor' in Hong Kong elections, 8 September 2008,weblink 6 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321210103weblink">weblink 21 March 2012, dead, dmy-all, although any trend towards greater identification by Hong Kongers with Mainland China appears to have been short-lived.NEWS, Higgins, Andrew, China denounces 'Hong Konger' trend, 11 January 2012,weblink 22 July 2012, The Washington Post, The long-term economic impact of the games on China and Beijing in particular is not yet clear. Some sectors of the economy may have benefited from the influx of tourists, and other sectors such as manufacturing lost revenue because of plant closings related to the government's efforts to improve air quality. Four years after the Games, many of the specially constructed facilities were underused or even deserted.NEWS, McDonald, Mark, 'Ruin Porn' — the Aftermath of the Beijing Olympics, 15 July 2012,weblink 21 July 2012, The New York Times, It is generally expected by economists that there will be no lasting effects on Beijing's economy from the games.NEWS, Beijing's economy – Going for gold, 25 August 2008,weblink 29 August 2008, The Economist,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080828170049weblink">weblink 28 August 2008, live, One 2009 study found that countries which host the Olympics experience a significant boost in trade. But this is also the case for countries which merely bid to host. "The benefit, in other words, came from the signal that a country was open for business, not from the spending itself."Does Hosting the Olympics Actually Pay Off?, New York Times, Binyamin Appelbaum, Aug. 5, 2014. On how hosting boosts trade as does merely bidding to host, the article cites economists Andrew K. Rose at the University of California, Berkeley, and Mark M. Spiegel at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.Seven years after the 2008 Games, Beijing was awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics. It will thus be the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Games.

See also

{{IOC seealso|games=2008 Summer Olympics }}

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Wikivoyage|Beijing 2008}}{{commons category|2008 Summer Olympics}}{{Scholia|topic}} {{Olympic Games}}{{Nations at the 2008 Summer Olympics}}{{EventsAt2008SummerOlympics}}{{2008 Summer Olympics venues}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2018}}{{Good article}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "2008 Summer Olympics" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 3:51pm EDT - Mon, Sep 23 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT