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University of California
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{{about|the California university system|the university known as California|University of California, Berkeley||California State University|and|California University of Pennsylvania}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2015}}{{coord|37.802168|-122.271281|region:US|display=title}}







factoids
PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIALOCATION=OAKLAND, April 2018, | president = Janet NapolitanoOakland, California>Oakland| state = California| country = U.S.PUBLISHER=UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIALOCATION=OAKLANDARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161111062209/HTTP://UNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIA.EDU/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/UC-AT-A-GLANCE-OCT-2016.PDFDEAD-URL=YES, mdy-all, | undergrad = 198,800 (October 2016)| postgrad = 52,800 (October 2016)PUBLISHER=BRAND.UNIVERSITYOFCALIFORNIA.EDU #1295D8}} {{color box|#FFB511}}| faculty = 21,200 (October 2016)| staff = 144,000 (October 2016)| campus = 10 campuses under direct control (nine with undergraduate and graduate schools, one professional/graduate only), one affiliated law school, one national laboratorywww.universityofcalifornia.edu|universityofcalifornia.edu}}| logo = University of California logo.svg| logo_size = 200px}}The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which also includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System.The University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, and operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873.WEB,weblink A brief history of the University of California {{!, UCOP|website=www.ucop.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-04-06}}WEB,weblink UC 150th Anniversary Timeline, California, University of, UC 150th Anniversary Timeline, en, 2018-04-06, In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley.WEB,weblink Past Chancellors {{!, Office of the Chancellor|website=chancellor.berkeley.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-04-06}} However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, and it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960.In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents. Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll both undergraduate and graduate students; one campus, UC San Francisco, enrolls only graduate and professional students in the medical and health sciences. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is legally affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is entirely autonomous from the rest of the system.The University of California also manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).WEB,weblink UC National Laboratories {{!, UCOP|website=www.ucop.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-04-06}}Collectively, the colleges, institutions, and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact.WEB, The University of California’s Economic Contribution to the State of California,weblink UC Regents, April 19, 2017, UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in almost every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017.WEB, University of California Nobel Laureates,weblink UC Regents, August 29, 2016,

History

File:Berkeley glade afternoon.jpg|thumb|Berkeley ]]File:Mission Bay, UCSF.jpg|thumb|San Francisco ]]File:RHall.JPG|thumb|Los Angeles ]]File:UCSB University Center and Storke Tower.jpg|thumb|Santa Barbara ]]File:UCR Belltower night.JPG|thumb|Riverside ]]File:UC Davis Mondavi Center.jpg|thumb|Davis ]]File:Geisel library.jpg|thumb|San Diego ]]File:UCILibrary.jpg|thumb|Irvine ]]File:Cowell College.jpg|thumb|Santa Cruz ]]File:UC Merced at night.jpg|thumb|Merced ]]File:University of California Office of the President.jpg|thumb|right|Office of the President in OaklandOaklandIn 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university. Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in 1866.BOOK, Stadtman, Verne A., The University of California, 1868–1968, 1970, McGraw-Hill, New York, 7–34, BOOK, Marsden, George M., The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief, 1994, Oxford University Press, New York, 9780195106503, 134–140,weblink Page 138 of this source incorrectly states that the date of the final negotiations in which Governor Low participated was October 8, 1869, but it is clear from the context and the endnotes to that page (which cite documents from 1867) that the reference to 1869 is a typo. However, it existed only on paper, as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds.Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California. The initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland (and is marked today by State Historical Plaque No. 45 at the northeast corner of Thirteenth and Franklin). In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860. The College's trustees, educators, and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education (especially the study of the Greek and Roman classics), but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier (as a true college, the College was graduating only three or four students per year).In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland. But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres (650,000 m²) of land to the south of the future campus.BOOK, Helfand, Harvey, University of California, Berkeley: An Architectural Tour, 2002, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 9781568982939, 4,weblink The Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and also create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short.Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, and thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low reportedly first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California (which had land, buildings, faculty, and students, but not enough money) with the nonfunctional state college (which had money and nothing else), and went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations. On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be simply an "Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters (now known as the College of Letters and Science).This agreement is evident in section 7 of the Organic Act, in which the state agreed to establish the College of Letters in consideration of the College of California's gift. See Cal. Stats., 17th sess., 1867–1868, ch. 244, § 7. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, and after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight (Low's successor) on March 23, 1868.Harvey Helfand, University of California, Berkeley: An Architectural Tour and Photographs, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002), 6. However, as legally constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an entirely new institution which merely inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them.The University of California's second president, Daniel Coit Gilman, opened its new campus in Berkeley in September 1873.WEB,weblink Daniel Coit Gilman and the Early Years of UC – Special Topics – A History of UCSF, history.library.ucsf.edu, 2016-10-24, Earlier that year, Toland Medical College in San Francisco (founded in 1864) had agreed to become the University's "Medical Department"; it later evolved into UCSF. In 1878, the University established Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco as its first law school. The California Constitution was amended to designate Hastings as the "Law Department" of the University of California in consideration of a $100,000 gift from Serranus Clinton Hastings (though this was later transferred to statutory law during the shortening of what had become an extraordinarily long constitution by the 1960s). Hastings is the only UC campus not governed by the Regents of the University of California,WEB,weblink EDUCATION, usedu.yolasite.com, 2016-10-24, as required as a condition of Hastings' gift.In August 1882, the California State Normal School (whose original normal school in San Jose is now San Jose State University) opened a second school in Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.WEB,weblink San José State University: About SJSU: 1880–1899, San José State University, In 1887, the Los Angeles school was granted its own board of trustees independent of the San Jose school, and in 1919, the state legislature transferred it to UC control and renamed it the Southern Branch of the University of California.WEB,weblink UCLA Library Special Collections / University Archives Home Page, June 20, 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060615035434weblink">weblink June 15, 2006, In 1927, it became the University of California at Los Angeles; the "at" would be replaced with a comma in 1958.BOOK, Dundjerski, Marina, UCLA: The First Century, 2011, Third Millennium Publishing, Los Angeles, 9781906507374, 46,weblink 3 February 2019, Meanwhile, Los Angeles had already surpassed San Francisco in the 1920 census to become the preeminent metropolis on the West Coast, and its residents sought more prestige and autonomy for their campus. UCLA became the first UC site outside of Berkeley to achieve de jure coequal status with the Berkeley campus in March 1951, when the Regents approved a reorganization plan under which both the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses would be supervised by chancellors reporting to the UC President.BOOK, Stadtman, Verne A., The University of California, 1868–1968, 1970, McGraw-Hill, New York, 355–358, BOOK, Davis, Margaret Leslie, The Culture Broker: Franklin D. Murphy and the Transformation of Los Angeles, 2007, University of California Press, Berkeley, 9780520925557, 28,weblink 30 August 2016, BOOK, Kerr, Clark, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949–1967, Volume 1, 2001, University of California Press, Berkeley, 9780520223677, 458–462,weblink 30 August 2016, Bylaw 31, Chancellors, Bylaws of the Regents of the University of California."Duties of the Chancellors", Standing Order 100.6 of the Regents of the University of California. However, the 1951 plan was severely flawed; it was overly vague about how the chancellors were to become the "executive heads" of their campuses. Due to stubborn resistance from President Sproul and several vice presidents and deans—who simply carried on as before—the chancellors ended up as glorified provosts with limited control over academic affairs while the President and the Regents retained de facto control over everything else.BOOK, Kerr, Clark, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949–1967, Volume 1, 2001, University of California Press, Berkeley, 9780520223677, 39–55,weblink Upon becoming President in October 1957, Clark Kerr supervised UC's rapid transformation into a true public university system through a series of proposals adopted unanimously by the Regents from 1957 to 1960.BOOK, Kerr, Clark, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949–1967, Volume 1, 2001, University of California Press, Berkeley, 9780520223677, 191–205,weblink Kerr's reforms included expressly granting all campus chancellors the full range of executive powers, privileges, and responsibilities which Sproul had denied to Kerr himself, as well as the radical decentralization of a tightly-knit bureaucracy in which all lines of authority had always run directly to the President at Berkeley or to the Regents themselves.During the 20th century, UC acquired additional satellite locations which, like Los Angeles, were all subordinate to administrators at the Berkeley campus. California farmers lobbied for UC to perform applied research responsive to their immediate needs; in 1905, the Legislature established a "University Farm School" at Davis and in 1907 a "Citrus Experiment Station" at Riverside as adjuncts to the College of Agriculture at Berkeley. In 1912, UC acquired a private oceanography laboratory in San Diego, which had been founded nine years earlier by local business promoters working with a Berkeley professor. In 1944, UC acquired Santa Barbara State College from the California State Colleges, the descendants of the State Normal Schools.BOOK, Gerth, Donald R., The People's University: A History of the California State University, 2010, Berkeley Public Policy Press, Berkeley, 9780877724353, 39, In 1958, the Regents began promoting these locations to general campuses, thereby creating UCSB (1958), UC Davis (1959), UC Riverside (1959), UC San Diego (1960), and UCSF (1964).BOOK, Stadtman, Verne A., The University of California, 1868–1968, 1970, McGraw-Hill, New York, 400–420, BOOK, Kerr, Clark, The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the University of California, 1949–1967, Volume 1, 2001, University of California Press, Berkeley, 9780520223677, 221,weblink Each campus was also granted the right to have its own chancellor upon promotion. In response to California's continued population growth, UC opened two additional general campuses in 1965, with UC Irvine opening in Irvine and UC Santa Cruz opening in Santa Cruz. The youngest campus, UC Merced opened in fall 2005 to serve the San Joaquin Valley.After losing campuses in Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to the University of California system, supporters of the California State College system arranged for the state constitution to be amended in 1946 to prevent similar losses from happening again in the future.In 1932, Will Keith Kellogg donated his Arabian horse ranch in Pomona, California, to the University of California system.NEWS,weblink Kellogg horse ranch holds on to millionaire's dream, Tribune, San Diego Union, sandiegouniontribune.com, 2016-10-24, However, the land remained largely unused and ownership was transferred to the California State University system in 1949. Kellogg's old ranch became the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona."Honoring the Legacy of W.K. Kellogg Through Access to Educational Opportunities", W.K. Kellogg Foundation.The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 established that UC must admit undergraduates from the top 12.5% (one-eighth) of graduating high school seniors in California. Prior to the promulgation of the Master Plan, UC was to admit undergraduates from the top 15%. UC does not currently adhere to all tenets of the original Master Plan, such as the directives that no campus was to exceed total enrollment of 27,500 students (in order to ensure quality) and that public higher education should be tuition-free for California residents. Five campuses, Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, and San Diego each have current total enrollment at over 30,000.After the state electorate severely limited long-term property tax revenue by enacting Proposition 13 in 1978, UC was forced to make up for the resulting collapse in state financial support by imposing a variety of fees which were tuition in all but name.NEWS, Lindsay, Leon, Will California's tuition-free colleges become history?,weblink 29 August 2016, The Christian Science Monitor, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, 17 December 1982, NEWS, Lindsey, Robert, California Weighs End of Free College Education,weblink 29 August 2016, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, 28 December 1982, NEWS, Gordon, Larry, California universities consider adopting the T-word: tuition,weblink 29 August 2016, The Los Angeles Times, Tribune Publishing, 14 June 2010, On November 18, 2010, the Regents finally gave up on the longstanding legal fiction that UC does not charge tuition by renaming the Educational Fee to "Tuition."Regents of the University of California, Regents Policy 3101: The University of California Student Tuition and Fee Policy, UC Office of the President (as approved on Jan. 21, 1994 and with amendments through Nov. 18, 2010). As part of its search for funds during the 2000s and 2010s, UC quietly began to admit higher percentages of highly accomplished (and more lucrative) students from other states and countries, but was forced to reverse course in 2015 in response to the inevitable public outcry and start admitting more California residents.NEWS, Jordan, Miriam, Belkin, Douglas, Foreign Students Pinch University of California Home-State Admissions,weblink 30 August 2016, The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, Inc., 16 November 2015, NEWS, Saul, Stephanie, Public Colleges Chase Out-of-State Students, and Tuition,weblink 26 August 2016, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, 7 July 2016,

Academics

In 2016, UC researchers and faculty were responsible for 1,745 inventions, and UC controls over 12,200 active patents. On average, UC researchers create five new inventions per day.Six of UC's ten campuses, (UC Berkeley, UC Davis, UC Irvine, UCLA, UCSB, UC San Diego) are members of the prestigious Association of American Universities (AAU). Collectively, the system counts among its faculty (as of 2002):

Nobel Prize winners

As of October 2018, the following data are taken from List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation and are not the official count from University of California. {| class="wikitable sortable"!Campus!Nr. of winners !Nr. of winners world rank!Age of schoolUniversity of California, Berkeley>Berkeley|107|3|150University of California, San Diego>San Diego|27|26|58University of California, Los Angeles>Los Angeles|24|31|99University of California, Santa Barbara>Santa Barbara|14|56|74University of California, San Francisco>San Francisco|9|>73|143University of California, Irvine>Irvine|7|>73|51University of California, Davis>Davis|3|>73|59University of California, Riverside>Riverside|3|>73|64University of California, Santa Cruz>Santa Cruz|0|>73|53University of California, Merced>Merced|0|>73|13

Academic calendar

Eight campuses operate on the quarter system, while Berkeley and Merced are on the semester system. However, the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and all UC law schools operate on the semester system.

UC Libraries

At 34 million items,University of California Cultural Resources{{spaced ndash}}Libraries {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080123135235weblink |date=January 23, 2008 }}. Accessed January 26, 2008. the University of California library system contains one of the largest collections in the world. Each campus maintains its own library catalog and also participates in the systemwide union catalog, MELVYL. Besides on-campus libraries, the UC system also maintains two regional library facilities (one each for Northern and Southern California), which each accept older items from all UC campus libraries in their respective region. As of 2007, Northern Regional Library Facility is home to 4.7 million volumes, while Southern Regional Library Facilityis home to 5.7 million.

Research

Six of the campuses are members of the Association of American Universities, a collection of the top 62 research schools in North America. In 2006 the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) awarded the University of California the SPARC Innovator Award for its "extraordinarily effective institution-wide vision and efforts to move scholarly communication forward", including the 1997 founding (under then UC President Richard C. Atkinson) of the California Digital Library (CDL) and its 2002 launching of CDL's eScholarship, an institutional repository. The award also specifically cited the widely influential 2005 academic journal publishing reform efforts of UC faculty and librarians in "altering the marketplace" by publicly negotiating contracts with publishers, as well as their 2006 proposal to amend UC's copyright policy to allow open access to UC faculty research.WEB, SPARC editors, SPARC Innovator: University of California (July 2006),weblink Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, Association of Research Libraries, October 21, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151021140055weblink">weblink 2015-10-21, July 2006, PDF On July 24, 2013 the UC Academic Senate adopted an Open Access Policy, mandating that all UC faculty produced research with a publication agreement signed after that date be first deposited in UC's eScholarship open access repository.WEB, eScholarship editors, UC Open Access Policy,weblink eScholarship, University of California, October 21, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151013155757weblink">weblink October 13, 2015, yes, mdy-all, University of California systemwide research on the SAT exam found that, after controlling for familial income and parental education, so-called achievement tests known as the SAT II had 10 times more predictive ability of college aptitude than the SAT I (AKA the SAT math and verbal sections).{{Citation |last1 = Geiser |first1 = Saul |last2 = Studley |first2 = Roger |title = UC and the SAT: Predictive Validity and Differential Impact of the SAT I ad SAT II at the University of California |publisher = University of California, Office of the President. |date = October 29, 2001 |url=http://web.stanford.edu/~rag/ed351B/sat_study.pdf}}

Governance

All University of California campuses except Hastings College of the Law are governed by the Regents of the University of California as required by the Constitution of the State of California. Eighteen regents are appointed by the governor for 12-year terms. One member is a student appointed for a one-year term. There are also seven (List of Latin phrases: E|ex officio) members—the governor, lieutenant governor, speaker of the State Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, president and vice president of the Alumni Associations of UC, and the UC president. The Academic Senate, made up of faculty members, is empowered by the Regents to set academic policies. In addition, the system-wide faculty chair and vice-chair sit on the Board of Regents as non-voting members.Originally, the President was directly in charge of the first campus, Berkeley. In turn, other UC locations (with the exception of Hastings College of the Law) were treated as off-site departments of the Berkeley campus. In March 1951, the Regents reorganized the university so that day-to-day "chief executive officer" functions for the Berkeley and Los Angeles campuses were transferred in 1952 to chancellors who were entrusted with a high degree of autonomy. As noted above, the Regents promoted five additional UC locations to campuses and allowed them to have Chancellors of their own in a series of decisions from 1958 to 1964, and the three campuses added since then have also been run by Chancellors. In turn, all Chancellors (again, with the exception of Hastings) report as equals to the UC President. Today, the UC Office of the President (UCOP) and the Office of the Secretary of the Regents of the University of California share an office building in downtown Oakland that serves as the UC system's headquarters.

UC presidents

File:FEMA - 42645 - DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano in New York City at FEMA.jpg|thumb|150px|right|Janet Napolitano, current UC President, former Governor of Arizona and former United States Secretary of Homeland SecurityUnited States Secretary of Homeland Security{| On August 13, 2007, President Dynes announced that he would step down effective June 2008, or until his replacement was selected. However, he also announced that Provost Wyatt (Rory) Hume would take over as the system's chief operating officer, effective immediately. Three state lawmakers had publicly demanded his resignation for his handling of the executive pay compensation scandal that stemmed from UC system Provost M. R. C. Greenwood's violation of UC conflict-of-interest rules. (She had created a management job at UC headquarters for a friend with whom she owned rental property, and a subordinate, Winston Doby, improperly helped create a year-long internship for her son at UC Merced.)NEWS,weblink Dynes quitting as head of UC– presided over compensation scandal, San Francisco Chronicle, February 9, 2008, Jones, Carolyn, August 14, 2007, NEWS,weblink Dynes' tenure, San Francisco Chronicle, February 9, 2008, August 14, 2007, NEWS,weblink Conflict of interest found for UC provost / Despite violations, she got paid leave and offer of new job, San Francisco Chronicle, February 9, 2008, Schevitz, Tanya, Wallack, Todd, December 22, 2005, Incoming President Mark Yudof took over on June 16, 2008.NEWS, Gordon, Larry, New UC chief will start in June, Los Angeles Times, B4, April 4, 2008, Yudof was succeeded by Homeland Security Secretary and former Governor of Arizona Janet Napolitano, the first woman to hold the office of UC President.NEWS, Gordon, Larry, Janet Napolitano, Homeland Security chief, to head UC,weblink Los Angeles Times, July 12, 2013,

Finances

The State of California currently (2015–2016) spends nearly $3 billion on the UC system, funding approximately 43.3% of the system. In 1980, the state funded 86.8% of the UC budget.NEWS,weblink Part One: State reduces UC funding causing tuition increases, Reznik, Ethan, November 19, 2015, Webb Canyon Chronicle, One, VIII, July 21, 2016, While state funding has somewhat recovered, as of 2019 state support still lags behind even recent historic levels (e.g. 2001) when adjusted for inflation.UC 2019-2020 operating budgetweblink May 2004, UC President Robert C. Dynes and CSU Chancellor Charles B. Reed struck a private deal, called the "Higher Education Compact", with Governor Schwarzenegger. They agreed to slash spending by about a billion dollars (about a third of the University's core budget for academic operations) in exchange for a funding formula lasting until 2011. The agreement calls for modest annual increases in state funds (but not enough to replace the loss in state funds Dynes and Schwarzenegger agreed to), private fundraising to help pay for basic programs, and large student fee hikes, especially for graduate and professional students. A detailed analysis of the Compact by the Academic Senate "Futures Report" indicated, despite the large fee increases, the University core budget did not recover to 2000 levels.JOURNAL, Committee on Planning and Budget, Current Budget Trends and The Future of the University of California, PDF, University of California,weblink May 2006, March 6, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080226210332weblink">weblink February 26, 2008, mdy-all, Undergraduate student fees have risen 90% from 2003 to 2007.NEWS, Paddock, Richard C., Less to bank on at state universities,weblink The Los Angeles Times, October 6, 2007, October 6, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100606013321weblink">weblink June 6, 2010, mdy-all, In 2011, for the first time in UC's history, student fees exceeded contributions from the State of California.NEWS, University of California Budget,weblink The First District Court of Appeal in San Francisco ruled in 2007 that the University of California owed nearly $40 million in refunds to about 40,000 students who were promised that their tuition fees would remain steady, but were hit with increases when the state ran short of money in 2003.NEWS, Egelko, Bob, UC owes millions in refunds to students, appeals court rules,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, November 3, 2007, November 3, 2007,

Faculty pay

Faculty compensation is comparable with institutions of similar academic rankingWEB,weblink University of California – Accountability Report, universityofcalifornia.edu, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141213105033weblink">weblink December 13, 2014, mdy-all, but slightly higher than in the California State University system. According to the 2015–2016 payscale, the following pay ranges apply per academic year:WEB,weblink PDF, University of California. (2016). Academic Salary Scales., June 25, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091127180518weblink">weblink November 27, 2009, mdy-all, WEB,weblink PDF, University of California. (2016). Academic Salary Scales For Lecturers with Security of Employment., June 25, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160816113304weblink">weblink August 16, 2016, mdy-all, {| class="wikitable sortable"Position>|Salary range|$48,948–$132,204|$87,528–$132,204|$59,500–$77,200|$73,800–$93,300|$86,800–$158,400Note that the distinction between "academic year" and "fiscal year" salaries is important. Academic year salaries are for those whose work covers a standard 9-month academic calendar; fiscal year salaries (not listed here) are extrapolations of the academic year salary to cover the entire fiscal year (11 months, since the last month is considered usable as vacation) for those who provide full-year service. Fiscal year salaries are computed by using the monthly rate of the academic year salary and multiplying by 11.The UC system provides for merit pay higher than the nominal maximum of a salary range. However, once pay achieves a high threshold (varies by category, at least $300,000 in 2016), it requires either presidential or regental approval.

Criticism and controversies

The members of the UC governing structure have been criticized for confusion about their roles and responsibilities and for enjoying controversial perks.In 2008, the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, the regional accreditor of the UC schools, criticized the UC system for "significant problems in governance, leadership and decision making" and "confusion about the roles and responsibilities of the university president, the regents and the 10 campus chancellors with no clear lines of authority and boundaries".NEWS,weblink UC criticized for poor governance, controls, San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 2008, Schevitz, Tanya, February 12, 2008, Besides substantial six-figure incomes, the UC President and all UC chancellors enjoy controversial perks such as free housing in the form of university-maintained mansions.NEWS,weblink Free mansions for people of means: UC system spends about $1 million yearly on upkeep, San Francisco Chronicle, November 14, 2005, A9, Tanya Schevitz & Todd Wallack, In 1962, Anson Blake's will donated his {{convert|10|acre|m2|adj=on}} estate (Blake Garden) and mansion (Blake House) in Kensington to the University of California's Department of Landscape Architecture. In 1968, the Regents decided to make Blake House the official residence of the UC President. As of 2005, it cost around $300,000 per year to maintain Blake Garden and Blake House; the latter, built in 1926, is a {{convert|13239|sqft|m2|adj=on}} mansion with a view of San Francisco Bay.All UC chancellors traditionally live for free in a mansion on or near campus that is usually known as University House, where they host social functions attended by guests and donors.See University of California Regents Policy 7708, "University-Provided Housing," August 1, 2009, 2, and University of California Policy BFB-G-45, "Implementing Requirements on Expenses Incurred in Support of Official Responsibilities of the President and Chancellors," July 30, 2010, 2. UC San Diego's University House was closed from 2004 to 2014 for $10.5 million in renovations paid for by private donors, which were so expensive because the 12,000-square-foot structure sits on top of a sacred Native American cemetery and next to an unstable coastal bluff.NEWS, Kucher, Karen, Chancellor's home gets $10M rehab,weblink 14 January 2016, The San Diego Union-Tribune, 19 December 2013, NEWS, Schwab, Dave, 10 years later, Chancellor's house finally becomes a home,weblink 14 January 2016, SDNews.com, San Diego Community News Group, 24 January 2014, In 2016, university system officials admitted that they monitored all e-mails sent to and from their servers.NEWS, Jaschik, Scott, U of Big Brother?,weblink February 1, 2016, Inside Higher Ed, February 1, 2016, In many recent years, the University of California System has faced increased and growing criticism for its high admittance of out-of-state or international students as opposed to in-state, Californian students. In particular, UC Berkeley and UC Los Angeles have been heavily criticized for this phenomenon due to their extraordinarily low acceptance rates compared to other universities in the system.WEB,weblink UC schools harm local students by admitting so many from out of state, audit finds, Teresa, Watanabe, latimes.com, At a Board of Regents meeting in 2015, California Governor Jerry Brown reportedly said on the problem of the UC's relationship with Californian applicants, “And so you got your foreign students and you got your 4.0 folks, but just the kind of ordinary, normal students, you know, that got good grades but weren’t at the top of the heap there – they’re getting frozen out.”WEB,weblink Gov. Brown says 'normal' Californians can't get into Berkeley, a problem some Californians blame on Brown, www.insidehighered.com,

Campuses and rankings

{{Location map+| California|width=400|float=right|caption=The ten UC campuses|alt=A topographic map of California with the UC campuses marked|relief=yes|places={{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCB}}}} | lat_deg = 37.87 | lon_deg = -122.259 | position = right| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCSD}}}} | lat_deg = 32.881 | lon_deg = -117.238 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCLA}}}} | lat_deg = 34.072222 | lon_deg = -118.444097 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCSB}}}} | lat_deg = 34.416667 | lon_deg = -119.7 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCSF}}}} | lat_deg = 37.7627 | lon_deg = -122.4581 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCI}}}} | lat_deg = 33.645556 | lon_deg = -117.8425 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCD}}}} | lat_deg = 38.54 | lon_deg = -121.75 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCSC}}}} | lat_deg = 37 | lon_deg = -122.06 | position = left| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCR}}}} | lat_deg = 33.975556 | lon_deg = -117.331111 | position = right| mark = }} {{Location map~ | California | label = {{Raise|0.1em|{{Nowrap|UCM}}}} | lat_deg = 37.366 | lon_deg = -120.4235 | position = right| mark = }}}}At present, the UC system officially describes itself as a "ten campus" system consisting of the campuses listed below.WEB, UC Campuses,weblink University of California, August 13, 2006, March 6, 2008, These campuses are under the direct control of the Regents and President.NEWS,weblink Leadership, 2017-09-25, University of California, 2018-01-17, en, Only ten campuses are listed on the official UC letterhead.University of California Office of the President, Policy on Representation of the University on Letterhead and Business Cards, September 28, 1999.Although it shares the name and public status of the UC system, the Hastings College of the Law is not controlled by the Regents or President; it has a separate board of directors and must seek funding directly from the Legislature. However, under the California Education Code, the Juris Doctor from Hastings is awarded in the name of the Regents and bears the signature of the President.WEB, State of California, California Education Code Section 92203,weblink California Education Code, FindLaw, 2008, March 6, 2008, Furthermore, Education Code section 92201 states that Hastings "is affiliated with the University of California, and is the law department thereof".WEB, State of California, Education Code section 92201,weblink California Education Code, FindLaw, 2008, March 6, 2008, Annually, UC campuses are ranked highly by various publications. Six UC campuses rank in the top 50 U.S. National Universities of 2019 by U.S. News & World Report, with UCLA, UC Berkeley, UC Santa Barbara, UC Irvine, UC Davis, and UC San Diego respectively ranked 19th, 22nd, 30th, 33rd, 38th and 41st. All of the UC campuses listed above are considered Public Ivies.BOOK,weblink The public ivies : America's flagship public universities, 1937-, Greene, Howard,, 2001, Cliff Street Books, Greene, Matthew W., 1968-, 006093459X, 1st, New York, 46683792, Four UC campuses ranked in the top 20 in the U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings in 2019, with Berkeley, UCLA, UCSF, and UCSD ranked 4th, 13th, 15th, and 17th respectively.WEB, Best Global Universities Rankings,weblink US News & World Report, 12 December 2018,weblink 21 February 2017, English, UC San Francisco is ranked as one of the top universities in biomedicine, both in the country and around the worldWEB,weblink UCSF Schools Earn Top Rankings in 2017 US News Survey, UC San Francisco,weblinkweblink University of California, San Francisco, July 16, 2015, Top Universities, WEB,weblink UCSF Leads in Academic Rankings, NIH Funding, March 28, 2011,weblinkweblink UC Berkeley, UCSF Ranked Top Public Universities In U.S., Kiana, Schmitt, July 30, 2015, and the UCSF School of Medicine is ranked 3rd among research-oriented medical schools in the United States and ranked 3rd for primary care by U.S. News and World Report, making it the only medical school to achieve a top-5 ranking in both categories.WEB,weblink UCSF | Best Medical School | U.S. News, Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com, June 21, 2016, The UCSF Medical Center is the nation's 5th-ranked hospital and 1st-ranked hospital in California according to U.S. News & World Report."2017-18 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Overview" U.S. News & World Report (Aug 8, 2017){| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center;"! rowspan="2" |Campus! rowspan="2" |Founded! rowspan="2" |EnrollmentWEB,weblink PDF, University of California Annual Financial Report 16/17, 2017, University of California, ! rowspan="2" data-sort-type="number" |EndowmentWEB,weblink Annual Endowment Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2018, 3, Chief Investment Officer of the Regents of the University of California, ! colspan="2" |Athletics! colspan="8" |Rankings! style="width:12em;" |Affiliation! style="width:7em;" |Nickname! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |ARWU National RankingWEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2018, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, April 2, 2019, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |ARWU World Ranking ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |CWURWEB,weblink Center for World University Rankings, 2018, June 8, 2018, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |ForbesWEB,weblink America's Top Colleges, 2010, March 15, 2019, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |THE World University RankingsWEB,weblink World University Rankings 2017–2018, 2016, Times Higher Education, September 23, 2016, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |QS World University RankingsWEB,weblink QS World University Rankings 2016/17, QS World University Rankings 2016/17, September 6, 2016, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |U.S. News & World Report National RankingMAGAZINE, National Universities Rankings,weblink U.S. News & World Report, 2019, September 10, 2018, ! style="width:7.5em;" data-sort-type="number" |U.S. News & World Report World RankingWEB, Best Global Universities Rankings 2017,weblink U.S. News & World Report, October 25, 2016, Berkeley|1868|40,173 $4.64 billionPac-12 Conference>Pac-12California Golden Bears>Golden Bears|4|5|8|13|13|27|22|4Davis|1908|37,397 $1.40 billionBig West Conference>Big WestUC Davis Aggies>Aggies|40|90|50|88|55|118|39|60Irvine|1965|33,467 $951 millionBig West Conference>Big WestUC Irvine Anteaters>Anteaters|37|80|65|87|96|164|36|78Los Angeles|1919|44,947 $5.00 billionPac-12 Conference>Pac-12UCLA Bruins>Bruins|9|11|16|38|17|33|20|13Merced|2005|7,336 $52.4 millionCalifornia Pacific Conference>CalPacUC Merced Golden Bobcats>Golden Bobcats|117-137|401-500|850|—|351-400|—|104|644Riverside|1954|22,990 $251 millionBig West Conference>Big WestUC Riverside Highlanders>Highlanders|59-66|151–200|204|199|251-300|323|91|151San Diego|1960|35,816 $1.61 billionCalifornia Collegiate Athletic Association>CCAA{{efnBig West Conference>Big West}}UC San Diego Tritons>Tritons|15|18|27|79|31|38|37|17San Francisco|1864|4,857(Graduate only) $3.49 billion|{{N/A}}|{{N/A}}|16|20|34|{{N/A}}|{{N/A}}|{{N/A}}|{{N/A}}|15Santa Barbara|1909|24,346 $357 millionBig West Conference>Big WestUC Santa Barbara Gauchos>Gauchos|30|48|66|84|57|134|34|37Santa Cruz|1965|18,783 $207 million|NCAA Div IIIIndependentUC Santa Cruz Banana Slugs>Banana Slugs|46-58|101-150|208|183|179|301|84|58

Student profile{| style"margin:auto; text-align:center; width:45%;" class"wikitable sortable"|+ Percentage of students and comparisons statewide-nationwide

! !! data-sort-type="numeric" | Campusesweblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131228055552weblink |date=December 28, 2013 }}!! data-sort-type="numeric" | CaliforniaWEB,weblink California QuickFacts from the U.S. Census Bureau, Quickfacts.census.gov, August 16, 2014, !! data-sort-type="numeric" | United StatesWEB,weblink USA QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, Quickfacts.census.gov, August 16, 2014, Asian American>Asian(including South and East Asians)| 6%African American>Black| 13%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race; including Chicanos and White Hispanics)| 18%Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 61%Native Americans in the United States>Native American (

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