University of Cambridge

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University of Cambridge
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{{short description|university in Cambridge, United Kingdom}}{{Use British English|date=December 2013}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}

)}}{{refn|Colleges £3,188.2M,WEB,weblink Accounts of the Colleges 2017-18, 11 June 2019, University (consolidated) £3,253.0MWEB,weblink REPORTS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT 2018, University of Cambridge, 11 June 2019, }}WEBSITE=WWW.ADMIN.CAM.AC.UK, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville>The Lord Sainsbury of TurvilleStephen ToopeHTTPS://WWW.CAM.AC.UK/NEWS/NEW-VICE-CHANCELLOR-FOR-CAMBRIDGE-0DATE=2 OCTOBER 2017ACCESS-DATE=25 OCTOBER 2017, en, INSTID=0114}} ({{HESA year}}){{HESA citation}}INSTID=0114}} ({{HESA year}})INSTID=0114}} ({{HESA year}})| city = Cambridge| country = England, United KingdomUniversity town{{Convert>288WEBSITE = ESTATE MANAGEMENTACCESSDATE= 1 APRIL 2018, 28 November 2016, Blue (university sport)>The Sporting Blue#A3C1AD}} Cambridge BlueWEB,weblink Identity Guidelines – Colour, University of Cambridge Office of External Affairs and Communications, 28 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2008, dead,}}| logo = University of Cambridge logo.svg| logo_size = 255px TITLE=FACTS AND FIGURES JANUARY 2018, University of Cambridge, | staff = 3,615}}The University of Cambridge (legally The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge) is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university.BOOK, Sager, Peter, 2005, Oxford and Cambridge: An Uncommon History, The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople.WEB,weblink A Brief History: Early records, University of Cambridge, 17 August 2008, The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The academic standards, history, influence and wealth of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.NEWS,weblink World's most prestigious universities 2016, 4 May 2016, Times Higher Education (THE), 2 December 2017, en, Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. Cambridge Assessment, also a department of the university, is one of the world's leading examining bodies and provides assessment to over eight million learners globally every year. The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden. Cambridge's libraries, of which there are over 100, hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. The university is closely linked to the development of the high-tech business cluster known as 'Silicon Fen'. It is the central member of Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre based around the Cambridge Biomedical Campus .In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the central university, excluding colleges, had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. At the end of the same financial year, the central university and colleges together possessed a combined endowment of over £6.4 billion and overall consolidated assets of £12.2 billion.WEB,weblink Reports and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 July 2018 - Cambridge University Reporter 6530,, The latter figure was £400 million higher than the previous financial year. By both endowment size and consolidated assets, Cambridge is the wealthiest university in the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink Oxford and Cambridge university colleges hold £21bn in riches, Richard, Adams, Xavier, Greenwood, 28 May 2018, The Guardian, As of 2019, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankingsweblink ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, and 7th by US News.WEB,weblink ARWU World University Rankings 2017 {{!, Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017 {{!}} Top 500 universities {{!}} Shanghai Ranking – 2017||access-date=30 July 2018}}NEWS,weblink QS World University Rankings 2019, 29 May 2018, Top Universities, 30 July 2018, en, WEB,weblink Best Global Universities Rankings, U.S. News,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2016, dead, Cambridge was ranked #10 in the 2016 and 2018 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading scientific journals.WEB,weblink Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink 10 institutions that dominated science in 2017, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink Introduction to the Nature Index, May 28, 2019, According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects.WEB,weblink World University Rankings 2017, 6 March 2017, It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the 'golden triangle' of English universities.The university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers, actors, monarchs and other heads of state. {{as of|2019|October||df=}}, 120 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 14 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, alumni, faculty or research staff.WEB,weblink Nobel prize winners, University of Cambridge, 6 December 2015, 28 January 2013, University alumni have won 194 Olympic medals."All Known Cambridge Olympians". Hawks Club. Retrieved 17 May 2019.


{{see also|Timeline of Cambridge}}File:Kings dining hall.JPG|thumb|The dining hall at King's College ]]By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford which is most likely to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would normally take precedence (and pardon the scholars) in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John. Fearing more violence from the townsfolk, scholars from the University of Oxford started to move away to cities such as Paris, Reading, and Cambridge. Subsequently, enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of a new university when it had become safe enough for academia to resume at Oxford.NEWS,weblink 'To lick a Lord and thrash a cad': Oxford 'Town & Gown', Davies, Mark, BBC, 4 November 2010, BBC News, 3 January 2014, BOOK,weblink A Concise History of the University of Cambridge, Leedham-Green, Elisabeth, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 3, 978-0-521-43978-7, 9 May 2015, In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members (ius non-trahi extra) and an exemption from some taxes; Oxford was not granted similar rights until 1248.WEB, British History Timeline, Middle Ages,weblink BBC, 7 September 2013, A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom".BOOK, Hilde, de Ridder-Symoens, A History of the University in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages, 1, 2003, Cambridge University Press, 89, 978-0-521-54113-8, After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290,BOOK, Hackett, M.B., The original statutes of Cambridge University: The text and its history, Cambridge University Press, 1970, 178,weblink 2 September 2012, 9780521070768, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318,JOURNAL, David Willey (journalist), David, Willey, Vatican reveals Cambridge papers, Cam, 66, 2012, 5, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses.

Foundation of the colleges

File:The Chapel Emmanuel College2.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Emmanuel College Chapel|Emmanuel College Chapel]]The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane.BOOK, Charles Henry, Cooper, Memorials of Cambridge, 1, W. Metcalfe, 1860, 32,weblink 9 September 2012, Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university).In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. The colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon LawBOOK, Helmholtz, R.H., 1990, Roman Canon Law in Reformation England, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Studies in English Legal History, 35,153, 978-0521381918, and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics.Nearly a century later, the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. Many nobles, intellectuals and even commoners saw the ways of the Church of England as too similar to the Catholic Church, and felt that it was used by the Crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritan movement. In Cambridge, the movement was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine's Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ's College.Thompson, Roger, Mobility & Migration, East Anglian Founders of New England, 1629–1640, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994, 19. They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or preaching, some 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex.

Mathematics and mathematical physics

File:GodfreyKneller-IsaacNewton-1689.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Sir Isaac NewtonSir Isaac NewtonExamination in mathematics was once compulsory for all undergraduates studying for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and sciences. From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained an especially strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics. The exam is known as a Tripos.JOURNAL, A. R., Forsyth, Old Tripos days at Cambridge, 1935, The Mathematical Gazette, 19, 234, 162–179, 3605871, 10.2307/3605871, Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos are termed wranglers, and the top student among them is the Senior Wrangler. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos is competitive and has helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh.WEB,weblink The History of Mathematics in Cambridge, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge, 9 September 2012, However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself.Pure mathematics at Cambridge in the 19th century achieved great things, but also missed out on substantial developments in French and German mathematics. Pure mathematical research at Cambridge finally reached the highest international standard in the early 20th century, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy, his collaborator J. E. Littlewood and Srinivasa Ramanujan. In geometry, W. V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge onto the international mainstream in the 1930s.Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals.The six alumni are Michael Atiyah (Abel Prize and Fields Medal), Enrico Bombieri, Simon Donaldson, Richard Borcherds, Timothy Gowers, Alan Baker and the four official representatives were John G. Thompson, Alan Baker, Richard Borcherds, Timothy Gowers (see also WEB,weblink Fields Medal, Wolfram MathWorld, 3 December 2009, )

Modern period

File:Kings Chapel from Trinity Lane in snow.JPG|thumb|Trinity Lane in the snow, with King's College Chapel (centre), Clare College Chapel (right) and the Old SchoolsOld SchoolsAfter the Cambridge University Act formalised the organisational structure of the university, the study of many new subjects was introduced, such as theology, history and modern languages.WEB,weblink Cambridge University Act 1856, The National Archives, 2 May 2012, Resources necessary for new courses in the arts, architecture and archaeology were donated by Viscount Fitzwilliam, of Trinity College, who also founded the Fitzwilliam Museum.WEB,weblink Biography – The Hon. Richard Fitzwilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam, University of Cambridge, 2 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2013, 4 May 2010, Between 1896 and 1902, Downing College sold part of its land to build the Downing Site, with new scientific laboratories for anatomy, genetics and Earth sciences.{{harvnb|Taylor|1994|p=22}} During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the Cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and medicine.BOOK, Cambridge University Physics Society, A Hundred Years and More of Cambridge Physics, Cambridge University Physics Society, 1995, 978-0-9507343-1-6, The University of Cambridge began to award PhD degrees in the first third of the 20th century. The first Cambridge PhD in mathematics was awarded in 1924.John Aldrich – "The Maths PhD in the UK: Notes on its History – Economics"In the First World War, 13,878 members of the university served and 2,470 were killed. Teaching, and the fees it earned, came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed. As a consequence the university first received systematic state support in 1919, and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the university (but not the colleges) should receive an annual grant.WEB,weblink The Revived University of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, University of Cambridge, 7 August 2014, 28 January 2013, Following the Second World War, the university saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places; this was partly due to the success and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists.WEB,weblink A Brief History: The University after 1945, University of Cambridge, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 August 2008, 9 May 2015,

Parliamentary representation

The university was one of only two universities to hold parliamentary seats in the Parliament of England and was later one of eight represented in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by a Royal Charter of 1603 and returned two members of parliament until 1950, when it was abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948.The constituency was not a geographical area. Its electorate consisted of the graduates of the university. Before 1918 the franchise was restricted to male graduates with a doctorate or MA degree.

Women's education

File:Cambridge Newnham.JPG|thumb|Newnham College is one of three existing women's colleges]]For many years only male students were enrolled into the university. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women), Murray Edwards College (founded by Rosemary Murray as New Hall) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948.NEWS, Chambers, Suzanna,weblink At last, a degree of honour for 900 Cambridge women, The Independent, 31 May 1998, 9 May 2015, Women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin.WEB,weblink Trinity Hall's Steamboat Ladies, Trinity news, 14 March 2012, 9 September 2012, From 1921 women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts". As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Darwin College, the first wholly graduate college of the university, matriculated both men and women students from its inception in 1964 – and elected a mixed fellowship. Of the undergraduate colleges, starting with Churchill, Clare and King's Colleges, the former men's colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. One of the female-only colleges, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other female-only colleges did not do likewise. As a result of St Hilda's College, Oxford, ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom university with female-only colleges (Newnham, Murray Edwards and Lucy Cavendish).NEWS,weblink St Hilda's to end 113-year ban on male students, The Daily Telegraph, UK, 8 September 2008, Nicole, Martin, 8 June 2006, WEB,weblink Single-sex colleges: a dying breed?, HERO, June 2007, 20 April 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2008, In the academic year 2004–5, the university's student sex ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%.WEB,weblink Special No 19, Cambridge University Reporter, 8 September 2008,

Myths, legends and traditions

File:cambridge uni math bridge.JPG|thumb|The Mathematical Bridge over the River Cam (at Queens' College)]]
{{see also|Category:Terminology of the University of Cambridge}}
As an institution with such a long history, the university has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides.A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the 'prize' awarded to the student with the lowest passing honours grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John's College. It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John's. Since 1908, examination results have been published alphabetically within class rather than in strict order of merit. This made it harder to ascertain who was "entitled" to the spoon (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned.Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols sung by the Choir of King's College, Cambridge. The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Service and is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the US. The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954.NEWS,weblink Choir that sings to the world, BBC, 8 September 2008, 24 December 2001, NEWS,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 18 December 2009, Carols from King's: Cambridge prepares for Christmas, Elizabeth, Baxter, {{wide image|Panorama depicting the Front Court of King's College Cambridge v2.jpg|1000px|Front Court of King's College}}{{clear}}

Locations and buildings


The university occupies a central location within the city of Cambridge, with the students taking up a significant proportion (nearly 20%) of the town's population and heavily affecting the age structure.WEB,weblink Cambridge City: Annual demographic and socio-economic report, Cambridgeshire County Council, 4 September 2012, April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 28 August 2013, Most of the older colleges are situated nearby the city centre and river Cam, along which it is traditional to punt to appreciate the buildings and surroundings.WEB,weblink A brief history of Punting, Cambridge River Tour, 4 September 2012, Examples of notable buildings include King's College Chapel,NEWS, Vitullo-Martin, J., 19 December 2009, What the late Middle Ages wrought, The Wall Street Journal,weblink the history faculty buildingWEB, Faculty of History: The building, University of Cambridge,weblink 9 May 2015, designed by James Stirling; and the Cripps Building at St John's College.WEB, English Heritage, 31 March 2009, Modernist building at St John's College Cambridge is listed,weblink / The brickwork of several of the colleges is also notable: Queens' College contains "some of the earliest patterned brickwork in the country"WEB, Woodcock, N., Norman, D., 20 August 2010, Building Stones of Cambridge: A walking tour around the historic city-centre. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge Retrieved from,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2014, and the brick walls of St John's College provide examples of English bond, Flemish bond and Running bond.WEB, Joshi, A., Ryan, D., 20 June 2013, Bricks: A Light Foundation,,weblink File:The Cavendish Laboratory - - 631839.jpg|thumb|right|The entrance to the original Cavendish Laboratory on the New Museums SiteNew Museums SiteFile:Donald Mcintyre Building, Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge.jpg|thumb|right| The Faculty of Education ]]File:Law Faculty University of Cambridge.jpg|thumb|right|The Faculty of Law on the Sidgwick SiteSidgwick Site


The university is divided into several sites where the different departments are placed. The main ones are:WEB,weblink Map of the University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge, 4 September 2012, {{Div col}} {{Div col end}}The university's School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke's Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree,WEB,weblink School of Clinical Medicine: History of the School, University of Cambridge, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 December 2012, 9 May 2015, while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development.WEB,weblink West Cambridge site, University of Cambridge, dead,weblink" title="">weblink/map/v4/drawmap.cgi?mp=main%3Bxx%3D400%3Byy%3D480%3Bsx%3D4%3B%3Btl%3DWest%20Cambridge%20Site, 13 March 2012, 9 May 2015, In addition, the Judge Business School, situated on Trumpington Street, provides management education courses since 1990 and is consistently ranked within the top 20 business schools globally by the Financial Times.WEB,, Business school rankings: University of Cambridge, Judge Business School, Financial Times, 3 January 2013, Given that the sites are in relative close proximity to each other and the area around Cambridge is reasonably flat, one of the favourite modes of transport for students is the bicycle: a fifth of the journeys in the city are made by bike, a figure enhanced by the fact that students are not permitted to hold car park permits, except under special circumstances.NEWS, Laker, Laura,weblink What makes Cambridge a model cycling city?, The Guardian, 17 August 2011, 9 May 2015,

'Town and gown'

The relationship between the university and the city has not always been positive. The phrase town and gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the university, who historically wore academical dress. There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories. During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, strong clashes brought about attacks and looting of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff, the university's ledgers being burned in Market Square to the rallying cry "Away with the learning of clerks, away with it!".BOOK, A Crisis of Truth: Literature and Law in Ricardian England., Firth Green, Richard, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, 9780812218091, Philadelphia, Following these events, the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to prosecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. Attempts to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the 16th century agreements were signed to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city. However, this was followed by new confrontations when the plague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites.BOOK, Shepard, Alexandra, Phil, Withington, Communities in Early Modern England: Networks, Place, Rhetoric, Manchester University Press, 2000, 216–234, 978-0-7190-5477-8,weblink 4 September 2012, Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the university has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area.NEWS, Bringham, Allan,weblink Is Town v Gown a thing of the past?, 7 October 2008, Cambridge Evening News, Cambridge Online, 9 May 2015, The enormous growth in the number of high-tech, biotech, providers of services and related firms situated near Cambridge has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon: the addition of 1,500 new, registered companies and as many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence and importance of the university.WEB,weblink What is the Cambridge Phenomenon?, Cambridge Phenomenon, 4 September 2012,

Organisation and administration

{{see also|List of Institutions of the University of Cambridge}}File:Cam colls from johns.jpg|thumb|right|View over Trinity College, Gonville and Caius, Trinity Hall and Clare College towards King's College Chapel, seen from St John's College chapel whereas on the left, just in front of King's College chapel, is the University Senate House ]]Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found.The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the university (the Cambridge University Library), by the Faculties (Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates).


File:Presidents Lodge, Queens' College, Cambridge.JPG|thumb|right|The President's Lodge at Queens' College ]]File:StJohnsCambridge BridgeOfSighs.jpg|thumb|right|The Bridge of Sighs at St John's College ]]The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university. All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. All faculties, departments, research centres, and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions—small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student—within the colleges (though in many cases students go to other colleges for supervision if the teaching fellows at their college do not specialise in the areas concerned). Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows, who are also members of a university department. The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations.Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only. The other colleges are mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King's were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, in 1972. Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women, in 1988.NEWS,weblink Obituary – Professor Sir Bernard Williams, The Guardian, UK, 8 May 2009, 13 June 2003, Jane, O'Grady, Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund's and Wolfson admit only mature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions.File:Margaret Wileman Building, Hughes Hall.jpg|thumb|left|Margaret Wileman Building, Hughes HallHughes HallColleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering,WEB,weblink Information about Churchill College, Churchill College, 7 January 2008, while others such as St Catharine's aim for a balanced intake.WEB,weblink About St. Catharine's College, 8 September 2008, University of Cambridge, Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King's to hold left-wing political views,WEB,weblink Alternative Prospectus, Cambridge University Students' Union, 8 September 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2009, or Robinson's and Churchill's attempts to minimise their environmental impact.NEWS, Drage, Mark,weblink Survey ranks colleges by green credentials, 7 March 2008, Varsity (Cambridge), Varsity, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 September 2008, 9 May 2015, Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college.WEB,weblink Homerton College Accommodation Guide, Homerton College, 13 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2013, WEB,weblink Trinity College Accommodation Guide, Trinity College, 13 March 2009, Similarly, college expenditure on student education also varies widely between individual colleges.WEB, Analysis: Cambridge Colleges – £20,000 difference in education spending,weblink The Cambridge Student, 25 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2013, dead, There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation.WEB,weblink Westcott House – Partner Universities,, 4 February 2013, The 31 colleges are:WEB,weblink Statutes and Ordinances 2011: Admission to Degrees, University of Cambridge, 21 May 2011, 3 September 2012, {{Div col|colwidth=15em}}
  1. (File:Christs shield.png|12px|Christ's College heraldic shield) Christ's
  2. (File:Churchill College Crest.png|12px|Churchill College heraldic shield) Churchill
  3. (File:ClareCollegeCrest.svg|12px|Clare College heraldic shield) Clare
  4. (File:Clarehall shield.png|12px|Clare Hall heraldic shield) Clare Hall
  5. (File:Corpus Shield.png|12px|Corpus Christi heraldic shield) Corpus Christi
  6. (File:Darwin College Arms.svg|12px|Darwin College heraldic shield) Darwin
  7. (File:Downing Crest.svg|12px|Downing College heraldic shield) Downing
  8. (File:Emmanuel College Crest.svg|12px|Emmanuel College heraldic shield) Emmanuel
  9. (File:Fitzwilliam College shield.svg|12px|Fitzwilliam College heraldic shield) Fitzwilliam
  10. (File:Arms of Girton College, Cambridge.svg|12px) Girton
  11. (File:Gonville & Caius College Crest.svg|12px|Gonville and Caius College heraldic shield) Gonville & Caius
  12. (File:Homerton College Shield for print.png|12px) Homerton
  13. (File:HughesHallShield.png|12px|Hughes Hall heraldic shield) Hughes Hall
  14. (File:Jesus College (Cambridge) shield.svg|12px|Jesus College heraldic shield) Jesus
  15. (File:Kingscollegearms-alternative.svg|12px|King's College heraldic shield) King's
  16. (File:Lucy cav shield.png|12px|Lucy Cavendish College heraldic shield) Lucy Cavendish
  17. (File:Magdalene college shield.svg|12px|Magdalene College heraldic shield) Magdalene
  18. (File:MurrayEdwardsCollegeCrest.svg|12px) Murray Edwards
  19. (File:Newnham crest.png|12px|Newnham College heraldic shield) Newnham
  20. (File:Pembroke College (Cambridge) shield.svg|12px|Pembroke College heraldic shield) Pembroke
  21. (File:Peterhouse shield.svg|12px|Peterhouse coat of arms) Peterhouse
  22. (File:Queens' College (Cambridge) shield.svg|12px|Queens' College heraldic shield) Queens'
  23. (File:Robinson College Crest.svg|12px|Robinson College heraldic shield) Robinson
  24. (File:Selwyn College shield.svg|12px|Selwyn College heraldic shield) Selwyn
  25. (File:Sidney Sussex College shield.svg|12px|Sidney Sussex College heraldic shield) Sidney Sussex
  26. (File:St Catharine's College Crest - flat.svg|12px|St Catharine's College heraldic shield) St Catharine's
  27. (File:St Edmund's College crest.png|12px) St Edmund's
  28. (File:Johns shield.png|12px|St John's College heraldic shield) St John's
  29. (File:Trinity College (Cambridge) shield.svg|12px|Trinity College coat of arms) Trinity
  30. (File:Trinity Hall Crest.png|12px|Trinity Hall heraldic shield) Trinity Hall
  31. (File:Wolfson College Crest.png|12px|Wolfson College Crest) Wolfson
{{Div col end}}{{clear}}

Schools, faculties and departments

File:DivinityFaculty.jpg|thumb|Faculty of Divinity at Cambridge University]]In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions.WEB,weblink Cambridge – Colleges and departments, 27 November 2013, University of Cambridge, 24 January 2013, Members of these are usually also members of one of the colleges and responsibility for running the entire academic programme of the university is divided amongst them. The university also has a centre for part-time study, the Institute of Continuing Education, which is housed in Madingley Hall, a 16th-century manor house in Cambridgeshire.(File:The Old Schools.JPG|thumb|upright|alt=The Old Schools |The entrance to the administrative centre of the university, the Old Schools)A "School" in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties and other units. Each has an elected supervisory body—the "Council" of the school—comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. There are six schools:WEB,weblink About the Schools, Faculties & Departments, University of Cambridge, 1 May 2010, {{Div col}}
  • Arts and Humanities
  • Biological Sciences
  • Clinical Medicine
  • Humanities and Social Sciences
  • Physical Sciences
  • Technology
{{Div col end}}Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties. The faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of departments and other institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies called 'Syndicates' have responsibilities for teaching and research, e.g. Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library.

Central administration

Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor

(File:cmglee Cambridge graduation officers.jpg|thumb|upright|Officers of the Regent House, including Vice-Chancellor Borysiewicz, after a graduation ceremony){{see also|List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge|List of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge}}The office of Chancellor of the university, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June 2011. Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him,WEB,weblink Home – News – University of Cambridge,, 4 February 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 26 June 2011, dead, and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated.WEB,weblink Update: Booming Blessed To Bloom As Chancellor? " The Tab,, 2 June 2011, 4 February 2013, NEWS,weblink Cambridge university chancellor race gets tasty as grocer joins in, 26 June 2011, Caroline, Davies, 17 June 2011, London, The Guardian, WEB,weblink Election for the Office of Chancellor, 26 June 2011, 21 June 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2013, dead, The election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011. David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count.The current Vice-Chancellor is Stephen Toope.WEB,weblink Professor Stephen Toope appointed as Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge, 28 June 2017, 26 September 2016, While the Chancellor's office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto principal administrative officer of the university. The university's internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members,Statute and Ordinances, Historical Note: "The University is ... consisting of a Chancellor, Masters and Scholars who from time out of mind have had the government of their members" with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University's Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House).Grace 2 December 5, 2007

Senate and the Regent House

File:CamLight.jpg|thumb|Light show on the Senate House, for the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the university]]File:Welcome to Clare.jpg|thumb|right|The front of Clare College ]]The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until the Cambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the university's governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today.WEB,weblink How the University works: The Senate, University of Cambridge, 20 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2013, 9 May 2015, The Regent House is the university's governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary.Statutes and Ordinances, 2007–2008 The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges.

Council and the General Board

Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the university, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the university, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the university. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the university. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members,WEB,weblink Annual Report of the Council for 2003–04, Cambridge University Reporter, 15 December 2004, 8 September 2008, and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008,Grace 2 December 5, 2008Acta in the Reporter, No 6107, publishing Results of Ballot and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008.WEB,weblink Statutes approved: Notice, Cambridge University Reporter, 23 July 2008, 8 September 2008, File:Senate House Passage in the snow.JPG|thumb|upright|left|Senate House Passage in the snow with Senate House on the right and Gonville and Caius College on the left]]The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the university,JOURNAL, Mead, T.J.,weblink Developing governance by building on good practice: a green paper issued by the University Council, Cambridge University Reporter, 25 April 2007, CXXXVII, 25, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2007, 9 May 2015, and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs.Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the university are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House.


Benefactions and fundraising

In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge.{{citation needed|date=March 2018}}In the year ended 31 July 2013 the university had a total income of £1.44 billion, of which £332 million was from research grants and contracts.WEB,weblink Reports and financial statements for the year ended 31 July 2013, Cambridge University Reporter, 17 March 2014,


The University of Cambridge borrowed £350 million by issuing a 40-year security bond in October 2012.Cambridge university issues its first £350m bond L. Tidy, The Cambridge Student, News, 11 October 2012 Its interest rate is about 0.6 percent higher than a British government 40-year bond. Vice chancellor Leszek Borysiewicz hailed the success of the issue.Cambridge university issues first bond G. Wearden, The Guardian, 10 October 2012 {{Webarchive|url= |date=18 January 2017 }} In a 2010 report, the Russell Group of 20 leading universities made a conclusion that higher education could be financed by issuing bonds.

Affiliations and memberships

Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of research intensive and southern English universities.NEWS,weblink Golden opportunities, 19 October 2010, Nature, 6 July 2005, It is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen", and as part of the Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.

Academic profile

Admissions{| class"wikitable floatright" style"font-size:85%; text-align:center;"|+ UCAS Admission Statistics

!!2017!2016!2015!2014!2013ApplicationsHTTPS://WWW.UCAS.COM/FILE/144241/DOWNLOAD?TOKEN=NLVZQ6ELLAST=DATE=2017PUBLISHER=UCAS, 25 January 2018, |17,235|16,795|16,505|16,970|16,330Offer Rate (%)SEX, AREA BACKGROUND AND ETHNIC GROUP: C05 UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGEDATE=2017PUBLISHER=UCAS, 25 January 2018, |31.2|33.8|33.5|32.5|32.2EnrolsHTTPS://WWW.UCAS.COM/FILE/91026/DOWNLOAD?TOKEN=MEV12AFDLAST=DATE=2016PUBLISHER=UCAS, 10 February 2017, |3,480|3,440|3,430|3,425|3,355Yield (college admissions)>Yield (%)|64.7|60.6|62.0|62.1|63.8|Applicant/Enrolled Ratio|4.95|4.88|4.81|4.95|4.87UCAS Tariff>Average Entry TariffHTTPS://WWW.THECOMPLETEUNIVERSITYGUIDE.CO.UK/LEAGUE-TABLES/RANKINGS>TITLE=TOP UK UNIVERSITY LEAGUE TABLE AND RANKINGS, Complete University Guide, New UCAS Tariff system from 2016|n/a|226|592|600|601File:Cambridge Peterhouse OldCourt.JPG|thumb|200px|right|alt=Peterhouse Old Court|Peterhouse Old Court]]File:TrinityCollegeCamGreatCourt.jpg|thumb|Great Court of Trinity College, dating back to the 17th Century]]


Undergraduate applications to Cambridge must be made through UCAS in time for the early deadline, currently mid-October in the year before starting. Until the 1980s candidates for all subjects were required to sit special entrance examinations,BOOK,weblink 202, Life in Public Schools, Walford, Taylor & Francis, 1986, 978-0-416-37180-2, 2 February 2009, Geoffrey, since replaced by additional tests for some subjects, such as the Thinking Skills Assessment and the Cambridge Law Test.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Study – Admissions tests, University of Cambridge, 20 May 2013, The university is considering reintroducing an admissions exam for all subjects with effect from 2016.NEWS,weblink Cambridge University entrance exam to make a comeback, Henry, Julie, The Daily Telegraph, 23 January 2013, The university gave offers of admission to 33.5% of its applicants in 2016, the 2nd lowest amongst the Russell Group, behind Oxford.NEWS, Which elite universities have the highest offer rates,weblink The Telegraph, 21 October 2016, 19 October 2016, Gurney-Read, Josie, The acceptance rate for students in the 2018–2019 cycle was 18.8%weblink applicants who are called for interview will have been predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or the equivalent in other qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university's standard offer for most courses being set at A*AA,WEB,weblink Entrance requirements,, 4 February 2013, NEWS,weblink Cambridge entry level is now A*AA, BBC News, 16 March 2009, 27 May 2010, with A*A*A for sciences courses. Due to a high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is needed for distinguishing between the most able candidates. The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity.WEB,weblink Cambridge Interviews: the facts, University of Cambridge, 11 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2011, For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer was sometimes previously offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above. In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected.WEB,weblink Special No 11, Cambridge University Reporter, 8 September 2008, The Sutton Trust maintains that Oxford University and Cambridge University recruit disproportionately from 8 schools which accounted for 1,310 Oxbridge places during three years, contrasted with 1,220 from 2,900 other schools.Oxbridge 'over-recruits from eight schools' BBCStrong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others.Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant's subject. When an offer is made, this effectively guarantees admission to a college—though not necessarily the applicant's preferred choice.WEB,weblink Board of Graduate Studies admissions flowchart, University of Cambridge, 8 September 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 8 September 2008, dead,


(File:Percentage of state-school students at Oxford and Cambridge.png|thumb|upright=1.5|Percentage of state-school students at Oxford and CambridgeWEB,weblink Oxbridge 'Elitism', 9 June 2014, WEB,weblink Acceptances to Oxford and Cambridge Universities by previous educational establishment, )Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schoolsNEWS,weblink State school participation rate, BBC News, 4 June 2009, 8 August 2009, (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge's reputation for many years, and the university has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance.NEWS,weblink Number of Cambridge state school students falls, The Guardian, 4 April 2008, 3 September 2012, Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering.WEB,weblink Report by the Sutton Trust, Sutton Trust, 8 September 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2008, NEWS,weblink A bias against excellence, The Spectator, UK, 8 September 2008, Rachel, Johnson, 2002, The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%)NEWS,weblink Call for more university links, BBC, 8 September 2008, 10 October 2007, of the intake. In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools.WEB,weblink Special No 11, 8 September 2008, Cambridge University Reporter, In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools.WEB,weblink Cambridge University given £4 million to support widening access, Cambridge Network, 8 September 2008, 28 March 2008, Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants.NEWS,weblink Education, The Times, 21 January 2013, 4 February 2013, {{Failed verification|date=April 2013}}With the release of admissions figures, a 2013 article in The Guardian reported that ethnic minority candidates had lower success rates in individual subjects even when they had the same grades as white applicants. The university was hence criticised for what was seen as institutional discrimination against ethnic minority applicants in favour of white applicants. The university denied the claims of institutional discrimination by stating the figures did not take into account "other variables".NEWS, The Guardian, Kurien, Parel, James, Ball, Oxford University accused of bias against ethnic minority applicants, 26 February 2013,weblink A following article stated that in the years 2010–2012 ethnic minority applicants to medicine with 3 A* grades or higher were 20% less likely to gain admission than white applicants with similar grades. The University refused to provide figures for a wider range of subjects claiming it would be too costly.NEWS, The Guardian, Kurien, Parel, James, Ball, 13 March 2013, Cambridge University medicine admissions show race gap,weblink There are a number of educational consultancies that offer support with the applications process. Some make claims of improved chances of admission but these claims are not independently verified. None of these companies are affiliated to or endorsed by the University of Cambridge. The university informs applicants that all important information regarding the application process is public knowledge and none of these services is providing any inside information.WEB,weblink Interviews, Lisa, Bonetti, 21 February 2018,, 8 June 2018, Cambridge University has been criticised because many colleges admit a low proportion of black students though many apply. Of the 31 colleges at Cambridge 6 admitted fewer than 10 black or mixed race students from 2012 to 2016.Cambridge University's poor diversity record highlighted by report The Guardian


File:Mathmo results.jpg|thumb|upright|Results for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos are read out inside Senate House and then tossed from the balcony]]The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University.WEB, University of Cambridge Term dates, University of Cambridge,weblink 19 April 2010, Michaelmas term lasts from October to December; Lent term from January to March; and Easter term from April to June.Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. According to the university statutes, it is a requirement that during this period all students should live within 3 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great; this is defined as Keeping term. Students can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms (three years) when obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or twelve terms (four years) when studying for a Master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics.BOOK, Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge 2009, Cambridge University Press, 2009, University of Cambridge,weblink 2 September 2012, 179–180, 978-0-521-13745-4, These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, The Academic Experience of Students in English Universities (2007 report), Higher Education Policy Institute, Sastry, Tom, Bekhradnia, Bahram, 25 September 2007, footnote 14, 4 November 2007, Even within Russell Group institutions, it is remarkable how consistently Oxford and Cambridge appear to require more effort of their students than other universities. On the other hand, they have fewer weeks in the academic year than other universities, so the extent to which this is so may be exaggerated by these results., Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations).Triposes involve a mixture of lectures (organised by the university departments), and supervisions (organised by the colleges). Science subjects also involve laboratory sessions, organised by the departments. The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. Supervisions are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students (usually between one and three) meet with a member of the teaching staff or with a doctoral student. Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week's lectures. The assignment is often an essay on a subject set by the supervisor, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. Depending on the subject and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per week.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Study – How will I be taught, University of Cambridge, 9 September 2012, This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Oxford (where "supervisions" are known as "tutorials")NEWS, Shepherd, Jessica,weblink Cambridge considers end to one-to-one tuition, The Guardian, 25 January 2011, 9 May 2015, and Cambridge.A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students' work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792.BOOK, Postman, Neil, Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, 1992, Alfred A. Knopf, New York City, 978-0-679-74540-2, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology,


{{see also|Category:Departments of the University of Cambridge}}The University of Cambridge has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. All research and lectures are conducted by university departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites.WEB,weblink Building Projects, University of Cambridge, 26 January 2018, 2015-04-07, Cambridge also has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute.


File:Cambridge University graduation enter Senate House.jpg|thumb|left|Graduands enter the Senate House at a graduation ceremony]]Unlike in most universities, the Cambridge Master of Arts is not awarded by merit of study, but by right, four years after being awarded the BA.At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this purpose.WEB,weblink Graduation: The Ceremony, University of Cambridge, 3 September 2012, This is the common last act at which all the different university procedures (for: undergraduate and graduate students; and the different degrees) land. After degrees are approved, to have them conferred candidates must ask their Colleges to be presented during a Congregation.(File:Cam degree ceremony.jpg|thumb|right|upright|University officials leading the Vice-Chancellor's deputy into the Senate House)Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (e.g. PhD or Master's) wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating, only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academic dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over.WEB,weblink Graduation dress code, Pembroke College, Cambridge, Pembroke College, 3 September 2012, Graduates are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university, except for the royal colleges.During the congregation, graduands are brought forth by the Praelector of their college, who takes them by the right hand, and presents them to the vice-chancellor for the degree they are about to take. The Praelector presents graduands with the following Latin statement (the following forms were used when the vice-chancellor was female), substituting "____" with the name of the degree:{{Quotation|"
(Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this man whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)"
and female graduands with the following:
(Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this woman whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)"
After presentation, the graduand is called by name and kneels before the vice-chancellor and proffers their hands to the vice-chancellor, who clasps them and then confers the degree through the following Latin statement—the Trinitarian formula (...) may be omitted at the request of the graduand:
(By the authority committed to me, I admit you to the degree of ____, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.)"}}
The now-graduate then rises, bows and leaves the Senate House through the Doctor's door, where he or she receives his or her certificate, into Senate House Passage.

Libraries and museums

{{see also|Category:Museums of the University of Cambridge}}File:WrenLibraryInterior.jpg|thumb|Trinity College's Wren LibraryWren LibraryThe university has 114 libraries.WEB,weblink Facilities and resources, Cambridge Admissions Office, 3 January 2013, The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland.WEB,weblink Legal Deposit in the British Library, The British Library, 3 January 2013, In addition to the University Library and its dependents, almost every faculty or department has a specialised library; for example, the History Faculty's Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. Furthermore, every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For example, Trinity College's Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College's Parker Library possesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts.File:FitzwilliamMuseum.jpg|thumb| The Fitzwilliam MuseumFitzwilliam MuseumCambridge University operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, and a botanic garden.WEB,weblink Museums & Collections, University of Cambridge, 26 January 2018, The Fitzwilliam Museum, is the art and antiquities museum, the Kettle's Yard is a contemporary art gallery, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology houses the university's collections of local antiquities, together with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the world, the Cambridge University Museum of Zoology houses a wide range of zoological specimens from around the world and is known for its iconic finback whale skeleton that hangs outside. This Museum also has specimens collected by Charles Darwin. Other museums include, the Museum of Classical Archaeology, the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences which is the geology museum of the university, the Polar Museum, part of the Scott Polar Research Institute which is dedicated to Captain Scott and his men, and focuses on the exploration of the Polar Regions.The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is the botanic garden of the university, created in 1831.

Publishing and assessments

The university's publishing arm, the Cambridge University Press, is the oldest printer and publisher in the world, and it is the second largest university press in the world.WEB,weblink Oldest printing and publishing house,, 22 January 2002, 28 March 2012, BOOK, Cambridge University Press, 1583–1984, Michael, Black, 328–9, 1984, 978-0-521-66497-4, The university set up its Local Examination Syndicate in 1858. Today, the syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment, is Europe's largest assessment agency and it plays a leading role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the globe.WEB,weblink About OCR – Oxford and Cambridge and RSA Examinations, Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations, OCR, 3 January 2013,

Reputation and rankings

In 2011, Times Higher Education (THE) recognised Cambridge as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Harvard, MIT, Oxford and Stanford.WEB,weblink Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings, Morgan, John, "The rankings suggest that the top six-...Stanford University and the University of Oxford – form a group of globally recognised "super brands"., 29 July 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 31 March 2015, dead, {{as of|2017|September|}}, Cambridge is recognised by THE as the world's second best university.NEWS,weblink World University Rankings, 18 August 2017, Times Higher Education (THE), 9 September 2017, en, According to the 2016 Complete University Guide, the University of Cambridge is ranked first amongst the UK's universities; this ranking is based on a broad raft of criteria from entry standards and student satisfaction to quality of teaching in specific subjects and job prospects for graduates.JOURNAL, Sweeney, Kate,weblink's-top-university-ranking, Cambridge retains UK's top university ranking, 27 April 2015, Business Weekly, 9 May 2015, The University is ranked as the 2nd best university in the UK for the quality of graduates according to recruiters from the UK's major companies.NEWS,weblink London, Times Higher Education, The best UK universities chosen by major employers, 12 November 2015, In 2014–15, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), Cambridge is ranked second in UK (coming second to Oxford) and ranked fifth in the world.WEB,weblink 2014–2015 World Ranking (1–250), College and university rankings#University Ranking by Academic Performance, University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), 4 February 2015, In the 2001 and 2008 Government Research Assessment Exercises, Cambridge was ranked first in the country.NEWS, Major, Lee Elliot,weblink Cambridge tops research tables, The Guardian, UK, 9 May 2015, 14 December 2001, In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other British university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford).NEWS,weblink University figures show sharp research divide, The Guardian, UK, 8 September 2008, 22 September 2005, Donald, MacLeod, In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any British university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major British research fields analysed.WEB,weblink Thomson Scientific ranks UK research, Thomson Scientific, 8 September 2008, 4 May 2006,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2008, dead, Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total British research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields).JOURNAL,weblink Cambridge continues its domination of research resources, 20 October 2006, Times Higher Education, 9 May 2015, The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the "Cambridge Phenomenon". In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capital market in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companies directly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion.WEB,weblink Cambridge University press release, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2006, Cambridge has been highly ranked by most international and UK league tables. In particular, it had topped the QS World University Rankings from 2010/11 to 2011/12.WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings (2010), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2011, WEB,weblink QS World University Rankings (2011), dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 October 2011, A 2006 Newsweek overall ranking, which combined elements of the THES-QS and ARWU rankings with other factors that purportedly evaluated an institution's global "openness and diversity", suggested Cambridge was sixth around the globe.WEB,weblink The Top 100 Global Universities, MSNBC, 8 September 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2008, In The Guardian newspaper's 2012 rankings, Cambridge had overtaken Oxford in philosophy, law, politics, theology, maths, classics, anthropology and modern languages.NEWS,weblink London, The Guardian, Jessica, Shepherd, University Guide 2012: Cambridge tops the Guardian league table, 16 May 2011, In the 2009 Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, it was ranked top (or joint top) in 34 out of the 42 subjects which it offers.NEWS,weblink The Times Good University Guide Subject Rankings, The Times, 26 November 2008, Roland, Watson, Francis, Elliott, Patrick, Foster, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 November 2008, But Cambridge has been ranked only 30th in the world and 3rd in the UK by the (Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities) based on the number of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies.

Student life

Student Unions

There are two Student Unions in Cambridge: CUSU (the Cambridge University Students‘ Union) and the GU (the Graduate Union). CUSU represents all University students, and the GU solely represents graduate students. All students are automatically members of either CUSU or both CUSU and GU, depending on their course of study.WEB,weblink Cambridge University Graduate Union, 4 July 2018, Graduate Union, WEB,weblink About the Union, Cambridge University Students' Union, 27 June 2012, 2 September 2012, CUSU was founded in 1964 as the Students' Representative Council (SRC); the six most important positions in the Union are occupied by sabbatical officers.WEB,weblink A brief history of CUSU, Cambridge University Students' Union, 12 April 2012, 2 September 2012, However, turnout in recent elections has been low, with the 2014/15 president elected with votes in favour from only 7.5% of the whole student body.WEB, Shukman, Henry,weblink CUSU Elections Live Blog, The Tab Cambridge, 5 March 2014, 9 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2015,


{{see also|Category:Sport at the University of Cambridge}}File:Cambridge boathouses - Goldie.jpg|thumb|right|The boathouse of the Cambridge University Boat ClubCambridge University Boat ClubRowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chess and tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the university in certain sports are entitled to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite" Hawks' Club, which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues.WEB,weblink Origins of the Cambridge Blue, Hawks' Club, 4 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2013, dmy-all, The Ospreys are the equivalent female club.The University of Cambridge Sports Centre opened in August 2013. Phase 1 included a 37x34m Sports Hall, a Fitness Suite, a Strength and Conditioning Room, a Multi-Purpose Room and Eton and Rugby Fives courts. Phase 1b included 5 glass backed squash courts and a Team Training Room. Future phases include indoor and outdoor tennis courts and a swimming pool.WEB,weblink Cambridge Sports Centre – Cambridge University Sports Department,, 19 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2014, The university also has an Athletics Track at Wilberforce Road, an Indoor Cricket School and Fenner's Cricket Ground.


{{See also|List of social activities at the University of Cambridge|Category:Clubs and societies of the University of Cambridge}}File:Stephen Fry at the Cambridge Union.jpg|thumb|right|Stephen Fry in the Main Chamber of the Cambridge Unionthe Cambridge UnionNumerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. {{as of|2010}}, there were 751 registered societies.WEB,weblink Societies Directory, 12 January 2010, Cambridge University Students' Union, 2 September 2012, In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams.Although technically independent from the university, the Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating and public speaking, as the oldest free speech society in the world, and the largest in Cambridge. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university.

Newspapers and radio

{{see also|Category:Publications associated with the University of Cambridge}}Cambridge's oldest student newspaper is Varsity (Cambridge). Established in 1947, notable figures to have edited the paper include Jeremy Paxman, BBC media editor Amol Rajan, and Vogue international editor Suzy Menkes. It has also featured the early writings of Zadie Smith (who appeared in Varsity's literary anthology offshoot, The Mays), Robert Webb, Tristram Hunt, and Tony Wilson.With a print run of 9,000, Varsity is the only student paper to go to print on a weekly basis. News stories from the paper have recently appeared in The Guardian, The Times, The Sunday Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, and The i.Other student publications include The Cambridge Student, which is funded by Cambridge University Students' Union and goes to print on a fortnightly basis, and The Tab. Founded by two Cambridge students in 2009, The Tab is online-only (apart from one print edition in Freshers' Week), and mostly features light-hearted features content.The Mays is a literary anthology made up of student prose, poetry, and visual art from both Cambridge and Oxford. Founded in 1992 by three Cambridge students, the anthology goes to print on an annual basis. It is overseen by Varsity Publications Ltd, the same body that is responsible for Varsity, the newspaper.There are many other journals, magazines, and zines. Another literary journal, Notes, is published roughly two times per term. Many colleges also have their own publications run by students.The student radio station, Cam FM, is run together with students from Anglia Ruskin university. One of few student radio stations to have an FM licence (frequency 97.2 MHz), the station hosts a mixture of music, talk, and sports shows.


File:Cambridge - Christ's College - 1479.jpg|thumb|right|The Main Hall at Christ's College ]]In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR (Junior Combination Room) for undergraduates and MCR (Middle Combination Room) for postgraduates. These serve as a link between college staff and members and consists of officers elected annually between the fellow students; individual JCR and MCRs also report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the positions within the body.WEB,weblink JCRs/MCRs, Cambridge University Students' Union, 26 January 2019,

Formal Halls and May Balls

File:Clare Bridge, May Ball 2005.jpg|thumb|right|The bridge over the River Cam at Clare College during its 2005 May BallMay BallOne privilege of student life at Cambridge is the opportunity to attend formal dinners at college. These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time. Students sit down for a meal in their gowns, while Fellows eat separately at High Table: the beginning and end of the function is usually marked with a grace said in Latin. Special Formal Halls are organised for events such as Christmas and the Commemoration of Benefactors.NEWS, Sheinman, Anna,weblink Inside Cambridge: Fizz, Fellows and Formal Hall, Huffington Post, 4 January 2012, 9 May 2015, After the exam period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls. These are all-night long lavish parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. Time magazine argues that some of the larger May Balls are among the best private parties in the world. Suicide Sunday, the first day of May Week, is a popular date for organising garden parties.WEB,weblink Living in Cambridge, Cambridge Trainee Librarians' Online Group,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2012, 9 May 2015, {{clear}}

Notable alumni and academics

{{See also|List of University of Cambridge people|List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Cambridge|Alumni Cantabrigienses|Category:Alumni of the University of Cambridge|Category:Academics of the University of Cambridge}}Over the course of its history, a number of Cambridge University academics and alumni have become notable in their fields, both academic and in the wider world. As of October 2019, 120 affiliates of the University of Cambridge have won 121 Nobel prizes (Frederick Sanger won twiceWEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980,, en-US, 2019-07-12, WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958,, en-US, 2019-07-12, ), with 70 former students of the university have won the prize. In addition, as of 2019, Cambridge alumni, faculty members and researchers have won 11 Fields Medals and 7 Turing Awards.

Mathematics and sciences

File:Charles Darwin by Julia Margaret Cameron 2.jpg|thumb|upright|Charles Darwin—whose family was also benefactor of Darwin College ]] File:Stephen Hawking.StarChild.jpg|thumb|upright|Stephen HawkingStephen HawkingAmong the most famous of Cambridge natural philosophers is Sir Isaac Newton, who conducted many of his experiments in the grounds of Trinity College. Others are Sir Francis Bacon, who was responsible for the development of the scientific method and the mathematicians John Dee and Brook Taylor. Pure mathematicians include G. H. Hardy, John Edensor Littlewood and Augustus De Morgan; Sir Michael Atiyah, a specialist in geometry; William Oughtred, inventor of the logarithmic scale; John Wallis, first to state the law of acceleration; Srinivasa Ramanujan, the self-taught genius who made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions; and James Clerk Maxwell, who brought about the "second great unification of physics" (the first being accredited to Newton) with his classical theory of electromagnetic radiation. In 1890, mathematician Philippa Fawcett was the person with the highest score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams, but as a woman was unable to take the title of 'Senior Wrangler'.In biology, Charles Darwin, famous for developing the theory of natural selection, was an alumnus of Christ's College, although his education was intended to allow him to become a clergyman. Biologists Francis Crick and James Watson worked out a model for the three-dimensional structure of DNA while working at the Cavendish Laboratory; Cambridge graduates Maurice Wilkins and especially Rosalind Franklin produced key X-ray crystallography data, which was shared with Watson by Wilkins. Wilkins went on to help verify the proposed structure and win the Nobel Prize with Watson and Crick. More recently, Sir Ian Wilmut was part of the team responsible for the first cloning of a mammal (Dolly the Sheep in 1996), naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough, ethologist Jane Goodall, expert on chimpanzees was a PhD student, anthropologist Dame Alison Richard, former vice-chancellor of the university, and Frederick Sanger, a biochemist known for developing Sanger sequencing and receiving two Nobel prizes.Despite the university's delay in admitting women to full degrees, Cambridge women were at the heart of scientific research throughout the 20th century. Notable female scientists include; biochemist Marjory Stephenson, plant physiologist Gabrielle Howard, social anthropologist Audrey Richards, psycho-analyst Alix Strachey, who with her husband translated the works of Sigmund Freud, Kavli Prize-winner Brenda Milner, co-discovery of specialised brain networks for memory and cognition. Veterinary epidemiologist Sarah Cleaveland has worked to eliminate rabies in the Serengeti.WEB,weblink Prof Sarah Cleaveland, Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance, 10 June 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2014, dead, The university can be considered the birthplace of the computer, mathematician Charles Babbage designed the world's first computing system as early as the mid-1800s. Alan Turing went on to devise what is essentially the basis for modern computing and Maurice Wilkes later created the first programmable computer. The webcam was also invented at Cambridge University.{{Citation needed|date=January 2019}}In physics, Ernest Rutherford who is regarded as the father of nuclear physics, spent much of his life at the university where he worked closely with E. J. Williams and Niels Bohr, a major contributor to the understanding of the atom, J. J. Thomson, discoverer of the electron, Sir James Chadwick, discoverer of the neutron, and Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, responsible for first splitting the atom. J. Robert Oppenheimer, leader of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb, also studied under Rutherford and Thomson. Joan Curran devised the 'chaff' technique during the Second World War to disrupt radar on enemy planes.File:Dirac 4.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Paul DiracPaul DiracAstronomers Sir John Herschel, Sir Arthur Eddington, Paul Dirac, the discoverer of antimatter and one of the pioneers of quantum mechanics; Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist and the university's long-serving Lucasian Professor of Mathematics until 2009; and Lord Martin Rees, the current Astronomer Royal and former Master of Trinity College. John Polkinghorne, a mathematician before his entrance into the Anglican ministry, received the Templeton Prize for his work reconciling science and religion.Other significant scientists include Henry Cavendish, the discoverer of hydrogen; Frank Whittle, co-inventor of the jet engine; William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), who formulated the original Laws of Thermodynamics; William Fox Talbot, who invented the camera, Alfred North Whitehead, Einstein's major opponent; Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, one of the fathers of radio science; Lord Rayleigh, who made extensive contributions to both theoretical and experimental physics in the 20th century; and Georges Lemaître, who first proposed a Big Bang theory.

Humanities, music and art

In the humanities, Greek studies were inaugurated at Cambridge in the early sixteenth century by Desiderius Erasmus; contributions to the field were made by Richard Bentley and Richard Porson. John Chadwick was associated with Michael Ventris in the decipherment of Linear B. The Latinist A. E. Housman taught at Cambridge but is more widely known as a poet. Simon Ockley made a significant contribution to Arabic Studies.File:Ludwig_Wittgenstein.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Ludwig WittgensteinLudwig WittgensteinDistinguished Cambridge academics include economists such as John Maynard Keynes, Thomas Malthus, Alfred Marshall, Milton Friedman, Joan Robinson, Piero Sraffa, Ha-Joon Chang and Amartya Sen, a former Master of Trinity College. Philosophers Sir Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Leo Strauss, George Santayana, G. E. M. Anscombe, Sir Karl Popper, Sir Bernard Williams, Sir Allama Muhammad Iqbal and G. E. Moore were all Cambridge scholars, as were historians such as Thomas Babington Macaulay, Frederic William Maitland, Lord Acton, Joseph Needham, E. H. Carr, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Rhoda Dorsey, E. P. Thompson, Eric Hobsbawm, Niall Ferguson and Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., and famous lawyers such as Glanville Williams, Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, and Sir Edward Coke.Religious figures have included Rowan Williams, former Archbishop of Canterbury and his predecessors; William Tyndale, the biblical translator; Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, known as the "Oxford martyrs" from the place of their execution; Benjamin Whichcote and the Cambridge Platonists; William Paley, the Christian philosopher known primarily for formulating the teleological argument for the existence of God; William Wilberforce and Thomas Clarkson, largely responsible for the abolition of the slave trade; Evangelical churchman Charles Simeon; John William Colenso, the bishop of Natal who developed views on the interpretation of Scripture and relations with native peoples that seemed dangerously radical at the time; John Bainbridge Webster and David F. Ford, theologians; and six winners of the Templeton Prize, the highest accolade for the study of religion since its foundation in 1972.File:Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Thomas CranmerThomas CranmerComposers Ralph Vaughan Williams, Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, William Sterndale Bennett, Orlando Gibbons and, more recently, Alexander Goehr, Thomas Adès, John Rutter, Julian Anderson and Judith Weir were all at Cambridge. The university has also produced instrumentalists and conductors, including Colin Davis, John Eliot Gardiner, Roger Norrington, Trevor Pinnock, Andrew Manze, Richard Egarr, Mark Elder, Richard Hickox, Christopher Hogwood, Andrew Marriner, David Munrow, Simon Standage, Endellion Quartet and Fitzwilliam Quartet. Although known primarily for its choral music, the university has also produced members of contemporary bands such as Radiohead, Hot Chip, Procol Harum, Clean Bandit, songwriter and entertainer Jonathan King, Henry Cow, and the singer-songwriter Nick Drake.Artists Quentin Blake, Roger Fry and Julian Trevelyan , sculptors Antony Gormley, Marc Quinn and Sir Anthony Caro, and photographers Antony Armstrong-Jones, Sir Cecil Beaton and Mick Rock all attended as undergraduates.


File:Christopher Marlowe.jpg|thumb|right|upright|The Marlowe portrait, often claimed to be Christopher MarloweChristopher MarloweWriters to have studied at the university include the Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe, his fellow University Wits Thomas Nashe and Robert Greene, arguably the first professional authors in England, and John Fletcher, who collaborated with Shakespeare on The Two Noble Kinsmen, Henry VIII and the lost Cardenio and succeeded him as house playwright of The King's Men. Samuel Pepys matriculated in 1650, known for his diary, the original manuscripts of which are now housed in the Pepys Library at Magdalene College. Lawrence Sterne, whose novel Tristram Shandy is judged to have inspired many modern narrative devices and styles. In the following century, the novelists W. M. Thackeray, best known for Vanity Fair, Charles Kingsley, author of Westward Ho! and Water Babies, and Samuel Butler, remembered for The Way of All Flesh and Erewhon, were all at Cambridge.Ghost story writer M. R. James served as provost of King's College from 1905 to 1918. Novelist Amy Levy was the first Jewish woman to attend the university. Modernist writers to have attended the university include E. M. Forster, Rosamond Lehmann, Vladimir Nabokov, Christopher Isherwood and Malcolm Lowry. Although not a student, Virginia Woolf wrote her essay A Room of One's Own while in residence at Newnham College. Playwright J. B. Priestley, physicist and novelist C. P. Snow and children's writer A. A. Milne were also among those who passed through the university in the early 20th century. They were followed by the postmodernists Patrick White, J. G. Ballard, and the early postcolonial writer E. R. Braithwaite. More recently, alumni include comedy writers Douglas Adams, Tom Sharpe and Howard Jacobson, the popular novelists A. S. Byatt, Sir Salman Rushdie, Nick Hornby, Zadie Smith, Robert Harris and Sebastian Faulks, the action writers Michael Crichton, David Gibbins and Jin Yong, and contemporary playwrights and screenwriters such as Julian Fellowes, Stephen Poliakoff, Michael Frayn and Sir Peter Shaffer.File:Lord Byron in Albanian dress.jpg|thumb|upright|Lord ByronLord ByronFile:Zadie Smith NBCC 2011 Shankbone.jpg|left|thumb|upright|Zadie SmithZadie SmithCambridge poets include Edmund Spenser, author of The Faerie Queene, the Metaphysical poets John Donne, George Herbert and Andrew Marvell, John Milton, renowned for his late epic Paradise Lost, the Restoration poet and playwright John Dryden, the pre-romantic Thomas Gray, best known his Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, whose joint work Lyrical Ballads is often seen to mark the beginning of the Romantic movement, later Romantics such as Lord Byron and the postromantic Alfred, Lord Tennyson, classical scholar and lyric poet A. E. Housman, war poets Siegfried Sassoon and Rupert Brooke, modernist T. E. Hulme, confessional poets Ted Hughes, Sylvia Plath and John Berryman, and, more recently, Cecil Day-Lewis, Joseph Brodsky, Kathleen Raine and Geoffrey Hill. At least nine of the Poets Laureate graduated from Cambridge. The university has also made a notable contribution to literary criticism, having produced, among others, F. R. Leavis, I. A. Richards, C. K. Ogden and William Empson, often collectively known as the Cambridge Critics, the Marxists Raymond Williams, sometimes regarded as the founding father of cultural studies, and Terry Eagleton, author of Literary Theory: An Introduction, the most successful academic book ever published, the Aesthetician Harold Bloom, the New Historicist Stephen Greenblatt, and biographical writers such as Lytton Strachey, a central figure in the Bloomsbury Group, Peter Ackroyd and Claire Tomalin.File:Stephen Fry June 2016.jpg|thumb|upright|Stephen FryStephen FryActors and directors such as Sir Ian McKellen, Eleanor Bron, Miriam Margolyes, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Michael Redgrave, James Mason, Emma Thompson, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, John Cleese, Eric Idle, Graham Chapman, Graeme Garden, Tim Brooke-Taylor, Bill Oddie, Simon Russell Beale, Tilda Swinton, Thandie Newton, Georgie Henley, Rachel Weisz, Sacha Baron Cohen, Tom Hiddleston, Sara Mohr-Pietsch, Eddie Redmayne, Dan Stevens, Jamie Bamber, Lily Cole, David Mitchell, Robert Webb, Mel Giedroyc and Sue Perkins all studied at the university, as did directors such as Mike Newell, Sam Mendes, Stephen Frears, Paul Greengrass, Chris Weitz and John Madden.


Athletes who are university graduates or attendees have won a total of 194 Olympic medals, including 88 gold. The legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams; the inventors of the modern game of football, H. de Winton and J. C. Thring; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer all attended Cambridge.


Notable educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University, including John Harvard himself; Emily Davies, founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley, founder of the first mixed-sex school in England; and Anil Kumar Gain, 20th century mathematician and founder of the Vidyasagar University in Bengal.


Cambridge has a strong reputation in the fields of politics, having educated:WEB,weblink Why Cambridge?, Cambridge Judge Business School, dead, 20 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2015, {{better source|date=October 2014}}

In literature and popular culture

{{See also|List of fictional Cambridge colleges}}Throughout its history, the university has featured in literature and artistic works by various authors.


File:TrinityCollegeCamGreatGate.jpg|The Great Gate of Trinity CollegeFile:Chapel of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge - 20100915.jpg|Corpus Christi College New CourtFile:Caius.JPG|Gonville and Caius CollegeFile:Pembroke College Cambridge.JPG|Pembroke CollegeFile:Selwyn College Gatehouse Tower, Cambridge, UK - Diliff.jpg|Selwyn CollegeFile:St Catharine's College, Cambridge (night).jpg|St Catharine's CollegeFile:Margaret Wileman Building, Hughes Hall.jpg|Hughes HallFile:Bredon house.png|Bredon House of Wolfson CollegeFile:Stedmundscollege7.jpg|St Edmund's College Norfolk BuildingFile:View towards East Range small3.jpg|Downing College East RangeFile:Cambridge Queens' Gatehouse.JPG|Queens' College Old GatehouseFile:Selwyn College Chapel 2, Cambridge, UK - Diliff.jpg|Selwyn College ChapelFile:ChristsCollege Gate.jpg|Christ's College GatehouseFile:PepysLibraryCambridge.jpg|The Pepys Library, Magdalene CollegeFile:Selwyn College Old Court Panorama from North-West corner.jpg|Selwyn College Old CourtFile:Jesus College Chapel, Cambridge - - 168873.jpg|Jesus College ChapelFile:StJohnsCambridge Gatehouse02.jpg|St John's College Great gateFile:TrinityHallCambridge.jpg|The entrance of Trinity HallFile:Dining Hall, Selwyn College, Cambridge.jpg|The Dining Hall at Selwyn College, CambridgeFile:The Cavendish Building of Homerton College Cambridge, May 2011.jpg|The Cavendish Building of Homerton College, CambridgeFile:River Cam running through Darwin College, Cambridge.JPG|Darwin CollegeFile:Sidney Sussex Chapel.jpg|The Chapel, Sidney Sussex CollegeFile:Cambridge University Judge Business School interior.jpg|Judge Business School interiorFile:The Grove at Fitzwilliam College.jpg|The Grove at Fitzwilliam CollegeFile:Girton College, Cambridge, England, 1890s.jpg|Girton College

See also






  • BOOK, Anonymous, A Concise and Accurate Description of the University, Town and County of Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009, 1790, 978-1-108-00065-9,
  • Brooke, Christopher N. L. (1988–2004). A History of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 4 vols., {{ISBN|0-521-32882-9}}, {{ISBN|0-521-35059-X}}, {{ISBN|0-521-35060-3}}, {{ISBN|0-521-34350-X}}
  • BOOK, The Cambridge Apostles: A History of Cambridge University's Elite Intellectual Secret Society, Deacon, Richard, Cassell, 1985, 978-0-947728-13-7,
  • Garrett, Martin (2004). Cambridge: A Cultural and Literary History, Signal Books. {{ISBN|1-902669-79-7}}
  • Koyama, Noboru; Ruxton, Ian, transl. WEB,weblink ''Japanese Students at Cambridge University in the Meiji Era, 1868–1912: Pioneers for the Modernization of Japan, 8 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2009, , BOOK,weblink A Translation from a Japanese Original, Lulu Press, 2004, 978-1-4116-1256-3, This book includes information about the wooden spoon and the university in the 19th century as well as the Japanese students.
  • BOOK, A History of the University of Cambridge, Leader, Damien, Cambridge University Press, 1988–2004, 978-0-521-32882-1,
  • BOOK, A Concise History of the University of Cambridge, Leedham-Green, Elisabeth, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 978-0-521-43978-7,
  • BOOK, Cambridge, Rawle, Tim, Tim Rawle, 2016, Oxbridge Portfolio, 978-0-9572867-2-6, John, Adamson, John Adamson (publisher), Cambridge (book),
  • BOOK, Teaching and Learning in 19th-Century Cambridge, Smith, J., Stray, C., Boydell Press, 2001, 978-0-85115-783-2,
  • BOOK, Bedders, Bulldogs and Bedells: A Cambridge Glossary, Stubbings, Frank, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-47978-3, 1995,
  • BOOK, Taylor, Kevin, Central Cambridge: A Guide to the University and Colleges, Cambridge University Press, 1994, harv, 978-0-521-45913-6,
  • BOOK, The History of the University of Cambridge and Education in England, Grayden, Webb, Cambridge University Press, 2005, 978-0-521-32882-1,
  • BOOK, The Architectural History of the University of Cambridge and of the Colleges of Cambridge and Eton, Willis, Robert, Robert Willis (engineer), 1988, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-35851-4, John Willis, Clark, John Willis Clark,

External links

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