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International Space Station
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{{redirect|ISS}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{short description|Habitable artificial satellite in low Earth orbit}}{{Use British English|date=February 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2019}}













factoids
station International Space Station
| station_image = International Space Station after undocking of STS-132.jpg
| station_image_size = 300px
| station_image_alt = A rearward view of the International Space Station backdropped by the limb of the Earth. In view are the station's four large, gold-coloured solar array wings, two on either side of the station, mounted to a central truss structure. Further along the truss are six large, white radiators, three next to each pair of arrays. In between the solar arrays and radiators is a cluster of pressurised modules arranged in an elongated T shape, also attached to the truss. A set of blue solar arrays are mounted to the module at the aft end of the cluster.| extra_image = ISS Logo.svg| extra_image_alt = The flags of the participating countries: United States, United Kingdom, France, Denmark, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Brazil, Japan, Norway, and Russia.| extra_image_caption = The nations initially participating in the ISS programme.
| station_image_caption = The International Space Station on 23 May 2010 as seen from STS-132
| insignia = ISS insignia.svg
| insignia_caption = ISS Logo
| COSPAR_ID = 1998-067A
| SATCAT = 25544
| sign = Alpha, Station
| crew = Fully crewed: 6 Currently aboard: 6 (Expedition 60)
| launch = | launch_pad = {hide}plainlist|
  • {{nowrap|Kennedy LC-39 and CCAFS SLC-41{edih} (future)
  • }}
    | reentry =
    | mass = ≈ {{cvt|419725|kg|lb}}WEB,weblink About the Space Station: Facts and Figures, Garcia, Mark, NASA, 9 May 2018, 21 June 2018,
    | length = {{cvt|72.8|m|ft}}
    | width = {{cvt|108.5|m|ft}}
    | height = ≈ {{cvt|20|m|ft|0}} nadir–zenith, arrays forward–aft(27 November 2009){{Update after|2010|05|23|reason=MRM-1 & MRM-2}}
    | volume = {{convert|32898|cuft|m3|order=flip|sigfig=5|abbr=on}}WEB,weblink Space to Ground: Friending the ISS: 06/03/2016, NASA, YouTube.com, 3 June 2016, (28 May 2016)
    | pressure = {{convert|101.3|kPa|psi atm|1|abbr=on|lk=on}} oxygen 21%, nitrogen 79%
    | perigee = {{cvt|408|km|mi|1}} AMSL
    | apogee = {{cvt|410|km|mi|1}} AMSL
    | inclination = 51.64°
    | speed = {{convert|7.66|km/s|km/h mph|abbr=on|disp=x|(|)}}
    | period = 92.68 minutes
    | orbits_day = 15.54
    | in_orbit = {{time interval|20 November 1998 06:40|show=ymd|sep=,}} ({{TODAY}})
    | occupied = {{time interval|2 November 2000 09:21|show=ymd|sep=,}} ({{TODAY}})
    | orbits = 116,178
    {{as of|2019|05|lc=y}}
    | decay = 2 km/month
    | orbit_epoch = 14 May 2019 13:09:29  UTCWEB,weblink ISS – Orbit, Peat, Chris, Heavens-Above, 28 September 2018, 28 September 2018,
    | apsis = gee
    | as_of = 9 March 2011(unless noted otherwise)
    | stats_ref = WEB,weblink NASA, 19 June 2010, STS-132 Press Kit, 7 May 2010, WEB,weblink NASA, 27 February 2011, 27 February 2011, STS-133 FD 04 Execute Package,
    | configuration_image = ISS configuration 2019-08.png
    | configuration_size = 300px
    | configuration_alt = The components of the ISS in an exploded diagram, with modules on-orbit highlighted in orange, and those still awaiting launch in blue or pink
    | configuration_caption = Station elements {{As of|2019|08|lc=on}} (exploded view)
    }}The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. The ISS programme is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada).WEB,weblink Human Spaceflight and Exploration—European Participating States, 17 January 2009, European Space Agency (ESA), 2009, The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements.WEB,weblink International Space Station legal framework, European Space Agency (ESA), 21 February 2015, 19 November 2013, The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields.WEB,weblink International Space Station Overview, ShuttlePressKit.com, 3 June 1999, 17 February 2009, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080123150641weblink">weblink 23 January 2008, Fields of Research, 26 June 2007, NASA, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071208091537weblink">weblink 8 December 2007, Getting on Board, 26 June 2007, NASA, The station is suited for the testing of spacecraft systems and equipment required for missions to the Moon and Mars.WEB,weblink ISS Research Program, NASA, 27 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090213140014weblink">weblink 13 February 2009, The ISS maintains an orbit with an average altitude of {{convert|400|km|mi||||abbr=}} by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda module or visiting spacecraft.WEB,weblink NASA - Higher Altitude Improves Station's Fuel Economy, 2019-02-14, www.nasa.gov, en, 2019-05-29, It circles the Earth in roughly 92 minutes and completes {{Orbit|daily orbits|15.5}} orbits per day.The station is divided into two sections, the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS), which is operated by Russia, and the United States Orbital Segment (USOS), which is shared by many nations. {{asof|2018|January}}, operations of the US segment were funded until 2025.WEB,weblink Space station partners set 2028 as certification goal, Clark, Stephen, 11 March 2010, Spaceflight Now, 1 June 2011, NEWS,weblink CBC News, Canada's space station commitment renewed, 29 February 2012, Roscosmos has endorsed the continued operation of ISS through 2024, but has proposed using elements of the Russian segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK.NEWS,weblink Russia May Be Planning National Space Station to Replace ISS, The Moscow Times, Matthew, Bodner, 17 November 2014, 3 March 2015, The first ISS component was launched in 1998, with the first long-term residents arriving on 2 November 2000.NEWS,weblink European Space Agency, First crew starts living and working on the International Space Station, 31 October 2000, Since then, the station has been continuously occupied for {{age in years and days|2 November 2000|sep=and}}.WEB,weblink Oct. 31, 2000, Launch of First Crew to International Space Station, NASA, 28 October 2015, This is the longest continuous human presence in low Earth orbit, having surpassed the previous record of {{age in years and days|5 September 1989|28 August 1999|sep=and}} held by Mir. The latest major pressurised module was fitted in 2011, with an experimental inflatable space habitat added in 2016. {{As of|2018|12}}, the station is expected to operate until 2030.WEB,weblink The Senate just passed my bill to help commercial space companies launch more than one rocket a day from Florida! This is an exciting bill that will help create jobs and keep rockets roaring from the Cape. It also extends the International Space Station to 2030!, Senator Bill, Nelson, 20 December 2018, Development and assembly of the station continues, with several major new Russian elements scheduled for launch starting in 2020. The ISS is the largest human-made body in low Earth orbit and can often be seen with the naked eye from Earth.WEB, Central Research Institute for Machine Building (FGUP TSNIIMASH) Control of manned and unmanned space vehicles from Mission Control Centre Moscow, Russian Federal Space Agency,weblink 26 September 2011, {{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink NASA Sightings Help Page, Spaceflight.nasa.gov, 30 November 2011, 1 May 2012, The ISS consists of pressurised habitation modules, structural trusses, solar arrays, radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles.BOOK, {{Google books, VsTdriusftgC, yes, |title=The International Space Station: Building for the Future |publisher=Springer-Praxis |first=John E. |last=Catchpole |date=17 June 2008 |isbn=978-0-387-78144-0}}The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations as well as Skylab from the US. The station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the US Dragon and Cygnus, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and the European Automated Transfer Vehicle. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurised cargo to Earth (downmass), which is used for example to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. The Soyuz return capsule has minimal downmass capability next to the astronauts.The ISS has been visited by astronauts, cosmonauts and space tourists from 18 different nations. {{As of|2019|03|14weblink}}, 236 people from 18 countries had visited the space station, many of them multiple times. The United States sent 149 people, Russia sent 47, nine were Japanese, eight were Canadian, five were Italian, four were French, three were German, and there were one each from Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.Visitors to the Station by Country NASA, 14 March 2019.{{TOC limit|limit=2}}

    Purpose

    The ISS was originally intended to be a laboratory, observatory, and factory while providing transportation, maintenance, and a low Earth orbit staging base for possible future missions to the Moon, Mars, and asteroids. However, not all of the uses envisioned in the initial Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and Roskosmos have come to fruition.WEB,weblink Memorandum of Understanding Between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Russian Space Agency Concerning Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station, NASA, 19 April 2009, 29 January 1998, In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial, diplomaticJOURNAL, Payette, Julie, Research and Diplomacy 350 Kilometers above the Earth: Lessons from the International Space Station, Science & Diplomacy, 10 December 2012, 1, 4,weblink and educational purposes.WEB, National Space Policy of the United States of America,weblink White House; USA Federal government, 20 July 2011,

    Scientific research

    {{multiple image |align=left |total_width=400
    |image1=Iss030e015472 Edit.jpg |caption1=Comet Lovejoy photographed by Expedition 30 commander Dan Burbank
    |image2=ISS-08 Michael Foale conducts an inspection of the Microgravity Science Glovebox.jpg |caption2=Expedition 8 Commander and Science Officer Michael Foale conducts an inspection of the Microgravity Science Glovebox
    }}{{multiple image |align=left |total_width=400
    |image1=STS-134 EVA4 view to the Space Shuttle Endeavour.jpg |caption1=Fisheye view of several labs
    |image2=NanoRacksCubeSatLaunch ISS038-E-056389.jpg |caption2=CubeSats are deployed by the NanoRacks CubeSat Deployer
    }}The ISS provides a platform to conduct scientific research, with power, data, cooling, and crew available to support experiments. Small uncrewed spacecraft can also provide platforms for experiments, especially those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where studies can be performed potentially for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers.WEB,weblink Nations Around the World Mark 10th Anniversary of International Space Station, NASA, 17 November 2008, 6 March 2009, The ISS simplifies individual experiments by allowing groups of experiments to share the same launches and crew time. Research is conducted in a wide variety of fields, including astrobiology, astronomy, physical sciences, materials science, space weather, meteorology, and human research including space medicine and the life sciences.WEB,weblink Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), 2008, JAXA, 12 March 2011, ESA via SPACEREF "SOLAR: three years observing and ready for solar maximum", 14 March 2011 Scientists on Earth have timely access to the data and can suggest experimental modifications to the crew. If follow-on experiments are necessary, the routinely scheduled launches of resupply craft allows new hardware to be launched with relative ease. Crews fly expeditions of several months' duration, providing approximately 160 person-hours per week of labour with a crew of 6. However, a considerable amount of crew time is taken up by station maintenance.WEB,weblink The International Space Station: life in space, Science in School, 10 December 2008, 17 February 2009, Perhaps the most notable ISS experiment is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which is intended to detect dark matter and answer other fundamental questions about our universe and is as important as the Hubble Space Telescope according to NASA. Currently docked on station, it could not have been easily accommodated on a free flying satellite platform because of its power and bandwidth needs.NASA – AMS to Focus on Invisible Universe. Nasa.gov (18 March 2011). Retrieved 8 October 2011.In Search of Antimatter Galaxies – NASA Science. Science.nasa.gov (16 May 2011). Retrieved 8 October 2011. On 3 April 2013, scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the AMS.JOURNAL, Aguilar, M. et al. (AMS Collaboration), First Result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station: Precision Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–350 GeV, 3 April 2013, Physical Review Letters, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.141102, 2013PhRvL.110n1102A, 110, 14, 25166975, 141102,weblink WEB, Staff, First Result from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Experiment,weblink 3 April 2013, AMS Collaboration, 3 April 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130408185229weblink">weblink 8 April 2013, dead, NEWS, Heilprin, John, Borenstein, Seth, Scientists find hint of dark matter from cosmos,weblink 3 April 2013, Associated Press, 3 April 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510152050weblink">weblink 10 May 2013, dead, NEWS, Amos, Jonathan, Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer zeroes in on dark matter,weblink 3 April 2013, BBC News, 3 April 2013, WEB, Perrotto, Trent J., Byerly, Josh, NASA TV Briefing Discusses Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Results,weblink 2 April 2013, NASA, 3 April 2013, NEWS, Overbye, Dennis, New Clues to the Mystery of Dark Matter,weblink 3 April 2013, The New York Times, 3 April 2013, According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays."The space environment is hostile to life. Unprotected presence in space is characterised by an intense radiation field (consisting primarily of protons and other subatomic charged particles from the solar wind, in addition to cosmic rays), high vacuum, extreme temperatures, and microgravity.WEB,weblink Space Microbiology, section Space Environment (p. 122), Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, March 2010, 4 June 2011, G Horneck, DM Klaus & RL Mancinelli, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110830095643weblink">weblink 30 August 2011, Some simple forms of life called extremophiles,NEWS,weblink Beer microbes live 553 days outside ISS, BBC News, 23 August 2010, 4 June 2011, Jonathan Amos, as well as small invertebrates called tardigradesJOURNAL, Spacesuits optional for 'water bears', Nature (journal), Nature, Ledford, Heidi, 8 September 2008, 10.1038/news.2008.1087, can survive in this environment in an extremely dry state through desiccation.Medical research improves knowledge about the effects of long-term space exposure on the human body, including muscle atrophy, bone loss, and fluid shift. This data will be used to determine whether high duration human spaceflight and space colonisation are feasible. {{As of|2006}}, data on bone loss and muscular atrophy suggest that there would be a significant risk of fractures and movement problems if astronauts landed on a planet after a lengthy interplanetary cruise, such as the six-month interval required to travel to Mars.BOOK, Jay Buckey, Space Physiology, Oxford University Press USA, 23 February 2006, 978-0-19-513725-5, WEB,weblink New Scientist, 8 January 2010, 24 July 2009, List Grossman, Ion engine could one day power 39-day trips to Mars, Medical studies are conducted aboard the ISS on behalf of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). Prominent among these is the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity study in which astronauts perform ultrasound scans under the guidance of remote experts. The study considers the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions in space. Usually, there is no physician on board the ISS and diagnosis of medical conditions is a challenge. It is anticipated that remotely guided ultrasound scans will have application on Earth in emergency and rural care situations where access to a trained physician is difficult.WEB,weblink 1 May 2009, 1 October 2009, Brooke Boen, NASA, Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM), dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091029061057weblink">weblink 29 October 2009, JOURNAL, A Pilot Study of Comprehensive Ultrasound Education at the Wayne State University School of Medicine, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, Sishir, Rao, Lodewijk, van Holsbeeck, Joseph L., Musial, Alton, Parker, J. Antonio, Bouffard, Patrick, Bridge, Matt, Jackson, Scott A., Dulchavsky, 1, 27, 5, 745–749, May 2008, 18424650, 10.7863/jum.2008.27.5.745, JOURNAL, Evaluation of Shoulder Integrity in Space: First Report of Musculoskeletal US on the International Space Station, Radiology, E. Michael, Fincke, Gennady, Padalka, Doohi, Lee, Marnix, van Holsbeeck, Ashot E., Sargsyan, Douglas R., Hamilton, David, Martin, Shannon L., Melton, Kellie, McFarlin, Scott A., Dulchavsky, 1, 234, 2, 319–322, February 2005, 15533948, 10.1148/radiol.2342041680,

    Free fall

    (File:ISS-20 Robert Thirsk at the Minus Eighty Degree Laboratory Freezer.jpg|thumb|ISS crew member storing samples)File:Space Fire.jpg|thumb|A comparison between the combustion of a candle on EarthEarthGravity at the altitude of the ISS is approximately 90% as strong as at Earth's surface, but objects in orbit are in a continuous state of freefall, resulting in an apparent state of weightlessness.WEB,weblink What Is Microgravity?, NASA Knows! (Grades 5-8), Sandra, May, 15 February 2012, 3 September 2018, This perceived weightlessness is disturbed by five separate effects:WEB,weblink European Users Guide to Low Gravity Platforms, 22 March 2013, 6 December 2005, European Space Agency, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130402225556weblink">weblink 2 April 2013,
    • Drag from the residual atmosphere.
    • Vibration from the movements of mechanical systems and the crew.
    • Actuation of the on-board attitude control moment gyroscopes.
    • Thruster firings for attitude or orbital changes.
    • Gravity-gradient effects, also known as tidal effects. Items at different locations within the ISS would, if not attached to the station, follow slightly different orbits. Being mechanically interconnected these items experience small forces that keep the station moving as a rigid body.
    Researchers are investigating the effect of the station's near-weightless environment on the evolution, development, growth and internal processes of plants and animals. In response to some of this data, NASA wants to investigate microgravity's effects on the growth of three-dimensional, human-like tissues, and the unusual protein crystals that can be formed in space.Investigating the physics of fluids in microgravity will provide better models of the behaviour of fluids. Because fluids can be almost completely combined in microgravity, physicists investigate fluids that do not mix well on Earth. In addition, examining reactions that are slowed by low gravity and low temperatures will improve our understanding of superconductivity.The study of materials science is an important ISS research activity, with the objective of reaping economic benefits through the improvement of techniques used on the ground.WEB,weblink Materials Science 101, Science@NASA, 18 June 2009, 15 September 1999, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090614033947weblink">weblink 14 June 2009, Other areas of interest include the effect of the low gravity environment on combustion, through the study of the efficiency of burning and control of emissions and pollutants. These findings may improve current knowledge about energy production, and lead to economic and environmental benefits. Future plans are for the researchers aboard the ISS to examine aerosols, ozone, water vapour, and oxides in Earth's atmosphere, as well as cosmic rays, cosmic dust, antimatter, and dark matter in the universe.

    Exploration

    File:Mars500.jpg|thumb|right|A 3D plan of the Russia-based MARS-500 complex, used for ground-based experiments which complement ISS-based preparations for a human mission to Marshuman mission to MarsThe ISS provides a location in the relative safety of Low Earth Orbit to test spacecraft systems that will be required for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars. This provides experience in operations, maintenance as well as repair and replacement activities on-orbit, which will be essential skills in operating spacecraft farther from Earth, mission risks can be reduced and the capabilities of interplanetary spacecraft advanced. Referring to the MARS-500 experiment, ESA states that "Whereas the ISS is essential for answering questions concerning the possible impact of weightlessness, radiation and other space-specific factors, aspects such as the effect of long-term isolation and confinement can be more appropriately addressed via ground-based simulations".WEB, Mars500 study overview, ESA, 4 June 2011,weblink Sergey Krasnov, the head of human space flight programmes for Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, in 2011 suggested a "shorter version" of MARS-500 may be carried out on the ISS.WEB, Space station may be site for next mock Mars mission,weblink 4 November 2011, New Scientist, In 2009, noting the value of the partnership framework itself, Sergey Krasnov wrote, "When compared with partners acting separately, partners developing complementary abilities and resources could give us much more assurance of the success and safety of space exploration. The ISS is helping further advance near-Earth space exploration and realisation of prospective programmes of research and exploration of the Solar system, including the Moon and Mars."WEB, The Sustainable Utilisation of the ISS Beyond 2015,weblink International Astronautical Congress, 15 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120426051318weblink">weblink 26 April 2012, A crewed mission to Mars may be a multinational effort involving space agencies and countries outside the current ISS partnership. In 2010, ESA Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain stated his agency was ready to propose to the other four partners that China, India and South Korea be invited to join the ISS partnership.NEWS,weblink ESA Chief Lauds Renewed U.S. Commitment to Space Station, Earth Science, Space News, Peter B., de Selding, 3 February 2010, NASA chief Charlie Bolden stated in February 2011, "Any mission to Mars is likely to be a global effort".WEB, Charlie Bolden, space.com, 4 June 2011,weblink Currently, US federal legislation prevents NASA co-operation with China on space projects.{{citation |first=Virginia |last=Seitz |title=Memorandum Opinion for the General Counsel, Office of Science and Technology Policy |url=http://www.justice.gov/olc/2011/conduct-diplomacy.pdf |journal=Office of Legal Counsel |volume=35 |date=11 September 2011 |accessdate=23 May 2012 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120713080223weblink |archivedate=13 July 2012}}

    Education and cultural outreach

    (File:Crew in ATV with Jules Verne manuscript.jpg|thumb|right|Original Jules Verne manuscripts displayed by crew inside Jules Verne ATV)The ISS crew provides opportunities for students on Earth by running student-developed experiments, making educational demonstrations, allowing for student participation in classroom versions of ISS experiments, and directly engaging students using radio, videolink and email.JOURNAL, Gro Mjeldheim Sandal, Dietrich Manzey, Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency, Acta Astronautica, 65, December 2009, 1520–1529, 10.1016/j.actaastro.2009.03.074, 11–12, 2009AcAau..65.1520S, ESA offers a wide range of free teaching materials that can be downloaded for use in classrooms.WEB,weblink Online Materials, European Space Agency, 3 April 2016, In one lesson, students can navigate a 3-D model of the interior and exterior of the ISS, and face spontaneous challenges to solve in real time.WEB,weblink ISS 3-D Teaching Tool: Spaceflight Challenge I, European Space Agency, 24 May 2011, 8 October 2011, JAXA aims to inspire children to "pursue craftsmanship" and to heighten their "awareness of the importance of life and their responsibilities in society."CONFERENCE,weblink Building Peace in Young Minds through Space Education, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, 53rd Session. June 2010. Vienna, Austria., JAXA, June 2010, Through a series of education guides, a deeper understanding of the past and near-term future of crewed space flight, as well as that of Earth and life, will be learned.WEB,weblink JAXA Spaceflight Seeds Kids I : Spaceflight Sunflower seeds – Let's make them flower! and learn freshly the Earth environment just by contrast with the Space one, JAXA, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120318025859weblink">weblink 18 March 2012, WEB,weblink JAXA Seeds in Space I : Let's Cultivate Spaceflight Asagao (Japanese morning glory), Miyako-gusa (Japanese bird's foot trefoil) Seeds and Identify the Mutants!, JAXA, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120318025023weblink">weblink 18 March 2012, In the JAXA Seeds in Space experiments, the mutation effects of spaceflight on plant seeds aboard the ISS is explored. Students grow sunflower seeds which flew on the ISS for about nine months. In the first phase of Kibō utilisation from 2008 to mid-2010, researchers from more than a dozen Japanese universities conducted experiments in diverse fields.WEB, Keiji Murakami,weblink JEM Utilization Overview, JAXA. Steering Committee for the Decadal Survey on Biological and Physical Sciences in Space, 14 October 2009, File:ESA-Astronaut-Paolo-Nespoli Voice-intro-ENG.flac|thumb|ESA Astronaut Paolo NespoliPaolo NespoliCultural activities are another major objective. Tetsuo Tanaka, director of JAXA's Space Environment and Utilization Center, says "There is something about space that touches even people who are not interested in science."WEB, Tetsuo Tanaka,weblink Kibo: Japan's First Human Space Facility, JAXA, 8 October 2011, Amateur Radio on the ISS (ARISS) is a volunteer programme which encourages students worldwide to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics through amateur radio communications opportunities with the ISS crew. ARISS is an international working group, consisting of delegations from nine countries including several countries in Europe as well as Japan, Russia, Canada, and the United States. In areas where radio equipment cannot be used, speakerphones connect students to ground stations which then connect the calls to the station.WEB,weblink Amateur Radio on the International Space Station, 6 June 2011, 10 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110527071557weblink">weblink 27 May 2011, First Orbit is a feature-length documentary film about Vostok 1, the first crewed space flight around the Earth. By matching the orbit of the International Space Station to that of Vostok 1 as closely as possible, in terms of ground path and time of day, documentary filmmaker Christopher Riley and ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli were able to film the view that Yuri Gagarin saw on his pioneering orbital space flight. This new footage was cut together with the original Vostok 1 mission audio recordings sourced from the Russian State Archive. Nespoli, during Expedition 26/27, filmed the majority of the footage for this documentary film, and as a result is credited as its director of photography.NEWS, Riley, Christopher, What Yuri Gagarin saw: First Orbit film to reveal the view from Vostok 1,weblink The Guardian, 11 April 2011, London, The film was streamed through the website firstorbit.org in a global YouTube premiere in 2011, under a free licence.WEB,weblink Yuri Gagarin's First Orbit – FAQs, Firstorbit.org, 1 May 2012, In May 2013, commander Chris Hadfield shot a music video of David Bowie's "Space Oddity" on board the station; the film was released on YouTube.WEB, Warr, Philippa,weblink Commander Hadfield bids farewell to ISS with Reddit-inspired Bowie cover, Wired.co.uk, 13 May 2013, 22 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012212949weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, It was the first music video ever to be filmed in space.WEB, Davis, Lauren, Chris Hadfield sings 'Space Oddity' in the first music video in space,weblink io9, In November 2017, while participating in Expedition 52/53 on the ISS, Paolo Nespoli made two recordings (one in English the other in his native Italian) of his spoken voice, for use on Pseudopedia articles. These were the first content made specifically for Wikipedia, in space.WEB, Mabbett, Andy, Close encounters of the Wikipedia kind: Astronaut is first to specifically contribute to Wikipedia from space – Wikimedia Blog,weblink [Wikimedia foundation, 4 December 2017, en, NEWS, Petris, Antonella, Primo contributo 'extraterrestre' su Wikipedia: è di Nespoli,weblink 4 December 2017, Meteo Web, 1 December 2017, it-IT,

    Manufacturing

    (File:SSPF_interior.jpg|thumb|ISS module Node 2 manufacturing and processing in the SSPF)Since the International Space Station is a multi-national collaborative project, the components for in-orbit assembly were manufactured in various countries around the world. Beginning in the mid 1990s, the U.S. components Destiny, Unity, the Integrated Truss Structure, and the solar arrays were fabricated at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Michoud Assembly Facility. These modules were delivered to the Operations and Checkout Building and the Space Station Processing Facility for final assembly and processing for launch.WEB,weblink Manufacturing Key Parts of the International Space Station: Unity and Destiny, NASA, Jennifer, Harbaugh, 19 February 2016, 15 February 2019, The Russian modules, including Zarya and Zvezda, were manufactured at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center in Moscow. Zvezda was initially manufactured in 1985 as a component for Mir-2, but was never launched and instead became the ISS Service Module.WEB,weblink ISS Zvezda, 5 July 2019, The European Space Agency Columbus module was manufactured at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, along with many other contractors throughout Europe.WEB,weblink Companies involved with ISS, European Space Agency, 19 July 2004, The other ESA-built modules - Harmony, Tranquility, the Leonardo MPLM, and the Cupola - were initially manufactured at the Thales Alenia Space factory located at the Cannes Mandelieu Space Center. The structural steel hulls of the modules were transported by aircraft to the Kennedy Space Center SSPF for launch processing.WEB,weblink Ten years in perfect "Harmony"! - Thales Group, www.thalesgroup.com, The Japanese Experiment Module Kibo, was fabricated in various technology manufacturing facilities in Japan, at the NASDA (now JAXA) Tanegashima Space Center, and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. The Kibo module was transported by ship and flown by aircraft to the KSC Space Station Processing Facility.WEB,weblink KSC-08pd0991, 22 April 2008, 5 July 2019, CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. -- In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, an overhead crane moves the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module - Pressurized Module toward the payload canister (lower right). The canister will deliver the module, part of the payload for space shuttle Discovery’s STS-124 mission, to Launch Pad 39A. On the mission, the STS-124 crew will transport the Kibo module as well as the Japanese Remote Manipulator System to the International Space Station to complete the Kibo laboratory. The launch of Discovery is targeted for May 31. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett, The Mobile Servicing System, consisting of the Canadarm2 and the Dextre grapple fixture, was manufactured at various factories in Canada and the United States under contract by the Canadian Space Agency. The mobile base system, a connecting framework for Canadarm2 mounted on rails, was built by Northrop Grumman.

    Assembly

    The assembly of the International Space Station, a major endeavour in space architecture, began in November 1998.WEB,weblink On-Orbit Elements, NASA, NASA, 18 February 2010, 19 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091029013438weblink">weblink 29 October 2009, Russian modules launched and docked robotically, with the exception of Rassvet. All other modules were delivered by the Space Shuttle, which required installation by ISS and shuttle crewmembers using the Canadarm2 (SSRMS) and extra-vehicular activities (EVAs); {{as of|2011|06|05|lc=y}}, they had added 159 components during more than 1,000 hours of EVA (see List of ISS spacewalks). 127 of these spacewalks originated from the station, and the remaining 32 were launched from the airlocks of docked Space Shuttles.WEB,weblink The ISS to Date, NASA, 9 March 2011, 21 March 2011, The beta angle of the station had to be considered at all times during construction.WEB,weblink MCC Answers, Derek Hassman, NASA Flight Director, 1 December 2002, NASA, 14 June 2009, The first module of the ISS, Zarya, was launched on 20 November 1998 on an autonomous Russian Proton rocket. It provided propulsion, attitude control, communications, electrical power, but lacked long-term life support functions. Two weeks later, a passive NASA module Unity was launched aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-88 and attached to Zarya by astronauts during EVAs. This module has two Pressurised Mating Adapter (PMAs), one connects permanently to Zarya, the other allowed the Space Shuttle to dock to the space station. At that time, the Russian station Mir was still inhabited, and the ISS remained uncrewed for two years. On 12 July 2000, Zvezda was launched into orbit. Preprogrammed commands on board deployed its solar arrays and communications antenna. It then became the passive target for a rendezvous with Zarya and Unity: it maintained a station-keeping orbit while the Zarya-Unity vehicle performed the rendezvous and docking via ground control and the Russian automated rendezvous and docking system. Zarya{{'s}} computer transferred control of the station to Zvezda{{'s}} computer soon after docking. Zvezda added sleeping quarters, a toilet, kitchen, CO2 scrubbers, dehumidifier, oxygen generators, exercise equipment, plus data, voice and television communications with mission control. This enabled permanent habitation of the station.NASA Facts. The Service Module: A Cornerstone of Russian International Space Station Modules. NASA. January 1999WEB,weblink STS-88, Science.ksc.nasa.gov, 19 April 2011, The first resident crew, Expedition 1, arrived in November 2000 on Soyuz TM-31. At the end of the first day on the station, astronaut Bill Shepherd requested the use of the radio call sign "Alpha", which he and cosmonaut Krikalev preferred to the more cumbersome "International Space Station".NEWS,weblink Upward Bound: Tales of Space Station Alpha, Brad Liston, 2 November 2000, Time, 5 August 2010, The name "Alpha" had previously been used for the station in the early 1990s,WEB,weblink Space Station – Impact on the expanded Russian role of funding and research, 21 June 1994, Government Accountability Office, United State General Accounting Office, 9 August 2010, and its use was authorised for the whole of Expedition 1.WEB,weblink Call Bill Shepherd the Alpha Male of the International Space Station, Alan Ladwig, 3 November 2000, Space.com, 9 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090523002236weblink">weblink 23 May 2009, Shepherd had been advocating the use of a new name to project managers for some time. Referencing a naval tradition in a pre-launch news conference he had said: "For thousands of years, humans have been going to sea in ships. People have designed and built these vessels, launched them with a good feeling that a name will bring good fortune to the crew and success to their voyage."WEB,weblink Expedition One Crew Wins Bid To Name Space Station Alpha, 2 November 2000, Todd Halvorson, Space.com, 9 August 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090523002234weblink">weblink 23 May 2009, Yuri Semenov, the President of Russian Space Corporation Energia at the time, disapproved of the name "Alpha" as he felt that Mir was the first modular space station, so the names "Beta" or "Mir 2" for the ISS would have been more fitting.WEB,weblink Interview with RSC Energia's Yuri Semenov, Space.com, 3 September 2001, 22 August 2010, WEB,weblink Interview with Yuri Semenov, general designer of Space Rocket corporation Energy, 21 March 2001, Voice of Russia, 5 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120318121311weblink">weblink 18 March 2012, dead, Expedition 1 arrived midway between the flights of STS-92 and STS-97. These two Space Shuttle flights each added segments of the station's Integrated Truss Structure, which provided the station with Ku-band communication for US television, additional attitude support needed for the additional mass of the USOS, and substantial solar arrays supplementing the station's existing 4 solar arrays.WEB,weblink STS-92, Science.ksc.nasa.gov, 19 April 2011, Over the next two year, the station continued to expand. A Soyuz-U rocket delivered the Pirs docking compartment. The Space Shuttles Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour delivered the Destiny laboratory and Quest airlock, in addition to the station's main robot arm, the Canadarm2, and several more segments of the Integrated Truss Structure.The expansion schedule was interrupted by the {{OV|102}} disaster in 2003 and a resulting hiatus in flights. The Space Shuttle was grounded until 2005 with STS-114 flown by Discovery.WEB,weblink Discovery launches—The Shuttle is back, Chris Bergin, NASASpaceflight.com, 6 March 2009, 26 July 2005, Assembly resumed in 2006 with the arrival of STS-115 with Atlantis, which delivered the station's second set of solar arrays. Several more truss segments and a third set of arrays were delivered on STS-116, STS-117, and STS-118. As a result of the major expansion of the station's power-generating capabilities, more pressurised modules could be accommodated, and the Harmony node and Columbus European laboratory were added. These were soon followed by the first two components of Kibō. In March 2009, STS-119 completed the Integrated Truss Structure with the installation of the fourth and final set of solar arrays. The final section of Kibō was delivered in July 2009 on STS-127, followed by the Russian Poisk module. The third node, Tranquility, was delivered in February 2010 during STS-130 by the Space Shuttle Endeavour, alongside the Cupola, followed in May 2010 by the penultimate Russian module, Rassvet. Rassvet was delivered by Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-132 in exchange for the Russian Proton delivery of the US-funded Zarya module in 1998.WEB,weblink Mini-Research Module 1 (MIM1) Rassvet (MRM-1), Russianspaceweb.com, 12 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825094354weblink">weblink 25 August 2011, The last pressurised module of the USOS, Leonardo, was brought to the station in February 2011 on the final flight of Discovery, STS-133.WEB,weblink STS-133, NASA, 1 September 2014, The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer was delivered by Endeavour on STS-134 the same year.WEB,weblink STS-134, NASA, 1 September 2014, {{As of|2011|06}}, the station consisted of 15 pressurised modules and the Integrated Truss Structure. Five modules are still to be launched, including the Nauka with the European Robotic Arm, the Prichal module, and two power modules called NEM-1 and NEM-2.WEB,weblink Russia works on a new-generation space module, Russianspaceweb.com, 29 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408182926weblink">weblink 8 April 2016, {{As of|2019|3}}, Russia's future primary research module Nauka is set to launch in the summer of 2020, along with the European Robotic Arm which will be able to relocate itself to different parts of the Russian modules of the station.NEWS,weblink 31 March 2019, TASS, 25 March 2019, Rogozin confirmed that the module "Science" placed the tanks from the upper stage "Frigate", The gross mass of the station changes over time. The total launch mass of the modules on orbit is about {{convert|417289|kg|lbs|abbr=on}} ({{as of|2011|September|3|lc=y}}).WEB,weblink NASA – The ISS to Date (03/09/2011), Nasa.gov, 12 July 2011, The mass of experiments, spare parts, personal effects, crew, foodstuff, clothing, propellants, water supplies, gas supplies, docked spacecraft, and other items add to the total mass of the station. Hydrogen gas is constantly vented overboard by the oxygen generators.

    Structure

    {{multiple image| image1 = ISS blueprint.png| width1 = 200| caption1 = Technical blueprint of components| image2 = ROS Windows 0114 complete.jpg| width2 = 200| caption2 = ROS window locations| image3 = USOS window identification.png| width3 = 200| caption3 = USOS window locations}}The ISS is a third generationWEB,weblink DLR – International Space Station ISS – From Cold War to international cooperation – the story of the ISS, Dlr.de, 1 May 2012, modular space station.WEB,weblink Third Generation Soviet Space Systems, Astronautix.com, 1 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120618161500weblink">weblink 18 June 2012, Modular stations can allow modules to be added to or removed from the existing structure, allowing greater flexibility.Below is a diagram of major station components. The blue areas are pressurised sections accessible by the crew without using spacesuits. The station's unpressurised superstructure is indicated in red. Other unpressurised components are yellow. The Unity node joins directly to the Destiny laboratory. For clarity, they are shown apart.{{chart/start|align=center|style=width:auto !important; font-size:78%; line-height:100%; line-width:100%; padding:15px; border:2px dotted #AAA;}} {{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | |PORT1| | |
    PORT1 = Russian{{nobr|docking port{edih}|boxstyle_PORT1 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff;
    }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | |AMS|~|ZVEZDA|~|AMS|
    AMS = {{nobr|Solar array{edih} style="text-align:center;"! colspan="3" | Spacecraft and mission! Location! Arrival (UTC)! Departure (planned) style="background:#cfc;" style="background:#cfc;" style="background:lightblue;"
    Zvezda (ISS module)>{{nobrZvezda DOS-8}}{{nobr>(service module)}}|boxstyle_ZVEZDA = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px;|boxstyle_AMS = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |!|!|!| }}{hide}chart| | | | |PORT1|SGM2|-|'|!|)|-|PIRS|PORT1|
    PIRS = Pirsairlock
    Poisk (MRM-2){edih}airlockdocking port}}|boxstyle_SGM2 = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_PORT1 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px;|boxstyle_PIRS = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!|!| }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!|`|-|MLM|~|ERA| | | robotic arm}}|boxstyle_MLM = border: 2px solid #000000; background:#ffffff;|boxstyle_ERA = border: 2px solid #000000; background:#ffffff;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | |UM|UM = Prichal|boxstyle_UM = border: 2px solid #000000; background:#ffffff;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | |SA|~|ZARYA|~|SA| | | | Zarya>Zarya FGB(first module)|boxstyle_ZARYA = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_SA = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!|!| }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!|`|-|SGM1|PORT1| docking port{edih}|boxstyle_PORT1 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px;|boxstyle_SGM1 = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;}}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | |PMA| |
    PMA = PMA 1|boxstyle_PMA = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;
    {edih}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | }}{{chart| | | | | | | | | |BERTH|!|LEO|.|,|BEAM|
    Bigelow Expandable Activity Module>BEAMhabitatLeonardo (ISS module)>Leonardocargo bay|boxstyle_BERTH = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px;|boxstyle_BEAM = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_LEO = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |!|!| | | |!|!| }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | |QUEST|-|UNITY|-|NOD3|| |
    UNITY = UnityNode 1
    Quest Joint Airlock>QuestairlockTranquility (ISS module)>TranquilityNode 3|boxstyle_UNITY = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_QUEST = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_NOD3 = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;{edih}{hide}chart| | | | | | | |ESP2| | |!| | |CUPOLA|
    ESP2 = ESP-2
    Cupola (ISS module)>Cupola|boxstyle_CUPOLA = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_ESP2 = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;{edih}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | }}{hide}chart| |FE|F|FE| |RAD|!|RAD| |FE|7|FE| | | | Solar array{edih}|boxstyle_RAD = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_FE = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{{chart| |:| | |:| | | | | |:| |!| |:| | | | | |:| | |:| }}{hide}chart| |:| | |:|ELC| | |:|FZ1|:| | |ELC3|:| | |:|
    ELC = ELC 2, AMS|FZ1 = Z1 truss
    ExPRESS Logistics Carrier#ELC-3>ELC 3|boxstyle_ELC3 = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_FZ1 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_ELC = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;{edih}{hide}chart| |D|FS56|FS34|FS1|FS0|FP1|FP34|FP56|C|
    FS56 = S5/6 Truss
    Integrated Truss Structure#P3/P4, S3/S4 truss assemblies>S3/S4 Truss|FS1 = S1 Truss|FS0 = S0 TrussS1 Truss>P1 TrussIntegrated Truss Structure#P3/P4, S3/S4 truss assemblies>P3/P4 TrussP5 Truss Segment>P5/6 Truss|boxstyle_FS56 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FS34 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FS1 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FS0 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FP1 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FP34 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;|boxstyle_FP56 = border: 2px solid #ff6666; background:#ffcccc;{edih}{hide}chart| |:| | |:|ELC4| | | |:|!|:| | | |ELC1|:| | |:|
    ELC4 = ELC 4, ESP 3
    ExPRESS Logistics Carrier#ELC-1>ELC 1|boxstyle_ELC1 = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_ELC4 = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;{edih}{hide}chart| |:| | |:| | | | |DEXTR|!|CANADARM| | | | |:| | |:|
    CANADARM = Canadarm2{{nobr|robotic arm{edih}
    Dextre{{nobr>robotic arm}}|boxstyle_CANADARM = border: 2px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_DEXTR = border: 2px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{hide}chart| |FE|L|FE| | | | |!| | | | |FE|J|FE| | | |
    FE = {{nobr|Solar array{edih}|boxstyle_FE = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_ELC = border: 1px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;
    }}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | |ESP1|DESTINY| | |
    DESTINY = Destinylaboratory
    External stowage platform#ESP-1>ESP-1|boxstyle_DESTINY = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_ESP1 = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;{edih}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | |KIBOPS| | |
    KIBOPS = Kibō logisticscargo bay|boxstyle_KIBOPS = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;
    {edih}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | | |!|IDA3| |!|
    IDA3 = IDA 3{{nobr|docking adapter{edih}|boxstyle_IDA3 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff;
    }}{{chart| | | | | | | | | |BERTH|!|PORT2| |!|BERTH = Cargo spacecraft{{nobr|berthing port}}
    docking port}}|boxstyle_PORT2 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_BERTH = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff; padding-left:10px; padding-right:10px;}}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | |!|!|!| | | |!|KiboRobo|KiboRobo = Kibō{{nobr|robotic arm}}|boxstyle_KiboRobo = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{hide}chart| | | | |COLEXT|COLUMBUS|-|HARMONY|-|KIBO|KiboPlat|
    HARMONY = HarmonyNode 2
    external platform{edih}Columbus (ISS module)>ColumbuslaboratoryJEM-PM>Kibōlaboratory|COLEXT = External payloads|boxstyle_HARMONY = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_COLUMBUS = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_COLEXT = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;|boxstyle_KIBO = border: 2px solid #6699ff; background:#ccddff;|boxstyle_KiboPlat = border: 1px solid #fee067; background:#fff4cc;}}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | |PORT2| |
    PORT2 = PMA 2{{nobr|docking port{edih}|boxstyle_PORT2 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff;
    }}{hide}chart| | | | | | | | | | | |IDA2| |
    IDA2 = IDA 2{{nobr|docking adapter{edih}|boxstyle_IDA2 = border: 1px solid #a3ff66; background:#ccddff;
    }}{{chart| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | }}{{chart/end|nocat=1}}

    Pressurised modules

    {{more citations needed section|date=November 2015}}

    Zarya

    File:Zarya from STS-88.jpg|thumb|Zarya as seen by {{OV|105}} during STS-88STS-88Zarya (), also known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB (from the or ФГБ), is the first module of the ISS to be launched.NASA, International Space Station, Zarya (accessed 19 Apr. 2014) The FGB provided electrical power, storage, propulsion, and guidance to the ISS during the initial stage of assembly. With the launch and assembly in orbit of other modules with more specialized functionality, Zarya is now{{when|date=September 2019}} primarily used for storage, both inside the pressurized section and in the externally mounted fuel tanks. The Zarya is a descendant of the TKS spacecraft designed for the Russian Salyut program. The name Zarya, which means sunrise, was given to the FGB because it signified the dawn of a new era of international cooperation in space. Although it was built by a Russian company, it is owned by the United States.WEB,weblink Russian Segment: Enterprise, Zak, Anatoly, 15 October 2008, RussianSpaceWeb, 4 August 2012, Zarya was built from December 1994 to January 1998 at the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center (KhSC) in Moscow.Zarya was launched on 20 November 1998 on a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 81 in Kazakhstan to a {{convert|400|km|mi|abbr=on}} high orbit with a designed lifetime of at least 15 years. After Zarya reached orbit, STS-88 launched on 4 December 1998 to attach the Unity module.

    Unity

    File:ISS Unity module.jpg|thumb|Unity as seen by {{OV|105}} during STS-88STS-88The Unity connecting module, also known as Node 1, is the first U.S.-built component of the ISS. It connects the Russian and United States segments of the station, and is where crew eat meals together. The module is cylindrical in shape, with six berthing locations (forward, aft, port, starboard, zenith, and nadir) facilitating connections to other modules. Unity measures {{convert|4.57|m}} in diameter, is {{convert|5.47|m}} long, made of steel, and was built for NASA by Boeing in a manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Unity is the first of the three connecting modules; the other two are Harmony and Tranquility.Unity was carried into orbit as the primary cargo of the {{OV|105}} on STS-88, the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to assembly of the station. On 6 December 1998, the STS-88 crew mated the aft berthing port of Unity with the forward hatch of the already orbiting Zarya module. This was the first connection made between two station modules.

    Zvezda

    File:View_of_the_bottom_of_Zvezda.jpg|thumb|Zvezda as seen by {{OV|105}} during STS-97STS-97Zvezda (, meaning "star"), Salyut DOS-8, also known as the Zvezda Service Module, is a module of the ISS. It was the third module launched to the station, and provides all of the station's life support systems, some of which are supplemented in the USOS, as well as living quarters for two crew members. It is the structural and functional center of the Russian Orbital Segment, which is the Russian part of the ISS. Crew assemble here to deal with emergencies on the station.AV MEDIA, Williams, Suni (presenter), 3 July 2015, Departing Space Station Commander Provides Tour of Orbital Laboratory, video,weblink 1 September 2019, 17.46-18.26, NASA, WEB,weblink Space station astronauts take shelter from solar radiation, Roylance, Frank D., 11 November 2000, The Baltimore Sun, Tribune Publishing, 1 September 2019, WEB,weblink Tuesday/Wednesday Solar Punch, Stofer, Kathryn, 29 October 2013, NASA, 1 September 2019, The basic structural frame of Zvezda, known as "DOS-8", was initially built in the mid-1980s to be the core of the Mir-2 space station. This means that Zvezda is similar in layout to the core module (DOS-7) of the Mir space station. It was in fact labeled as Mir-2 for quite some time in the factory. Its design lineage thus extends back to the original Salyut stations. The space frame was completed in February 1985 and major internal equipment was installed by October 1986.The rocket used for launch to the ISS carried advertising; it was emblazoned with the logo of Pizza Hut restaurants,Space.com, September 30, 1999. Pizza Hut Puts Pie in the Sky with Rocket Logo. Accessed June 27, 2006. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060114231357weblink |date=January 14, 2006 }}SpaceDaily, July 8, 2000. Proton Set to Make Pizza Delivery to ISS. Accessed May 5, 2013.NEWS, Geere, Duncan, The International Space Station is 10 today!,weblink 20 December 2014, Wired.co.uk, Wired.co.uk, November 2, 2010, pizza-hut-3, for which they are reported to have paid more than US$1 million.WEB,weblink THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Rocket to Carry Pizza Hut Logo, January 21, 2009, October 1, 1999, New York Times, The money helped support Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center and the Russian advertising agencies that orchestrated the event.SpaceDaily - Proton Set to Make Pizza Delivery to ISS (2000)On 26 July 2000, Zvezda became the third component of the ISS when it docked at the aft port of Zarya. (U.S. Unity module had already been attached to the Zarya.) Later in July, the computers aboard Zarya handed over ISS commanding functions to computers on Zvezda.WEB,weblink STS-106, NASA,

    Destiny

    (File:ISS Destiny Lab.jpg|thumb|The Destiny module being installed on the ISS)WEB,weblink U.S. Destiny Laboratory, October 7, 2008, NASA, 2003, NASA, It was berthed to the Unity module and activated over a period of five days in February, 2001.WEB,weblink STS-98, October 7, 2008, NASA, 2001, NASA, Destiny is NASA's first permanent operating orbital research station since Skylab was vacated in February 1974.The Boeing Company began construction of the {{Convert|14.5|t|lb|adj=on}} research laboratory in 1995 at the Michoud Assembly Facility and then the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Destiny was shipped to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida in 1998, and was turned over to NASA for pre-launch preparations in August 2000. It launched on 7 February 2001 aboard the {{OV|104}} on STS-98.

    Quest

    (File:Quest airlock exterior - STS-127.jpg|thumb|Quest Joint Airlock Module)The Quest Joint Airlock, previously known as the Joint Airlock Module, is the primary airlock for the ISS. Quest was designed to host spacewalks with both Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuits and Orlan space suits. The airlock was launched on STS-104 on 14 July 2001. Before Quest was attached, Russian spacewalks using Orlan suits could only be done from the Zvezda service module, and American spacewalks using EMUs were only possible when a Space Shuttle was docked. The arrival of Pirs docking compartment on September 16, 2001 provided another airlock from which Orlan spacewalks can be conducted.{{citation_needed|date=July 2019}}

    Pirs and Poisk

    {{Multiple image| total_width = 400| direction = horizontal| image1 = Sts110-363-001.jpg| caption1 = The Pirs module attached to the ISS.| image2 = Poisk.Jpeg| caption2 = Poisk after arriving at the ISS on 12 November 2009.}}Pirs () and Poisk () are Russian airlock modules, each having 2 identical hatches. An outward-opening hatch on the Mir space station failed after it swung open too fast after unlatching, because of a small amount of air pressure remaining in the airlock.WEB,weblink Mir close calls, Russianspaceweb.com, 1 May 2012, All EVA hatches on the ISS open inwards and are pressure-sealing. Pirs was used to store, service, and refurbish Russian Orlan suits and provided contingency entry for crew using the slightly bulkier American suits. The outermost docking ports on both airlocks allow docking of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and the automatic transfer of propellants to and from storage on the ROS.WEB,weblink Pirs Docking Compartment, NASA, 28 March 2009, 10 May 2006, Pirs was launched on 14 September 2001, as ISS Assembly Mission 4R, on a Russian Soyuz-U rocket, using a modified Progress spacecraft, Progress M-SO1, as an upper stage. Poisk was launched on 10 November 2009NEWS,weblink August 28, 2009. S.P.Korolev RSC Energia, Korolev, Moscow region, 2009-08-28, RSC Energia, 2009-09-03, WEB,weblink Stephen Clark, spaceflightnow.com, 10 November 2009, 11 November 2009, Poisk launches to add new room for space station, attached to a modified Progress spacecraft, called Progress M-MIM2, on a Soyuz-U rocket from Launch Pad 1 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.

    Harmony

    missing image!
    - Node 2 - STS-134.jpg -
    Harmony shown connected to Columbus, Kibo, and Destiny. PMA-2 faces. The nadir and zenith locations are open.
    Harmony, also known as Node 2, is the "utility hub" of the ISS. It connects the laboratory modules of the United States, Europe and Japan, as well as providing electrical power and electronic data. Sleeping cabins for four of the six crew are housed here.AV MEDIA, Williams, Suni (presenter), 19 May 2013, Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity, video,weblink 31 August 2019, 0.06-0.35, NASA, So this is Node 2 ... this is where four out of six of us sleep., Harmony was successfully launched into space aboard Space Shuttle flight STS-120 on October 23, 2007.WEB, NASA,weblink STS-120 MCC Status Report #01, October 23, 2007, NASA, NEWS,weblink Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off, October 23, 2007, Los Angeles Times, John Johnson Jr., October 24, 2007, After temporarily being attached to the port side of the Unity node,NEWS,weblink New Room Added to Space Station, October 26, 2007, The New York Times, John Schwartz, October 26, 2007, it was moved to its permanent location on the forward end of the Destiny laboratory on November 14, 2007.WEB,weblink PMA-3 Relocation, September 28, 2007, NASA, 2007, NASA, Harmony added {{convert|2666|cuft|m3}} to the station's living volume, an increase of almost 20 percent, from {{convert|15000|cuft|m3|abbr=on}} to {{convert|17666|cuft|m3|abbr=on}}. Its successful installation meant that from NASA's perspective, the station was "U.S. Core Complete".

    Tranquility

    (File:Node 3 - Isolated view.jpg|tkumb|left|220px|Tranquility in 2011)Tranquility, also known as Node 3, is a module of the ISS. It contains environmental control systems, life support systems, a toilet, exercise equipment, and an observation cupola.ESA and the Italian Space Agency had Tranquility built by Thales Alenia Space. A ceremony on November 20, 2009 transferred ownership of the module to NASA.WEB,weblink NASA - NASA Receives Tranquility, Nasa.gov, 2010-10-23, 2013-08-12, On February 8, 2010, NASA launched the module on the Space Shuttle's STS-130 mission.

    Columbus

    (File:Columbus module - cropped.jpg|thumb|The Columbus module on the ISS)Columbus is a science laboratory that is part of the ISS and is the largest single contribution to the ISS made by the European Space Agency (ESA).Like the Harmony and Tranquility modules, the Columbus laboratory was constructed in Turin, Italy by Thales Alenia Space. The functional equipment and software of the lab was designed by EADS in Bremen, Germany. It was also integrated in Bremen before being flown to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida in an Airbus Beluga. It was launched aboard {{OV|104}} on 7 February 2008 on flight STS-122. It is designed for ten years of operation. The module is controlled by the Columbus Control Centre, located at the German Space Operations Centre, part of the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, Germany.The European Space Agency has spent €1.4 billion (about US$2 billion) on building Columbus, including the experiments that will fly in it and the ground control infrastructure necessary to operate them.WEB,weblink Station arm pulls Columbus module from cargo bay, William, Harwood, February 11, 2008, Spaceflightnow.com, 7 August 2009,

    Kibō

    (File:きぼう エアロック Kibo airlock.jpg|thumb|Not large enough for spacesuited crew, the airlock has a sliding drawer for external experiments.)The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed {{nihongo|Kibo|きぼう|Kibō|Hope}}, is a Japanese science module for the ISS developed by JAXA. It is the largest single ISS module, and is attached to the Harmony module. The first two pieces of the module were launched on Space Shuttle missions STS-123 and STS-124. The third and final components were launched on STS-127.NEWS,weblink Japan a low-key player in space race, Japan Times, Setsuko, Kamiya, 3, 30 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090803053741weblink">weblink 3 August 2009, File:Kibo - Pressurized Module.jpg|Pressurised ModuleFile:Kibo - Experiment Logistics Module (Pressurized Section).jpg|Experiment Logistics ModuleFile:Kibo - Exposed Facility.jpg|Exposed FacilityFile:Kibo - Experiment Logistics Module (Exposed Section).jpg|Experiment Logistics ModuleFile:Kibo - Remote Manipulator System.jpg|Remote Manipulator System

    Cupola

    (File:STS130 cupola view1.jpg|thumb|The Cupola{{'s}} windows with shutters open.)The Cupola is an ESA-built observatory module of the ISS. Its name derives from the Italian word , which means "dome". Its seven windows are used to conduct experiments, dockings and observations of Earth. It was launched aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-130 on 8 February 2010 and attached to the Tranquility (Node 3) module. With the Cupola attached, ISS assembly reached 85 percent completion. The Cupola{{'s}} central window has a diameter of {{convert|80|cm|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100726075315weblink">weblink Thales Alenia Space and ISS modules - Cupola: a window over the Earth, 26 July 2010, web.archive.org,

    Rassvet

    File:Iss023e047527.jpg|thumb|Rassvet as seen from the Cupola module during STS-132 with a Progress in the lower right]]Rassvet (; lit. "dawn"), also known as the Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1) (, ) and formerly known as the Docking Cargo Module (DCM), is a component of the ISS. The module's design is similar to the Mir Docking Module launched on STS-74 in 1995. Rassvet is primarily used for cargo storage and as a docking port for visiting spacecraft. It was flown to the ISS aboard {{OV|104}} on the STS-132 mission on May 14, 2010,WEB,weblink STS-132: PRCB baselines Atlantis' mission to deliver Russia's MRM-1, Chris Gebhardt, NASAspaceflight.com, 9 April 2009, 12 November 2009, and was connected to the ISS on May 18.WEB,weblink NASA, May 18, 2010, July 7, 2010, STS-132 MCC Status Report #09, The hatch connecting Rassvet with the ISS was first opened on May 20.WEB,weblink STS-132 MCC Status Report #13, NASA, May 20, 2010, July 7, 2010, On 28 June 2010, the Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft performed the first docking with the module.WEB,weblink Station crew takes Soyuz for 'spin around the block', Justin Ray, SpaceFlight Now, June 28, 2010, July 7, 2010,

    Leonardo

    (File:STS-133 ISS-26 Permanent Multipurpose Module.jpg|right|thumb|Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module)The Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM) is a module of the ISS. It was flown into space aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-133 on 24 February 2011 and installed on 1 March. Leonardo is primarily used for storage of spares, supplies and waste on the ISS, which was until then stored in many different places within the space station. The Leonardo PMM was a Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) before 2011, but was modified into its current configuration. It was formerly one of three MPLM used for bringing cargo to and from the ISS with the Space Shuttle. The module was named for Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci.

    Bigelow Expandable Activity Module

    (File:BEAM module expansion series.jpg|thumb|left|Progression of expansion of BEAM)The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) is an experimental expandable space station module developed by Bigelow Aerospace, under contract to NASA, for testing as a temporary module on the ISS from 2016 to at least 2020. It arrived at the ISS on 10 April 2016, was berthed to the station on 16 April, and was expanded and pressurized on 28 May 2016.

    International Docking Adapter

    (File:IDA-1 pre-launch.png|thumb|left|IDA-1 upright)The International Docking Adapter (IDA) is a spacecraft docking system adapter developed to convert APAS-95 to the NASA Docking System (NDS)/International Docking System Standard (IDSS). An IDA is placed on each of the ISS' two open Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMAs), both of which are connected to the Harmony module.IDA-1 was lost during the launch failure of SpaceX CRS-7 on 28 June 2015.WEB,weblink International Space Station Program Status, Hartman, Dan, 23 July 2012, NASA, 10 August 2012, WEB,weblink Status of the ISS USOS, Hartman, Daniel, July 2014, NASA Advisory Council HEOMD Committee, 26 October 2014, WEB,weblink Docking Adapter, Satellites, Student Experiments Lost In Dragon Failure, Foust, Jeff, 28 June 2015, SpaceNews, 29 June 2015, IDA-2 was launched on SpaceX CRS-9 on 18 July 2016.NEWS,weblink SpaceX Conducts Second Ground Landing After Launch Of CRS-9 Dragon To ISS, Jason Rhian, 18 July 2016, Spaceflight Insider, It was attached and connected to PMA-2 during a spacewalk on 19 August 2016. First docking was achieved with the arrival of Crew Dragon Demo-1 on 3 March 2019. WEB,weblink Crew Dragon docks with ISS, 2019-03-03, SpaceNews.com, en-US, 2019-06-06, IDA-3 was launched on the SpaceX CRS-18 mission in July 2019.WEB, United States Commercial ELV Launch Manifest,weblink Steven, Pietrobon, August 20, 2018, August 21, 2018, IDA-3 is constructed mostly from spare parts to speed construction.NEWS,weblink Boeing borrows from inventory to speed docking adapter delivery, Stephen Clark, 1 May 2016, Spaceflight Now, It was attached and connected to PMA-3 during a spacewalk on 21 August 2019.weblink

    Unpressurised elements

    (File:Truss breakdown.png|thumb|right|220px|ISS Truss Components breakdown showing Trusses and all ORUs in situ)The ISS has a large number of external components that do not require pressurisation. The largest of these is the Integrated Truss Structure (ITS), to which the station's main solar arrays and thermal radiators are mounted.WEB,weblink Spread Your Wings, It's Time to Fly, NASA, 26 July 2006, 21 September 2006, The ITS consists of ten separate segments forming a structure 108.5 m (356 ft) long.The station was intended to have several smaller external components, such as six robotic arms, three External Stowage Platforms (ESPs) and four ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs).WEB,weblink Consolidated Launch Manifest, 8 July 2008, NASA, NASA, 2008, WEB,weblink EXPRESS Racks 1 and 2 fact sheet, 4 October 2009, 12 April 2008, NASA, While these platforms allow experiments (including MISSE, the STP-H3 and the Robotic Refueling Mission) to be deployed and conducted in the vacuum of space by providing electricity and processing experimental data locally, their primary function is to store spare Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs). ORUs are parts that can be replaced when they fail or pass their design life, including pumps, storage tanks, antennas, and battery units. Such units are replaced either by astronauts during EVA or by robotic arms.WEB,weblink Soyuz TMA-03M docks to ISS, returns station to six crewmembers for future ops, NASASpaceFlight.com, 23 December 2011, 1 May 2012, Several shuttle missions were dedicated to the delivery of ORUs, including STS-129,WEB,weblink EVA Checklist: STS-129 Flight Supplement, L. D. Welsch, NASA, 30 October 2009, STS-133WEB,weblink Space Shuttle Mission: STS-131, February 2011, NASA, and STS-134.WEB,weblink Space Shuttle Mission: STS-134, NASA, April 2011, {{asof|2011|01}}, only one other mode of transportation of ORUs had been utilised – the Japanese cargo vessel HTV-2 – which delivered an FHRC and CTC-2 via its Exposed Pallet (EP).WEB,weblink HTV2: Mission Press Kit, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 20 January 2011, {{update after|2013|1|28}}File:STS-116 spacewalk 1.jpg|right|220px|thumb|Construction of the Integrated Truss StructureIntegrated Truss StructureThere are also smaller exposure facilities mounted directly to laboratory modules; the Kibō Exposed Facility serves as an external 'porch' for the Kibō complex,WEB,weblink Exposed Facility:About Kibo, JAXA, 29 August 2008, 9 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090803102352weblink">weblink 3 August 2009, and a facility on the European Columbus laboratory provides power and data connections for experiments such as the European Technology Exposure FacilityWEB,weblink NASA—European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF), NASA, 6 October 2008, 28 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081019013911weblink">weblink 19 October 2008, WEB,weblink ESA—Columbus—European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF), ESA, 13 January 2009, 28 February 2009, and the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space.WEB,weblink ESA, 9 October 2009, Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES), dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090609110757weblink">weblink 9 June 2009, A remote sensing instrument, SAGE III-ISS, was delivered to the station in February 2017 aboard CRS-10,NEWS,weblink SpaceX science – Dragon delivers experiments for busy science period, NASASpaceFlight.com, Christ, Gebhardt, 10 March 2017, 11 January 2019, and the NICER experiment was delivered aboard CRS-11 in June 2017.NEWS,weblink Falcon 9 launches with CRS-11 Dragon on 100th 39A launch, NASASpaceFlight.com, William, Graham, 3 June 2017, 11 January 2019, The largest scientific payload externally mounted to the ISS is the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), a particle physics experiment launched on STS-134 in May 2011, and mounted externally on the ITS. The AMS measures cosmic rays to look for evidence of dark matter and antimatter.WEB,weblink The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Experiment, CERN, 21 January 2009, 6 March 2009, NEWS,weblink Endeavour's ongoing legacy: AMS-02 proving its value, NASASpaceFlight.com, Chris, Bergin, 4 April 2013, 11 January 2019, The commercial Bartolomeo External Payload Hosting Platform, manufactured by Airbus, is due to launch in May 2019 aboard a commercial ISS resupply vehicle and be attached to the European Columbus module. It will provide a further 12 external payload slots, supplementing the eight on the ExPRESS Logistics Carriers, ten on Kibō, and four on Columbus. The system is designed to be robotically serviced and will require no astronaut intervention. It is named after Christopher Columbus's younger brother.NEWS,weblink ESA and Airbus sign partnership agreement for new ISS commercial payload platform Bartolomeo, SpaceDaily, 9 February 2018, 10 February 2018, NEWS,weblink Airbus and ESA to partner on Bartolomeo platform, Aerospace Technology, 8 February 2018, 10 February 2018, WEB,weblink ISS: Bartolomeo, eoPortal, European Space Agency, 10 February 2018,

    Robotic arms and cargo cranes

    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=Iss017e011097.jpg |caption1=Commander Volkov stands on Pirs with his back to the Soyuz whilst operating the manual Strela crane holding photographer Kononenko.
    |image2=Dextrereallyhasnohead.jpg |caption2=Dextre, like many of the station's experiments and robotic arms, can be operated from Earth and perform tasks while the crew sleeps.
    }}The Integrated Truss Structure serves as a base for the station's primary remote manipulator system, called the Mobile Servicing System (MSS), which is composed of three main components. Canadarm2, the largest robotic arm on the ISS, has a mass of {{convert|1800|kg|lb}} and is used to dock and manipulate spacecraft and modules on the USOS, hold crew members and equipment in place during EVAs and move Dextre around to perform tasks.WEB,weblink Canadarm2 and the Mobile Servicing System, NASA, 8 January 2013, 22 June 2015, Dextre is a {{convert|1560|kg|lb|abbr=on}} robotic manipulator with two arms, a rotating torso and has power tools, lights and video for replacing orbital replacement units (ORUs) and performing other tasks requiring fine control.WEB,weblink Dextre, the International Space Station's Robotic Handyman, Canadian Space Agency, 22 June 2015, 18 April 2011, The Mobile Base System (MBS) is a platform which rides on rails along the length of the station's main truss. It serves as a mobile base for Canadarm2 and Dextre, allowing the robotic arms to reach all parts of the USOS.WEB,weblink Mobile Base System, Canadian Space Agency, 22 June 2015, To gain access to the Russian Segment a grapple fixture was added to Zarya on STS-134, so that Canadarm2 can inchworm itself onto the ROS.WEB,weblink Space Shuttle Mission STS-134: Final Flight of Endeavour – Press Kit, NASA, 51–53, April 2011, 22 June 2015, Also installed during STS-134 was the {{convert|50|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), which had been used to inspect heat shield tiles on Space Shuttle missions and can be used on station to increase the reach of the MSS. Staff on Earth or the station can operate the MSS components via remote control, performing work outside the station without space walks.Japan's Remote Manipulator System, which services the Kibō Exposed Facility,WEB,weblink Remote Manipulator System: About Kibo, JAXA, 29 August 2008, 4 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080320035809weblink">weblink 20 March 2008, was launched on STS-124 and is attached to the Kibō Pressurised Module.WEB,weblink International Space Station Status Report #02-03, NASA, 14 January 2002, 4 October 2009, The arm is similar to the Space Shuttle arm as it is permanently attached at one end and has a latching end effector for standard grapple fixtures at the other.The European Robotic Arm, which will service the Russian Orbital Segment, will be launched alongside the Multipurpose Laboratory Module in 2017.WEB,weblink MLM (FGB-2) module of the ISS, RussianSpaceWeb, 16 June 2014, The ROS does not require spacecraft or modules to be manipulated, as all spacecraft and modules dock automatically and may be discarded the same way. Crew use the two Strela (; lit. Arrow) cargo cranes during EVAs for moving crew and equipment around the ROS. Each Strela crane has a mass of {{convert|45|kg|lb|abbr=on}}.

    Planned componments

    Nauka

    missing image!
    - MLM Nauka module - 3D rendering.jpg -
    Artist's rendering of the Nauka module docked to Zvezda.
    Nauka (; lit. Science), also known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM), (Russian: Многофункциональный лабораторный модуль, or МЛМ), is a component of the ISS which has not yet been launched into space. The MLM is funded by the Roscosmos State Corporation. In the original ISS plans, Nauka was to use the location of the Docking and Stowage Module. Later, the DSM was replaced by the Rassvet module and it was moved to Zarya{{'}}s nadir port. Planners anticipate Nauka will dock at Zvezda{{'}}s nadir port, replacing Pirs.MAGAZINE,weblink Russia Sees Moon Base As Logical Next Step, Morring, Frank, 23 May 2012, Aviation Week, 29 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121112034945weblink">weblink 12 November 2012, The launch of Nauka, initially planned for 2007, has been repeatedly delayed for various reasons. {{As of|2019|9}}, the launch to the ISS is assigned to no earlier than December 2020. After this date, the warranties of some of Nauka's systems will expire.

    Prichal

    File:Mockup of Uzlovoy Module (Pritchal).jpg|thumbnail|Mockup of the Prichal module at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training CenterYuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training CenterPrichal, also known as Uzlovoy Module or UM (, Nodal Module Berth),WEB,weblink В РКК "Энергия" утвердили эскиз нового узлового модуля МКС, Roskosmos, 30 December 2012, is a {{Convert|4|t|lb|adj=on}}WEB,weblink New docking port, spacesuit and supplies en route to space station, Clark, Stephen, 2019-07-25, spaceflightnow.com, 2019-08-17, ball-shaped module that will allow docking of two scientific and power modules during the final stage of the station assembly, and provide the Russian segment additional docking ports to receive Soyuz MS and Progress MS spacecraft. UM is due to be launched in 2022. It will be integrated with a special version of the Progress cargo ship and launched by a standard Soyuz rocket, docking to the nadir port of the Nauka module. One port is equipped with an active hybrid docking port, which enables docking with the MLM module. The remaining five ports are passive hybrids, enabling docking of Soyuz and Progress vehicles, as well as heavier modules and future spacecraft with modified docking systems. The node module was intended to serve as the only permanent element of the cancelled OPSEK.S.P. Korolev RSC Energia – News. Energia.ru (13 January 2011). Retrieved 8 October 2011.Node Module {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303173838weblink |date=3 March 2016 }}. Russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 8 October 2011.

    Science Power Modules 1 and 2

    Science Power Module 1 (SPM-1, also known as NEM-1) Science Power Module 2 (SPM-2, also known as NEM-2) are modules planned to arrive at the ISS in 2022weblink Russian Launch Manifest,weblink Steven, Pietrobon, 28 March 2018, 28 March 2018, It is going to dock to the Prichal module, which is planned to be attached to the Nauka module. If Nauka is cancelled, then the Prichal, SPM-1, and SPM-2 would dock at the zenith port of Zvezda. SPM-1 and SPM-2 would also be required components for the OPSEK space stationweblink

    Bishop Airlock Module

    The NanoRacks Bishop Airlock Module is a commercially-funded airlock module intended to be launched to the ISS on SpaceX CRS-21 in August 2020.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Thales Alenia Space reaches key milestone for NanoRacks{{', airlock module |work=Thales Alenia Space |date=20 March 2019 |accessdate=22 August 2019}}WEB, Clark, Stephen,weblink SpaceX to begin flights under new cargo resupply contract next year, Spaceflight Now, 2 August 2019, 22 August 2019, The module is being built by NanoRacks, Thales Alenia Space, and Boeing.WEB,weblink NanoRacks, Boeing to Build First Commercial ISS Airlock Module, NanoRacks, 6 February 2017, 22 August 2019, It will be used to deploy CubeSats, small satellites, and other external payloads for NASA, CASIS, and other commercial and governmental customers.WEB, Garcia, Mark,weblink Progress Underway for First Commercial Airlock on Space Station, NASA, 6 February 2017, 22 August 2019,

    Cancelled componments

    (File:ISS Habitation module.jpg|thumb|right|220px|The cancelled Habitation module under construction at Michoud in 1997)Several modules planned for the station were cancelled over the course of the ISS programme. Reasons include budgetary constraints, the modules becoming unnecessary, and station redesigns after the 2003 Columbia disaster. The US Centrifuge Accommodations Module would have hosted science experiments in varying levels of artificial gravity.WEB,weblink CAM – location?, NASA Spaceflight Forums, 12 October 2009, The US Habitation Module would have served as the station's living quarters. Instead, the sleep stations are now spread throughout the station.WEB,weblink NASA Recycles Former ISS Module for Life Support Research, Tariq Malik, 11 March 2009, Space.com, 14 February 2006, The US Interim Control Module and ISS Propulsion Module would have replaced the functions of Zvezda in case of a launch failure.WEB, ICM Interim Control Module, U.S. Naval Center for Space Technology,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070208164211weblink">weblink 8 February 2007, Two Russian Research Modules were planned for scientific research.WEB,weblink Russian Research Modules, Boeing, 21 June 2009, They would have docked to a Russian Universal Docking Module.WEB,weblink 3 October 2009, russianspaceweb.com, Anatoly Zak, Russian segment of the ISS, The Russian Science Power Platform would have supplied power to the Russian Orbital Segment independent of the ITS solar arrays.

    Systems

    Life support

    The critical systems are the atmosphere control system, the water supply system, the food supply facilities, the sanitation and hygiene equipment, and fire detection and suppression equipment. The Russian Orbital Segment's life support systems are contained in the Zvezda service module. Some of these systems are supplemented by equipment in the USOS. The MLM Nauka laboratory has a complete set of life support systems.

    Atmospheric control systems

    (File:SpaceStationCycle.svg|thumb|The interactions between the components of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)|alt=A flowchart diagram showing the components of the ISS life support system.)The atmosphere on board the ISS is similar to the Earth's.WEB,weblink How Space Stations Work, Craig, Freudenrich, Howstuffworks, 20 November 2000, 23 November 2008, Normal air pressure on the ISS is {{Cvt|101.3|kPa}};WEB,weblink NASAexplores, 5–8: The Air Up There, NASA,weblink" title="archive.is/20041218024247weblink">weblink 18 December 2004, 31 October 2008, dead, the same as at sea level on Earth. An Earth-like atmosphere offers benefits for crew comfort, and is much safer than a pure oxygen atmosphere, because of the increased risk of a fire such as that responsible for the deaths of the Apollo 1 crew.REPORT,weblink Apollo 204 Accident: Report of the Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, United States Senate, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., Clinton P., Anderson, 90th Congress, 2nd Session, etal, 8, 30 January 1968, Report No. 956, Earth-like atmospheric conditions have been maintained on all Russian and Soviet spacecraft.{{Citation |last1=Davis |first1=Jeffrey R. |last2=Johnson |first2=Robert |last3=Stepanek |first3=Jan |lastauthoramp=yes |title=Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine |publisher=Lippincott Williams & Wilkins |place=Philadelphia PA, USA |volume=XII |pages=261–264 |year=2008}}The Elektron system aboard Zvezda and a similar system in Destiny generate oxygen aboard the station.WEB,weblink Air Apparent: New Oxygen Systems for the ISS, Tariq Malik, Space.com, 15 February 2006, 21 November 2008, The crew has a backup option in the form of bottled oxygen and Solid Fuel Oxygen Generation (SFOG) canisters, a chemical oxygen generator system.WEB,weblink Breathing Easy on the Space Station, Patrick L. Barry, NASA, 13 November 2000, 21 November 2008, dead,weblink 21 September 2008, Carbon dioxide is removed from the air by the Vozdukh system in Zvezda. Other by-products of human metabolism, such as methane from the intestines and ammonia from sweat, are removed by activated charcoal filters.Part of the ROS atmosphere control system is the oxygen supply. Triple-redundancy is provided by the Elektron unit, solid fuel generators, and stored oxygen. The primary supply of oxygen is the Elektron unit which produces {{chem2|O2}} and {{chem2|H2}} by electrolysis of water and vents {{chem|H2}} overboard. The {{Cvt|1|kW}} system uses approximately one litre of water per crew member per day. This water is either brought from Earth or recycled from other systems. Mir was the first spacecraft to use recycled water for oxygen production. The secondary oxygen supply is provided by burning {{chem2|O2}}-producing Vika cartridges (see also ISS ECLSS). Each 'candle' takes 5–20 minutes to decompose at {{Cvt|450-500|degree C}}, producing {{Convert|600|L}} of {{chem2|O2}}. This unit is manually operated.RuSpace | ISS Russian Segment Life Support System. Suzymchale.com. Retrieved 8 October 2011.The US Orbital Segment has redundant supplies of oxygen, from a pressurised storage tank on the Quest airlock module delivered in 2001, supplemented ten years later by ESA-built Advanced Closed-Loop System (ACLS) in the Tranquility module (Node 3), which produces {{chem2|O2}} by electrolysis.Breathing Easy on the Space Station – NASA Science. Science.nasa.gov (13 November 2000). Retrieved 8 October 2011. Hydrogen produced is combined with carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere and converted to water and methane.

    Power and thermal control

    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=ROSSA.jpg |caption1=Russian solar arrays, backlit by sunset
    |image2=P4 deployed.jpg |caption2=One of the eight truss mounted pairs of USOS solar arrays
    }}Double-sided solar arrays provide electrical power to the ISS. These bifacial cells collect direct sunlight on one side and light reflected off from the Earth on the other, and are more efficient and operate at a lower temperature than single-sided cells commonly used on Earth.WEB,weblink The early history of bifacial solar cell_百度文库, Wenku.baidu.com, 25 October 2010, 14 August 2012, The Russian segment of the station, like most spacecraft, uses 28 volt low voltage DC from four rotating solar arrays mounted on Zarya and Zvezda. The USOS uses 130–180 V DC from the USOS PV array, power is stabilised and distributed at 160 V DC and converted to the user-required 124 V DC. The higher distribution voltage allows smaller, lighter conductors, at the expense of crew safety. The two station segments share power with converters.The USOS solar arrays are arranged as four wing pairs, for a total production of 75 to 90 kilowatts.WEB,weblink Facts and Figures, NASA, Mark, Garcia, 28 April 2016, 24 May 2017, These arrays normally track the sun to maximise power generation. Each array is about {{convert|375|m2|sqft|0|abbr=on}} in area and {{convert|58|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} long. In the complete configuration, the solar arrays track the sun by rotating the alpha gimbal once per orbit; the beta gimbal follows slower changes in the angle of the sun to the orbital plane. The Night Glider mode aligns the solar arrays parallel to the ground at night to reduce the significant aerodynamic drag at the station's relatively low orbital altitude.JOURNAL, G. Landis and C-Y. Lu, 1991, Solar Array Orientation Options for a Space Station in Low Earth Orbit, Journal of Propulsion and Power, 7, 1, 123–125, 10.2514/3.23302, The station originally used rechargeable nickel–hydrogen batteries ({{chem2|NiH2}}) for continuous power during the 35 minutes of every 90-minute orbit that it is eclipsed by the Earth. The batteries are recharged on the day side of the orbit. They had a 6.5-year lifetime (over 37,000 charge/discharge cycles) and were regularly replaced over the anticipated 20-year life of the station.WEB,weblink Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station, 27 November 2009, NASA, Thomas B. Miller, 24 April 2000, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090825125740weblink">weblink 25 August 2009, Starting in 2016, the nickel–hydrogen batteries were replaced by lithium-ion batteries, which are expected to last until the end of the ISS program.WEB,weblink Japanese HTV makes battery delivery to International Space Station, Spaceflight Now, Stephen, Clark, 13 December 2016, 29 January 2017, The station's large solar panels generate a high potential voltage difference between the station and the ionosphere. This could cause arcing through insulating surfaces and sputtering of conductive surfaces as ions are accelerated by the spacecraft plasma sheath. To mitigate this, plasma contactor units (PCU)s create current paths between the station and the ambient plasma field.WEB,weblink Cathodes Delivered for Space Station Plasma Contactor System, Research & Technology, NASA{{, Lewis Research Center |first=Michael J. |last=Patterson |date=1998 |id=TM-1999-208815 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110705185854weblink |archivedate=5 July 2011 |url-status=dead}}(File:EATCS.png|thumb|ISS External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) diagram)The station's systems and experiments consume a large amount of electrical power, almost all of which is converted to heat. To keep the internal temperature within workable limits, a passive thermal control system (PTCS) is made of external surface materials, insulation such as MLI, and heat pipes. If the PTCS cannot keep up with the heat load, an External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) maintains the temperature. The EATCS consists of an internal, non-toxic, water coolant loop used to cool and dehumidify the atmosphere, which transfers collected heat into an external liquid ammonia loop. From the heat exchangers, ammonia is pumped into external radiators that emit heat as infrared radiation, then back to the station.WEB,weblink Staying Cool on the ISS, NASA, Steve, Price, Tony, Phillips, Gil, Knier, 21 March 2001, 22 July 2016, The EATCS provides cooling for all the US pressurised modules, including Kibō and Columbus, as well as the main power distribution electronics of the S0, S1 and P1 trusses. It can reject up to 70 kW. This is much more than the 14 kW of the Early External Active Thermal Control System (EEATCS) via the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS), which was launched on STS-105 and installed onto the P6 Truss.ATCS Team Overview. (PDF). Retrieved 8 October 2011.

    Communications and computers

    {{See also|ThinkPad#Use in space}}(File:ISS Communication Systems.png|thumb|The communications systems used by the ISS* Luch satellite and the Space Shuttle are not currently{{when|date=September 2019}} in use|alt=Diagram showing communications links between the ISS and other elements.)Radio communications provide telemetry and scientific data links between the station and Mission Control Centres. Radio links are also used during rendezvous and docking procedures and for audio and video communication between crew members, flight controllers and family members. As a result, the ISS is equipped with internal and external communication systems used for different purposes.The Russian Orbital Segment communicates directly with the ground via the Lira antenna mounted to Zvezda.WEB,weblink International Space Station Status Report: SS05-015, Mathews, Melissa, James Hartsfield, 25 March 2005, NASA News, NASA, 11 January 2010, The Lira antenna also has the capability to use the Luch data relay satellite system. This system fell into disrepair during the 1990s, and so was not used during the early years of the ISS,BOOK, David, Harland, The Story of Space Station Mir, Springer-Verlag New York Inc, 30 November 2004, New York, 978-0-387-23011-5, BOOK, Harvey, Brian, The rebirth of the Russian space program: 50 years after Sputnik, new frontiers, Springer Praxis Books, 2007, 263, 978-0-387-71354-0, although two new Luch satellites—Luch-5A and Luch-5B—were launched in 2011 and 2012 respectively to restore the operational capability of the system.WEB, RussianSpaceWeb,weblink 12 January 2010, Space exploration in 2011, 4 January 2010, Anatoly Zak, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100626095747weblink">weblink 26 June 2010, Another Russian communications system is the Voskhod-M, which enables internal telephone communications between Zvezda, Zarya, Pirs, Poisk, and the USOS and provides a VHF radio link to ground control centres via antennas on Zvezda{{'s}} exterior.WEB,weblink 2 May 2010, 7 July 2010, NASA, ISS On-Orbit Status 05/02/10, The US Orbital Segment (USOS) makes use of two separate radio links mounted in the Z1 truss structure: the S band (audio) and Ku band (audio, video and data) systems. These transmissions are routed via the United States Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) in geostationary orbit, allowing for almost continuous real-time communications with NASA's Mission Control Center (MCC-H) in Houston.WEB,weblink Boeing, 30 November 2009, Communications and Tracking,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080611115319weblink">weblink 11 June 2008, Data channels for the Canadarm2, European Columbus laboratory and Japanese Kibō modules were originally also routed via the S band and Ku band systems, with the European Data Relay System and a similar Japanese system intended to eventually complement the TDRSS in this role.WEB,weblink Memorandum of Understanding Between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America and the Government of Japan Concerning Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station, NASA, 19 April 2009, 24 February 1998, Communications between modules are carried on an internal wireless network.WEB, Operations Local Area Network (OPS LAN) Interface Control Document, NASA,weblink 30 November 2009, February 2000, {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=ISS-38 EVA-1 Laptops.jpg |caption1=An array of laptops in the US lab
    |image2=STS-128 ISS-20 Destiny Canadarm2.jpg |caption2=Laptop computers surround the Canadarm2 console
    }}UHF radio is used by astronauts and cosmonauts conducting EVAs and other spacecraft that dock to or undock from the station. Automated spacecraft are fitted with their own communications equipment; the ATV uses a laser attached to the spacecraft and the Proximity Communications Equipment attached to Zvezda to accurately dock with the station.WEB,weblink ISS/ATV communication system flight on Soyuz, 30 November 2009, EADS Astrium, 28 February 2005, WEB, NASASpaceflight.com, Chris Bergin,weblink 10 November 2009, 30 November 2009, STS-129 ready to support Dragon communication demo with ISS, The ISS is equipped with about 100 IBM/Lenovo ThinkPad and HP ZBook 15 laptop computers. The laptops have run Windows 95, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 10 and Linux operating systems.NEWS,weblink From Windows 10, Linux, iPads, iPhones to HoloLens: The tech astronauts use on the ISS, TechRepublic, Nick, Heath, 23 May 2016, 29 June 2018, Each computer is a commercial off-the-shelf purchase which is then modified for safety and operation including updates to connectors, cooling and power to accommodate the station's 28V DC power system and weightless environment. Heat generated by the laptops does not rise but stagnates around the laptop, so additional forced ventilation is required. Laptops aboard the ISS are connected to the station's wireless LAN via Wi-Fi, which connects to the ground via Ku band. This provides speeds of 10 Mbit/s download and 3 Mbit/s upload from the station, comparable to home DSL connection speeds.NEWS,weblink First Tweet From Space, The New York Times, Nick, Bilton, 22 January 2010, 29 April 2014, NEWS,weblink How Fast is the ISS's Internet? (and Other Space Questions Answered), Tested.com, Will, Smith, 19 October 2012, 29 April 2014, Laptop hard drives occasionally fail and must be replaced.WEB,weblink ESA ISS Science & System - Operations Status Report #150 Increment 36: 13-26 July 2013, European Space Agency, Martin, Zell, Rosita, Suenson, 13 August 2013, 11 July 2018, Other computer hardware failures include instances in 2001, 2007 and 2017; some of these failures have required EVAs to replace computer modules in externally mounted devices.NEWS,weblink Computer problems overcome during STS-100, Space Center Roundup, NASA, Julie, Burt, 1 June 2001, 11 July 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161223230857weblink">weblink 23 December 2016, dead, NEWS,weblink NASA: Space Station Computer Crash May Extend Shuttle Mission, Space.com, Tariq, Malik, 14 June 2007, 11 July 2018, NEWS,weblink NASA battles failure of space station computer, Reuters, Irene, Klotz, 13 June 2007, 11 July 2018, NEWS,weblink NASA Plans Emergency Spacewalk To Replace Key Computer On International Space Station, Huffpost, Irene, Klotz, 22 May 2017, 11 July 2018, The operating system used for key station functions is the Debian Linux distribution.NEWS, Thomson, Iain, Penguins in spa-a-a-ce! ISS dumps Windows for Linux on laptops,weblink 15 May 2013, The Register, 10 May 2013, The migration from Microsoft Windows was made in May 2013 for reasons of reliability, stability and flexibility.NEWS, Gunter, Joel, International Space Station to boldly go with Linux over Windows,weblink 15 May 2013, The Daily Telegraph, 10 May 2013, {{clear}}In 2017, an SG100 Cloud Computer was launched to the ISS as part of OA-7 mission.WEB, An, David, US-Taiwan Space Cooperation: Formosat, AMS, and the ISS computer,weblink globaltaiwan.org, Global Taiwan Institute, 17 June 2019, 5 June 2019, It was manufactured by NCSIST and designed in collaboration with Academia Sinica, and National Central University under contract for NASA.WEB, Jonathan Chin, Lo Tien-pin and, Taiwan-designed computer now part of an ISS mission,weblink taipeitimes.com, Taipei Times, 17 June 2019,

    Operations

    Expeditions and private flights

    See also the list of International Space Station expeditions (professional crew), space tourism (private travellers), and the list of human spaceflights to the ISS (both).
    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=Sts088-703-019e.jpg |caption1=Zarya and Unity were entered for the first time on 10 December 1998.
    |image2=Soyuz tm-31 transported to launch pad.jpg |caption2=Soyuz TM-31 being prepared to bring the first resident crew to the station in October 2000
    }}(File:STS-115 ISS after undocking.jpg|thumb|ISS was slowly assembled over a decade of spaceflights and crews)Each permanent crew is given an expedition number. Expeditions run up to six months, from launch until undocking, an 'increment' covers the same time period, but includes cargo ships and all activities. Expeditions 1 to 6 consisted of 3 person crews, Expeditions 7 to 12 were reduced to the safe minimum of two following the destruction of the NASA Shuttle Columbia. From Expedition 13 the crew gradually increased to 6 around 2010.WEB, International Space Station Expeditions, NASA,weblink 10 April 2009, 13 April 2009, WEB,weblink International Space Station, 22 October 2008, NASA, 2008, NASA, With the arrival of the US Commercial Crew vehicles in the late 2010s, expedition size may be increased to seven crew members, the number ISS is designed for.MAGAZINE,weblink ISS Research Hampered By Crew Availability, Morring, Frank, 27 July 2012, A commercial capability would allow the station's crew to grow from six to seven by providing a four-seat vehicle for emergency departures in addition to the three-seat Russian Soyuz capsules in use today., Aviation Week, 30 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130501214851weblink">weblink 1 May 2013, WEB,weblink Assembly (Nearly) Complete, Hoversten, Paul, 1 May 2011, Air & Space Magazine, In fact, we're designed on the U.S. side to take four crew. The ISS design is actually for seven. We operate with six because first, we can get all our work done with six, and second, we don't have a vehicle that allows us to fly a seventh crew member. Our requirement for the new vehicles being designed is for four seats. So I don't expect us to go down in crew size. I would expect us to increase it., 8 May 2011, Gennady Padalka, member of Expeditions 9, 19/20, 31/32, and 43/44, and Commander of Expedition 11, has spent more time in space than anyone else, a total of 878 days, 11 hours, and 29 minutes.WEB,weblink Biographies of USSR/Russian Cosmonauts: Padalka, Spacefacts, 28 January 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170906183022weblink">weblink 6 September 2017, Peggy Whitson has spent the most time in space of any American, totalling 665 days, 22 hours, and 22 minutes during her time on Expeditions 5, 16, and 50/51/52.WEB,weblink Biographies of U.S. Astronauts: Whitson, Spacefacts, 28 January 2018,weblink" title="archive.today/20180128212554weblink">weblink 28 January 2018, dead, Travellers who pay for their own passage into space are termed spaceflight participants by Roscosmos and NASA, and are sometimes referred to as space tourists, a term they generally dislike.{{refn|Privately funded travellers who have objected to the term include Dennis Tito, the first such traveller (Associated Press, 8 May 2001), Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Ubuntu (Associated Press, The Spokesman Review, 6 January 2002, p. A4), Gregory Olsen and Richard Garriott.NEWS, Schwartz, John, Russia Leads Way in Space Tourism With Paid Trips into Orbit,weblink The New York Times, 10 October 2008, WEB, Boyle, Alan, Space passenger Olsen to pull his own weight,weblink MSNBC, Canadian astronaut Bob Thirsk said the term does not seem appropriate, referring to his crewmate, Guy Laliberté, founder of Cirque du Soleil.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120912062200weblink">weblink dead, 12 September 2012, Flight to space ignited dreams | St. Catharines Standard, Stcatharinesstandard.ca, 1 May 2012, Anousheh Ansari denied being a touristWEB,weblink ESA – Human Spaceflight and Exploration – Business – "I am NOT a tourist", Esa.int, 18 September 2006, 1 May 2012, and took offence at the term.WEB,weblink Interview with Anousheh Ansari, the First Female Space Tourist, Space.com, 15 September 2006, 1 May 2012, |group=note|name}} All seven were transported to the ISS on Russian Soyuz spacecraft. When professional crews change over in numbers not divisible by the three seats in a Soyuz, and a short-stay crewmember is not sent, the spare seat is sold by MirCorp through Space Adventures. When the space shuttle retired in 2011, and the station's crew size was reduced to 6, space tourism was halted, as the partners relied on Russian transport seats for access to the station. Soyuz flight schedules increase after 2013, allowing 5 Soyuz flights (15 seats) with only two expeditions (12 seats) required.WEB,weblink Breaking News | Resumption of Soyuz tourist flights announced, Spaceflight Now, 1 May 2012, The remaining seats are sold for around {{US$|40 million}} to members of the public who can pass a medical exam. ESA and NASA criticised private spaceflight at the beginning of the ISS, and NASA initially resisted training Dennis Tito, the first person to pay for his own passage to the ISS.{{refn|ESA director Jörg Feustel-Büechl said in 2001 that Russia had no right to send 'amateurs' to the ISS. A 'stand-off' occurred at the Johnson Space Center between Commander Talgat Musabayev and NASA manager Robert Cabana. Cabana refused to train Dennis Tito, a member of Musabayev's crew along with Yuri Baturin. The commander argued that Tito had trained 700 hours in the last year and was as qualified as any NASA astronaut, and refused to allow his crew to be trained on the USOS without Tito. Cabana stated training could not begin, and the commander returned with his crew to their hotel.|group=note|name}} Anousheh Ansari became the first Iranian in space and the first self-funded woman to fly to the station. Officials reported that her education and experience make her much more than a tourist, and her performance in training had been "excellent."WEB, Maher, Heather,weblink U.S.: Iranian-American To Be First Female Civilian in Space, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 15 September 2006, 1 May 2012, Ansari herself dismisses the idea that she is a tourist. She did Russian and European studies involving medicine and microbiology during her 10-day stay. The documentary Space Tourists follows her journey to the station, where she fulfilled "an age-old dream of man: to leave our planet as a "normal person" and travel into outer space."WEB,weblink Space Tourists | A Film By Christian Frei, Space-tourists-film.com, 1 May 2012, In 2008, spaceflight participant Richard Garriott placed a geocache aboard the ISS during his flight.WEB,weblink International Space Station Traditional Geocache, This is currently the only non-terrestrial geocache in existence.WEB,weblink From outer space to the ocean floor, Geocaching.com now boasts more than 1.5 million hidden treasures, Geekwire.com, Cook, John, 29 August 2011, 27 February 2013, At the same time, the Immortality Drive, an electronic record of eight digitised human DNA sequences, was placed aboard the ISS.NEWS,weblink American game designer follows father into orbit, ABC News, 12 October 2008, 16 May 2016,

    Orbit

    {{multiple image |align=left |total_width=400
    |image1=Altitude of International Space Station.svg|caption1=Graph showing the changing altitude of the ISS from November 1998 until November 2018
    |image2=Animation of International Space Station trajectory.gif |caption2=Animation of ISS orbit from 14 September 2018 to 14 November 2018. Earth is not shown.
    }}The ISS is maintained in a nearly circular orbit with a minimum mean altitude of {{convert|330|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} and a maximum of {{convert|410|km|mi|0|abbr=on}}, in the centre of the thermosphere, at an inclination of 51.6 degrees to Earth's equator. This orbit was selected because it is the lowest inclination that can be directly reached by Russian Soyuz and Progress spacecraft launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 46° N latitude without overflying China or dropping spent rocket stages in inhabited areas.WEB, Cooney, Jim, Mission Control Answers Your Questions,weblink Houston, TX, Jim Cooney ISS Trajectory Operations Officer, BOOK, Pelt, Michel van, Into the Solar System on a String : Space Tethers and Space Elevators, 2009, Springer New York, New York, NY, 978-0-387-76555-6, 133, 1st, It travels at an average speed of {{convert|27724|km/h|mph}}, and completes {{Orbit|daily orbits|15.54}} orbits per day (93 minutes per orbit).{{Orbit|ref|}}WEB,weblink Current ISS Tracking data, 28 January 2009, NASA, 15 December 2008, The station's altitude was allowed to fall around the time of each NASA shuttle flight to permit heavier loads to be transferred to the station. After the retirement of the shuttle, the nominal orbit of the space station was raised in altitude.WEB,weblink Europe's ATV-2 departs ISS to make way for Russia's Progress M-11M, NASASpaceFlight.com, 20 June 2011, 1 May 2012, MAGAZINE,weblink The Uncertain Future of the International Space Station: Analysis, Rand Simberg, 29 July 2008, 6 March 2009, Popular Mechanics, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090331140838weblink">weblink 31 March 2009, Other, more frequent supply ships do not require this adjustment as they are substantially higher performance vehicles.WEB,weblink International Space Station, World Book Online Reference Center, James, Oberg, 2005, 3 April 2016, WEB,weblink ISS Environment, Johnson Space Center, 15 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080213164432weblink">weblink 13 February 2008, Orbital boosting can be performed by the station's two main engines on the Zvezda service module, or Russian or European spacecraft docked to Zvezda{{'s}} aft port. The ATV is constructed with the possibility of adding a second docking port to its aft end, allowing other craft to dock and boost the station. It takes approximately two orbits (three hours) for the boost to a higher altitude to be completed. Maintaining ISS altitude uses about 7.5 tonnes of chemical fuel per annumWEB,weblink Rocket company tests world's most powerful ion engine, Newscientist.com, 10 August 2017, at an annual cost of about $210 million.WEB,weblink Executive summary, 24 January 2010, Ad Astra Rocket Company, 27 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100331171616weblink">weblink 31 March 2010, (File:ISS orbits 04132013.jpg|thumb|Orbits of the ISS, shown in April 2013)The Russian Orbital Segment contains the Data Management System, which handles Guidance, Navigation and Control (ROS GNC) for the entire station.WEB,weblink DMS-R: ESA's Data Management System for the Russian Segment of the ISS, Initially, Zarya, the first module of the station, controlled the station until a short time after the Russian service module Zvezda docked and was transferred control. Zvezda contains the ESA built DMS-R Data Management System.WEB,weblink Exercising Control 49 months of DMS-R Operations, Using two fault-tolerant computers (FTC), Zvezda computes the station's position and orbital trajectory using redundant Earth horizon sensors, Solar horizon sensors as well as Sun and star trackers. The FTCs each contain three identical processing units working in parallel and provide advanced fault-masking by majority voting.

    Orientation

    Zvezda uses gyroscopes (reaction wheels) and thrusters to turn itself around. Gyroscopes do not require propellant, rather they use electricity to 'store' momentum in flywheels by turning in the opposite direction to the station's movement. The USOS has its own computer controlled gyroscopes to handle the extra mass of that section. When gyroscopes 'saturate', thrusters are used to cancel out the stored momentum. During Expedition 10, an incorrect command was sent to the station's computer, using about 14 kilograms of propellant before the fault was noticed and fixed. When attitude control computers in the ROS and USOS fail to communicate properly, it can result in a rare 'force fight' where the ROS GNC computer must ignore the USOS counterpart, which has no thrusters.WEB,weblink Microsoft Word – hb_qs_vehicle_RussianUSGNCForceFight_pg1.doc, 1 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120720193844weblink">weblink 20 July 2012, dead, WEB,weblink International Space Station Status Report #05-7, 11 February 2005, NASA, 23 November 2008, BOOK, Dynamics and Control of Attitude, Power, and Momentum for a Spacecraft Using Flywheels and Control Moment Gyroscopes, Carlos Roithmayr, 2003, NASA, Langley Research Center,weblink 12 July 2011, Docked spacecraft can also be used to maintain station attitude, such as for troubleshooting or during the installation of the S3/S4 truss, which provides electrical power and data interfaces for the station's electronics.WEB,weblink Atlantis ready to support ISS troubleshooting, NASASPaceflight.com, Chris Bergin, 6 March 2009, 14 June 2007,

    Mission controls

    The components of the ISS are operated and monitored by their respective space agencies at mission control centres across the globe, including: {{wide image|ISS Centers.svg|1016px|Space centres involved with the ISS programme|alt=A world map highlighting the locations of space centres. See adjacent text for details.}}

    Repairs

    File:ISS Unpressurized Platforms.png|thumb|Spare parts are called ORUs; some are externally stored on pallets called ELCs and ESPs.]]File:STS-120 EVA Scott Parazynski.jpg|thumb|While anchored on the end of the OBSS during STS-120, astronaut alt=Two black and orange solar arrays, shown uneven and with a large tear visible. A crew member in a spacesuit, attached to the end of a robotic arm, holds a latticework between two solar sails.(File:Astronaut Mike Hopkins on Dec. 24 Spacewalk.jpg|thumb|Mike Hopkins during a spacewalk)Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) are spare parts that can be readily replaced when a unit either passes its design life or fails. Examples of ORUs are pumps, storage tanks, controller boxes, antennas, and battery units. Some units can be replaced using robotic arms. Most are stored outside the station, either on small pallets called ExPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELCs) or share larger platforms called External Stowage Platforms which also hold science experiments. Both kinds of pallets provide electricity for many parts that could be damaged by the cold of space and require heating. The larger logistics carriers also have local area network (LAN) connections for telemetry to connect experiments. A heavy emphasis on stocking the USOS with ORU's occurred around 2011, before the end of the NASA shuttle programme, as its commercial replacements, Cygnus and Dragon, carry one tenth to one quarter the payload.Unexpected problems and failures have impacted the station's assembly time-line and work schedules leading to periods of reduced capabilities and, in some cases, could have forced abandonment of the station for safety reasons. Serious problems include an air leak from the USOS in 2004,NEWS,weblink Crew finds 'culprit' in space station leak, MSNBC, 11 January 2004, James, Oberg, 22 August 2010, the venting of fumes from an Elektron oxygen generator in 2006,NEWS,weblink Oxygen Generator Problem Triggers Station Alarm, CBS News via Spaceflight Now, 18 September 2006, William, Harwood, 24 November 2008, and the failure of the computers in the ROS in 2007 during STS-117 that left the station without thruster, Elektron, Vozdukh and other environmental control system operations. In the latter case, the root cause was found to be condensation inside electrical connectors leading to a short-circuit.WEB,weblink University of Toledo alumnus had role in rescue of space station, Toledo Blade, en, 2019-07-31, During STS-120 in 2007 and following the relocation of the P6 truss and solar arrays, it was noted during the solar array had torn and was not deploying properly.NEWS,weblink Astronauts notice tear in solar panel, 30 October 2007, Associated Press, 30 October 2007, Liz Austin, Peterson, An EVA was carried out by Scott Parazynski, assisted by Douglas Wheelock. Extra precautions were taken to reduce the risk of electric shock, as the repairs were carried out with the solar array exposed to sunlight.NEWS,weblink Space Station's Damaged Panel Is Fixed, 4 November 2007, The Washington Post, 4 November 2007, Rob, Stein, The issues with the array were followed in the same year by problems with the starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ), which rotates the arrays on the starboard side of the station. Excessive vibration and high-current spikes in the array drive motor were noted, resulting in a decision to substantially curtail motion of the starboard SARJ until the cause was understood. Inspections during EVAs on STS-120 and STS-123 showed extensive contamination from metallic shavings and debris in the large drive gear and confirmed damage to the large metallic bearing surfaces, so the joint was locked to prevent further damage.NEWS,weblink Station chief gives detailed update on joint problem, 5 November 2008, William, Harwood, CBS News & SpaceflightNow.com, 25 March 2008, CONFERENCE,weblink The International Space Station Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly Investigation, 40th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium. 12–14 May 2010. Cocoa Beach, Florida., Elliot P., Harik, Justin, McFatter, Daniel J., Sweeney, Carlos F., Enriquez, Deneen M., Taylor, David S., McCann, 1, 2010, JSC-CN-19606, Repairs to the joints were carried out during STS-126 with lubrication and the replacement of 11 out of 12 trundle bearings on the joint.WEB,weblink Crew Expansion Prep, SARJ Repair Focus of STS-126, 5 November 2008, NASA, 30 October 2008, NEWS,weblink Astronauts prepare for first spacewalk of shuttle flight, 18 November 2008, William, Harwood, CBS News & SpaceflightNow.com, 22 November 2008, In September 2008, damage to the S1 radiator was first noticed in Soyuz imagery. The problem was initially not thought to be serious.WEB,weblink Chris, Bergin, 1 April 2009, NASASpaceflight.com, ISS concern over S1 Radiator â€“ may require replacement via shuttle mission, 3 April 2009, The imagery showed that the surface of one sub-panel has peeled back from the underlying central structure, possibly because of micro-meteoroid or debris impact. On 15 May 2009 the damaged radiator panel's ammonia tubing was mechanically shut off from the rest of the cooling system by the computer-controlled closure of a valve. The same valve was then used to vent the ammonia from the damaged panel, eliminating the possibility of an ammonia leak. It is also known that a Service Module thruster cover struck the S1 radiator after being jettisoned during an EVA in 2008, but its effect, if any, has not been determined.Early on 1 August 2010, a failure in cooling Loop A (starboard side), one of two external cooling loops, left the station with only half of its normal cooling capacity and zero redundancy in some systems.WEB,weblink Problem forces partial powerdown aboard station, Spaceflightnow.com, 31 July 2010, 16 November 2010, WEB,weblink NASA ISS On-Orbit Status 1 August 2010 (early edition), Spaceref.com, 31 July 2010, 16 November 2010, WEB,weblink ISS Active Control System, Boeing, 21 November 2006, 16 November 2010, The problem appeared to be in the ammonia pump module that circulates the ammonia cooling fluid. Several subsystems, including two of the four CMGs, were shut down.Planned operations on the ISS were interrupted through a series of EVAs to address the cooling system issue. A first EVA on 7 August 2010, to replace the failed pump module, was not fully completed because of an ammonia leak in one of four quick-disconnects. A second EVA on 11 August successfully removed the failed pump module.NEWS,weblink Wednesday spacewalk to remove failed coolant pump, Spaceflight Now, William, Harwood, 10 August 2010, NEWS,weblink Large success for second EVA as failed Pump Module is removed, NASA Spaceflight, Chris, Gebhardt, 11 August 2010, A third EVA was required to restore Loop A to normal functionality.NEWS,weblink Station's bad pump removed; more spacewalking ahead, Spaceflight Now, William, Harwood, 11 August 2010, NEWS,weblink ISS cooling configuration returning to normal confirming ETCS PM success, Spaceflight Now, Chris, Bergin, 18 August 2010, The USOS's cooling system is largely built by the US company Boeing,WEB,weblink Cooling System Malfunction Highlights Space Station's Complexity, Space.com, Denise, Chow, 2 August 2010, which is also the manufacturer of the failed pump.NEWS,weblink Spacewalks needed to fix station cooling problem, Spaceflight Now, William, Harwood, 31 July 2010, The four Main Bus Switching Units (MBSUs, located in the S0 truss), control the routing of power from the four solar array wings to the rest of the ISS. Each MBSU has two power channels that feed 160V DC from the arrays to two DC-to-DC power converters (DDCUs) that supply the 124V power used in the station. In late 2011 MBSU-1 ceased responding to commands or sending data confirming its health. While still routing power correctly, it was scheduled to be swapped out at the next available EVA. A spare MBSU was already on board, but a 30 August 2012 EVA failed to be completed when a bolt being tightened to finish installation of the spare unit jammed before the electrical connection was secured.NEWS, Pete, Harding,weblink Astronaut duo complete challenging first post-Shuttle US spacewalk on ISS, NASASpaceFlight.com, 30 August 2012, 22 October 2013, The loss of MBSU-1 limited the station to 75% of its normal power capacity, requiring minor limitations in normal operations until the problem could be addressed.On 5 September 2012, in a second 6 hr EVA, astronauts Sunita Williams and Akihiko Hoshide successfully replaced MBSU-1 and restored the ISS to 100% power.NEWS,weblink Critical Space Station spacewalk a Success, SpaceRef, Marc, Boucher, 5 September 2012, On 24 December 2013, astronauts installed a new ammonia pump for the station's cooling system. The faulty cooling system had failed earlier in the month, halting many of the station's science experiments. Astronauts had to brave a "mini blizzard" of ammonia while installing the new pump. It was only the second Christmas Eve spacewalk in NASA history.NEWS,weblink Astronauts Complete Rare Christmas Eve Spacewalk, Leaker, Associated Press, 24 December 2013, 24 December 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131226025635weblink">weblink 26 December 2013,

    Fleet operations

    {{current spaceflight|section|date=September 2019}}{{See also|List of human spaceflights to the International Space Station|Uncrewed spaceflights to the International Space Station}}A wide variety of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft have supported the station's activities. Thirty-seven Space Shuttle ISS flights were conducted before retirement. More than 70 Progress resupply spacecraft (including the modified M-MIM2 and M-SO1 module transports), more than 50 crewed Soyuz spacecraft, 5 European ATV, 7 Japanese HTV 'Kounotori', 15 SpaceX Dragon, and 10 Orbital ATK Cygnus have flown to the ISS.

    Currently docked/berthed

    See also the list of professional crew, private travellers, both or just uncrewed spaceflights.(File:Dragon and Cygnus docked on ISS.jpg|thumb|Dragon and Cygnus cargo vessels were docked at the ISS together for the first time in April 2016.)File:ISS-36 HTV-4 berthing 2.jpg|thumb|Japan's Kounotori 4Kounotori 4
    Key
    {{legend|lightblue|Uncrewed cargoships are in light blue}}{{legend|#cfc|Crewed spacecraft are in light green}}{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; text-align:left; font-size:95%;"
    RUS}}| Soyuz MS-12Expedition 59/Expedition 60>60Rassvet (ISS module)>Rassvet nadir| 14 March 2019WEBSITE=ORBITAL VELOCITY, 1 August 2019,
    RUS}}| Soyuz MS-13Expedition 60/Expedition 61>61Poisk (ISS module)>Poisk zenithSTATION CREW RELOCATES SOYUZ SPACECRAFT FOR NEW ARRIVAL MONDAY >URL=HTTPS://SPACEFLIGHTNOW.COM/2019/08/22/SOYUZ-MS-14-MISSION-STATUS-CENTER/ ACCESSDATE=26 AUGUST 2019, WEBSITE=SPACEFLIGHT NOW, 21 July 2019, WEBSITE=RUSSIANSPACEWEB.COM, 21 July 2019,
    RUS}}| Progress MS-12| Progress 73 cargoPirs (ISS module)>Pirs nadirWEBSITE=SPACEFLIGHT NOW, 1 August 2019, | December 2019 TBC

    Soyuz MS-10 failure

    Soyuz MS-10 (56S) aborted shortly after launch on 11 October 2018, resulting in the safe landing of two crew members slated to join Expedition 57 and a disruption of the schedule.NEWS, Berger, Eric, A Soyuz crew makes an emergency landing after rocket fails,weblink 11 October 2018, Ars Technica, 11 October 2018, en-us, The on-orbit Expedition 57 crew optimally needed to depart by mid-December due to the limited on-orbit lifespan of Soyuz MS-09, with a small margin allowing a no later than early January departure. De-crewing the ISS is to be avoided if possible, although commanding the station from the ground is feasible if necessary.NEWS,weblink NASA to look at options to keep crew on ISS while Soyuz grounded, Foust, Jeff, 11 October 2018, SpaceNews, Soyuz flights to the ISS were resumed in December 2018. The Soyuz MS-11 spacecraft, carrying commander Oleg Kononenko and flight engineers Anne McClain and David Saint-Jacques, successfully launched and docked to the ISS on 3 December.Soyuz MS-11 The Expedition 57 crew was able to depart on 20 December, with Expedition 58 beginning as a three-person increment.NEWS,weblink Soyuz MS-09 lands after unprecedented on-orbit repairs, inspections, NASASpaceFlight.com, Chris, Gebhardt, 19 December 2018, 11 January 2019,

    Scheduled missions

    • All dates are UTC. Dates are the earliest possible dates and may change.
    • Forward ports are at the front of the station according to its normal direction of travel and orientation (attitude). Aft is at the rear of the station, used by spacecraft boosting the station's orbit. Nadir is closest the Earth, Zenith is on top.


    Key
    {{legend|lightblue|Uncrewed cargo ships are in light blue colour}}{{legend|#cfc|Crewed spacecraft are in light green colour}}{{legend|wheat|Modules are in wheat colour}}{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; text-align:left; font-size:95%;"! Launch date ({{abbr|NET|Not Earlier Than}})! Launch vehicle! Launch site! Launch service provider! Payload! Spacecraft! Mission! Docking / berthing portPUBLISHER=MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES ACCESSDATE=21 SEPTEMBER 2019, | H-IIBJPN}} Tanegashima (spaceport) Yoshinobu Launch Complex>Y2JPN}} JAXA Kounotori 8HTV (spacecraft)>HTV| HTV 8 cargoHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony nadir| 25 September 2019| Soyuz-FGKAZ}} Baikonur Cosmodrome Gagarin's Start>Pad 1/5RUS}} Roscosmos Soyuz MS-15 (61S)Soyuz (spacecraft)>SoyuzExpedition 61/Expedition 62>62Poisk (ISS module)>Poisk zenithFIRST=STEVEN DATE=21 SEPTEMBER 2019, 21 September 2019, | Antares 230USA}} MARS Pad 0AUSA}} Northrop NG-12Cygnus (spacecraft)>Cygnus| Cygnus 12 cargoUnity (ISS module)>Unity nadirTRANS-TITLE=SOURCE: STARLINER LAUNCH DELAYED FOR ANOTHER THREE WEEKS RIA NOVOSTI >DATE=12 SEPTEMBER 2019 LANGUAGE=RU, | Atlas V N22USA}} Canaveral SLC-41USA}} Boeing Boe-OFTStarliner (spacecraft)>Starliner| Uncrewed test flightHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony| 4 December 2019| Falcon 9USA}} LC-39A or SLC-40USA}} SpaceX CRS-19SpaceX Dragon>Dragon| Dragon 19 cargoHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony nadir| 6 December 2019| Soyuz 2.1aKAZ}} Baikonur (spaceport) Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31>Site 31/6RUS}} Roscosmos Progress MS-13Progress (spacecraft)>ProgressLANGUAGE=RU PUBLISHER=RIA NOVOSTI ACCESS-DATE=2 OCTOBER 2018, Pirs (ISS module)>Pirs nadirWORK=SPACEDAILY ACCESSDATE=22 AUGUST 2019, | Falcon 9USA}} Kennedy LC-39AUSA}} SpaceX SpX-DM2| Dragon 2| Crewed test flightHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony| 30 December 2019| Atlas V N22USA}} Canaveral SLC-41USA}} Boeing Boe-CFTStarliner (spacecraft)>StarlinerExpedition 62/Expedition 63>63Harmony (ISS module)>HarmonyFIRST=HARTMUT DATE=31 JULY 2019, 21 September 2019, | Falcon 9 {{flagicon|USA}} LC-39A or SLC-40USA}} SpaceX CRS-20SpaceX Dragon>Dragon| Dragon 20 cargoHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony nadir| 20 March 2020| Soyuz-2.1aKAZ}} Baikonur Cosmodrome Gagarin's Start>Pad 1/5RUS}} Roscosmos Soyuz MS-16 (62S)Soyuz (spacecraft)>SoyuzExpedition 63/Expedition 64>64Rassvet (ISS module)>Rassvet nadir| 16 April 2020| Soyuz 2.1aKAZ}} Baikonur (spaceport) Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31>Site 31/6RUS}} Roscosmos Progress MS-14Progress (spacecraft)>Progress| Progress 75 cargoZvezda (ISS module)>Zvezda aft| April 2020 Antares 230USA}} MARS Pad 0AUSA}} Northrop NG-13Cygnus (spacecraft)>Cygnus| Cygnus 13 cargoUnity (ISS module)>Unity nadir| May 2020| Falcon 9USA}} Kennedy LC-39AUSA}} SpaceX USCV-1| Dragon 2 Expedition 64/65Harmony (ISS module)>HarmonyFIRST=STEVEN ACCESS-DATE=21 SEPTEMBER 2019, | H-IIBJPN}} Tanegashima (spaceport) Yoshinobu Launch Complex>Y2JPN}} JAXA Kounotori 9HTV (spacecraft)>HTV| HTV 9 cargo Harmony nadir| 15 July 2020| Soyuz 2.1aKAZ}} Baikonur (spaceport) Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31>Site 31/6RUS}} Roscosmos Progress MS-15Progress (spacecraft)>Progress| Progress 76 cargoPirs (ISS module)>Pirs nadir| August 2020| Falcon 9 {{flagicon|USA}} LC-39A or SLC-40USA}} SpaceX CRS-21| Dragon 2| Dragon 21 cargoHarmony (ISS module)>Harmony nadirFIRST=STEVEN DATE=19 SEPTEMBER 2019, 21 September 2019, | Soyuz 2.1a {{flagiconBaikonur (spaceport)>Baikonur Site 31/6RUS}} Roscosmos Progress MS-16Progress (spacecraft)>Progress Progress 77 cargoZvezda (ISS module)>Zvezda aft 21 October 2020 Soyuz-2.1a {{flagiconBaikonur Cosmodrome>Baikonur Pad 1/5 {{flagicon|RUS}} Roscosmos Soyuz MS-17 (63S) Soyuz Expedition 65/66 Poisk zenith| December 2020| Proton-MKAZ}} BaikonurRUS}} Roscosmos Nauka (ISS module)NaukaHTTP://WWW.RUSSIANSPACEWEB.COM/ISS-FGB2-MLM-2017.HTML WORK=RUSSIAN SPACE WEB LAST=ZAK ACCESS-DATE=28 MARCH 2017, | {{n/a}}| Module assemblyZvezda (ISS module)>Zvezda nadir| December 2020| Soyuz 2.1a {{flagiconBaikonur (spaceport)>Baikonur Site 31/6RUS}} Roscosmos Progress MS-17Progress (spacecraft)>Progress Progress 78 cargoPirs (ISS module)>Pirs nadir| 2021 (TBD)PRESS RELEASE
    ,weblink
    , SNC Selects ULA for Dream Chaser® Spacecraft Launches
    , Sierra Nevada Corporation
    , August 14, 2019
    , August 14, 2019
    , Vulcan (rocket)>Vulcan 542 {{flagiconCCAFS>Canaveral SLC-41USA}} ULA SNC-1| Dream Chaser| Cargo test flight| ?| 2022 (TBD)| Soyuz 2.1bKAZ}} BaikonurRUS}} Roscosmos Prichal| Progress M-UM| Module assemblyNauka (ISS module)>Nauka nadirURL=HTTPS://WWW.RBC.RU/INTERVIEW/POLITICS/10/01/2019/5C35BEF19A794700CD1694FD WEBSITE=RBC.RU LANGUAGE=RU, | Proton-MKAZ}} BaikonurRUS}} Roscosmos NEM-1 (SPM-1)| {{n/a}}| Module assemblyPrichal (ISS module)>Prichal

    Docking

    {{See also|Docking and berthing of spacecraft}}File:Progress M-14M.jpg|thumb|The Progress M-14M resupply vehicle as it approaches the ISS in 2012. Over 50 unpiloted Progress spacecraft have been sent with supplies during the lifetime of the station.]]File:Endeavour docked to ISS.jpg|thumb|upright|{{OV|105}}, ATV-2, Soyuz TMA-21 and Progress M-10M docked to the ISS, as seen from the departing Soyuz TMA-20Soyuz TMA-20All Russian spacecraft and self-propelled modules are able to rendezvous and dock to the space station without human intervention using the Kurs radar docking system from over 200 kilometres away. The European ATV uses star sensors and GPS to determine its intercept course. When it catches up it uses laser equipment to optically recognize Zvezda, along with the Kurs system for redundancy. Crew supervise these craft, but do not intervene except to send abort commands in emergencies. Progress and ATV supply craft can remain at the ISS for six months,WEB,weblink ESA â€” ATV â€” Crew role in mission control, Esa.int, 2 March 2011, 23 May 2011, WEB,weblink ESA â€” Human Spaceflight and Exploration â€” International Space Station â€” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), Esa.int, 16 January 2009, 23 May 2011, allowing great flexibility in crew time for loading and unloading of supplies and trash.From the initial station programs, the Russians pursued an automated docking methodology that used the crew in override or monitoring roles. Although the initial development costs were high, the system has become very reliable with standardisations that provide significant cost benefits in repetitive operations.JOURNAL, Navigating the Road to Autonomous Orbital Rendezvous, Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, David C., Woffinden, David K., Geller, 44, 4, 898–909, July 2007, 10.2514/1.30734, 2007JSpRo..44..898W, An automated approach could also allow assembly of modules orbiting other worlds prior to crew arrival.Soyuz spacecraft used for crew rotation also serve as lifeboats for emergency evacuation; they are replaced every six months and were used after the Columbia disaster to return stranded crew from the ISS.WEB,weblink ISS EO-6, Astronautix.com, 1 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120618005710weblink">weblink 18 June 2012, Expeditions require, on average, {{nowrap|2,722 kg}} of supplies, and {{As of|2011|03|09|lc=yes}}, crews had consumed a total of around {{nowrap|22,000 meals}}. Soyuz crew rotation flights and Progress resupply flights visit the station on average two and three times respectively each year,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080803015945weblink">weblink 3 August 2008, Live listing of spacecraft operations, NASA, 1 December 2009, 8 December 2009, with the ATV and HTV planned to visit annually from 2010 onwards.{{Citation needed|date=January 2012}}Other vehicles berth instead of docking. The Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle parks itself in progressively closer orbits to the station, and then awaits 'approach' commands from the crew, until it is close enough for a robotic arm to grapple and berth the vehicle to the USOS. Berthed craft can transfer International Standard Payload Racks. Japanese spacecraft berth for one to two months.WEB,weblink Space Shuttle upgrade lets astronauts at ISS stay in space longer, Memi, Ed, Boeing, 17 September 2011, The berthing Cygnus and Dragon are contracted to fly cargo to the station under the Commercial Resupply Services program.WEB, Space Operations Mission Directorate, Human Space Flight Transition Plan, NASA, 30 August 2006,weblink PRESS RELEASE, NASA, 18 January 2006, NASA Seeks Proposals for Crew and Cargo Transportation to Orbit,weblink 21 November 2006, From 26 February 2011 to 7 March 2011 four of the governmental partners (United States, ESA, Japan and Russia) had their spacecraft (NASA Shuttle, ATV, HTV, Progress and Soyuz) docked at the ISS, the only time this has happened to date.NEWS, NASA proposes Soyuz photo op; shuttle launch readiness reviewed (UPDATED),weblink CBS, 11 February 2011, On 25 May 2012, SpaceX delivered the first commercial cargo with a Dragon spacecraft.NEWS, Chang, Kenneth, Space X Capsule Docks at Space Station,weblink 25 May 2012, The New York Times, 25 May 2012,

    Launch and docking windows

    Prior to a ship's docking to the ISS, navigation and attitude control (GNC) is handed over to the ground control of the ships' country of origin. GNC is set to allow the station to drift in space, rather than fire its thrusters or turn using gyroscopes. The solar panels of the station are turned edge-on to the incoming ships, so residue from its thrusters does not damage the cells. Before its retirement, Shuttle launches were often given priority over Soyuz, with occasional priority given to Soyuz arrivals carrying crew and time-critical cargoes, such as biological experiment materials.WEB,weblink NASA's Space Shuttle Landing Delayed by Weather, NASA, Katherine, Trinidad, Candrea, Thomas, 22 May 2009, 26 June 2015, The Soyuz is capable of landing anywhere, anytime, but planned landing times and places are chosen to give consideration to helicopter pilots and ground recovery crew to allow the crew to be recovered once landed. Soyuz launches occur in adverse weather conditions, but the cosmodrome has been shut down on occasions when buried by snow drifts up to 6 metres in depth, hampering ground operations.{{Citation needed|→date=August 2019|date=August 2019}}

    Life aboard

    Crew activities

    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=Exp18home nasa big.jpg |caption1=Gregory Chamitoff peers out of a window
    |image2=|caption2=Chris Hadfield inside his sleeping compartment in Node 2
    }}File:S122e007776 orig.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|STS-122STS-122A typical day for the crew begins with a wake-up at 06:00, followed by post-sleep activities and a morning inspection of the station. The crew then eats breakfast and takes part in a daily planning conference with Mission Control before starting work at around 08:10. The first scheduled exercise of the day follows, after which the crew continues work until 13:05. Following a one-hour lunch break, the afternoon consists of more exercise and work before the crew carries out its pre-sleep activities beginning at 19:30, including dinner and a crew conference. The scheduled sleep period begins at 21:30. In general, the crew works ten hours per day on a weekday, and five hours on Saturdays, with the rest of the time their own for relaxation or work catch-up.WEB,weblink ISS Crew Timeline, 5 November 2008, 5 November 2008, NASA, The time zone used aboard the ISS is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The windows are covered at night hours to give the impression of darkness because the station experiences 16 sunrises and sunsets per day. During visiting Space Shuttle missions, the ISS crew mostly follows the shuttle's Mission Elapsed Time (MET), which is a flexible time zone based on the launch time of the Space Shuttle mission.WEB, NASA – Time in Space, A Space in Time,weblink www.nasa.gov, 5 May 2015, WEB, A Slice of Time Pie,weblink 17 March 2013, 5 May 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130317075600weblink">weblink 17 March 2013, WEB, Human Space Flight (HSF) – Crew Answers,weblink spaceflight.nasa.gov, 5 May 2015, The station provides crew quarters for each member of the expedition's crew, with two 'sleep stations' in the Zvezda and four more installed in Harmony.WEB,weblink At Home with Commander Scott Kelly (Video), 6 December 2010, NASA, 8 May 2011, International Space Station, WEB,weblink International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development, James Lee, Broyan, Melissa Ann, Borrego, Juergen F., Bahr, 2008, SAE International, 8 May 2011, The USOS quarters are private, approximately person-sized soundproof booths. The ROS crew quarters include a small window, but provide less ventilation and sound proofing. A crew member can sleep in a crew quarter in a tethered sleeping bag, listen to music, use a laptop, and store personal items in a large drawer or in nets attached to the module's walls. The module also provides a reading lamp, a shelf and a desktop.WEB,weblink ESA, 28 October 2009, 19 July 2004, Daily life, WEB,weblink Station Prepares for Expanding Crew, NASA, Cheryl L., Mansfield, 7 November 2008, 17 September 2009, WEB,weblink Living and Working on the International Space Station, 28 October 2009, CSA, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090419045323weblink">weblink 19 April 2009, Visiting crews have no allocated sleep module, and attach a sleeping bag to an available space on a wall. It is possible to sleep floating freely through the station, but this is generally avoided because of the possibility of bumping into sensitive equipment.WEB,weblink Sleeping in Space is Easy, But There's No Shower, Tariq, Malik, 29 October 2009, 27 July 2009, Space.com, It is important that crew accommodations be well ventilated; otherwise, astronauts can wake up oxygen-deprived and gasping for air, because a bubble of their own exhaled carbon dioxide has formed around their heads. During various station activities and crew rest times, the lights in the ISS can be dimmed, switched off, and color temperatures adjusted.AV MEDIA,weblink Bedtime in space, 2019-09-21, youtube.com, {{time needed, September 2019, }}

    Food

    File:Meal STS127.jpg|thumb|alt=Nine astronauts seated around a table covered in open cans of food strapped down to the table. In the background a selection of equipment is visible, as well as the salmon-coloured walls of the Unity node.|The crews of STS-127 and Expedition 20Expedition 20{{See also|Space food}}(File:ScienceCasts- Historic Vegetable Moment on the Space Station.webm|thumb|Fresh fruits and vegetables are also grown in the International Space Station)On the USOS, most of the food aboard is vacuum sealed in plastic bags; cans are rare because they are heavy and expensive to transport. Preserved food is not highly regarded by the crew and taste is reduced in microgravity, so efforts are taken to make the food more palatable, including using more spices than in regular cooking. The crew looks forward to the arrival of any ships from Earth as they bring fresh fruit and vegetables. Care is taken that foods do not create crumbs, and liquid condiments are preferred over solid to avoid contaminating station equipment. Each crew member has individual food packages and cooks them using the on-board galley. The galley features two food warmers, a refrigerator which was added in November 2008, and a water dispenser that provides both heated and unheated water. Drinks are provided as dehydrated powder that is mixed with water before consumption. Drinks and soups are sipped from plastic bags with straws, while solid food is eaten with a knife and fork attached to a tray with magnets to prevent them from floating away. Any food that floats away, including crumbs, must be collected to prevent it from clogging the station's air filters and other equipment.

    Hygiene

    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=Zvezda toilet.jpg |caption1=Space toilet in the Zvezda service module
    |image2=Node_3_toilet.jpg |caption2=The main toilet in the US Segment inside the Node 3 module
    }}Showers on space stations were introduced in the early 1970s on Skylab and Salyut 3.Benson, Charles Dunlap and William David Compton. Living and Working in Space: A History of Skylab. NASA publication SP-4208.{{rp|139}} By Salyut 6, in the early 1980s, the crew complained of the complexity of showering in space, which was a monthly activity.BOOK,weblink Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA, David S. F., Portree, 86, March 1995, Reference Publication 1357, 755272548, The ISS does not feature a shower; instead, crewmembers wash using a water jet and wet wipes, with soap dispensed from a toothpaste tube-like container. Crews are also provided with rinseless shampoo and edible toothpaste to save water.AV MEDIA,weblink Karen Nyberg Shows How You Wash Hair in Space, NASA, YouTube.com, Karen, Nyberg, 12 July 2013, 6 June 2015, There are two space toilets on the ISS, both of Russian design, located in Zvezda and Tranquility. These Waste and Hygiene Compartments use a fan-driven suction system similar to the Space Shuttle Waste Collection System. Astronauts first fasten themselves to the toilet seat, which is equipped with spring-loaded restraining bars to ensure a good seal. A lever operates a powerful fan and a suction hole slides open: the air stream carries the waste away. Solid waste is collected in individual bags which are stored in an aluminium container. Full containers are transferred to Progress spacecraft for disposal.WEB, Ed, Lu, Greetings Earthling,weblink 8 September 2003, 1 November 2009, NASA, Liquid waste is evacuated by a hose connected to the front of the toilet, with anatomically correct "urine funnel adapters" attached to the tube so that men and women can use the same toilet. The diverted urine is collected and transferred to the Water Recovery System, where it is recycled into drinking water.

    Crew health and safety

    Overall

    On 12 April 2019, NASA reported medical results from the Astronaut Twin Study. One astronaut twin spent a year in space on the ISS, while the other twin spent the year on Earth. Several long-lasting changes were observed, including those related to alterations in DNA and cognition, when one twin was compared with the other.NEWS, Zimmer, Carl, Carl Zimmer, Scott Kelly Spent a Year in Orbit. His Body Is Not Quite the Same - NASA scientists compared the astronaut to his earthbound twin, Mark. The results hint at what humans will have to endure on long journeys through space.,weblink 12 April 2019, The New York Times, 12 April 2019, JOURNAL, Garrett-Bakeman, Francine E., et al., The NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight,weblink 12 April 2019, Science (journal), Science, 364, 6436, 10.1126/science.aau8650, 30975860, 12 April 2019, 2019-08-20,

    Radiation

    File:Aurora Australis.ogv|thumb|Video of the Aurora Australis taken by the crew of Expedition 28 on an ascending pass from south of MadagascarMadagascar{{See also|Coronal mass ejection|Aurora (astronomy)}}The ISS is partially protected from the space environment by Earth's magnetic field. From an average distance of about {{convert|70,000|km|abbr=on}}, depending on Solar activity, the magnetosphere begins to deflect solar wind around Earth and ISS. Solar flares are still a hazard to the crew, who may receive only a few minutes warning. In 2005, during the initial 'proton storm' of an X-3 class solar flare, the crew of Expedition 10 took shelter in a more heavily shielded part of the ROS designed for this purpose.WEB, Solar Flare Hits Earth and Mars, Ker Than, Space.com, 23 February 2006,weblink WEB, A new kind of solar storm, NASA, 10 June 2005,weblink Subatomic charged particles, primarily protons from cosmic rays and solar wind, are normally absorbed by Earth's atmosphere. When they interact in sufficient quantity, their effect is visible to the naked eye in a phenomenon called an aurora. Outside Earth's atmosphere, crews are exposed to about 1 millisievert each day, which is about a year of natural exposure on Earth, resulting in a higher risk of cancer. Radiation can penetrate living tissue and damage the DNA and chromosomes of lymphocytes. These cells are central to the immune system, and so any damage to them could contribute to the lower immunity experienced by astronauts. Radiation has also been linked to a higher incidence of cataracts in astronauts. Protective shielding and drugs may lower risks to an acceptable level.Radiation levels on the ISS are about five times greater than those experienced by airline passengers and crew, as Earth's electromagnetic field provides almost the same level of protection against solar and other radiation in low Earth orbit as in the stratosphere. For example, on a 12-hour flight an airline passenger would experience 0.1 millisieverts of radiation, or a rate of 0.2 millisieverts per day; only 1/5 the rate experienced by an astronaut in LEO. Additionally, airline passengers experience this level of radiation for a few hours of flight, while ISS crew are exposed for their whole stay.WEB,weblink Galactic Radiation Received in Flight, 20 May 2010, FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100329130826weblink">weblink 29 March 2010,

    Stress

    File:Nikolai Budarin in a sleep station in Zvezda.jpg|thumb|Cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin at work inside Zvezda service module crew quarters]]There is considerable evidence that psychosocial stressors are among the most important impediments to optimal crew morale and performance.BOOK, Peter Suedfeld1, Kasia E. Wilk, Lindi Cassel, Flying with Strangers: Postmission Reflections of Multinational Space Crews, Cosmonaut Valery Ryumin wrote in his journal during a particularly difficult period on board the Salyut 6 space station: "All the conditions necessary for murder are met if you shut two men in a cabin measuring 18 feet by 20 and leave them together for two months."NASA's interest in psychological stress caused by space travel, initially studied when their crewed missions began, was rekindled when astronauts joined cosmonauts on the Russian space station Mir. Common sources of stress in early US missions included maintaining high performance under public scrutiny and isolation from peers and family. The latter is still often a cause of stress on the ISS, such as when the mother of NASA Astronaut Daniel Tani died in a car accident, and when Michael Fincke was forced to miss the birth of his second child.A study of the longest spaceflight concluded that the first three weeks are a critical period where attention is adversely affected because of the demand to adjust to the extreme change of environment.JOURNAL, Manzey, D., Lorenz, B., Poljakov, V., 10.1080/001401398186991, Mental performance in extreme environments: Results from a performance monitoring study during a 438-day spaceflight, Ergonomics, 41, 4, 537–559, 1998, 9557591, ISS crew flights typically last about five to six months.The ISS working environment includes further stress caused by living and working in cramped conditions with people from very different cultures who speak a different language. First-generation space stations had crews who spoke a single language; second- and third-generation stations have crew from many cultures who speak many languages. Astronauts must speak English and Russian, and knowing additional languages is even better.WEB,weblink Behind the Scenes: The Making of an Astronaut, NASA, 23 August 2004, Due to the lack of gravity, confusion often occurs. Even though there is no up and down in space, some crew members feel like they are oriented upside down. They may also have difficulty measuring distances. This can cause problems like getting lost inside the space station, pulling switches in the wrong direction or misjudging the speed of an approaching vehicle during docking.WEB,weblink Why astronauts get the 'space stupids', David, Robson, www.bbc.com,

    Medical

    File:Frank De Winne on treadmill cropped.jpg|thumb|Astronaut Frank De Winne is attached to the TVIS treadmillTVIS treadmillMedical effects of long-term weightlessness include muscle atrophy, deterioration of the skeleton (osteopenia), fluid redistribution, a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system. Lesser symptoms include loss of body mass, and puffiness of the face.Sleep is disturbed on the ISS regularly because of mission demands, such as incoming or departing ships. Sound levels in the station are unavoidably high. Because the atmosphere is unable to thermosiphon, fans are required at all times to allow processing of the atmosphere which would stagnate in the freefall (zero-g) environment.To prevent some of these adverse physiological effects, the station is equipped with two treadmills (including the COLBERT), and the aRED (advanced Resistive Exercise Device) which enables various weightlifting exercises which add muscle but do not compensate for or raise astronauts' reduced bone density,JOURNAL, Schneider, S. M., Amonette, W. E., Blazine, K., Bentley, J., c. Lee, S. M., Loehr, J. A., Moore, A. D., Rapley, M., Mulder, E. R., Smith, S. M., 10.1249/01.MSS.0000093611.88198.08, Training with the International Space Station Interim Resistive Exercise Device, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35, 11, 1935–1945, 2003, 14600562, and a stationary bicycle; each astronaut spends at least two hours per day exercising on the equipment. Astronauts use bungee cords to strap themselves to the treadmill.WEB,weblink 23 August 2009, Bungee Cords Keep Astronauts Grounded While Running, 16 June 2009, NASA, WEB,weblink 23 August 2009, Do Tread on Me, 19 August 2009, Amiko Kauderer, NASA,

    Microbiological environmental hazards

    {{see also|Mir#Microbiological environmental hazards}}Hazardous moulds which can foul air and water filters may develop aboard space stations. They can produce acids which degrade metal, glass, and rubber. They can also be harmful for the crew's health. Microbiological hazards have led to a development of the LOCAD-PTS that can identify common bacteria and moulds faster than standard methods of culturing, which may require a sample to be sent back to Earth.WEB,weblink Preventing "Sick" Spaceships, NASA, Trudy E., Bell, 11 May 2007, 29 March 2015, {{As of|2012}}, 76 types of unregulated micro-organisms have been detected on the ISS.NEWS,weblink Mutant space microbes attack ISS: 'Munch' metal, may crack glass, RT (TV network), RT, 23 April 2012, 29 March 2015, Researchers in 2018 reported, after detecting the presence of five Enterobacter bugandensis bacterial strains on the ISS, none pathogenic to humans, that microorganisms on ISS should be carefully monitored to continue assuring a medically healthy environment for astronauts.WEB,weblink ISS microbes should be monitored to avoid threat to astronaut health, Biomed Central, Anne, Korn, 23 November 2018, 11 January 2019, JOURNAL, Multi-drug resistant Enterobacter bugandensis species isolated from the International Space Station and comparative genomic analyses with human pathogenic strains, BMC Microbiology, Nitin K., Singh, Daniela, Bezdan, Aleksandra Checinska, Sielaff, Kevin, Wheeler, Christopher E., Mason, Kasthuri, Vendateswaran, 1, 18, 1, 175, 23 November 2018, 10.1186/s12866-018-1325-2, 30466389, 6251167, Reduced humidity, paint with mould-killing chemicals, and antiseptic solutions can be used to prevent contamination in space stations. All materials used in the ISS are tested for resistance against fungi.WEB,weblink Patrick L. Barry, 2000, Microscopic Stowaways on the ISS, 29 March 2015, In April 2019, NASA reported that a comprehensive study of microorganisms and fungi present on the International Space Station has been conducted. The results can be useful in improving health and safety conditions for astronauts.NEWS, BioMed Central, NASA researchers catalogue all microbes and fungi on the International Space Station,weblink 7 April 2019, EurekAlert!, 8 April 2019, BioMed Central, JOURNAL, Sielaff, Aleksandra Checinska, et al., Characterization of the total and viable bacterial and fungal communities associated with the International Space Station surfaces, 8 April 2019, Microbiome, 7, 50, 50, 10.1186/s40168-019-0666-x, 30955503, 6452512,

    Fire and toxic gases

    An onboard fire or a toxic gas leak are other potential hazards. Ammonia is used in the external radiators of the station and could potentially leak into the pressurised modules.AV MEDIA, Williams, Suni (presenter), 3 July 2015, Departing Space Station Commander Provides Tour of Orbital Laboratory, video,weblink 1 September 2019, 18.00-18.17, NASA, And some of the things we have to worry about in space are fire ... or if we had some type of toxic atmosphere. We use ammonia for our radiators so there is a possibility that ammonia could come into the vehicle.,

    Orbital debris threats

    {{multiple image |align=right |total_width=400
    |image1=SDIO KEW Lexan projectile.jpg |caption1=A 7 g object (shown in centre) shot at {{convert|7|km/s|ft/s|abbr=on}}, the orbital velocity of the ISS, made this {{convert|15|cm|in|abbr=on}} crater in a solid block of aluminium.
    |image2=Debris-GEO1280.jpg |caption2=Radar-trackable objects, including debris, with distinct ring of geostationary satellites
    }}The low altitudes at which the ISS orbits are also home to a variety of space debris,WEB,weblink Defense News, 7 October 2009, Michael Hoffman, National Space Symposium 2009: It's getting crowded up there, 3 April 2009, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} including spent rocket stages, defunct satellites, explosion fragments (including materials from anti-satellite weapon tests), paint flakes, slag from solid rocket motors, and coolant released by US-A nuclear-powered satellites. These objects, in addition to natural micrometeoroids,MAGAZINE, F. L. Whipple, 1949, The Theory of Micrometeoroids, Popular Astronomy, 57, 517, 1949PA.....57..517W, are a significant threat. Objects large enough to destroy the station can be tracked, and are not as dangerous as smaller debris.WEB, NASASpaceflight.com, 28 June 2011, 28 June 2011, Chris Bergin,weblink STS-135: FRR sets 8 July Launch Date for Atlantis – Debris misses ISS, WEB, Henry Nahra,weblink Effect of Micrometeoroid and Space Debris Impacts on the Space Station Freedom Solar Array Surfaces, 24–29 April 1989, NASA, 7 October 2009, Objects too small to be detected by optical and radar instruments, from approximately 1 cm down to microscopic size, number in the trillions. Despite their small size, some of these objects are a threat because of their kinetic energy and direction in relation to the station. Spacewalking crew in spacesuits are also at risk of suit damage and consequent exposure to vacuum.WEB, Space Suit Punctures and Decompression,weblink The Artemis Project, 20 July 2011, Ballistic panels, also called micrometeorite shielding, are incorporated into the station to protect pressurised sections and critical systems. The type and thickness of these panels depend on their predicted exposure to damage. The station's shields and structure have different designs on the ROS and the USOS. On the USOS, Whipple shields are used. The US segment modules consist of an inner layer made from 1.5 cm thick aluminum, a 10 cm thick intermediate layers of Kevlar and Nextel, and an outer layer of stainless steel, which causes objects to shatter into a cloud before hitting the hull, thereby spreading the energy of impact. On the ROS, a carbon plastic honeycomb screen is spaced from the hull, an aluminium honeycomb screen is spaced from that, with a screen-vacuum thermal insulation covering, and glass cloth over the top.{{Citation needed|date=March 2019}}File:ISS impact risk.jpg|thumb|Example of (risk management]]: A NASA model showing areas at high risk from impact for the International Space Station.)Space debris is tracked remotely from the ground, and the station crew can be notified.WEB,weblink Microsoft PowerPoint – EducationPackage SMALL.ppt, 1 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408183946weblink">weblink 8 April 2008, If necessary, thrusters on the Russian Orbital Segment can alter the station's orbital altitude, avoiding the debris. These Debris Avoidance Manoeuvres (DAMs) are not uncommon, taking place if computational models show the debris will approach within a certain threat distance. Ten DAMs had been performed by the end of 2009.WEB,weblink Space station may move to dodge debris, New Scientist, 16 March 2009, 20 April 2010, Rachel Courtland, JOURNAL,weblink ISS Maneuvers to Avoid Russian Fragmentation Debris, 1&2, Orbital Debris Quarterly News, October 2008, 20 April 2010, 12, 4, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100527134134weblink">weblink 27 May 2010, JOURNAL,weblink Avoiding satellite collisions in 2009, 2, Orbital Debris Quarterly News, 14, January 2010, 1, 20 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100527142755weblink">weblink 27 May 2010, Usually, an increase in orbital velocity of the order of 1 m/s is used to raise the orbit by one or two kilometres.If necessary, the altitude can also be lowered, although such a maneuver wastes propellant.WEB,weblink ATV carries out first debris avoidance manoeuvre for the ISS, ESA, 28 August 2008, 26 February 2010, If a threat from orbital debris is identified too late for a DAM to be safely conducted, the station crew close all the hatches aboard the station and retreat into their Soyuz spacecraft in order to be able to evacuate in the event the station was seriously damaged by the debris. This partial station evacuation has occurred on 13 March 2009, 28 June 2011, 24 March 2012 and 16 June 2015.NEWS,weblink ISS crew take to escape capsules in space junk alert, 24 March 2012, BBC News, 24 March 2012, NEWS,weblink Station Crew Takes Precautions for Close Pass of Space Debris, 16 June 2015, NASA Blog, 16 June 2015,

    End of mission

    File:Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle re-enters Earth's atmosphere.jpg|thumb|right|Many ISS resupply spacecraft have already undergone atmospheric re-entry, such as Jules Verne ATV ]]According to the Outer Space Treaty, the United States and Russia are legally responsible for all modules they have launched.United Nations Treaties and Principles on Outer Space. (PDF). United Nations. New York. 2002. {{ISBN|92-1-100900-6}}. Retrieved 8 October 2011. Natural orbital decay with random reentry (as with Skylab), boosting the station to a higher altitude (which would delay reentry), and a controlled targeted de-orbit to a remote ocean area were considered as ISS disposal options.WEB, Tier 2 EIS for ISS, NASA,weblink 12 July 2011, As of late 2010, the preferred plan is to use a slightly modified Progress spacecraft to de-orbit the ISS.WEB,weblink ISS End-of-Life Disposal Plan, Suffredini, Michael, October 2010, NASA, 7 March 2012, This plan was seen as the simplest, cheapest and with the highest margin.The Orbital Piloted Assembly and Experiment Complex (OPSEK) was previously intended to be constructed of modules from the Russian Orbital Segment after the ISS is decommissioned. The modules under consideration for removal from the current ISS included the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (Nauka), planned to be launched in December 2020 {{asof|2019|9|lc=y}}, and the other new Russian modules that are proposed to be attached to Nauka. These newly launched modules would still be well within their useful lives in 2020 or 2024.NEWS,weblink Russia 'to save its ISS modules', BBC News, 22 May 2009, 23 May 2009, Anatoly Zak, At the end of 2011, the Exploration Gateway Platform concept also proposed using leftover USOS hardware and Zvezda 2 as a refuelling depot and service station located at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange points. However, the entire USOS was not designed for disassembly and will be discarded.WEB,weblink DC-1 and MIM-2, Russianspaceweb.com, 12 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090210130224weblink">weblink 10 February 2009, In February 2015, Roscosmos announced that it would remain a part of the ISS programme until 2024.NEWS, de Selding, Peter B., Russia — and Its Modules — To Part Ways with ISS in 2024,weblink 26 February 2015, Space News, 25 February 2015, Nine months earlier—in response to US sanctions against Russia over the annexation of Crimea—Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin had stated that Russia would reject a US request to prolong the orbiting station's use beyond 2020, and would only supply rocket engines to the US for non-military satellite launches.NEWS,weblink Russia to ban US from using Space Station over Ukraine sanctions, Reuters, The Telegraph, 13 May 2014, 14 May 2014, On 28 March 2015, Russian sources announced that Roscosmos and NASA had agreed to collaborate on the development of a replacement for the current ISS.NEWS,weblink Russia and the US will build a new space station together, The Independent, Zachary Davies, Boren, 28 March 2015, NEWS,weblink Russia & US agree to build new space station after ISS, work on joint Mars project, RT.com, 28 March 2015, 28 March 2015, Igor Komarov, the head of Russia's Roscosmos, made the announcement with NASA administrator Charles Bolden at his side.NEWS,weblink Russia announces plan to build new space station with NASA, Space Daily, Agence France-Presse, 28 March 2015, In a statement provided to SpaceNews on 28 March, NASA spokesman David Weaver said the agency appreciated the Russian commitment to extending the ISS, but did not confirm any plans for a future space station.MAGAZINE,weblink NASA Says No Plans for ISS Replacement with Russia, SpaceNews, Jeff, Foust, 28 March 2015, On 30 September 2015, Boeing's contract with NASA as prime contractor for the ISS was extended to 30 September 2020. Part of Boeing's services under the contract will relate to extending the station's primary structural hardware past 2020 to the end of 2028.NEWS,weblink NASA extends Boeing contract for International Space Station, Space Daily, UPI, Ryan, Maass, 30 September 2015, 2 October 2015, Regarding extending the ISS, on 15 November 2016 General Director Vladimir Solntsev of RSC Energia stated "Maybe the ISS will receive continued resources. Today we discussed the possibility of using the station until 2028," with discussion to continue under the new presidential administration.NEWS,weblink ISS' Life Span Could Extend Into 2028 – Space Corporation Energia Director, Sputnik, 15 November 2016, 18 November 2016, NEWS,weblink Space Cowboys: Moscow to Mull Building Russian Orbital Station in Spring 2017, Sputnik, 16 November 2016, 18 November 2016, There have also been suggestions that the station could be converted to commercial operations after it is retired by government entities.NEWS,weblink Trump administration wants to end NASA funding for the International Space Station by 2025, The Verge, Grush, Loren, 24 January 2018, 24 April 2018, In July 2018, the Space Frontier Act of 2018 was intended to extend operations of the ISS to 2030. This bill was unanimously approved in the Senate, but failed to pass in the U.S. House.WEB,weblink Commercial space bill dies in the House, 2018-12-22, SpaceNews.com, en-US, 2019-03-18, WEB,weblink S.3277 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Space Frontier Act of 2018, Cruz, Ted, 2018-12-21, www.congress.gov, 2019-03-18, In September 2018, the Leading Human Spaceflight Act was introduced with the intent to extend operations of the ISS to 2030, and was confirmed in December 2018.NEWS,weblink House joins Senate in push to extend ISS, SpaceNews, Foust, Jeff, 27 September 2018, 2 October 2018, WEB,weblink H.R.6910 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): Leading Human Spaceflight Act, Babin, Brian, 2018-09-26, www.congress.gov, 2019-03-18,

    Cost

    The ISS has been described as the most expensive single item ever constructed.WEB, Zidbits,weblink What Is The Most Expensive Object Ever Built?, Zidbits.com, 6 November 2010, 22 October 2013, In 2010 the cost was expected to be $150 billion. This includes NASA's budget of $58.7 billion (inflation-unadjusted) for the station from 1985 to 2015 ($72.4 billion in 2010 dollars), Russia's $12 billion, Europe's $5 billion, Japan's $5 billion, Canada's $2 billion, and the cost of 36 shuttle flights to build the station; estimated at $1.4 billion each, or $50.4 billion in total. Assuming 20,000 person-days of use from 2000 to 2015 by two- to six-person crews, each person-day would cost $7.5 million, less than half the inflation-adjusted $19.6 million ($5.5 million before inflation) per person-day of Skylab.NEWS,weblink Costs of US piloted programs, The Space Review, 8 March 2010, 18 February 2012, Lafleur, Claude, See author correction in comments.

    International co-operation

    (File:ISS Agreements.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Dated 29 January 1998)
    Participating countries
    {hide}columns-list|colwidth=15em|
    • {{flagcountry|Canada{edih}
    • {{flagcountry|Japan}}
    • {{flagcountry|Russia}}
    • {{flagcountry|United States}}
    • {{flagcountry|Brazil}}{{Brazil did participate in the program until 2007, where they dropped out due to funding issues. However as a compromise, NASA funded one of their astronauts to board the station, and small components contracted for Express Logistics Carrier 2|group=note|name}}
    • (File:ESA logo simple.svg|15x15px) European Space Agency
      • {{flagcountry|Austria}}
      • {{flagcountry|Belgium}}
      • {{flagcountry|Denmark}}
      • {{flagcountry|France}}
      • {{flagcountry|Germany}}
      • {{flagcountry|Italy}}
      • {{flagcountry|Netherlands}}
      • {{flagcountry|Norway}}
      • {{flagcountry|Portugal}}
      • {{flagcountry|Spain}}
      • {{flagcountry|Sweden}}
      • {{flagcountry|Switzerland}}
      • {{flagcountry|United Kingdom}}
    }}

    Sightings from Earth

    {{multiple image |direction=horizontal |align=right |perrow=2 |total_width=400
    |image1=Isshtv120090917200858nm.jpg |caption1=The ISS and HTV photographed from Earth by Ralf Vandebergh
    |image2=ISS 2008-01-10.jpg |caption2=A time exposure of a station pass
    |image3=International_Space_Station_orbit-August_2_2018.png |caption3=Simulated motion of the ISS over North America, with 12 second motion markers and vertical lines projecting down to the surface of Earth. The ISS is shown red when it enters the earth's shadow and cannot be seen from Earth. It is only easily visible in the twilight interval of night just after sunset, or before sunrise.
    }}

    Naked eye

    The ISS is visible to the naked eye as a slow-moving, bright white dot because of reflected sunlight, and can be seen in the hours after sunset and before sunrise, when the station remains sunlit but the ground and sky are dark.BOOK, The Backyard Stargazer: An Absolute Beginner's Guide to Skywatching With and Without a Telescope, Quarry Books, Gloucester, MA, Pat, Price, 140, 2005, 978-1-59253-148-6, The ISS takes about 10 minutes to pass from one horizon to another, and will only be visible part of that time because of moving into or out of the Earth's shadow. Because of the size of its reflective surface area, the ISS is the brightest artificial object in the sky, excluding flares, with an approximate maximum magnitude of −4 when overhead (similar to Venus). The ISS, like many satellites including the Iridium constellation, can also produce flares of up to 8 or 16 times the brightness of Venus as sunlight glints off reflective surfaces.WEB,weblink Artificial Satellites > (Iridium) Flares, Calsky.com, 1 May 2012, WEB,weblink How to Spot the International Space Station (and other satellites), Hayden Planetarium, 12 July 2011, The ISS is also visible in broad daylight, albeit with a great deal more difficulty.Tools are provided by a number of websites such as Heavens-Above (see Live viewing below) as well as smartphone applications that use orbital data and the observer's longitude and latitude to indicate when the ISS will be visible (weather permitting), where the station will appear to rise, the altitude above the horizon it will reach and the duration of the pass before the station disappears either by setting below the horizon or entering into Earth's shadow.WEB,weblink International Space Station Sighting Opportunities, 28 January 2009, NASA, 2 July 2008, NASA, WEB,weblink ISS â€“ Information, Heavens-Above.com, 8 July 2010, JOURNAL, Harold F. Weaver, The Visibility of Stars Without Optical Aid, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 59, 350, 1947, 10.1086/125956, 1947PASP...59..232W, 232, WEB,weblink ISS visible during the daytime, 5 June 2009, Spaceweather.com, 5 June 2009, In November 2012 NASA launched its "Spot the Station" service, which sends people text and email alerts when the station is due to fly above their town.NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, Get notified when the International Space Station is in your area, 6 November 2012, 21 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012231134weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, dead, The station is visible from 95% of the inhabited land on Earth, but is not visible from extreme northern or southern latitudes.

    Astrophotography

    File:2017 Total Solar Eclipse - ISS Transit (NHQ201708210304).jpg|thumb|The ISS as it transits the sun during an eclipse (4 frame composite image)]]Using a telescope-mounted camera to photograph the station is a popular hobby for astronomers,WEB,weblink Satellite Watching, HobbySpace, 1 May 2012, while using a mounted camera to photograph the Earth and stars is a popular hobby for crew.WEB,weblink Space StationAstrophotography – NASA Science, Science.nasa.gov, 24 March 2003, 1 May 2012, The use of a telescope or binoculars allows viewing of the ISS during daylight hours.WEB,weblink [VIDEO] The ISS and Atlantis shuttle as seen in broad daylight, Zmescience.com, 20 July 2011, 1 May 2012, Some amateur astronomers also use telescopic lenses to photograph the ISS while it transits the sun, sometimes doing so during an eclipse (and so the Sun, Moon, and ISS are all positioned approximately in a single line). One example is during the 21 August solar eclipse, where at one location in Wyoming, images of the ISS were captured during the eclipse.WEB, Space Station Transiting 2017 ECLIPSE, My Brain Stopped Working - Smarter Every Day 175,weblink www.youtube.com, 22 August 2017, Similar images were captured by NASA from a location in Washington.Parisian engineer and astrophotographer Thierry Legault, known for his photos of spaceships transiting the Sun, travelled to Oman in 2011 to photograph the Sun, Moon and space station all lined up.NEWS,weblink Wired, Lisa, Grossman, Moon and Space Station Eclipse the Sun, Legault, who received the Marius Jacquemetton award from the Société astronomique de France in 1999, and other hobbyists, use websites that predict when the ISS will transit the Sun or Moon and from what location those passes will be visible.

    See also

    {{Wikipedia books|International Space Station}}

    Notes

    {{Reflist|group="note"}}

    References

    Further reading

    • BOOK,weblink Reference Guide to the International Space Station, Utilization, NASA, September 2015, NP-2015-05-022-JSC,
    • BOOK,weblink Reference Guide to the International Space Station, Assembly Complete, NASA, November 2010, 978-0-16-086517-6, NP-2010-09-682-HQ,

    External links

    {{Sister project links|wikt=no|n=Category:International Space Station|voy=Space}}

    Agency ISS websites

    Research

    Live viewing

    {{See also|List of satellite pass predictors}}

    Multimedia

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