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Mathematics

In mathematics, a binary relation (or a dyadic relation) is an arbitrary association of elements of one set with elements of another (perhaps the same) set. An example is the "divides" relation between the set of prime numbers P and the set of integers Z, in which every prime p is associated to every integer z that is a multiple of p. In this...


Biographies

René Descartes (31 Mar 1596 - 11 Feb 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius and dubbed "Father of Modern Philosophy", was a French philosopher crucial to Western Philosophy in the fields of Metaphysics and Philosophy of Mind, and he was a key figure, with Francis Bacon and others, in the Scientific Revolution. Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy...


Topic Papers

All Rights Reserved © 1998-99 M.R.M. ParrottThe chapter discussed below first appeared as a series of internet discussion posts on Usenet, in 1998-99, and is the final chapter of "Synthetic A Priori", by M.R.M. Parrott. Take the Objectivist Challenge! Download and read the linked...


Culture

WikiSphere, like "Blogosphere" (or "BlogoSphere"), refers to the collection of all Wikis on the internet, and may be used in CamelCase form. GetWiki is a part of the WikiSphere, as is MeatballWiki, CommunityWiki, and many, many, many others. A number of WikiTerms are commonly used in the WikiSphere, just as in many subcultures. These terms have fairly obvious meanings -...


Technology

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. SGML is a descendant of IBM's "Generalized Markup Language" GML, developed in the 1960s by Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie (whose surname initials also happen to be GML). SGML provides a variety of markup...


Culture

The Matrix Series consists of the film trilogy and animated shorts: The Matrix (1999), The Animatrix (2003), The Matrix Reloaded (2003), and The Matrix Revolutions (2003), as well as the video games and other literature, all produced, or written and directed by the Wachowski Brothers. The Matrix "universe" is a complex Science Fiction story...


Biographies

Baruch Benedict de Spinoza (24 Nov 1632 - 21 Feb 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of a Portuguese Jewish family, whose controversial metaphysical ideas led to cherem (removal) against him from Jewish Society, and his works were banned by the Vatican. Despite his considerable scientific aptitude, the breadth and importance of Spinoza's work was...


Technology

Open-source computer software is software whose source code is either in the public domain or, more commonly, is...


Biographies

Plato (428-27 - 348-47 BC) was a major Greek thinker in Ancient Philosophy, a student of Socrates, founder of the first Academy, and with his student Aristotle and the most important modern philosopher Kant, is still considered one of the singularly important thinkers of all...


History of Philosophy

The Philosophy of the era now known as the Middle Ages (the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance) is a widely varied period in the history of philosophical thought. However, one defining feature which...


Technology

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a language that is used to describe the stylistic presentation of a structured document written in HTML or XML. The CSS specification is maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Overview - CSS is predominantly used by web page authors to define colors, fonts, layout, and other document characteristics. It is...


Biographies

John Bordley Rawls (21 Feb 1921 - 24 Nov 2002), a Harvard University professor, was a leading American figure in Moral Philosophy. Rawls' A Theory of Justice (1971) is considered a primary text in political and ethical reasoning, and he earned a Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy, and a National Humanities Medal presented by U.S. President Bill Clinton in 1999, recognizing...


Philosophy

Metaphysics is a difficult branch of Philosophy, but is rather easy to define: It is the study of the most fundamental concepts and beliefs about them. Examples of metaphysical concepts are Being, Existence, Purpose, Universals, Property, Relation, Causality, Space, Time, Event,...


Software

SOHOdb (related to GetWiki) is a cross-platform, enterprise-class database management application designed for simplicity in the "small office, home office" environment, but not limited to small business. SOHOdb includes integrated modules for customers, contacts, suppliers, employees, invoices, products, purchases,...


Technology

XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a W3C Recommendation for creating special-purpose markup languages. It is a...


Technology

A regular expression (abbreviated as regexp or regex) is a string that describes a whole set of strings, according to certain syntax rules. These expressions are used by many text editors and utilities (especially in the Unix...


Philosophical Studies

Perception is one of our most important mental processes. If we could not perceive anything, then we would know nothing except the contents of our own minds. Because it is our window onto the world, it is important for us to know some basic facts about perception. For example, does our...


Biographies

George Berkeley (12 Mar 1685 - 14 Jan 1753, and pronounced: "Barkly") was an Anglo-Irish philosopher who advanced a theory of "Immaterialism" and was known as the good "Bishop Berkeley". Seen as a poweful "subjective idealism", Berkeley argued we can directly know only our own Sensation and Idea of an Object. The notion of "matter", for example, is an idea dependent upon being...


Culture

is wikinfo dead?- Wow, Fred has made some radical changes very quickly over there! Besides his unethical, unwarranted freak out on me (Proteus, the one person who kept Wikinfo running smoothly for 3 years), he totally botched a questionable regrade back to MediaWiki (thus solidifying his ties to Jimbo's Borg, and killing the importing which made Wikinfo what it was). By making all the...


Biographies

Thomas Hobbes (5 Apr 1588 - 4 Dec 1679) was an English political philosopher, most famous for his book Leviathan (1651), and his view of a "state of nature" to avoid, a life "brutish, nasty and short". His view of the necessity of a powerful central Government, where some may be stronger or more intelligent than others, but none are beyond fear of another doing harm to them. ...


Philosophical Studies

Epistemology is the branch of Philosophy dealing with the nature, origin and scope of Knowledge, and Method in obtaining Knowledge. Some consensus exists as to which epistemological methods give human beings the most accurate understanding of the truth (rather...


Books

Dynamism (see Dynamism for encyclopedic information) is a series of treatises in Philosophy by M.R.M. Parrott, addressing subjects from Science, to Religion, and everything in between, such as a Theory of Life, Subjectivity, Ethics, and more. Volume I: Force (Web)Quantum Physics and...


Information Theory

In semiotics, a sign relational complex is a generalization of a sign relation that allows for empty components in the elementary sign relations, or sign relational triples of the form (object, sign, interpretant). Generally speaking, when it comes to things that are being contemplated as ostensible or potential signs of other things, neither the existence nor the uniqueness...


Software

An "operating system" consists of many utilities, along with a master control program, called the "kernel". The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handle the file system and other "low level" tasks most programs on your computer share. Perhaps most importantly, the kernels also schedule access to hardware,...


Culture

ibiblio (formerly SunSITE and MetaLab) is a digital library and archive project run jointly by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Center for the Public Domain. It is a "collection of collections", and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source software. It also offers streaming audio radio stations. Unless otherwise...

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