University of Chicago

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University of Chicago
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{{For|the public university in the University of Illinois System|University of Illinois at Chicago}}{{short description|Private research university in Chicago, Illinois, United States}}{{use mdy dates|date=March 2019}}{{good article}}

| established = 1890Private university>PrivateAssociation of American Universities>AAUNational Association of Independent Colleges and UniversitiesUniversities Research Association>URAPUBLISHER=NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS OFFICERS AND COMMONFUND INSTITUTE ACCESS-DATE=2019-07-02 ARCHIVE-DATE=JUNE 29, 2019, live, | president = Robert J. Zimmer| provost = Daniel Diermeier| students = 16,445| undergrad = 6,286| postgrad = 10,159WORK=UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO DATA ACCESSDATE=MARCH 13, 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=MARCH 31, 2019, dead, | staff = 15,949 (including employees of the University of Chicago Medical Center)| city = Chicago| state = Illinois| country = United StatesUrban area>Urban{{convertacre1}} (Main Campus)ABOUT THE UNIVERSITY >PUBLISHER = THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO ACCESS-DATE = OCTOBER 14, 2017 ARCHIVE-DATE = OCTOBER 15, 2017 41238759type:edu_region:US-IL|display=inline,title}}{{convert|42|acre|ha|1}} (Warren Woods Ecological Field Station, Warren Woods State Park)WEB, University of Chicago opens groundbreaking sustainable field station,weblink The University of Chicago, July 8, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2016, live, {{convert|30|acre|ha|1}} (Yerkes Observatory)NCAA Division III – University Athletic Association>UAAACCESSDATE = SEPTEMBER 18, 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE = OCTOBER 25, 2018 #800000}} {{color box|#FFFFFF}}Chicago Maroons>Maroons| mascot = Phil the}}| logo = University of Chicago wordmark.svg| logo_size = 251}}The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan.WEB,weblink About the University, AvenueChicago, The University of ChicagoEdward H. Levi Hall5801 South Ellis, Us, Illinois 60637773 702 1234 Contact, The University of Chicago, en, 2019-03-14,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2016, live, The University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.WEB,weblink ARWU World University Rankings 2017 - Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017 - Top 500 universities - Shanghai Ranking - 2017,, February 15, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2017, live, "Best Colleges, US News & World Report Rankings: University of Chicago" {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 31, 2018 }} (2017). U.S. News & World Report ( Retrieved April 10, 2019.WEB,weblink World Ranking of more than 500 Universities,, February 15, 2018,weblink June 15, 2018, live, NEWS,weblink World University Rankings, August 18, 2017, Times Higher Education (THE), February 15, 2018, en,weblink September 6, 2017, live, NEWS,weblink QS World University Rankings 2018, June 5, 2017, Top Universities, February 15, 2018, en,weblink September 21, 2018, live, The university is composed of the undergraduate college as well as various graduate programs and interdisciplinary committees organized into five academic research divisions. Beyond the arts and sciences, Chicago is also well known for its professional schools, which include the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the Law School, the School of Social Service Administration, the Harris School of Public Policy Studies, the Divinity School and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies, as well as the recently launched Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering. The university has additional campuses and centers in London, Paris, Beijing, Delhi, and Hong Kong, as well as in downtown Chicago.WEB,weblink UChicago Global {{!, The University of Chicago||access-date=2019-03-31|archive-url=|archive-date=March 31, 2019|url-status=live}}WEB,weblink Downtown Campus - Gleacher Center, The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, en, 2019-03-31,weblink March 31, 2019, live, University of Chicago scholars have played a major role in the development of many academic disciplines, including economics, law, literary criticism, mathematics, religion, sociology, and the behavioralism school of political science, establishing the Chicago schools in various fields.JOURNAL, November 28, 2017, Chicago school (sociology),weblink en, {{dead link|date=September 2019}}WEB,weblink History of Law and Economics, University of Montreal, August 26, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2009, live, WEB,weblink The Chicago School, Britanica Academic Edition, October 12, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2012, live, NEWS, Building the Chicago School, Hanson, John Mark,weblink February 6, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink January 16, 2011, live, WEB,weblink Antoni Zygmund (1900-1992),, 2019-06-23,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2019, live, Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory produced the world's first man-made, self-sustaining nuclear reaction in Chicago Pile-1 beneath the viewing stands of the university's Stagg Field.BOOK, Nuclear Technology, Angelo, Joseph A.,weblink Greenwood Press, 1-57356-336-6, 10.1336/1573563366, November 30, 2004, 1, The university research efforts include administration of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, as well as the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university is also home to the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.WEB, Duffy is named Director of the University Press, April 27, 2000, The University of Chicago Chronicle,weblink April 30, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink February 24, 2011, live, With an estimated completion date of 2021, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the university and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation.WEB,weblink The Obama Presidential Center,, November 20, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2015, live, . The university is home to Frank Lloyd Wright's Robie House a World Heritage Site.The University of Chicago has produced many prominent alumni, faculty members and researchers. As of 2018, 98 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as professors, students, faculty, or staff, making it a university with one of the highest concentrations of Nobel laureates in the world.WEB,weblink Nobel Laureates, April 3, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2016, live, Similarly, 34 faculty members and 18 alumni have been awarded the MacArthur "Genius Grant".WEB,weblink MacArthur Fellows, The University of Chicago, July 8, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2016, live, In addition, as of 2018, UChicago's alumni and faculty include 54 Rhodes Scholars,WEB,weblink Rhodes Scholarships – Number of Winners by Institution – U.S. Rhodes Scholars 1904–2016, May 23, 2016, The Rhodes Trust,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2016, live, 26 Marshall Scholars,WEB,weblink Statistics,, January 26, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink January 26, 2017, live, 9 Fields Medalists,NEWS,weblink Fields Medalists, University of Chicago, April 3, 2016,weblink April 19, 2016, live, 4 Turing Award Winners, 25 Pulitzer Prize winners,WEB,weblink Pulitzer Prize Winners, April 19, 2018,weblink April 19, 2018, live, 20 National Humanities Medalists,WEB,weblink National Humanities Medalists, April 3, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 19, 2016, live, 16 billionaire graduates and a plethora of members of the United States Congress and heads of state of countries all over the world.NEWS,weblink Billionaire Universities, Janhavi Kumar Sapra, August 11, 2010, August 31, 2010, Forbes,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2011, live,


File:Uchicago convocation 1894.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|An early convocationconvocation

Early years

{{Wikisource1911Enc|Chicago, University of|the founding and early years}}{{Further|Old University of Chicago}} The University of Chicago was incorporated as a coeducationalBOOK, Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield, A History of the University of Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1916, Chicago, 137, 0-226-30367-5, institution in 1890 by the American Baptist Education Society, using $400,000 donated to the ABES to match a $600,000 donation from Baptist oil magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller,JOURNAL, The Decennial Publications of the University of Chicago, Science, 1, 501, 1903, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago,weblink 498, 1904Sci....20..187., 10.1126/science.20.501.187, and including land donated by Marshall Field.WEB, History, University of Chicago,weblink May 26, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 26, 2011, live, While the Rockefeller donation provided money for academic operations and long-term endowment, it was stipulated that such money could not be used for buildings. The Hyde Park campus was financed by donations from wealthy Chicagoans like Silas B. Cobb who provided the funds for the campus' first building, Cobb Lecture Hall, and matched Marshall Field's pledge of $100,000. Other early benefactors included businessmen Charles L. Hutchinson (trustee, treasurer and donor of Hutchinson Commons), Martin A. Ryerson (president of the board of trustees and donor of the Ryerson Physical Laboratory) Adolphus Clay Bartlett and Leon Mandel, who funded the construction of the gymnasium and assembly hall, and George C. Walker of the Walker Museum, a relative of Cobb who encouraged his inaugural donation for facilities.WEB,weblink The University of Chicago and its Donors, 1889–1930, University of Chicago, November 28, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink November 9, 2015, live, The Hyde Park campus continued the legacy of the original university of the same name, which had closed in 1880s after its campus was foreclosed on. What became known as the Old University of Chicago had been founded by a small group of Baptist educators in 1856 through a land endowment from Senator Stephen A. Douglas. After a fire, it closed in 1886.WEB,weblink Agreement Between Stephen A. Douglas and John C. Burroughs (1856), Folder 2, Box 3, Old University of Chicago Records, Special Collections, University of Chicago.,, June 26, 2017,weblink September 5, 2018, live, Alumni from the Old University of Chicago are recognized as alumni of the present University of Chicago.John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 58–59. The university's depiction on its coat of arms of a phoenix rising from the ashes is a reference to the fire, foreclosure, and demolition of the Old University of Chicago campus.WEB,weblink Old University of Chicago Records, Folder 4, Box 9, Special Collections, University of Chicago., June 22, 2017,weblink September 22, 2017, live, As an homage to this pre-1890 legacy, a single stone from the rubble of the original Douglas Hall on 34th Place was brought to the current Hyde Park location and set into the wall of the Classics Building. These connections have led the Dean of the College and University of Chicago and Professor of History John Boyer to conclude that the University of Chicago has, "a plausible genealogy as a pre–Civil War institution".John Boyer, The University of Chicago: A History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015), 59.William Rainey Harper became the university's president on July 1, 1891 and the Hyde Park campus opened for classes on October 1, 1892.BOOK, Rudolph, Frederick, The American College and University: A History, Knopf, 1962, 351,weblink 978-0-8203-1284-2, Harper worked on building up the faculty and in two years he had a faculty of 120, including eight former university or college presidents.WEB,weblink Harper College Archives – Wiliiam Rainey Harper, Firestein, Martin, Harper College Library Archives, September 21, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 9, 2016, live, Harper was an accomplished scholar (Semiticist) and a member of the Baptist clergy who believed that a great university should maintain the study of faith as a central focus.WEB,weblink History and Mission, The University of Chicago Divinity School, May 20, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2016, yes, To fulfill this commitment, he brought the Old University of Chicago's Seminary to Hyde Park. This became the Divinity School in 1891, the first professional school at the University of Chicago.BOOK, A History of the University of Chicago, Founded by John D. Rockefeller: The First Quarter-Century, Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield, 1972, University of Chicago Press, 9780226303833, 20–22, en, Harper recruited acclaimed Yale baseball and football player Amos Alonzo Stagg from the Young Men's Christian Association training Shool at Springfield to coach the school's football program. Stagg was given a position on the faculty, the first such athletic position in the United States. While coaching at the University, Stagg invented the numbered football jersey, the huddle, and the lighted playing field. Stagg is the namesake of the university's Stagg Field.BOOK, Muscular Christianity, Ladd, Tony, Bridgepoint Books, 1999, 0-8010-5847-3, Grand Rapids, MI, 65, The business school was founded in 1898,WEB,weblink Chicago Booth History, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2009, live, and the law school was founded in 1902.WEB,weblink History of the Law School, University of Chicago Law School, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2009, live, Harper died in 1906WEB,weblink History of the Office:William Rainey Harper, University of Chicago, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2009, live, and was replaced by a succession of three presidents whose tenures lasted until 1929.WEB,weblink History of the Office, University of Chicago, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2009, live, During this period, the Oriental Institute was founded to support and interpret archeological work in what was then called the Near East.WEB,weblink A Brief History of the Oriental Institute, The Oriental Institute, Since its establishment in 1919, The Oriental Institute has sponsored archaeological and survey expeditions in every country of the Near East., September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2009, live, In the 1890s, the university, fearful that its vast resources would injure smaller schools by drawing away good students, affiliated with several regional colleges and universities: Des Moines College, Kalamazoo College, Butler University, and Stetson University. In 1896, the university affiliated with Shimer College in Mount Carroll, Illinois. Under the terms of the affiliation, the schools were required to have courses of study comparable to those at the university, to notify the university early of any contemplated faculty appointments or dismissals, to make no faculty appointment without the university's approval, and to send copies of examinations for suggestions. The University of Chicago agreed to confer a degree on any graduating senior from an affiliated school who made a grade of A for all four years, and on any other graduate who took twelve weeks additional study at the University of Chicago. A student or faculty member of an affiliated school was entitled to free tuition at the University of Chicago, and Chicago students were eligible to attend an affiliated school on the same terms and receive credit for their work. The University of Chicago also agreed to provide affiliated schools with books and scientific apparatus and supplies at cost; special instructors and lecturers without cost except travel expenses; and a copy of every book and journal published by the University of Chicago Press at no cost. The agreement provided that either party could terminate the affiliation on proper notice. Several University of Chicago professors disliked the program, as it involved uncompensated additional labor on their part, and they believed it cheapened the academic reputation of the university. The program passed into history by 1910.Gilbert Lycan, Stetson University: The First 100 Years at 70–72, pp. 165–185 (Stetson University Press, 1983)


In 1929, the university's fifth president, 30-year-old legal philosophy scholar Robert Maynard Hutchins, took office. The university underwent many changes during his 24-year tenure. Hutchins reformed the undergraduate college's liberal-arts curriculum known as the Common Core,WEB,weblink The Common Core, University of Chicago Office of College Admissions, July 31, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink April 26, 2009, organized the university's graduate work into four divisions, and eliminated varsity football from the university in an attempt to emphasize academics over athletics.WEB,weblink History of the Office, The University of Chicago Office of the President, November 6, 2008, September 14, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2009, live, During his term, the University of Chicago Hospitals (now called the University of Chicago Medical Center) finished construction and enrolled their first medical students.WEB,weblink A Brief History of the Medical Center, The University of Chicago Medical Center, September 14, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2009, live, Also, the philosophy oriented Committee on Social Thought, an institution distinctive of the university, was created.File:ChicagoPileTeam.png|left|thumb|Some of the University of Chicago team that worked on the production of the world's first human-caused self-sustaining nuclear reaction, including Enrico Fermi in the front row and alt=A group of people in suits standing in three rows on the steps in front of a stone building.Money that had been raised during the 1920s and financial backing from the Rockefeller Foundation helped the school to survive through the Great Depression. Nonetheless, in 1933, Hutchins proposed an unsuccessful plan to merge the University of Chicago and Northwestern University into a single university.WEB, The University of Chicago proposal,weblink Northwestern university, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2010, live, During World War II, the university's Metallurgical Laboratory made ground-breaking contributions to the Manhattan Project.WEB,weblink University of Chicago Met Lab, Atomic Heritage Foundation, July 31, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2011, live, The university was the site of the first isolation of plutonium and of the creation of the first artificial, self-sustained nuclear reaction by Enrico Fermi in 1942.WEB,weblink The First Reactor, On December 2, 1942, in a racquets court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created man's first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction., July 15, 2009, December 1982,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2009, live, It has been noted that the university did not provide standard oversight regarding Bruno Bettelheim and his tenure as director of the Orthogenic School for Disturbed Children from 1944 to 1973.Genius Or Fraud? Bettelheim's Biographers Can't Seem To Decide {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 6, 2014 }}, Chicago Tribune, Ron Grossman, January 23, 1997.An Icon of Psychology Falls From His Pedestal {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 10, 2017 }}, New York Times, Books, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt (review of The Creation of Dr. B by Richard Pollak), January 13, 1997.THE BATTLE OVER BETTELHEIM {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 10, 2017 }}, Weekly Standard, Peter D. Kramer, April 7, 1997.In the early 1950s, student applications declined as a result of increasing crime and poverty in the Hyde Park neighborhood. In response, the university became a major sponsor of a controversial urban renewal project for Hyde Park, which profoundly affected both the neighborhood's architecture and street plan.Boyer, John W. "The Kind of University That We Desire to Become", Annual Report to the Faculty of the College (October 28, 2008). Excerpt available online at: WEB,weblink “A Noble and Symmetrical Conception of Life”:The Arts at Chicago on the Edge of a New Century, Boyer, John W., April 3, 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 1, 2012, During this period the university, like Shimer College and 10 others, adopted an early entrant program that allowed very young students to attend college; in addition, students enrolled at Shimer were enabled to transfer automatically to the University of Chicago after their second year, having taken comparable or identical examinations and courses.The university experienced its share of student unrest during the 1960s, beginning in 1962, when then-freshman Bernie Sanders helped lead a 15-day sit-in at the college's administration building in a protest over the university's off-campus rental policies. After continued turmoil, a university committee in 1967 issued what became known as the Kalven Report. The report, a two-page statement of the university's policy in "social and political action," declared that "To perform its mission in the society, a university must sustain an extraordinary environment of freedom of inquiry and maintain an independence from political fashions, passions, and pressures."WEB,weblink Kalven Committee: Report on the University’s Role in Political and Social Action, October 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2015, live, The report has since been used to justify decisions such as the university's refusal to divest from South Africa in the 1980s and Darfur in the late 2000s.WEB, Fang, Marina,weblink Born amidst '60s student protests, Kalven Report remains controversial,, January 26, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2016, live, In 1969, more than 400 students, angry about the dismissal of a popular professor, Marlene Dixon, occupied the Administration Building for two weeks. After the sit-in ended, when Dixon turned down a one-year reappointment, 42 students were expelled and 81 were suspended,WEB,weblink The University of Chicago – Alumni Weekend,, September 14, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2008, the most severe response to student occupations of any American university during the student movement.BOOK, Eileen, Boris, Voices of Women Historians: The Personal, the Political, the Professional,weblink June 11, 2008, Indiana university Press, 978-0-253-33494-7, 1999, In 1978, Hanna Holborn Gray, then the provost and acting president of Yale University, became President of the University of Chicago, a position she held for 15 years.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Hanna Holborn Gray (1978–1993), University of Chicago News Office, March 9, 2006, September 14, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 19, 2009, live,


File:Harper Midway Chicago.jpg|thumb|View from the Midway PlaisanceMidway PlaisanceIn 1999, then-President Hugo Sonnenschein announced plans to relax the university's famed core curriculum, reducing the number of required courses from 21 to 15. When The New York Times, The Economist, and other major news outlets picked up this story, the university became the focal point of a national debate on education. The changes were ultimately implemented, but the controversy played a role in Sonnenschein's decision to resign in 2000.BOOK, Beam, Alex, A Great Idea at the Time, Public Affairs, 2008, 152,weblink 978-1-58648-487-3, From the mid-2000s, the university began a number of multimillion-dollar expansion projects. In 2008, the University of Chicago announced plans to establish the Milton Friedman Institute, which attracted both support and controversy from faculty members and {{nowrap|students.NEWS, Staley and Lippert, Oliver and John, Milton Friedman Institute Spurs Chicago Faculty Clash (Update3),weblink Bloomberg, October 15, 2008, March 12, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 21, 2015, live, NEWS, Jacobsen, Kurt, Milton Friedman gives Chicago a headache,weblink The Guardian, August 26, 2008, London, December 13, 2016,weblink March 5, 2017, live, NEWS, Cohen, Patricia, On Chicago Campus, Milton Friedman's Legacy of Controversy Continues,weblink The New York Times, July 12, 2008, February 20, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2017, live, WEB, Milton Friedman Petition,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2009, mdy-all, WEB, Cochrane, John, Comments on the Milton Friedman Institute Protest letter,weblink June 5, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2011, live, }} The institute will cost around $200 million and occupy the buildings of the Chicago Theological Seminary. During the same year, investor David G. Booth donated $300 million to the university's Booth School of Business, which is the largest gift in the university's history and the largest gift ever to any business school.NEWS,weblink Booth Donates $300 Million to Chicago Business School, November 10, 2008, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, November 7, 2008, In 2009, planning or construction on several new buildings, half of which cost $100 million or more, was underway.JOURNAL,weblink University of Chicago Magazine, Pridmore, Jay, Make No Little Quads, July 21, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink August 9, 2009, live, Since 2011, major construction projects have included the Jules and Gwen Knapp Center for Biomedical Discovery, a ten-story medical research center, and further additions to the medical campus of the University of Chicago Medical Center.PRESS RELEASE, $25 million gift from Jules and Gwen Knapp will help build 10-story medical research facility at the University of Chicago, University of Chicago News Office,weblink June 11, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink August 30, 2006, live, In 2014 the University launched the public phase of a $4.5 billion fundraising campaign.NEWS, Smith, Mitch, University of Chicago announces $4.5 billion fundraising campaign,weblink Chicago Tribune, December 22, 2015, May 8, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink December 25, 2015, live, In September 2015, the University received $100 million from The Pearson Family Foundation to establish The Pearson Institute for the Study and Resolution of Global Conflicts and The Pearson Global Forum at the Harris School of Public Policy Studies.NEWS, Glanton, Dahleen, U. of C. gets $100 million donation to study global conflict,weblink Chicago Tribune, December 2, 2015, September 30, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 1, 2015, live, On May 1, 2014, the University of Chicago was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault.WEB, U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations,weblink U.S. Department of Education, July 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2014, live, In 2019, the university created its first school in three decades, the Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering.NEWS,weblink University of Chicago Launches School of Molecular Engineering, Holland, Jake, 2019-05-28, Wall Street Journal, 2019-05-28, en-US, 0099-9660,weblink May 28, 2019, live, NEWS,weblink University of Chicago receives $75M to launch campus' first engineering school, Rhodes, Dawn, May 28, 2019, 2019-05-28, en-US,weblink May 28, 2019, live,


Main campus

{{wide image|UniversityofChicagoPanoramic.jpg|1049px|align-cap=center|The campus of the University of Chicago, from the top of Rockefeller Chapel, the Main Quadrangles can be seen on the left (West), the Oriental Institute and the Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economics can be seen in the center (North) and the Booth School of Business and Laboratory Schools can be seen on the right (East), as the panoramic is bounded on both sides by the Midway Plaisance (South).|alt=The campus of the University of Chicago.}}The main campus of the University of Chicago consists of {{convert|217|acre|ha|1}} in the Chicago neighborhoods of Hyde Park and Woodlawn, approximately eight miles (12 km) south of downtown Chicago. The northern and southern portions of campus are separated by the Midway Plaisance, a large, linear park created for the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed the university as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.WEB,weblink "America's most beautiful college campuses", Travel+Leisure (September 2011),, July 10, 2014, July 29, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2014, live, (File:John List- Extra footage 3-VPRO-The Mind of the Universe.ogv|thumb|right|Aerial shots from the University of Chicago campus.)File:Cobb Hall.jpg|thumb|right| Cobb Lecture Hall, part of the Main Quadrangles, was the first and most expensive of the campus' original 16 buildings. Designed by Henry Ives Cobb (no relation to benefactor Silas B. Cobb) and constructed in 1892, it was modeled after Gothic buildings at University of OxfordUniversity of OxfordThe first buildings of the campus, which make up what is now known as the Main Quadrangles, were part of a master plan conceived by two University of Chicago trustees and plotted by Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb. The Main Quadrangles consist of six quadrangles, each surrounded by buildings, bordering one larger quadrangle.Goodspeed, p. 221 The buildings of the Main Quadrangles were designed by Cobb, Shepley, Rutan and Coolidge, Holabird & Roche, and other architectural firms in a mixture of the Victorian Gothic and Collegiate Gothic styles, patterned on the colleges of the University of Oxford.BOOK,weblink Chicago's Famous Buildings, Schulze, Franz, Harrington, Kevin, 5th, University of Chicago Press, 0-226-74066-8, 2003, 246–50, August 31, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2010, live, (Mitchell Tower, for example, is modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower,JOURNAL, Architectural Details, December 2002, The University of Chicago Magazine,weblink April 30, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink May 18, 2006, live, and the university Commons, Hutchinson Hall, replicates Christ Church Hall.BOOK, Robertson, David Allan, The University of Chicago: An Official Guide,weblink August 31, 2009, 3rd, 1919, University of Chicago Press, 48, ) In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, the University of Chicago Quadrangles were selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great PlacesNEWS, Waldinger, Mike, The proud history of architecture in Illinois,weblink January 30, 2018, Springfield Business Journal, January 30, 2018,weblink June 13, 2018, live, by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component (AIA Illinois).File:Mitchell-Magdalen comparison.jpg|thumb|left|Many older buildings of the University of Chicago employ Collegiate Gothic architecture like that of the University of Oxford. For example, Chicago's Mitchell Tower (left) was modeled after Oxford's Magdalen Tower (right).]]After the 1940s, the campus's Gothic style began to give way to modern styles. In 1955, Eero Saarinen was contracted to develop a second master plan, which led to the construction of buildings both north and south of the Midway, including the Laird Bell Law Quadrangle (a complex designed by Saarinen); a series of arts buildings; a building designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the university's School of Social Service Administration, a building which is to become the home of the Harris School of Public Policy Studies by Edward Durrell Stone, and the Regenstein Library, the largest building on campus, a brutalist structure designed by Walter Netsch of the Chicago firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.JOURNAL,weblink There Will Be Books, Puma, Amy Braverman, University of Chicago Magazine, 2007, September 6, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 21, 2010, live, Another master plan, designed in 1999 and updated in 2004,JOURNAL,weblink 2020 Vision, University of Chicago Magazine, Braverman, Amy M., February 2005, 3, 27, September 16, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 21, 2010, live, produced the Gerald Ratner Athletics Center (2003), the Max Palevsky Residential Commons (2001), South Campus Residence Hall and dining commons (2009), a new children's hospital,JOURNAL,weblink Of Milestones and Momentum, September 16, 2009, The University of Chicago Magazine, July–August 2008, 100, 6,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2009, live, and other construction, expansions, and restorations.The University of Chicago Magazine {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 31, 2009 }}. Retrieved on August 15, 2013. In 2011, the university completed the glass dome-shaped Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, which provides a grand reading room for the university library and prevents the need for an off-campus book depository.The site of Chicago Pile-1 is a National Historic Landmark and is marked by the Henry Moore sculpture Nuclear Energy.WEB,weblink Site of the First Self-Sustaining Nuclear Reaction, National Historic Landmarks Program, September 12, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2015, live, Robie House, a Frank Lloyd Wright building acquired by the university in 1963, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site WEB,weblink Unesco AddsFrank Lloyd Wright’s Architecture to World Heritage List, New York Times,weblink August 20, 2019, August 7, 2019, as well as a National Historic Landmark,WEB,weblink About Us, Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust, September 8, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 19, 2007, as is room 405 of the George Herbert Jones Laboratory, where Glenn T. Seaborg and his team were the first to isolate plutonium.WEB,weblink Room 405, George Herbert Jones Laboratory, National Historic Landmarks Program, September 12, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2008, live, Hitchcock Hall, an undergraduate dormitory, is on the National Register of Historic Places.WEB,weblink National Register of Historic Places NPS Focus database, National Park Service, January 17, 2012,weblink August 1, 2012, live, Resource Name = Hitchcock, Charles, Hall; Reference Number = 74000751File:Snell Hitchcock1.JPG|Snell-Hitchcock, an undergraduate dormitory constructed in the early 20th century, is part of the Main Quadrangles. File:Rockefeller Chapel Entire Structure.jpg|Rockefeller Chapel, constructed in 1928, was designed by Bertram Goodhue in the neo-Gothic style.File:Henry Hinds Laboratory at University of Chicago5.jpg|The Henry Hinds Laboratory for Geophysical Sciences was built in 1969.WEB,weblink Henry Hinds Laboratory Architect's Drawings, University of Chicago Archival Photographic Files, September 10, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 17, 2010, live, File:Ratner Athletic Center.jpg|The Gerald Ratner Athletics Center, opened in 2003 and designed by Cesar Pelli, houses the volleyball, wrestling, swimming, and basketball teams.WEB,weblink Overview, The University of Chicago, October 10, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2008,

Satellite campuses

The university also maintains facilities apart from its main campus. The university's Booth School of Business maintains campuses in Hong Kong, London, and the downtown Streeterville neighborhood of Chicago. The Center in Paris, a campus located on the left bank of the Seine in Paris, hosts various undergraduate and graduate study programs.WEB, The University of Chicago Center in Paris, University of Chicago,weblink August 27, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2009, live, In fall 2010, the university opened a center in Beijing, near Renmin University's campus in Haidian District. The most recent additions are a center in New Delhi, India, which opened in 2014, and a center in Hong Kong which opened in 2015.

Administration and finances

(File:Hutchinson Commons 2014.jpg|thumb|Hutchinson Commons.)The university is governed by a board of trustees. The Board of Trustees oversees the long-term development and plans of the university and manages fundraising efforts, and is composed of 55 members including the university President.WEB,weblink Board of Trustees, The University of Chicago, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 30, 2016, live, Directly beneath the President are the Provost, fourteen Vice Presidents (including the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Investment Officer, and Vice President for Campus Life and Student Services), the Directors of Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab, the Secretary of the university, and the Student Ombudsperson.WEB, University Organization Chart,weblink August 16, 2009, The University of Chicago,weblink" title="">weblink August 9, 2009, live, {{As of|2016|May|df=US}}, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees is Joseph Neubauer,WEB,weblink Major U of C donor to head school's board of trustees, Crain's Chicago Business, May 17, 2016, and the President of the university is Robert Zimmer. In December 2013 it was announced that the Director of Argonne National Laboratory, Eric Isaacs, would become Provost. Isaacs was replaced as Provost in March 2016 by Daniel Diermeier.WEB,weblink Daniel Diermeier appointed provost of University of Chicago {{!, UChicago News|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=|access-date=|archive-url=|archive-date=May 4, 2016|url-status=live}}The university's endowment was the 12th largest among American educational institutions and state university systems in 2013WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, May 12, 2013, U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2012 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change* in Endowment Market Value from FY 2011 to FY 2012 (Revised February 4, 2013), 2013, January 19, 2014, and {{as of|2018||df=US|lc=on}} was valued at $8.2 billion.WEB,weblink University of Chicago endowment grows to $8.2 billion, Crain's Chicago Business, November 15, 2018,weblink November 16, 2018, live, Part of President Zimmer's financial plan for the university has been an increase in accumulation of debt to finance large building projects.NEWS,weblink Bloomberg, Michael, McDonald, University of Chicago Is Outlier With Growing Debt Load, March 17, 2014, March 12, 2017,weblink February 23, 2017, live, This has drawn support and criticism from many in the university community.


(File:University of Chicago July 2013 19 (Main Quadrangles).jpg|thumb|The University of Chicago Main Quadrangles, looking north.)The academic bodies of the University of Chicago consist of the College, five divisions of graduate research, six professional schools, and the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies. The university also contains a library system, the University of Chicago Press, and the University of Chicago Medical Center, and oversees a number of laboratories, including Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Argonne National Laboratory, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The university is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission.The university runs on a quarter system in which the academic year is divided into four terms: Summer (June–August), Autumn (September–December), Winter (January–March), and Spring (April–June). Full-time undergraduate students take three to four courses every quarterWEB,weblink Academic Regulations and Procedures, August 13, 2009, The University of Chicago, Students register for three or four courses per quarter. Over the typical four-year program (twelve quarters), a student normally registers for at least six four-course quarters and as many as six three-course quarters., yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2009, for approximately eleven weeks before their quarterly academic breaks. The school year typically begins in late September and ends in mid-June.WEB,weblink The University of Chicago Academic Calendar, August 17, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2005, live,


The University of Chicago has an extensive record of producing successful business leaders and billionaires.WEB, These 7 Schools Have the Richest Alumni — Is Yours On the List?,weblink, June 28, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2015, live, WEB, World's top 100 universities for producing millionaires,weblink Times Higher Education, June 28, 2015,weblink January 15, 2017, live, WEB, 3 Public Universities Made List of 15 Schools With the Wealthiest Alumni,weblink ABC News, June 28, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2015, live, ARWU has consistently placed the University of Chicago among the top 10 universities in the world,WEB, Performance in Academic Ranking of World Universities,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities, July 2, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2019, live, and the 2020 QS World University Rankings placed the university in 10th place worldwide.WEB, QS World University Rankings 2020,weblink Top Universities, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, July 2, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink September 17, 2012, live, The university's law and business schools rank among the top five professional schools in the United States.WEB,weblink Bloomberg Businessweek: The Complete 2012 Business Schools Ranking, 2012-11-15, November 15, 2012,, June 26, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 17, 2012, live, The business school is currently ranked first in the US by US News & World ReportWEB,weblink Best Business Schools,weblink March 14, 2012, live, and first in the world by The Economist,WEB,weblink 2018 MBA & Business School Rankings {{!, Which MBA? {{!}} The Economist|website=The Economist|language=en|access-date=2018-11-15|archive-url=|archive-date=November 25, 2018|url-status=live}} while the law school is ranked fourth by US News & World ReportWEB,weblink Best Law Schools,weblink March 20, 2017, live, and first by Above the Law.NEWS,weblink The 2018 ATL Top 50 Law School Rankings, Shepherd, David Lat, Elie Mystal, Staci Zaretsky, Kashmir Hill, Marin, Mark Herrmann, Jay, Above the Law, 2018-11-15, en-US, Chicago has also been consistently recognized to be one of the top 15 university brands in the world,WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings 2015, Times Higher Education,weblink May 6, 2016, no, retaining the number three spot in the 2019 U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings.WEB, September 13, 2016,weblink Princeton tops list of 2017 U.S. News Best Colleges Rankings, September 13, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink September 13, 2016, live, In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, the university's graduates were shown to be among the most valued in the world.NEWS,weblink Global Companies Rank Universities,, October 25, 2012, August 3, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink August 26, 2016, live, {{Clear}}

Undergraduate college

(File:Harper Library from the Midway Plaisance.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|Harper Memorial Library was dedicated in 1912 and takes inspiration from various colleges in England.)The College of the University of Chicago grants Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees in 51 academic majorsWEB,weblink Majors, University of Chicago College, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink April 23, 2014, yes, and 33 minors.WEB,weblink Minors, University of Chicago College, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2014, yes, The college's academics are divided into five divisions: the Biological Sciences Collegiate Division, the Physical Sciences Collegiate Division, the Social Sciences Collegiate Division, the Humanities Collegiate Division, and the New Collegiate Division.WEB,weblink Departments and Academic Degree Programs in the College, July 26, 2009, University of Chicago, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2008, The first four are sections within their corresponding graduate divisions, while the New Collegiate Division administers interdisciplinary majors and studies which do not fit in one of the other four divisions.WEB,weblink University of Chicago, New Collegiate Division, July 26, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2009, yes, Undergraduate students are required to take a distribution of courses to satisfy the university's general education requirements, commonly known as the Common Core. In 2012–2013, the Core classes at Chicago were limited to 17 courses, and are generally led by a full-time professor (as opposed to a teaching assistant).JOURNAL, Another Chapter in the Life of the College, The University of Chicago Magazine,weblink September 3, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink September 13, 2006, live, As of the 2013–2014 school year, 15 courses and demonstrated proficiency in a foreign language are required under the Core.WEB,weblink The Core, University of Chicago Office of College Admissions, December 24, 2013, yes,weblink December 25, 2013, Undergraduate courses at the University of Chicago are known for their demanding standards, heavy workload and academic difficulty; according to Uni in the USA, "Among the academic cream of American universities – Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, and the University of Chicago – it is UChicago that can most convincingly claim to provide the most rigorous, intense learning experience."Top University In USA | Best Universities In USA | University In The USA {{webarchive|url= |date=May 14, 2013 }}. Retrieved on August 15, 2013.(File:Eckhart Hall.jpg|right|thumb|upright=0.9|Eckhart Hall houses the university's math department.)

Graduate schools and committees

The university graduate schools and committees are divided into five divisions: Biological Sciences, Humanities, Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, and the Institute for Molecular Engineering.WEB,weblink University of Chicago makes its first foray into engineering, March 8, 2011, International Business Times, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2016, live, In the autumn quarter of 2015, the university enrolled 3,588 graduate students: 438 in the Biological Sciences Division, 801 in the Humanities Division, 1,102 in the Physical Sciences Division, 1,165 in the Social Sciences Division, and 52 in the Institute for Molecular Engineering.WEB,weblink Autumn Quarter 2015 Statistical Reports, University of Chicago Registrar,weblink September 5, 2018, yes, The university is home to several committees for interdisciplinary scholarship, including the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought.

Professional schools

The university contains seven professional schools: the Pritzker School of Medicine, the Booth School of Business, the University of Chicago Law School, the University of Chicago Divinity School, the University of Chicago Harris School of Public Policy Studies, and the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. The Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies offers non-degree courses and certificates as well as degree programs.WEB,weblink About {{!, University of Chicago Graham School|last=|first=|date=|website=|publisher=|access-date=May 17, 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=June 7, 2016|url-status=live}}The Law School is accredited by the American Bar Association, the Divinity School is accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada, Pritzker is accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education.WEB,weblink The University of Chicago, College Navigator, August 6, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink April 13, 2011, live,

Associated academic institutions

(File:LB2.JPG|thumb|left|upright=0.9|The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, a private day school run by the university.)The university runs a number of academic institutions and programs apart from its undergraduate and postgraduate schools. It operates the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools (a private day school for K-12 students and day care),WEB, About the Lab Schools, 2005, The University of Chicago Laboratory Schools,weblink September 3, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2006, yes, and a public charter school with four campuses on the South Side of Chicago administered by the university's Urban Education Institute.WEB,weblink About the University of Chicago Charter School, August 13, 2009, University of Chicago Urban Education Institute, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2009, In addition, the Hyde Park Day School, a school for students with learning disabilities,WEB,weblink Chicago School for Children with Learning Disabilities, Hyde Park Day School, The Hyde Park Day School (HPDS) is a private, not-for-profit day school serving the needs of children with learning disabilities... With two Illinois locations on the University of Chicago campus in Chicago and north suburban Northfield, HPDS is the only school of its kind in the Chicago area., September 9, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 4, 2009, live, and the Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School, a residential treatment program for those with behavioral and emotional problems,WEB, Caring for the Whole Person,weblink Sonia Shankman Orthogenic School, May 19, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink May 19, 2018, live, maintains a location on the University of Chicago campus. Since 1983, the University of Chicago has maintained the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, a mathematics program used in urban primary and secondary schools.WEB, The University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP), The University of Chicago,weblink May 28, 2006, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2006, mdy-all, The university runs a program called the Council on Advanced Studies in the Humanities and Social Sciences, which administers interdisciplinary workshops to provide a forum for graduate students, faculty, and visiting scholars to present scholarly work in progress.WEB, about CAS, November 17, 2007, The Council on Advanced Studies,weblink November 17, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2007, live, The university also operates the University of Chicago Press, the largest university press in the United States.WEB, Academic publishing veteran to direct the University Press, July 12, 2007, The University of Chicago Chronicle,weblink July 12, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink May 19, 2008, live,

Library system

(File:University of Chicago, Harper Library.jpg|thumb|University of Chicago, Harper Library.)The University of Chicago Library system encompasses six libraries that contain a total of 11 million volumes, the 9th most among library systems in the United States.WEB,weblink The University of Chicago Library,, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2016, live, The university's main library is the Regenstein Library, which contains one of the largest collections of print volumes in the United States. The Joe and Rika Mansueto Library, built in 2011, houses a large study space and an automated book storage and retrieval system. The John Crerar Library contains more than 1.4 million volumes in the biological, medical and physical sciences and collections in general science and the philosophy and history of science, medicine, and technology.WEB,weblink About the John Crerar Library, June 13, 2013,, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 31, 2016, live, The university also operates a number of special libraries, including the D'Angelo Law Library, the Social Service Administration Library, and the Eckhart Library for mathematics and computer science.WEB,weblink Eckhart Library, University of Chicago Library, October 26, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2013, live, WEB, College Closeup: University of Chicago, Peterson's,weblink August 19, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2007, Harper Memorial Library is now a reading and study room.


File:Fermilab.jpg|thumb|left|Aerial view of FermilabFermilabIn fiscal year 2015, the University of Chicago spent $421.1 million on research.WEB,weblink NSF – NCSES Academic Institution Profiles – University of Chicago, The : Total R&D expenditures, by source of funds and R&D field: 2015,, March 2, 2017,weblink December 21, 2016, yes, It is classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as an institution with "highest research activity"WEB,weblink University of Chicago Carnegie Classifications, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink September 13, 2018, live, and is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and was a member of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation from 1946 through June 29, 2016, when the group's name was changed to the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The University of Chicago is not a member of the rebranded consortium, but will continue to be a collaborator.WEB,weblink Name Change – FAQ, Big Ten Academic Alliance, June 30, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2016, live, WEB,weblink Big Ten's Academic Division Changes Name, Inside Higher Ed, June 30, 2016, June 30, 2016,weblink September 14, 2016, live, The university operates more than 140 research centers and institutes on campus.WEB,weblink Institutes and Centers, The University of Chicago, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2016, live, Among these are the Oriental Institute—a museum and research center for Near Eastern studies owned and operated by the university—and a number of National Resource Centers, including the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. Chicago also operates or is affiliated with a number of research institutions apart from the university proper. The university manages Argonne National Laboratory, part of the United States Department of Energy's national laboratory system, and co-manages Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) , a nearby particle physics laboratory, as well as a stake in the Apache Point Observatory in Sunspot, New Mexico. Faculty and students at the adjacent Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago collaborate with the university.WEB,weblink About TTI-C, An agreement between the University of Chicago and TTI – C allows cross-listing of computer science course offerings between the two institutions, providing students from each institution the opportunity to register in the other's courses., August 17, 2009, August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink May 25, 2009, live, In 2013, the university formed an affiliation with the formerly independent Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass.Marine Biological Laboratory to affiliate with University of Chicago – Health & wellness {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 29, 2017 }}. The Boston Globe (June 12, 2013). Retrieved on August 15, 2013. Although formally unrelated, the National Opinion Research Center is located on Chicago's campus.The University of Chicago has been the site of some important experiments and academic movements. In economics, the university has played an important role in shaping ideas about the free marketKasper, Sherryl (2002) The Revival of Laissez-Faire in American Macroeconomic Theory: A Case Study of Its Pioneers. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. {{ISBN|1-84064-606-3}} and is the namesake of the Chicago school of economics, the school of economic thought supported by Milton Friedman and other economists. The university's sociology department was the first independent sociology department in the United States and gave birth to the Chicago school of sociology.WEB,weblink History of the Department, August 17, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2009, live, In physics, the university was the site of the Chicago Pile-1 (the first controlled, self-sustaining man-made nuclear chain reaction, part of the Manhattan Project), of Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment that calculated the charge of the electron,WEB, Abstract of Robert A. Millikan Oil Drop Experiment Notebooks,weblink Caltech Institute Archives, September 8, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2010, live, and of the development of radiocarbon dating by Willard F. Libby in 1947. The chemical experiment that tested how life originated on early Earth, the Miller–Urey experiment, was conducted at the university. REM sleep was discovered at the university in 1953 by Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky.BOOK,weblink Climate crash: abrupt climate change and what it means for our future, Cox, John D., 27, In 1947, at the University of Chicago, chemist Willard F. Libby discovered a powerful new technology known as radiocarbon dating. Libby would win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1960 for developing this geological clock., September 9, 2009, National Academies Press, 978-0-309-09312-5, 2005, The University of Chicago (Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics) has owned the Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin since 1897, where the largest operating refracting telescope in the world and other telescopes are located.


File:University of Chicago USA3.jpg|thumb|upright|Saieh Hall for Economics, housing the Department of Economics and the Becker Friedman InstituteBecker Friedman InstituteThe UChicago Arts program joins academic departments and programs in the Division of the Humanities and the College, as well as professional organizations including the Court Theatre, the Oriental Institute, the Smart Museum of Art, the Renaissance Society, University of Chicago Presents, and student arts organizations. The university has an artist-in-residence program and scholars in performance studies, contemporary art criticism, and film history. It has offered a doctorate in music composition since 1933 and in cinema and media studies since 2000, a master of fine arts in visual arts (early 1970s), and a master of arts in the humanities with a creative writing track (2000). It has bachelor's degree programs in visual arts, music, and art history, and, more recently, cinema and media studies (1996) and theater and performance studies (2002). The College's general education core includes a "dramatic, musical, and visual arts" requirement, inviting students to study the history of the arts, stage desire, or begin working with sculpture. Several thousand major and non-major undergraduates enroll annually in creative and performing arts classes.WEB,weblink Background and History of UChicago Arts,, August 5, 2012, July 29, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink November 10, 2013, live, UChicago is often considered the birthplace of improvisational comedy as the Compass Players student comedy troupe evolved into The Second City improv theater troupe in 1959. The Reva and David Logan Center for the Arts opened in October 2012, five years after a $35 million gift from alumnus David Logan and his wife Reva. The center includes spaces for exhibitions, performances, classes, and media production. The Logan Center was designed by Tod Williams and Billie Tsien. This building is actually entirely glass. The brick is a facade designed to keep the glass safe from the wind. The architects later removed sections of the bricks when pressure arose in the form of complaints that the views of the city were blocked.{{Clear}}

Student body and admissions {| style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; " class"wikitable"

Student body demographics, spring quarter 2016{{cref2>A}}! style="background:#ffdead;" colspan=5|By sexWEB,weblink Spring Quarter 2016 4th Week Quarterly Census Enrollment Reports, University of Chicago Registrar,weblink September 5, 2018, yes, |!College !! Graduate schools !! Professional schools !! University total|Male|52.64%|60.15%|59.84%|57.09%|Female|47.36%|39.85%|40.16%|42.91%! style="background:#ffdead;" colspan=5|By race|!College !! Graduate schools !! Professional schools !! University total|International student|11.05%|34.91%|24.05%|21.52%|African American|5.30%|2.64%|4.27%|4.34%Indigenous peoples of the Americas>Native American|0.23%|0.30%|0.16%|0.22%|Arab/Middle Eastern/North African|0.20%|1.03%|0.30%|0.46%Asian people>Asian|17.22%|5.82%|12.76%|12.83%|Pacific Islander|0.05%|0.03%|0.02%|0.04%|Hispanic/Latino|8.73%|5.24%|5.79%|6.92%Multiracial American>Multiracial|3.61%|2.06%|1.66%|2.51%White people>White|43.74%|36.33%|44.79%|42.42%|Unspecified|9.88%|10.42%|6.20%|8.73%In the spring quarter of 2016, the University of Chicago enrolled 5,547 students in the college, 3,249 students in its five graduate divisions, 3,498 students in its professional schools, and 14,095 students overall. In the 2016 spring quarter, international students comprised over 21% of the overall student body, over 27% of students were domestic ethnic minorities,WEB,weblinkweblink August 20, 2012, Spring Quarter 2012 Statistical Report, August 12, 2012, dead, and about 43% of enrolled students were female.WEB,weblinkweblink August 20, 2012, SPRING QUARTER 2012 STATISTICAL REPORT, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, Office of the Registrar,], June 21, 2012, August 14, 2012, Table 7, dead, Admissions to the University of Chicago is highly selective. The middle 50% band of SAT scores for the undergraduate class of 2019, excluding the writing section, was 1450–1550,WEB,weblink Profile for the Class of 2019 {{!, College Admissions {{!}} The University of Chicago||access-date=May 17, 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=April 22, 2016|dead-url=yes}} the average MCAT score for entering students in the Pritzker School of Medicine in 2011 was 36,WEB,weblink Admissions FAQs, Pritzker School of Medicine, August 12, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2012, and the median LSAT score for entering students in the Law School in 2015 was 171.WEB,weblink FAQs: About the Law School, The University of Chicago Law School, May 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2016, live, For the class of 2023, the College of the University of Chicago had an acceptance rate of 5.9%, the lowest in the college's history and among the lowest in the country.NEWS,weblink Acceptance Rate Drops to Record Low 5.9 Percent for Class of 2023, Smith, Justin, April 1, 2019, Chicago Maroon,weblink April 12, 2019, live, In 2018, the University of Chicago attracted national headlines by becoming the first major research university to no longer require SAT/ACT scores from college applicants.NEWS,weblink Perspective {{!, Now that the University of Chicago dropped its testing requirement for applicants, will other elite colleges follow?|last=Selingo|first=Jeffrey J.|date=June 16, 2018|work=Washington Post|access-date=June 18, 2018|language=en-US|issn=0190-8286|archive-url=|archive-date=June 17, 2018|url-status=live}}


(File:Chicago Maroons logo.svg|thumb|left|Official Athletics logo.)The University of Chicago hosts 19 varsity sports teams: 10 men's teams and 9 women's teams,WEB,weblink Quick Facts: 2012–13 Summary, April 23, 2014, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2014, live, all called the Maroons, with 502 students participating in the 2012–2013 school year.The Maroons compete in the NCAA's Division III as members of the University Athletic Association (UAA). The university was a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and participated in the NCAA Division I men's basketball and football and was a regular participant in the men's basketball tournament. In 1935, the University of Chicago reached the Sweet Sixteen. In 1935, Chicago Maroons football player Jay Berwanger became the first winner of the Heisman Trophy. However, the university chose to withdraw from the Big Ten Conference in 1946 after University President Robert Maynard Hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics in 1939 and dropped football.BOOK, McNeill, William Hardy, 1991, Hutchins' university: A Memoir of the University of Chicago, 1929–1950, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 0-226-56170-4, (In 1969, Chicago reinstated football as a Division III team, resuming playing its home games at the new Stagg Field.) UChicago is also the home of the ultimate frisbee team Chicago Junk.WEB,weblink USA Ultimate Events, Teams and Member Accounts,, May 14, 2018, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Student life

(File:Reynoldsclub.JPG|thumb|left|upright=0.9|The university's Reynolds Club, the student center.)

Student organizations

Students at the University of Chicago operate more than 400 clubs and organizations known as Recognized Student Organizations (RSOs).WEB, Student Activities, University of Chicago Office of College Admissions, 2008, June 27, 2009,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2009, yes, These include cultural and religious groups, academic clubs and teams, and common-interest organizations.WEB, UChicago Student Activities Database, June 27, 2009,weblink yes,weblink June 9, 2010, Notable extracurricular groups include the University of Chicago College Bowl Team, which has won 118 tournaments and 15 national championships, leading both categories internationally. The university's competitive Model United Nations team was the top ranked team in North America in 2013–14, 2014–2015, 2015-2016, and again for the 2017-2018 season. The University's model UN team is also the first to be in the top 5 for almost a decade, according to Best Delegate. Among notable RSOs are the nation's longest continuously running student film society Doc Films, the organizing committee for the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, the twice-weekly student newspaper The Chicago Maroon, the alternative weekly student newspaper South Side Weekly the satirical Chicago Shady Dealer,NEWS,weblink 10 unusual names for a newspaper, February 3, 2011, BBC News, March 15, 2017, en-GB,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2017, live, the nation's second oldest continuously running student improvisational theater troupe Off-Off Campus, and the investment club The Blue Chips.

Student government

All Recognized Student Organizations, from the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt to Model UN, in addition to academic teams, sports club, arts groups, and more are funded by The University of Chicago Student Government. Student Government consists of graduate and undergraduate students elected to represent members from their respective academic unit. It is led by an Executive Committee, chaired by a President with the assistance of two Vice Presidents, one for Administration and the other for Student Life, elected together as a slate by the student body each spring. Its annual budget is greater than $2 million.WEB, UChicago SG, University of Chicago Student Government, 2014, July 20, 2014,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2014, live,

Fraternities and sororities

There are Sixteen Fraternities are Alpha Delta Phi (Chicago Chapter), Alpha Epsilon Pi (Lambda Chapter), Alpha Phi Alpha (Theta Chapter), Delta Epsilon Psi (Alpha Kappa), Delta Kappa Epsilon (Delta Delta), Delta Tau Delta (Gamma Alpha), Delta Upsilon(Chicago Chapter), Kappa Alpha Psi (Iota Chapter), Lambda Phi Epsilon (Psi Chapter), Phi Delta Theta (Beta Chapter), Phi Gamma Delta (Chi Upsilon Chapter), Phi Iota Alpha (Chicago Colony Chapter), Psi Upsilon (Omega Chapter), Sigma Chi (Omicron Omicron Chapter), Sigma Phi Epsilon (Omicron Omicron Chapter) and Zeta Psi (Omega Alpha Chapter). There are Six Sororities are Alpha Kappa Alpha (Beta Chapter), Alpha Omicron Pi (Phi Chi Chapter), Delta Gamma (Eta Zeta Chapter), Delta Sigma Theta (Lambda Chapter), Kappa Alpha Theta (Epsilon Phi Chapter) and Pi Beta Phi (Kappa Chapter) at the University of Chicago, as well as one co-ed community service fraternity are Alpha Phi Omega(Gamma Sigma Chapter).WEB, Fraternies and Sororities, 2007, University of Chicago Admissions,weblink March 12, 2007, yes,weblink September 4, 2006, Social fraternities and sororities are not recognized by the university as registered student organizations. Four of the sororities are members of the National Panhellenic Conference There is no Interfraternity Council on campus. {{as of|2017}}, approximately 20 to 25 percent of students are members of fraternities or sororities.JOURNAL, Golus, Carrie,weblink University of Chicago Magazine, October 2002, 95, 1, Geeks Go Greek, January 10, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2006, live, Increasing from the numbers published by the student activities office stating that one in ten undergraduates participate in Greek life in the year 2007.WEB, Greek Life On Campus, 2007, University of Chicago Office of Registered Clubs and Student Activities,weblink March 8, 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2007, mdy-all,

Student housing

File:Blue, orange and pink.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.45|alt=An orange brick building with pink window frames and a blue roof|Max Palevsky Residential Commons, a dormitory completed in 2001 designed by postmodernist Mexican architect Ricardo LegorretaRicardo LegorretaOn-campus undergraduate students at the University of Chicago participate in a house system in which each student is assigned to one of the university's 7 residence hall buildings and to a smaller community within their residence hall called a "House". There are 39 houses, with an average of 70 students in each House.WEB,weblink Houses and Halls, The University of Chicago, September 14, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink September 22, 2016, yes, First-year students are required to participate in the house system, and housing is guaranteed every year thereafter.WEB,weblink Housing and Dining, University of Chicago Office of College Admissions, September 10, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2009, About 60% of undergraduate students live on campus.For graduate students, the university owns and operates 28 apartment buildings near campus.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, July 21, 2012, About Graduate Housing, July 24, 2009,


File:Scavrace1.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|right|Qwazy Quad Rally, Scav Hunt 2005, item #38.]]Every May since 1987, the University of Chicago has held the University of Chicago Scavenger Hunt, in which large teams of students compete to obtain notoriously esoteric items from a list.PRESS RELEASE,weblink University of Chicago News Office, June 13, 2005, World's largest Scavenger Hunt begins in Chicago,weblink" title="">weblink May 7, 2005, live, Since 1963, the Festival of the Arts (FOTA) takes over campus for 7–10 days of exhibitions and interactive artistic Every January, the university holds a week-long winter festival, Kuviasungnerk/Kangeiko, which include early morning exercise routines and fitness workshops. The university also annually holds a summer carnival and concert called Summer Breeze that hosts outside musicians, and is home to Doc Films, a student film society founded in 1932 that screens films nightly at the university. Since 1946, the university has organized the Latke-Hamantash Debate, which involves humorous discussions about the relative merits and meanings of latkes and hamantashen.


{{Further|List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Chicago}}There have been 98 Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Chicago,WEB, Nobel Laureates, December 10, 2008, The University of Chicago,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 26, 2009, October 4, 2011, yes, 20 of whom were pursuing research or on faculty at the university at the time of the award announcement.WEB,weblink Nobel Laureates and Universities, Nobel Foundation, 2008, March 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2008, live, Notable alumni and faculty affiliated with the university include 32 Nobel laureates in Economics.WEB,weblink Nobel Laureates, The University of Chicago, September 29, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2016, live, No university has had more affiliated Nobel laureates in Economics.WEB, Wile, Rob, 3 Nobel Committee Members Tell Us Why So Many Economics Laureates Come From Chicago,weblink November 13, 2017, Business Insider, October 15, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink November 13, 2017, live, In addition, many Chicago alumni and scholars have won the Fulbright awardsNEWS,weblink Graduate students win Fulbright-Hays fellowships, Harms, William, July 30, 2009, June 8, 2006, 8, University of Chicago Chronicle,weblink" title="">weblink July 15, 2009, live, and 53 have matriculated as Rhodes Scholars.


File:Enrico Fermi 1943-49.jpg|upright=0.7|thumb|right|Physicist Enrico FermiEnrico FermiIn 2004, the University of Chicago claimed 133,155 living alumni.JOURNAL,weblink University of Chicago Magazine, Everybody's a critic, Yoe, Mary Ruth, February 2004, 96, 3, September 18, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2009, live, While the university's first president, William Rainey Harper stressed the importance of perennial theory over practicality in his institution's curriculum, this has not stopped the alumni of Chicago from being amongst the wealthiest in the world.In business, notable alumni include Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella, Oracle Corporation founder and the third richest man in America Larry Ellison, Goldman Sachs and MF Global CEO as well as former Governor of New Jersey Jon Corzine, McKinsey & Company founder and author of the first management accounting textbook James O. McKinsey, co-founder of the Blackstone Group Peter G. Peterson, co-founder of AQR Capital Management Cliff Asness, founder of Dimensional Fund Advisors David Booth, founder of The Carlyle Group David Rubenstein, former COO of Goldman Sachs Andrew Alper, billionaire investor and founder of Oaktree Capital Management Howard Marks (investor), Bloomberg L.P. CEO Daniel Doctoroff, Credit Suisse CEO Brady Dougan, Morningstar, Inc. founder and CEO Joe Mansueto, Chicago Cubs owner and chairman Thomas S. Ricketts, and NBA commissioner Adam Silver.File:William Lyon Mackenzie King 1942.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|left|Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie KingWilliam Lyon Mackenzie KingFile:John Paul Stevens, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|left|Supreme Court Justice John Paul StevensJohn Paul StevensNotable alumni in the field of law, government and politics include Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales Lord Thomas of Cwmgiedd, President of the Supreme Court of Israel Shimon Agranat, Attorney General and federal judge Robert Bork, Attorneys General Ramsey Clark, John Ashcroft and Edward Levi, Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King, 33rd Prime Minister of New Zealand Geoffrey Palmer (politician), 11th Prime Minister of Poland Marek Belka, Governor of the Bank of Japan Masaaki Shirakawa, Obama campaign advisor and top political advisor to President Bill Clinton David Axelrod, the founder of modern community organizing Saul Alinsky, Prohibition agent Eliot Ness, current Chicago mayor Lori Lightfoot, the first female African-American Senator Carol Moseley Braun, United States Senator from Vermont and 2016 Democratic Presidential Candidate Bernie Sanders, former World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz, and Amien Rais (Ph.D. 1984) – professor; former Chairman of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) of the Republic of Indonesia.Notable alumni, who are leaders in higher education, have emerged from almost all parts of the university: college president and chancellor Rebecca Chopp; current president of Middlebury College Laurie L. Patton; Master of Clare College, Cambridge and Vice-Chancellor of University of Cambridge Eric Ashby, Baron Ashby; president of Princeton University Christopher L. Eisgruber; former president of Morehouse College Robert M. Franklin, Jr.; and president of Shimer College Susan Henking.In journalism, notable alumni include New York Times columnist and commentator on PBS News Hour David Brooks, Washington Post columnist David Broder, Washington Post publisher Katharine Graham, reporter and commentator Virginia Graham, investigative journalist and political writer Seymour Hersh, The Progressive columnist Milton Mayer, four-time Pulitzer Prize winning journalist Rick Atkinson, statistical analyst and FiveThirtyEight founder and creator Nate Silver, and CBS News correspondent Rebecca Jarvis.In literature, author of the New York Times bestseller Before I Fall Lauren Oliver, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist Philip Roth; Canadian-born Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize for Literature winning writer Saul Bellow; political philosopher, literary critic and author of the New York Times bestseller The Closing of the American Mind Allan Bloom; author of The Big Country and Matt Helm spy novels Donald Hamilton; The Good War author Studs Terkel; writer, essayist, filmmaker, teacher, and political activist Susan Sontag; analytic philosopher and Stanford University Professor of Comparative Literature Richard Rorty; cultural commentator, author, and president of St. Stephen's College (now Bard College) Bernard Iddings Bell; and novelist and satirist Kurt Vonnegut are notable alumni.In the arts and entertainment, minimalist composer Philip Glass, dancer, choreographer and leader in the field of dance anthropology Katherine Dunham, Bungie founder and developer of the Halo video game series Alex Seropian, Serial host Sarah Koenig, actor Ed Asner, Pulitzer Prize for Criticism winning film critic and the subject of the 2014 documentary film Life Itself Roger Ebert, director, writer, and comedian Mike Nichols, film director and screenwriter Philip Kaufman, and photographer and writer Carl Van Vechten, photographer and writer, are graduates.File:Carl Sagan - 1980.jpg|upright=0.55|thumb|left|Astronomer Carl SaganCarl SaganIn science, alumni include astronomers Carl Sagan, a prominent contributor to the scientific research of extraterrestrial life, and Edwin Hubble, known for "Hubble's Law", NASA astronaut John M. Grunsfeld, geneticist James Watson, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA, experimental physicist Luis Alvarez, popular environmentalist David Suzuki, balloonist Jeannette Piccard, biologists Ernest Everett Just and Lynn Margulis, computer scientist Richard Hamming, the creator of the Hamming Code, lithium-ion battery developer John B. Goodenough, mathematician and Fields Medal recipient Paul Joseph Cohen, geochemist Clair Cameron Patterson, who developed the uranium-lead dating method into lead-lead dating, geologist and geophysicist M. King Hubbert, known for the Hubbert curve and Hubbert peak theory, the main components of peak oil, and "Queen of Carbon" Mildred Dresselhaus. Nuclear physicist and researcher Stanton Friedman, who worked on some early projects involving nuclear-powered spacecraft propulsion systems, is also a graduate (M.Sc). Ray Solomonoff, one of the founders of the field of machine learning as well as Kolmogorov Complexity, got a BS and MS in Physics in 1951, studying under Rudolf Carnap.File:Portrait of Milton Friedman.jpg|upright=0.7|thumb|right|Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winner Milton FriedmanMilton FriedmanIn economics, notable Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences winners Milton Friedman, a major advisor to Republican U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, George Stigler, Nobel laureate, CEO of Goldman Sachs, and proponent of regulatory capture theory, Joshua Nash, an important contributor to the family economics branch of economics, Herbert A. Simon, responsible for the modern interpretation of the concept of organizational decision-making, Paul Samuelson, the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, and Eugene Fama, known for his work on portfolio theory, asset pricing and stock market behaviour, are all graduates. American economist, social theorist, political philosopher, and author Thomas Sowell is also an alumnus. Brazil's Minister of the Economy Paulo Guedes received his Ph.D. from UChicago in 1978.Other prominent alumni include anthropologists David Graeber and Donald Johanson, who is best known for discovering the fossil of a female hominid australopithecine known as "Lucy" in the Afar Triangle region, psychologist John B. Watson, American psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism, communication theorist Harold Innis, chess grandmaster Samuel Reshevsky, and conservative international relations scholar and White House Coordinator of Security Planning for the National Security Council Samuel P. Huntington.American Civil Rights Movement leaders Vernon Johns, considered by some to be the founder of the American Civil Rights Movement, American educator, socialist and cofounder of the Highlander Folk School Myles Horton, Tuskegee Airmen commander Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., and African-American history scholar and journalist Carter G. Woodson are all alumni.Three students from the university have been prosecuted in notable court cases: the infamous thrill killers Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb and high school science teacher John T. Scopes who was tried in the Scopes Monkey Trial for teaching evolution.


(File:Archway at the University of Chicago.jpg|thumb|The archway between Bond Chapel and Swift Hall, home of the university's Divinity School)Notable faculty in economics include Frank Knight, Milton Friedman, George Stigler, James Heckman, Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Robert Lucas, Jr. and Eugene Fama. Additionally, the John Bates Clark Medal, which is rewarded annually to the best economist under the age of 40, has also been awarded to 4 current members of the university faculty.NEWS, Guibert, Susan, Chicago Booth's Gentzkow awarded 2014 Clark Medal,weblink November 13, 2017, UChicago News, April 18, 2014,weblink November 13, 2017, live, Notable faculty in physics have included the speed of light calculator A. A. Michelson, elementary charge calculator Robert A. Millikan, discoverer of the Compton Effect Arthur H. Compton, the creator of the first nuclear reactor Enrico Fermi, "the father of the hydrogen bomb" Edward Teller, "one of the most brilliant and productive experimental physicists of the twentieth century" Luis Walter Alvarez, Murray Gell-Mann who introduced the quark, second female Nobel laureate Maria Goeppert-Mayer, the youngest American winner of the Nobel Prize Tsung-Dao Lee, and astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar.In law, former U.S. President Barack Obama, the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century Richard Posner, Supreme Court justices Elena Kagan, Antonin Scalia and John Paul Stevens, and Nobel laureate in Economics Ronald Coase have served on the faculty. Other distinguished scholars who have served on the faculty include Karl Llewellyn, Edward Levi and Cass Sunstein.Philosophers John Dewey who founded functional psychology, George H. Mead who is considered to be one of the founders of social psychology and the American sociological tradition in general, Leo Strauss, prominent philosopher and the founder of the Straussian School in philosophy, noted analyzer of power Hannah Arendt, and Nobel Prize in Literature winning thinker Bertrand Russell, as well as writers T.S. Eliot, Ralph Ellison and J.M. Coetzee have all served on the faculty.Past faculty have also included egyptologist James Henry Breasted, biochemist and National Women's Hall of Fame member Florence B. Seibert, mathematician Alberto Calderón, one of the leading figures of the Austrian School of Economics and Nobel prize winner Friedrich Hayek, meteorologist Ted Fujita, chemists Glenn T. Seaborg, the developer of the actinide concept and Nobel Prize winner Yuan T. Lee, Nobel Prize winning novelist Saul Bellow, political philosopher and author Allan Bloom, conservative political philosopher and historian Richard M. Weaver, cancer researchers Charles Brenton Huggins and Janet Rowley, biologist Susan Lindquist, astronomer Gerard Kuiper, one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics Edward Sapir, and the founder of McKinsey & Co., James O. McKinsey.Current faculty include the philosophers Jean-Luc Marion, James F. Conant, and Robert Pippin, anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, historians Dipesh Chakrabarty, David Nirenberg and Kenneth Pomeranz, linguistic anthropology Michael Silverstein, paleontologists Neil Shubin and Paul Sereno, evolutionary biologist Jerry Coyne, Nobel prize winning physicist James Cronin, Nobel Prize winning economists Eugene Fama, James Heckman, Lars Peter Hansen, Roger Myerson, Richard Thaler, and Robert Lucas, Jr., Freakonomics author and noted economist Steven Levitt, erstwhile governor of India's central bank Raghuram Rajan, former Chairman of President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisors Austan Goolsbee, Kyoto Prize winner Martha Nussbaum, Shakespeare scholar David Bevington, and political scientists John Mearsheimer and Robert Pape.



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