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{{pp|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Short description|U.S.-headquartered technology company}}{{Use American English|date=May 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}

| NASDAQ-100 componentDow Jones Industrial Average>DJIA component| S&P 100 component| S&P 500 component}}| ISIN = US5949181045| industry = {{Unbulleted list| Software development| Computer hardware| Consumer electronics| Social networking service| Cloud computingVideo game industry>Video games| Internet| Corporate venture capital}}Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.| founders = {{Unbulleted list| Bill Gates| Paul Allen}}Microsoft Redmond campus>One Microsoft WayRedmond, Washington>Redmond, Washington| hq_location_country = U.S.| area_served = Worldwide| key_people = {{Unbulleted list| Satya NadellaChief Executive Officer>CEO)| Chris CaposselaChief Marketing Officer>CMO and EVP)| Amy HoodChief Financial Officer>CFO and EVP)| Kurt DelBeneChief Digital Officer>CDO and EVP)Kevin Scott (computer scientist)>Kevin ScottChief Technology Officer>CTO and EVP)Brad Smith (American lawyer)>Brad SmithPresident (corporate title)>President)| Jean-Philippe CourtoisPresident (corporate title)>President and EVP)| John W. Thompson| (Chairman)| Bill GatesTechnical advisor>Technical Advisor)}} {edih} }}125.8 billionDATE=JULY 18, 2019 ACCESS-DATE=JULY 19, 2019 ARCHIVE-DATE=JULY 18, 2019, live, | revenue_year = 201943.0 billion}}| income_year = 201939.2 billion}}| net_income_year = 2019286.55 billion}}| assets_year = 2019102.33 billion}}| equity_year = 2019WEBSITE=MICROSOFT ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190719045116/HTTPS://NEWS.MICROSOFT.COM/FACTS-ABOUT-MICROSOFT#EMPLOYMENTINFO URL-STATUS=LIVE, | num_employees_year = 2019| subsid = weblink|}}}}Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. In 2016, it was the world's largest software maker by revenue (currently Alphabet/Google has more revenue).NEWS,weblink The World's Biggest Public Companies, Forbes, en, January 26, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2015, live, The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software".WEB,weblink Microsoft Corporation, Encyclopædia Britannica, June 18, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 18, 2015, live, Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List, Fortune, en-US, November 9, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink November 10, 2018, live, Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows. The company's 1986 initial public offering (IPO), and subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016,WEB,weblink U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission – Linkedin, December 8, 2016, US SEC, April 29, 2018, As a result of the Merger, a change in control of [Linkedin] occurred and [Linkedin] became a wholly-owned subsidiary of [Microsoft]. The transaction resulted in the payment of approximately $26.4 billion in cash merger consideration.,weblink October 18, 2017, live, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011.WEB,weblink Microsoft confirms takeover of Skype, BBC, May 10, 2011, April 29, 2018,weblink June 20, 2018, live, {{As of|2015}}, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android.WEB,weblink Microsoft gets real, admits its device share is just 14%, Keizer, Gregg, July 14, 2014, Computerworld, International Data Group, [Microsoft's chief operating officer] Turner's 14% came from a new forecast released last week by Gartner, which estimated Windows' share of the shipped device market last year was 14%, and would decrease slightly to 13.7% in 2014. [..] Android will dominate, Gartner said, with a 48% share this year,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2016, live, The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops, laptops, tabs, gadgets, and servers, including Internet search (with Bing), the digital services market (through MSN), mixed reality (HoloLens), cloud computing (Azure), and software development (Visual Studio).Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, and later envisioned a "devices and services" strategy.NEWS,weblink And Microsoft Is Giving Up On The Software Business!, Blodget, Henry, August 23, 2013, Business Insider Australia, August 2, 2017, en,weblink August 2, 2017, live, This unfolded with Microsoft acquiring Danger Inc. in 2008,WEB,weblink Notify The Next Of Kin, June 30, 2010, InformationWeek, April 24, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2014, live, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers, and later forming Microsoft Mobile through the acquisition of Nokia's devices and services division. Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999.WEB,weblink Microsoft sees shares hit record high, October 21, 2016, October 7, 2017, BBC,weblink" title="">weblink October 16, 2017, live, WEB,weblink Microsoft's cloud focus could mean yet more layoffs, Engadget, October 7, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, live, In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple Inc. as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after having been dethroned by Apple in 2010.NEWS,weblink How did Microsoft just overtake Apple as the world's most valuable company?, NBC News, November 28, 2018, en-US,weblink November 29, 2018, live, In April 2019, Microsoft reached the {{Nowrap|trillion-dollar}} market cap, becoming the third U.S. public company to be valued at over $1 trillion after Apple and Amazon respectively.WEB,weblink Levy, Ari, April 24, 2019, Microsoft hits $1 trillion market cap after earnings beat estimates, CNBC, April 24, 2019,weblink April 24, 2019, live, Microsoft is the world's most valuable company.WEB,weblink Market Capitalization 2019, Wikipedia, October 19, 2019,


1972–1985: The founding of Microsoft

File:1981BillPaul.jpg|thumb|left|Paul Allen and weblink A History of the Personal Computer, Allan, Roy A., Allan Publishing, 978-0-9689108-0-1, 2001, July 17, 2010, {{Rp">228|date=November 2012}}Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming.WEB,weblink Bill Gates,, November 8, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2016, live, In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he later dropped out of school to work at Honeywell.WEB, Microsoft Company History,weblink March 20, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink August 6, 2013, live, The January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's (MITS) Altair 8800 microcomputer,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2009, Harvard Square newsstand sold the magazine that started a revolution,, The New York Times Company, December 30, 2008, Finucane, Martin, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration. Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter in March 1975 to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC.{{Rp|108, 112–114|date=November 2012}} Gates and Allen officially established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates: A Timeline, BBC News Online, BBC, July 15, 2006, July 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 22, 2006, live, The original name of "Micro-Soft" (short for microcomputer software) was suggested by Allen.WEB,weblink October 2, 1995, Bill Gates & Paul Allen Talk Check Out The Ultimate Buddy Act in Business History, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Time Inc., Schlender, Brent, April 25, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2011, live, BOOK, Allen, Paul, 2011, Paul Allen: Idea Man, Penguin Group, 91,weblink 978-0-14-196938-1, In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft".JOURNAL,weblink Kay Nishi bridges the cultural gap, Staples, Betsy, Creative Computing, 10, 8, 192, August 1984, July 15, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, live, Microsoft moved its headquarters to Bellevue, Washington in January 1979.Microsoft entered the operating system (OS) business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix.WEB,weblink Under The Hood: Part 8,weblink" title="">weblink September 1, 2006, Computer Source, Dyar, Dafydd Neal, November 4, 2002, July 14, 2010, However, it was MS-DOS that solidified the company's dominance. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, which was set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC).BOOK, Engines That Move Markets: Technology Investing from Railroads to the Internet and Beyond,weblink 2002, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-471-20595-1, February 8, 2018,weblink March 23, 2019, live, For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, although IBM rebranded it to IBM PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as the software selection available for MS-DOS, Microsoft eventually became the leading PC operating systems vendor.JOURNAL, Smart Computing, Sandhills Publishing Company, 6, 3,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, April 5, 2004, Microsoft to Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS), March 2002, August 18, 2008, BOOK, Blaxill, Mark, Eckardt, Ralph, The Invisible Edge: Taking Your Strategy to the Next Level Using Intellectual Property,weblink 2009, Portfolio, 978-1-59184-237-8, 210, February 8, 2018,weblink March 23, 2019, live, {{Rp|210|date=November 2012}} The company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press.{{Rp|232|date=November 2012}}Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease.NEWS,weblink Paul Allen goes public with hard feelings toward Gates, The Seattle Times, January 4, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2016, live, Allen claimed, in his book Idea Man: A Memoir by the Co-founder of Microsoft, that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough.NEWS,weblink Microsoft Co-Founder Hits Out at Gates, Wingfield, Nick, Guth, Robert A., 30 March 2011, Wall Street Journal, Allen later invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate, neuroscience, private spaceflight and more.NEWS,weblink 10 Things You Didn't Know About Microsoft Billionaire Paul Allen, Seattle Seahawks Owner, O'Connor, Clare, Forbes, February 1, 2018, en,weblink February 2, 2018, live,

1985–1994: Windows and Office

File:Microsoft Windows 1.0 pages2 3.jpg|thumb|Windows 1.0Windows 1.0Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in August 1985,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, April 10, 2010, Microsoft OS/2 Announcement, April 10, 2010, August 9, 2017, Microsoft released Microsoft Windows, a graphical extension for MS-DOS, on November 20.{{Rp|242–243, 246|date=November 2012}} Microsoft moved its headquarters from Bellevue to Redmond, Washington, on February 26, 1986, and on March 13 went public,WEB,weblink Microsoft Chronology, CBS News, CBS Interactive, August 5, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 5, 2008, with the resulting rise in stock making an estimated four billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees.WEB,weblink The Microsoft Millionaires Come of Age, Bick, Julie, May 29, 2005, The New York Times, July 3, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2006, live, Microsoft released its version of OS/2 to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) on April 2, 1987. In 1990, due to the partnership with IBM, the Federal Trade Commission set its eye on Microsoft for possible collusion, marking the beginning of over a decade of legal clashes with the U.S. government.JOURNAL,weblink U.S. v. Microsoft: Timeline, November 4, 2002, Wired (magazine), Wired, Condé Nast,weblink" title="">weblink April 19, 2010, live, July 17, 2010, {{Rp|243–244|date=November 2012}} Meanwhile, the company was at work on a 32-bit OS, Microsoft Windows NT, which was heavily based on their copy of the OS/2 code. It shipped on July 21, 1993, with a new modular kernel and the Win32 application programming interface (API), making porting from 16-bit (MS-DOS-based) Windows easier. Once Microsoft informed IBM of NT, the OS/2 partnership deteriorated.WEB,weblink Windows Server 2003: The Road To Gold, Thurrott, Paul,, Penton Media, January 24, 2003, July 15, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 4, 2010, dead, In 1990, Microsoft introduced its office suite, Microsoft Office. The suite bundled separate productivity applications, such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.{{Rp|301|date=November 2012}} On May 22, Microsoft launched Windows 3.0, featuring streamlined user interface graphics and improved protected mode capability for the Intel 386 processor.WEB,weblink Microsoft Windows 3.0 Is 20 Years Old Today!!!, ITProPortal, Athow, Desire, May 22, 2010, April 4, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2012, live, Both Office and Windows became dominant in their respective areas.WEB,weblink OS Market Share 1993–2001 – Windows 98 Put to the Test, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, August 1, 1998, July 3, 2010, Michael, Miller,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, live, WEB,weblink A Peek at Office Upgrade, PC World, IDG, September 13, 2000, McCracken, Harry, July 4, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 6, 2009, On July 27, 1994, the U.S. Department of Justice, Antitrust Division filed a Competitive Impact Statement that said, in part: "Beginning in 1988, and continuing until July 15, 1994, Microsoft induced many OEMs to execute anti-competitive "per processor" licenses. Under a per processor license, an OEM pays Microsoft a royalty for each computer it sells containing a particular microprocessor, whether the OEM sells the computer with a Microsoft operating system or a non-Microsoft operating system. In effect, the royalty payment to Microsoft when no Microsoft product is being used acts as a penalty, or tax, on the OEM's use of a competing PC operating system. Since 1988, Microsoft's use of per processor licenses has increased."WEB,weblink Competitive Impact Statement : U.S. v. Microsoft Corporation,, May 11, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, live,

1995–2007: Foray into the Web, Windows 95, Windows XP, and Xbox

(File:300lx.jpg|thumb|left|In 1996, Microsoft released Windows CE, a version of the operating system meant for personal digital assistants and other tiny computers.)Following Bill Gates' internal "Internet Tidal Wave memo" on May 26, 1995, Microsoft began to redefine its offerings and expand its product line into computer networking and the World Wide Web.WEB,weblink Victor: Software empire pays high price, Borland, John, April 15, 2003, CNET, CBS Interactive,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2011, July 16, 2010, With a few exceptions of new companies, like Netscape, Microsoft was the only major and established company that acted fast enough to be a part of the World Wide Web practically from the start. Other companies like Borland, WordPerfect, Novell, IBM and Lotus, being much slower to adapt to the new situation, would give Microsoft a market dominance.BOOK,weblink Network Security Foundations: Technology Fundamentals for IT Success, March 16, 2019,weblink March 23, 2019, live, 9780782151367, Strebe, Matthew, February 20, 2006, The company released Windows 95 on August 24, 1995, featuring pre-emptive multitasking, a completely new user interface with a novel start button, and 32-bit compatibility; similar to NT, it provided the Win32 API.JOURNAL, Smart Computing, Sandhills Publishing Company, 4, 3,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 6, 2004, New And Improved, Cope, Jim, March 1996, July 16, 2010, BOOK,weblink Windows 95 Programming Secrets, Pietrek, Matt, Matt Pietrek, IDG, 978-1-56884-318-6, March 1996, July 17, 2010, registration, {{Rp|20|date=November 2012}} Windows 95 came bundled with the online service MSN, which was at first intended to be a competitor to the Internet,{{Dubious|date=May 2019|reason="The Internet" is a huge network of cables, microwave links and switching equipment, and even Microsoft at the time didn't have the financial means to replicate it, nor would there have been any business reason to do so.}} and (for OEMs) Internet Explorer, a Web browser. Internet Explorer was not bundled with the retail Windows 95 boxes, because the boxes were printed before the team finished the Web browser, and instead was included in the Windows 95 Plus! pack.WEB,weblink MSN: The Inside Story, Supersite for Windows, Thurrott, Paul, Penton (company), Penton Media, May 19, 2005, July 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2010, Branching out into new markets in 1996, Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit created a new 24/7 cable news channel, MSNBC.WEB,weblink Marketplace: News Archives, Marketplace, American Public Media, July 15, 1996,weblink" title="">weblink August 23, 2004, Microsoft created Windows CE 1.0, a new OS designed for devices with low memory and other constraints, such as personal digital assistants.WEB,weblink Tilly, Chris, The History of Microsoft Windows CE, HPC:Factor, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2008, live, In October 1997, the Justice Department filed a motion in the Federal District Court, stating that Microsoft violated an agreement signed in 1994 and asked the court to stop the bundling of Internet Explorer with Windows.{{Rp|323–324|date=November 2012}}File:Xbox-console.jpg|thumb|Microsoft released the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles in 2001. The Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor.]]On January 13, 2000, Bill Gates handed over the CEO position to Steve Ballmer, an old college friend of Gates and employee of the company since 1980, while creating a new position for himself as Chief Software Architect.{{Rp|111, 228|date=November 2012}} Various companies including Microsoft formed the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance in October 1999 to (among other things) increase security and protect intellectual property through identifying changes in hardware and software. Critics decried the alliance as a way to enforce indiscriminate restrictions over how consumers use software, and over how computers behave, and as a form of digital rights management: for example the scenario where a computer is not only secured for its owner, but also secured against its owner as well.WEB,weblink Fears of Misuse of Encryption System Are Voiced, The New York Times, Markoff, John, June 20, 2002, July 7, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, live, BOOK,weblink Stajano, Frank, Security for whom? The shifting security assumptions of pervasive computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Software Security—Theories and Systems, 2609, 16–27, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2003, July 6, 2010, 10.1007/3-540-36532-X_2, 978-3-540-00708-1,,weblink" title="">weblink January 28, 2011, live, On April 3, 2000, a judgment was handed down in the case of United States v. Microsoft Corp.,WEB, United States v. Microsoft,weblink U.S. Department of Justice, August 5, 2005,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2005, live, calling the company an "abusive monopoly."WEB, Jackson, Thomas Penfield,weblink U.S. vs. Microsoft findings of fact, U.S. Department of Justice, November 5, 1999, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 15, 2010, live, Microsoft later settled with the U.S. Department of Justice in 2004. On October 25, 2001, Microsoft released Windows XP, unifying the mainstream and NT lines of OS under the NT codebase.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 26, 2012, WinInfo Short Takes: Windows XP Launch Special Edition, Thurrott, Paul, Windows IT Pro, Penton Media, October 26, 2001, July 16, 2010, The company released the Xbox later that year, entering the video game console market dominated by Sony and Nintendo.PRESS RELEASE, February 7, 2002, NPD Reports Annual 2001 U.S. Interactive Entertainment Sales Shatter Industry Record,weblink Port Washington, New York, The NPD Group,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2004, January 28, 2015, In March 2004 the European Union brought antitrust legal action against the company, citing it abused its dominance with the Windows OS, resulting in a judgment of €497 million ($613 million) and requiring Microsoft to produce new versions of Windows XP without Windows Media Player: Windows XP Home Edition N and Windows XP Professional N.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 13, 2006, Microsoft hit by record EU fine, CNN, March 25, 2004, August 14, 2010, WEB, Commission Decision of 24.03.2004 relating to a proceeding under Article 82 of the EC Treaty (Case COMP/C-3/37.792 Microsoft), Commission of the European Communities,weblink April 21, 2004, August 5, 2005, PDF,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2007, live, In November 2005, the company's second video game console, the Xbox 360, was released. There were two versions, a basic version for $299.99 and a deluxe version for $399.99.WEB,weblink Microsoft sets price for Xbox 360 â€” Aug. 17, 2005, Morris, Game Over is a weekly column by Chris,, January 4, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink April 25, 2018, live,

2007–2011: Microsoft Azure, Windows Vista, Windows 7, and Microsoft Stores

File:Steve Ballmer - MIX 2008.jpg|thumb|left|CEO Steve Ballmer at the MIX event in 2008. In an interview about his management style in 2005, he mentioned that his first priority was to get the people he delegates to in order. Ballmer also emphasized the need to continue pursuing new technologies even if initial attempts fail, citing the original attempts with Windows as an example.NEWS, Steve Ballmer on management style,weblink ITWorld, CIO Asia, International Data Group, IDGInternational Data Group, IDGReleased in January 2007, the next version of Windows, Vista, focused on features, security and a redesigned user interface dubbed Aero.WEB,weblink Windows Vista Ultimate review, January 23, 2007, April 4, 2012, Vamosi, Robert, CNET, CBS Interactive,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2012, live, WEB,weblink Gates Says Security Is Job One For Vista, February 14, 2006, April 4, 2012, Ricadela, Aaron, InformationWeek, UBM TechWeb, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2012, Microsoft Office 2007, released at the same time, featured a "Ribbon" user interface which was a significant departure from its predecessors. Relatively strong sales of both products helped to produce a record profit in 2007.WEB,weblink Vista gives Microsoft view of record profit, Edinburgh Evening News, April 27, 2007, Johnston Press, February 1, 2009, The European Union imposed another fine of €899 million ($1.4 billion) for Microsoft's lack of compliance with the March 2004 judgment on February 27, 2008, saying that the company charged rivals unreasonable prices for key information about its workgroup and backoffice servers. Microsoft stated that it was in compliance and that "these fines are about the past issues that have been resolved".NEWS, AFP:EU hits Microsoft with record 899 million euro antitrust fine,weblink Agence France-Presse, Google News, February 27, 2008, June 1, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2008, 2007 also saw the creation of a multi-core unit at Microsoft, following the steps of server companies such as Sun and IBM.WEB,weblink Microsoft, Multi-core and the Data Center, March 18, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2013, live, Gates retired from his role as Chief Software Architect on June 27, 2008, a decision announced in June 2006, while retaining other positions related to the company in addition to being an advisor for the company on key projects.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Announces Resignation, Natali Morris, Conte, Natali Del, PC Magazine, Ziff Davis, June 15, 2006, July 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 2010, live, NEWS,weblink Bill Gates steps down as Microsoft head to concentrate on philanthropy, Beaumont, Claudine, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, June 27, 2008, January 9, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2016, live, Azure Services Platform, the company's entry into the cloud computing market for Windows, launched on October 27, 2008.WEB,weblink Microsoft launches Windows Azure, CNET, CBS Interactive, Ina, Fried, Ina Fried, October 27, 2008, July 6, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, live, On February 12, 2009, Microsoft announced its intent to open a chain of Microsoft-branded retail stores, and on October 22, 2009, the first retail Microsoft Store opened in Scottsdale, Arizona; the same day Windows 7 was officially released to the public. Windows 7's focus was on refining Vista with ease-of-use features and performance enhancements, rather than an extensive reworking of Windows.WEB,weblink Microsoft follows Apple into the retail business, CNET, CBS Interactive, Ina, Fried, Ina Fried, February 12, 2009, July 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, live, WEB,weblink Long lines as Microsoft opens retail store, Reuters, Thomson Reuters, Gaynor, Tim, October 22, 2009, July 3, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2011, live, NEWS,weblink Windows 7 operating system makes its debut,, NBCUniversal, Associated Press, Mintz, Jessica, October 22, 2009, April 4, 2012, As the smartphone industry boomed in 2007, Microsoft had struggled to keep up with its rivals Apple and Google in providing a modern smartphone operating system. As a result, in 2010 Microsoft revamped their aging flagship mobile operating system, Windows Mobile, replacing it with the new Windows Phone OS. Microsoft implemented a new strategy for the software industry that had them working more closely with smartphone manufacturers, such as Nokia, and providing a consistent user experience across all smartphones using the Windows Phone OS. It used a new user interface design language, codenamed "Metro", which prominently used simple shapes, typography and iconography, utilizing the concept of minimalism. Microsoft is a founding member of the Open Networking Foundation started on March 23, 2011. Fellow founders were Google, HP Networking, Yahoo!, Verizon Communications, Deutsche Telekom and 17 other companies. This nonprofit organization is focused on providing support for a new cloud computing initiative called Software-Defined Networking.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 26, 2011, Open Networking Foundation News Release, David, Erickson,, March 21, 2011, May 29, 2011, The initiative is meant to speed innovation through simple software changes in telecommunications networks, wireless networks, data centers and other networking areas.WEB,weblink "Google and other titans form Open Networking Foundation." Noyes, March 23, 2011, Computerworld, International Data Group, IDG, March 23, 2011, May 29, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2011, live,

2011–2014: Windows 8/8.1, Xbox One,, and Surface devices

File:SurfacePro3.JPG|thumb|Surface Pro 3, part of the Surface series of laplets by Microsoft]]Following the release of Windows Phone, Microsoft undertook a gradual rebranding of its product range throughout 2011 and 2012, with the corporation's logos, products, services and websites adopting the principles and concepts of the Metro design language.WEB,weblink Windows Phone 7 Series UI Design & Interaction Guide, October 9, 2010, March 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2013, live, Microsoft unveiled Windows 8, an operating system designed to power both personal computers and tablet computers, in Taipei in June 2011.WEB,weblink Microsoft releases final test version of Windows 8, Business Line, Kasturi & Sons, June 1, 2012, August 4, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2012, live, A developer preview was released on September 13, which was subsequently replaced by a consumer preview on February 29, 2012, and released to the public in May.WEB,weblink OK, So Windows 8 Is Coming To ARM Tablets ... Someday (MSFT), San Francisco Chronicle, Matt, Rosoff, January 5, 2011, January 5, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2011, live, The Surface was unveiled on June 18, becoming the first computer in the company's history to have its hardware made by Microsoft.MAGAZINE, Sullivan, Mark,weblink Microsoft Announces New 'Surface' Tablet PC, PCWorld, June 18, 2012, June 19, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2013, live, Eichenwald, Kurt, "Microsoft's Lost Decade: How Microsoft Lost Its Mojo" {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 16, 2013}}, Vanity Fair, August 2012 On June 25, Microsoft paid US$1.2 billion to buy the social network Yammer.WEB, Microsoft buys Internet startup Yammer for $1.2 billion,weblink USA Today, Gannett, Gannett Company, Byron, Acohido, June 25, 2012, June 25, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2012, live, On July 31, they launched the webmail service to compete with Gmail.WEB,weblink Mail: Microsoft Reimagines Webmail, Paul, Thurrott, Paul Thurrott, July 31, 2012, Supersite for Windows, Penton (company), Penton Media, August 1, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink August 3, 2012, live, On September 4, 2012, Microsoft released Windows Server 2012.WEB,weblink Windows Server 2012 "Save the Date" Announcement, August 8, 2012, Microsoft, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2013, In July 2012, Microsoft sold its 50% stake in MSNBC, which it had run as a joint venture with NBC since 1996.WEB, Venkatesan, Adithya, Mukherjee, Supantha, Leske, Nicola, Comcast buys Microsoft stake in,weblink February 13, 2015, Reuters, July 16, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink February 13, 2015, live, On October 1, Microsoft announced its intention to launch a news operation, part of a new-look MSN, with Windows 8 later in the month.NEWS,weblink Microsoft launching news operation, new MSN, Reuters, October 1, 2012, Bill, Rigby, October 1, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 2012, live, On October 26, 2012, Microsoft launched Windows 8 and the Microsoft Surface.WEB,weblink Windows 8's delivery date: October 26, ZDNet, July 18, 2012, September 17, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2012, live, Three days later, Windows Phone 8 was launched.WEB,weblink Mary Jo Foley: Windows Phone 8 launch date revealed,, August 30, 2012, November 27, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 3, 2012, live, To cope with the potential for an increase in demand for products and services, Microsoft opened a number of "holiday stores" across the U.S. to complement the increasing number of "bricks-and-mortar" Microsoft Stores that opened in 2012.WEB,weblink Microsoft prepping for complete brand and product line relaunch, New York store coming the 26th,, November 3, 2012, October 2, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink November 2, 2012, live, On March 29, 2013, Microsoft launched a Patent Tracker.WEB,weblink Microsoft launches 'Patent Tracker' to help you search its library of intellectual property, The Next Web, March 28, 2013, March 29, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2013, live, In August 2012, the New York City Police Department announced a partnership with Microsoft for the development of the Domain Awareness System which is used for Police surveillance in New York City.WEB,weblink NYPD unveils new $40 million super computer system that uses data from network of cameras, license plate readers and crime reports, Moore, ROCCO PARASCANDOLA and Tina,, 2019-06-15, File:Xbox One Console Set.jpg|thumb|left|The Xbox OneXbox OneThe Kinect, a motion-sensing input device made by Microsoft and designed as a video game controller, first introduced in November 2010, was upgraded for the 2013 release of the Xbox One video game console. Kinect's capabilities were revealed in May 2013: an ultra-wide 1080p camera, function in the dark due to an infrared sensor, higher-end processing power and new software, the ability to distinguish between fine movements (such as a thumb movements), and determining a user's heart rate by looking at their face.WEB, The all-seeing Kinect: tracking my face, arms, body and heart on the Xbox One,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 28, 2013, David, Pierce, May 21, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2013, live, Microsoft filed a patent application in 2011 that suggests that the corporation may use the Kinect camera system to monitor the behavior of television viewers as part of a plan to make the viewing experience more interactive. On July 19, 2013, Microsoft stocks suffered its biggest one-day percentage sell-off since the year 2000, after its fourth-quarter report raised concerns among the investors on the poor showings of both Windows 8 and the Surface tablet. Microsoft suffered a loss of more than US$32 billion.WEB,weblink$32-billion-in-microsoft-stock-value-wiped-out/, Funky Friday: More than $32 billion in Microsoft stock value wiped out | Microsoft â€” CNET News,, July 21, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink$32-billion-in-microsoft-stock-value-wiped-out/, August 22, 2013, live, In line with the maturing PC business, in July 2013, Microsoft announced that it would reorganize the business into four new business divisions, namely Operating System, Apps, Cloud, and Devices. All previous divisions will be dissolved into new divisions without any workforce cuts.WEB,weblink Microsoft's sweeping reorganization shifts focus to services, devices, July 11, 2013, October 28, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2013, live, On September 3, 2013, Microsoft agreed to buy Nokia's mobile unit for $7 billion,WEB,weblink Microsoft buying Nokia's phone business in a $7.2 billion bid for its mobile future, September 3, 2013, September 5, 2017,weblink September 29, 2017, live, following Amy Hood taking the role of CFO.NEWS,weblink Microsoft names insider Amy Hood as CFO,, May 8, 2013, April 18, 2014, Reuters,weblink" title="">weblink April 9, 2014, live, {{Clear}}

2014–present: Windows 10, Microsoft Edge and HoloLens

File:Satya smiling-print.jpg|thumb|Satya Nadella succeeded Steve Ballmer as the CEO of Microsoft in February 2014]]On February 4, 2014, Steve Ballmer stepped down as CEO of Microsoft and was succeeded by Satya Nadella, who previously led Microsoft's Cloud and Enterprise division.WEB, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer to retire within 12 months,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink August 23, 2013, August 23, 2013, On the same day, John W. Thompson took on the role of chairman, in place of Bill Gates, who continued to participate as a technology advisor.WEB, David, Javier E, Nadella named new Microsoft CEO as Gates era ends,weblink, NBCUniversal,weblink February 5, 2014, February 5, 2014, Thompson became the second chairman in Microsoft's history.NEWS,weblink John W. Thompson to Become 1st Black Chairman of Microsoft, Edwards, Breanna, The Root, February 1, 2018, en-US,weblink February 2, 2018, live, On April 25, 2014, Microsoft acquired Nokia Devices and Services for $7.2 billion.NEWS, Microsoft to close its acquisition of Nokia's devices and services business on April 25,weblink The Economic Times, May 25, 2016, April 22, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 5, 2016, live, This new subsidiary was renamed Microsoft Mobile Oy.WEB, Borges, Andre, Nokia phone division to be renamed Microsoft Mobile, reveals leaked letter,weblink dna, May 25, 2016, April 21, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2016, live, On September 15, 2014, Microsoft acquired the video game development company Mojang, best known for Minecraft, for $2.5 billion.WEB, Hutchinson, Lee, It's official: Microsoft acquires Mojang and Minecraft for $2.5 billion,weblink Ars Technica, September 19, 2014, 152, September 15, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 19, 2014, live, On June 8, 2017, Microsoft acquired Hexadite, an Israeli security firm, for $100 million.WEB, Dellinger, AJ, Microsoft Buys Cybersecurity Company Hexadite To Respond To Cyberattacks,weblink International Business Times, June 8, 2017, June 9, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2017, live, NEWS, Microsoft agrees to buy U.S.-Israeli cyber firm Hexadite,weblink Reuters, June 8, 2017, June 9, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2017, live, On January 21, 2015, Microsoft announced the release of their first Interactive whiteboard, Microsoft Surface Hub.WEB, Microsoft at MWC 2015: Lumia 640 and 640 XL Announced, 4K 120Hz Surface Hub Demoed,weblink September 27, 2015, Ian Cutress, Andrei, Frumusanu,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2015, live, On July 29, 2015, Windows 10 was released,WEB, Howse, Brett, Windows 10 Launches Worldwide,weblink AnandTech, May 25, 2016, July 29, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2016, live, with its server sibling, Windows Server 2016, released in September 2016. In Q1 2015, Microsoft was the third largest maker of mobile phones, selling 33 million units (7.2% of all). While a large majority (at least 75%) of them do not run any version of Windows Phone— those other phones are not categorized as smartphones by Gartner – in the same time frame 8 million Windows smartphones (2.5% of all smartphones) were made by all manufacturers (but mostly by Microsoft).PRESS RELEASE,weblink Gartner Says Emerging Markets Drove Worldwide Smartphone Sales to 19 Percent Growth in First Quarter of 2015, Gartner, May 27, 2015, July 28, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2015, live, Microsoft's share of the U.S. smartphone market in January 2016 was 2.7%.WEB,weblink Microsoft needs to change its mobile strategy or get out, Howley, Daniel, May 25, 2016, Yahoo! Tech, May 26, 2016,weblink May 27, 2016, live, During the summer of 2015 the company lost $7.6 billion related to its mobile-phone business, firing 7,800 employees.NEWS, Greene, Jay, Microsoft to Streamline Smartphone Hardware Business,weblink The Wall Street Journal, May 25, 2016, May 25, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 25, 2016, live, On March 1, 2016, Microsoft announced the merger of its PC and Xbox divisions, with Phil Spencer announcing that Universal Windows Platform (UWP) apps would be the focus for Microsoft's gaming in the future.NEWS,weblink Microsoft to unify PC and Xbox One platforms, ending fixed console hardware, Keith, Stuart,, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, March 2016, December 12, 2016,weblink December 17, 2016, live, On January 24, 2017, Microsoft showcased Intune for Education at the BETT 2017 education technology conference in London.WEB, Mehdi, Yusuf, Announcing Intune for Education & new Windows 10 PCs for school starting at $189,weblink The Official Microsoft Blog, January 25, 2017, January 24, 2017,weblink January 25, 2017, live, Intune for Education is a new cloud-based application and device management service for the education sector.NEWS,weblink Microsoft launches Intune for Education to counter Google's Chromebooks in schools, TechCrunch, Frederic Lardinois, January 24, 2017, January 25, 2017,weblink January 25, 2017, live, In May 2016, the company announced it was laying off 1,850 workers, and taking an impairment and restructuring charge of $950 million. In June 2016, Microsoft announced a project named Microsoft Azure Information Protection. It aims to help enterprises protect their data as it moves between servers and devices.NEWS,weblink Microsoft announces new data protection tool to help enterprises secure their data, Tech Crunch, June 22, 2016, June 23, 2016,weblink June 22, 2016, live, In November 2016, Microsoft joined the Linux Foundation as a Platinum member during Microsoft's Connect(); developer event in New York.WEB, Microsoft has joined the Linux Foundation,weblink November 24, 2016,weblink November 25, 2016, dead, The cost of each Platinum membership is US$500,000 per year.WEB, Microsoft joined linux foundation with yearly platinum membership,weblink Lock SSL, November 24, 2016, dead,weblink February 2, 2017, Some analysts deemed this unthinkable ten years prior, however, as in 2001 then-CEO Steve Ballmer called Linux "cancer".WEB,weblink Microsoft joins the Linux Foundation, 15 years after Ballmer called it 'cancer', Warren, Tom, November 11, 2016, The Verge, Vox Media, August 18, 2017,weblink August 16, 2017, live, Microsoft planned to launch a preview of Intune for Education "in the coming weeks", with general availability scheduled for spring 2017, priced at $30 per device, or through volume licensing agreements.NEWS,weblink Microsoft introduces Intune for Education, promising simple setup and management of devices, Neowin, Andy Weir, January 24, 2017, January 25, 2017,weblink January 27, 2017, live, File:Nokia & Microsoft Lumia devices.png|thumb|left|The Nokia Lumia 1320, the Microsoft Lumia 535 and the Nokia Lumia 530, which all run on one of the now-discontinued Windows PhoneWindows PhoneIn January 2018, Microsoft patched Windows 10 to account for CPU problems related to Intel's Meltdown security breach. The patch led to issues with the Microsoft Azure virtual machines reliant on Intel's CPU architecture. On January 12, Microsoft released PowerShell Core 6.0 for the macOS and Linux operating systems.WEB,weblink Microsoft's 2018, part 1: Open source, wobbly Windows and everyone's going to the cloud, January 3, 2019,weblink January 3, 2019, live, In February 2018, Microsoft killed notification support for their Windows Phone devices which effectively ended firmware updates for the discontinued devices. In March 2018, Microsoft recalled Windows 10 S to change it to a mode for the Windows operating system rather than a separate and unique operating system. In March the company also established guidelines that censor users of Office 365 from using profanity in private documents. In April 2018, Microsoft released the source code for Windows File Manager under the MIT License to celebrate the program's 20th anniversary. In April the company further expressed willingness to embrace open source initiatives by announcing Azure Sphere as its own derivative of the Linux operating system. In May 2018, Microsoft partnered with 17 American intelligence agencies to develop products that track American citizens. The project is dubbed "Azure Government" and has ties to the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) surveillance program. On June 4, 2018, Microsoft officially announced the acquisition of GitHub for $7.5 billion, a deal that closed on October 26, 2018.WEB,weblink Microsoft to acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion, June 4, 2018, Microsoft,weblink June 4, 2018, live, WEB,weblink Microsoft completes GitHub acquisition,, April 10, 2019,weblink January 12, 2019, live, On July 10, 2018, Microsoft revealed the Surface Go platform to the public. Later in the month it converted Microsoft Teams to gratis. In August 2018, Microsoft released two projects called Microsoft AccountGuard and Defending Democracy. It also unveiled Snapdragon 850 compatibility for Windows 10 on the ARM architecture.NEWS, Hackett, Robert, Microsoft Offers Free Cybersecurity Tools to Political Candidates—But You've Got to Be a Microsoft Customer,weblink August 24, 2018, August 21, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink August 22, 2018, live, NEWS, Lerman, Rachel, Microsoft releases new security tools for political campaigns to combat hacking attempts,weblink August 24, 2018, The Seattle Times, August 20, 2018,weblink August 24, 2018, live, File:Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin tries out Microsoft HoloLens (29794543715).jpg|thumb|upright|Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin using a Microsoft HoloLensMicrosoft HoloLensIn August 2018, Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for Internet of things (IoT) technologies related to water management. Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University, the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt, analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide. The specific computer programs used in the process fall under the Azure Machine Learning and the Azure IoT Hub platforms.WEB,weblink Google goes bilingual, Facebook fleshes out translation and TensorFlow is dope â€” And, Microsoft is assisting fish farmers in Japan, September 2, 2018,weblink September 2, 2018, live, In September 2018, Microsoft discontinued Skype Classic. On October 10, 2018, Microsoft joined the Open Invention Network community despite holding more than 60,000 patents.WEB,weblink Microsoft has signed up to the Open Invention Network. We repeat. Microsoft has signed up to the OIN, October 14, 2018,weblink October 11, 2018, live, In November 2018, Microsoft agreed to supply 100,000 Microsoft HoloLens headsets to the United States military in order to "increase lethality by enhancing the ability to detect, decide and engage before the enemy."WEB,weblink See this, Google? Microsoft happy to take a half-billion in sweet, sweet US military money to 'increase lethality', November 30, 2018,weblink November 30, 2018, live, In November 2018, Microsoft introduced Azure Multi-Factor Authentication for Microsoft Azure.WEB,weblink Microsoft's 2018, part 2: Azure data centres heat up and Windows 10? It burns! It burns!, January 3, 2019,weblink January 4, 2019, live, In December 2018, Microsoft announced Project Mu, an open source release of the Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) core used in Microsoft Surface and Hyper-V products. The project promotes the idea of Firmware as a Service.WEB,weblink Microsoft announces Project Mu, an open-source release of the UEFI core, December 22, 2018,weblink December 21, 2018, live, In the same month, Microsoft announced the open source implementation of Windows Forms and the Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) which will allow for further movement of the company toward the transparent release of key frameworks used in developing Windows desktop applications and software. December also saw the company discontinue the Microsoft Edge project in favor of Chromium backends for their browsers.February 20, 2019 Microsoft Corp said it will offer its cyber security service AccountGuard to 12 new markets in Europe including Germany, France and Spain, to close security gaps and protect customers in political space from hacking.Microsoft expands political security service to 12 European countries {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 20, 2019}}, Reuters (February 20, 2019) In February 2019, hundreds of Microsoft employees protested the company's war profiteering from a $480 million contract to develop virtual reality headsets for the United States Army.NEWS,weblink 'We won't be war profiteers': Microsoft workers protest $480m army contract, The Guardian, February 22, 2019, Wong, Julia Carrie, February 23, 2019,weblink February 23, 2019, live,


Senior leaders {| class"wikitable unsortable"

!class="unsortable" scope=col| Name!class="unsortable" scope=col| Position(s)!class="unsortable" scope=col| Note(s)!class="unsortable" scope=col| References| Satya Nadella| Chief Executive Officer| CEO of Microsoft HTTPS://NEWS.MICROSOFT.COM/LEADERSHIP/>TITLE=LEADERSHIPFIRST=WEBSITE=MICROSOFT NEWSACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2019, | Judson Althoff| Executive Vice President| EVP, Worldwide Commercial Business | Chris Capossela| Chief Marketing Officer and Executive Vice President| CMO, EPV, Marketing and Consumer Business | Jean-Philippe Courtois| President and Executive Vice President| President, EVP, Microsoft Global Sales, Marketing and Operations | Kurt DelBene| Chief Digital Officer and Executive Vice President| CDO, EPV, Corporate Strategy, Core Services Engineering and Operations | Scott Guthrie| Executive Vice President| EPV, Microsoft Cloud + AI Group | Kathleen Hogan| Executive Vice President| EPV, Human Resources | Amy Hood| Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President| CFO, EPV, Leads all product group finance organizations. | Rajesh Jha| Executive Vice President| EPV, Experiences and Devices | Peggy Johnson| Executive Vice President| EPV, Business Development Kevin Scott (computer scientist)>Kevin Scott| Chief Technology Officer and Executive Vice President| CTO, EPV, Kevin Scott's 20-year career in technology spans both academia and industry as researcher, engineer and leader. | Harry Shum| Executive Vice President| EPV, Artificial Intelligence and Research Group Brad Smith (American lawyer)>Brad Smith| President| President, Leads a team of more than 1,400 business, legal and corporate affairs professionals in 56 countries. Phil Spencer (business executive)>Phil Spencer| Executive Vice President| EPV, Gaming ">

Leaders of subsidiaries {| class"wikitable"

!class="unsortable" scope=col| Name!class="unsortable" scope=col| Position(s)!class="unsortable" scope=col| Note(s)!class="unsortable" scope=col| References| Jeff Weiner| Chief Executive Officer| CEO of LinkedIn HTTPS://NEWS.LINKEDIN.COM/ABOUT-US#LEADERSHIP>TITLE=ABOUT LINKEDINFIRST=WEBSITE=LINKEDIN NEWSROOMACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2019, | Shannon Brayton| Chief Marketing Officer| CMO of LinkedIn | Christina Hall| Chief People Officer and Senior Vice President| CPO, SVP of LinkedIn | Steve Sordello| Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President| CFO, SVP of LinkedIn | Nat Friedman| Chief Executive Officer| CEO of GitHub HTTPS://GITHUB.COM/ABOUT/LEADERSHIP>TITLE=OUR LEADERSHIPFIRST=WEBSITE=GITHUBACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2019, | Erica Brescia| Chief Operating Officer| COO of GitHub | Carrie Olesen| Chief Human Resources Officer| CHRO of GitHub | Mike Taylor| Chief Financial Officer| CFO of GitHub | Jonas MÃ¥rtensson| Chief Executive Officer| CEO of Mojang AB HTTPS://WWW.MOJANG.COM/ABOUT/>TITLE=ABOUTFIRST=WEBSITE=MOJANGACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2019, | Karin Severinson| Chief Financial Officer| CFO of Mojang AB | Vu Bui| Chief Operating Officer| COO of Mojang AB | Rikard Herlitz| Chief Technology Officer| CTO of Mojang AB | Daniel Frisk| Chief Architect| Chief Architect of Mojang AB

Corporate affairs

{{See also|Criticism of Microsoft|Internet censorship in China|Embrace, extend, and extinguish}}

Board of directors

The company is run by a board of directors made up of mostly company outsiders, as is customary for publicly traded companies. Members of the board of directors as of January 2018 are Bill Gates, Satya Nadella, Reid Hoffman, Hugh Johnston, Teri List-Stoll, Charles Noski, Helmut Panke, Sandi Peterson, Penny Pritzker, Charles Scharf, Arne Sorenson, John W. Stanton, John W. Thompson and Padmasree Warrior.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Microsoft Board of Directors, Microsoft News Center, Microsoft, July 28, 2019,weblink July 22, 2019, live, Board members are elected every year at the annual shareholders' meeting using a majority vote system. There are five committees within the board which oversee more specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues with the company including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the company; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposing mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters including nomination of the board; and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust laws.WEB, Microsoft Corporation Corporate Governance Guidelines,weblink Microsoft, July 1, 2009, July 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2010, dead, ">

Board members {| class"wikitable unsortable"

!class="unsortable" scope=col| Name!class="unsortable" scope=col| Note(s)!class="unsortable" scope=col| References| John W. Thompson| John W. Thompson joined the Microsoft board in February 2012, and became independent board chair of Microsoft Corp. on Feb. 4, 2014. HTTPS://NEWS.MICROSOFT.COM/LEADERSHIP/?SECTION=BOARD-MEMBERS>TITLE=LEADERSHIPFIRST=WEBSITE=MICROSOFT NEWSACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2019, | Bill Gates| Bill Gates is co-founder, technology advisor and board member of Microsoft. He served as chairman of the board until Feb. 4, 2014. | Reid Hoffman| Hoffman joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in March 2017. | Hugh Johnston| Johnston joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in September 2017. | Teri List-Stoll| List-Stoll joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in October 2014. | Charles Noski| Noski joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in November 2003. | Helmut Panke| Dr. Helmut Panke joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in November 2003. | Sandra E. Peterson| Peterson joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in December 2015. | Penny Pritzker| Pritzker joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in November 2017. | Charles W. Scharf| Scharf joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in October 2014. | Arne Sorenson| Sorenson joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in November 2017. | John W. Stanton| Stanton joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in July 2014. | Padmasree Warrior| Warrior joined the Microsoft board as an independent director in December 2015.


(File:Microsoft 5-Year Stock History.svg|upright=1.6|thumb|Five year history graph of {{NASDAQ|MSFT}} stock on July 17, 2013WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 30, 2008, Five year history graph of (NASDAQ:MSFT) stock, ZenoBank, AlphaTrade, September 29, 2009, September 29, 2009, )When Microsoft went public and launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) in 1986, the opening stock price was $21; after the trading day, the price closed at $27.75. As of July 2010, with the company's nine stock splits, any IPO shares would be multiplied by 288; if one were to buy the IPO today, given the splits and other factors, it would cost about 9 cents.{{Rp|235–236|date=November 2012}}WEB,weblink Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Hearst Seattle Media, LLC, March 14, 1986, Microsoft stock is red hot on first trading day, Monkman, Carol Smith, B9, July 18, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2010, live, WEB,weblink MSFT stock performance and split info, Morningstar, Inc., July 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, live, The stock price peaked in 1999 at around $119 ($60.928, adjusting for splits).WEB, Microsoft stock price spreadsheet from Microsoft investor relations,weblink xls, Microsoft, August 18, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 10, 2009, The company began to offer a dividend on January 16, 2003, starting at eight cents per share for the fiscal year followed by a dividend of sixteen cents per share the subsequent year, switching from yearly to quarterly dividends in 2005 with eight cents a share per quarter and a special one-time payout of three dollars per share for the second quarter of the fiscal year.WEB, Dividend Frequently Asked Questions,weblink Microsoft, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2008, dead, Though the company had subsequent increases in dividend payouts, the price of Microsoft's stock remained steady for years.WEB, Yahoo MSFT stock chart,weblink Yahoo Finance, December 13, 2008, dead,weblink January 23, 2008, Standard & Poor's and Moody's Investors Service have both given a AAA rating to Microsoft, whose assets were valued at $41 billion as compared to only $8.5 billion in unsecured debt. Consequently, in February 2011 Microsoft released a corporate bond amounting to $2.25 billion with relatively low borrowing rates compared to government bonds.NEWS,weblink Microsoft sells $2.25 billion of debt at low rates, Reuters, February 4, 2011, July 1, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2015, live, For the first time in 20 years Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in Q1 2011 quarterly profits and revenues due to a slowdown in PC sales and continuing huge losses in Microsoft's Online Services Division (which contains its search engine Bing). Microsoft profits were $5.2 billion, while Apple Inc. profits were $6 billion, on revenues of $14.5 billion and $24.7 billion respectively.WEB, Charles, Arthur,weblink Microsoft falls behind Apple for first time in 20 years,, The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, April 28, 2011, May 11, 2011, London,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2013, live, Microsoft's Online Services Division has been continuously loss-making since 2006 and in Q1 2011 it lost $726 million. This follows a loss of $2.5 billion for the year 2010.WEB, MG Siegler Apr 29, 2011,weblink When Will Microsoft's Internet Bloodbath End?,, April 29, 2011, May 11, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 10, 2011, live, On July 20, 2012, Microsoft posted its first quarterly loss ever, despite earning record revenues for the quarter and fiscal year, with a net loss of $492 million due to a writedown related to the advertising company aQuantive, which had been acquired for $6.2 billion back in 2007.WEB, White, Martha, Microsoft reports first quarterly loss ever,weblink July 20, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2012, As of January 2014, Microsoft's market capitalization stood at $314B,WEB, Microsoft Overview,weblink Marketwatch, February 2, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2014, live, making it the 8th largest company in the world by market capitalization.WEB, Global Top 100 Companies,weblink PWC, February 2, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 12, 2014, live, On November 14, 2014, Microsoft overtook ExxonMobil to become the second most-valuable company by market capitalization, behind only Apple Inc. Its total market value was over $410B â€” with the stock price hitting $50.04 a share, the highest since early 2000.WEB, Microsoft Surpasses Exxon as 2nd Most Valuable Co.,weblink AssociatedPress, November 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2015, live, In 2015, Reuters reported that Microsoft Corp had earnings abroad of $76.4 billion which were untaxed by the Internal Revenue Service. Under U.S. law, corporations don't pay income tax on overseas profits until the profits are brought into the United States.NEWS,weblink Untaxed U.S. corporate profits held overseas top $2.1 trillion: study, Reuters, April 9, 2014, July 1, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 14, 2015, live, {| class="wikitable float-left" style="text-align: right;"!Year!Revenuein mil. US$WEB,weblink Microsoft Investor Relations â€” Annual Reports,, en, November 7, 2018,weblink November 7, 2018, live, !Net incomein mil. US$!Total Assetsin mil. US$!Employees| 2005| 39,788| 12,254| 70,815| 61,000| 2006| 44,282| 12,599| 69,597| 71,000| 2007| 51,122| 14,065| 63,171| 79,000| 2008| 60,420| 17,681| 72,793| 91,000| 2009| 58,437| 14,569| 77,888| 93,000| 2010| 62,484| 18,760| 86,113| 89,000| 2011| 69,943| 23,150| 108,704| 90,000| 2012| 73,723| 16,978| 121,271| 94,000| 2013| 77,849| 21,863| 142,431| 99,000| 2014| 86,833| 22,074| 172,384| 128,000| 2015| 93,580| 12,193| 174,472| 118,000| 2016| 91,154| 20,539| 193,468| 114,000| 2017| 96,571| 25,489| 250,312| 124,000| 2018| 110,360| 16,571| 258,848| 131,000| 2019|125.843|39.240|286.556|144,106In November 2018, the company won a $480 million military contract with the U.S. government to bring augmented reality (AR) headset technology into the weapon repertoires of American soldiers. The two-year contract may result in follow-on orders of more than 100,000 headsets, according to documentation describing the bidding process. One of the contract's tag lines for the augmented reality technology seems to be its ability to enable "25 bloodless battles before the 1st battle", suggesting that actual combat training is going to be an essential aspect of the augmented reality headset capabilities.NEWS,weblink Microsoft wins $480M military contract to outfit soldiers with HoloLens AR tech, TechCrunch, November 29, 2018, en-US,weblink November 29, 2018, live,


File:Windows 8 Launch Event in Akihabara, Tokyo.jpg|thumb|Windows 8 Launch Event in AkihabaraAkihabaraIn 2004, Microsoft commissioned research firms to do independent studies comparing the total cost of ownership (TCO) of Windows Server 2003 to Linux; the firms concluded that companies found Windows easier to administrate than Linux, thus those using Windows would administrate faster resulting in lower costs for their company (i.e. lower TCO).WEB,weblink Studies on Linux help their patron: Microsoft, Bishop, Todd, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Hearst Seattle Media, LLC, January 27, 2004, July 16, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink December 5, 2010, live, This spurred a wave of related studies; a study by the Yankee Group concluded that upgrading from one version of Windows Server to another costs a fraction of the switching costs from Windows Server to Linux, although companies surveyed noted the increased security and reliability of Linux servers and concern about being locked into using Microsoft products.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, January 4, 2013, Yankee Independently Pits Windows TCO vs. Linux TCO, Foley, Mary Jo, eWeek, March 24, 2004, July 14, 2010, Another study, released by the Open Source Development Labs, claimed that the Microsoft studies were "simply outdated and one-sided" and their survey concluded that the TCO of Linux was lower due to Linux administrators managing more servers on average and other reasons.WEB,weblink Linux fans hit back at Microsoft TCO claims, Jaques, Robert,, February 13, 2006, August 18, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2008, As part of the "Get the Facts" campaign, Microsoft highlighted the .NET Framework trading platform that it had developed in partnership with Accenture for the London Stock Exchange, claiming that it provided "five nines" reliability. After suffering extended downtime and unreliabilityNEWS,weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, Seven-hour LSE blackout caused by double glitch, Rowena, Mason, September 10, 2008, London, April 3, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink December 25, 2017, live, NEWS, BBC News Online, BBC,weblink London Stock Exchange trading hit by technical glitch, November 26, 2009, September 30, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 26, 2013, live, the London Stock Exchange announced in 2009 that it was planning to drop its Microsoft solution and switch to a Linux-based one in 2010.WEB, ITWire,weblink London Stock Exchange gets the facts and dumps Windows for Linux, David M., Williams, October 8, 2009, September 30, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink July 16, 2011, live, WEB, Slashdot,weblink London Stock Exchange Rejects .NET For Open Source, October 6, 2009, September 30, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2011, live, In 2012, Microsoft hired a political pollster named Mark Penn, whom The New York Times called "famous for bulldozing" his political opponentsWEB,weblink The New York Times, Nick, Wingfield, Microsoft Battles Google by Hiring Political Brawler Mark Penn, December 14, 2012, February 19, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2017, live, as Executive Vice-President, Advertising and Strategy. Penn created a series of negative advertisements targeting one of Microsoft's chief competitors, Google. The advertisements, called "Scroogled", attempt to make the case that Google is "screwing" consumers with search results rigged to favor Google's paid advertisers, that Gmail violates the privacy of its users to place ad results related to the content of their emails and shopping results, which favor Google products. Tech publications like TechCrunch have been highly critical of the advertising campaign,NEWS,weblink Scroogled: Why So Negative, Microsoft?, TechCrunch, February 10, 2013, April 18, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 17, 2014, live, while Google employees have embraced it.WEB,weblink Googlers Love Microsoft's 'Scroogled' Gear. Mug and Shirts Sell Out., Kashmir, Hill, November 21, 2013, Forbes, September 5, 2017,weblink July 29, 2017, live,

Largest acquisitions

Microsoft has paid {{US$|63.2 billion}} for its top 10 acquisitions.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}{| class="wikitable sortable float-left" style="text-align: right;"!class="unsortable" scope=col| Company!Acquired for!class="unsortable" scope=col| Acquired on|Visio Corporation| $1.5 billion|January 7, 2000| Navision| $1.4 billion|July 11, 2002aQuantive>aQuantive, Inc.| $6 billion|August 13, 2007Microsoft Development Center Norway>Fast Search & Transfer ASA| $1.2 billion|April 25, 2008|Skype Technologies| $8.5 billion|May 10, 2011|Yammer| $1.2 billion|July 19, 2012Nokia>Nokia's Devices and Services Division| $7.2 billion|September 2, 2013Mojang>Mojang AB| $2.5 billion|November 6, 2014|LinkedIn| $26.2 billion| December 8, 2016|GitHub| $7.5 billion|October 26, 2018


In July 2014, Microsoft announced plans to lay off 18,000 employees. Microsoft employed 127,104 people as of June 5, 2014, making this about a 14 percent reduction of its workforce as the biggest Microsoft lay off ever. This included 12,500 professional and factory personnel. Previously, Microsoft had eliminated 5,800 jobs in 2009 in line with the Great Recession of 2008–2017.WEB,weblink Microsoft to cut up to 18,000 jobs over next year, July 17, 2014, July 17, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 27, 2014, live, WEB, Microsoft Layoffs Greater Than Expected: Up to 18,000 Jobs Being Cut,weblink Gamespot, August 10, 2014, July 17, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2014, live, In September 2014, Microsoft laid off 2,100 people, including 747 people in the Seattle–Redmond area, where the company is headquartered. The firings came as a second wave of the layoffs that were previously announced. This brought the total number to over 15,000 out of the 18,000 expected cuts.By Alex Wilhelm, TechCrunch. "Lays Off 2,100 More Employees." September 18, 2014. September 18, 2014. In October 2014, Microsoft revealed that it was almost done with the elimination of 18,000 employees, which was its largest-ever layoff sweep.WEB, Perez, Juan Carlos, Microsoft is 'almost' done with its largest-ever layoff sweep,weblink Computerworld, International Data Group, October 29, 2014, November 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2014, live, In July 2015, Microsoft announced another 7,800 job cuts in the next several months.WEB,weblink Microsoft plans 7,800 layoffs, $7.8 billion Nokia write-down, Aaron, Souppouris, July 8, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2015, live, In May 2016, Microsoft announced another 1,850 job cuts mostly in (Nokia) mobile phone division. As a result, the company will record an impairment and restructuring charge of approximately $950 million, of which approximately $200 million will relate to severance payments.WEB,weblink Microsoft announces streamlining of smartphone hardware business, Microsoft, Corp., November 8, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2016, live,

United States government

Microsoft provides information about reported bugs in their software to intelligence agencies of the United States government, prior to the public release of the fix. A Microsoft spokesperson has stated that the corporation runs several programs that facilitate the sharing of such information with the U.S. government.WEB,weblink U.S. Agencies Said to Swap Data With Thousands of Firms, Bloomberg, March 10, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink January 12, 2015, live, Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in May 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Microsoft.WEB, Ryan W., Neal, Snowden Reveals Microsoft PRISM Cooperation: Helped NSA Decrypt Emails, Chats, Skype Conversations,weblink International Business Times, July 11, 2013, November 15, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, live, According to leaks of said program, Microsoft joined the PRISM program in 2007.WEB, Greenwald, Glenn, MacAskill, Ewen, NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others, June 7, 2013, The Guardian, Guardian News and Media Limited,weblink April 26, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 18, 2006, live, However, in June 2013, an official statement from Microsoft flatly denied their participation in the program: }}During the first six months in 2013, Microsoft had received requests that affected between 15,000 and 15,999 accounts.WEB, Microsoft, Facebook, Google and Yahoo release US surveillance requests,weblink The Guardian, February 3, 2014, December 12, 2016,weblink January 6, 2017, live, In December 2013, the company made statement to further emphasize the fact that they take their customers' privacy and data protection very seriously, even saying that "government snooping potentially now constitutes an "advanced persistent threat," alongside sophisticated malware and cyber attacks".WEB, Smith, Brad, Protecting customer data from government snooping,weblink The Official Microsoft Blog, January 1, 2015, December 4, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink December 24, 2014, live, The statement also marked the beginning of three-part program to enhance Microsoft's encryption and transparency efforts. On July 1, 2014, as part of this program they opened the first (of many) Microsoft Transparency Center, that provides "participating governments with the ability to review source code for our key products, assure themselves of their software integrity, and confirm there are no "back doors."WEB, Thomlinson, Matt, Advancing our encryption and transparency efforts,weblink Microsoft on the Issues, January 1, 2015, July 1, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2015, live, Microsoft has also argued that the United States Congress should enact strong privacy regulations to protect consumer data.WEB, Heiner, David, Request for Comment: Big Data and Consumer Privacy in the Internet Economy,weblink National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Microsoft, August 12, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2014, live, In April 2016, the company sued the U.S. government, arguing that secrecy orders were preventing the company from disclosing warrants to customers in violation of the company's and customers' rights. Microsoft argued that it was unconstitutional for the government to indefinitely ban Microsoft from informing its users that the government was requesting their emails and other documents, and that the Fourth Amendment made it so people or businesses had the right to know if the government searches or seizes their property. On October 23, 2017, Microsoft said it would drop the lawsuit as a result of a policy change by the United States Department of Justice (DoJ). The DoJ had "changed data request rules on alerting Internet users about agencies accessing their information."

Corporate identity

Corporate culture

Technical reference for developers and articles for various Microsoft magazines such as Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) are available through the Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN also offers subscriptions for companies and individuals, and the more expensive subscriptions usually offer access to pre-release beta versions of Microsoft software.WEB,weblink Microsoft, MSDN Subscription FAQ, July 3, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink January 12, 2009, live, WEB,weblink Microsoft Systems Journal Homepage, Microsoft, April 15, 2004, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2008, dead, In April 2004 Microsoft launched a community site for developers and users, titled Channel 9, that provides a wiki and an Internet forum.WEB, Hobson, Neville,weblink Microsoft's Channel 9 And Cultural Rules, WebProNews, iEntry Inc, April 11, 2005, July 3, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 2008, Another community site that provides daily videocasts and other services,, launched on March 3, 2006.WEB,weblink homepage, Microsoft, May 4, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2006, Free technical support is traditionally provided through online Usenet newsgroups, and CompuServe in the past, monitored by Microsoft employees; there can be several newsgroups for a single product. Helpful people can be elected by peers or Microsoft employees for Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) status, which entitles them to a sort of special social status and possibilities for awards and other benefits.NEWS,weblink Somehow, Usenet lumbers on, Bray, Hiawatha, June 13, 2005, July 3, 2006, The Boston Globe, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2009, Noted for its internal lexicon, the expression "eating your own dog food" is used to describe the policy of using pre-release and beta versions of products inside Microsoft in an effort to test them in "real-world" situations.WEB, Microsoft tests its own dog food,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2007, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, July 21, 2003, October 9, 2005, This is usually shortened to just "dog food" and is used as noun, verb, and adjective. Another bit of jargon, FYIFV or FYIV ("Fuck You, I'm [Fully] Vested"), is used by an employee to indicate they are financially independent and can avoid work anytime they wish.JOURNAL, Heilemann, John, John Heilemann, The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth,weblink Wired (magazine), Wired, Condé Nast, November 2000, September 30, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2008, The company is also known for its hiring process, mimicked in other organizations and dubbed the "Microsoft interview", which is notorious for off-the-wall questions such as "Why is a manhole cover round?".WEB,weblink Square Manhole Covers and Crazy Questions,, Poundstone, William, May 21, 2003, July 1, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 14, 2005, Microsoft is an outspoken opponent of the cap on H-1B visas, which allow companies in the U.S. to employ certain foreign workers. Bill Gates claims the cap on H1B visas makes it difficult to hire employees for the company, stating "I'd certainly get rid of the H1B cap" in 2005.WEB,weblink Gates Rakes Congress on H1B Visa Cap, Mark, Roy,, April 27, 2005, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2008, live, Critics of H1B visas argue that relaxing the limits would result in increased unemployment for U.S. citizens due to H1B workers working for lower salaries.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Targets Visa Rules for Tech Workers, NPR, March 12, 2008, July 6, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2010, live, The Human Rights Campaign Corporate Equality Index, a report of how progressive the organization deems company policies towards LGBT employees, rated Microsoft as 87% from 2002 to 2004 and as 100% from 2005 to 2010 after they allowed gender expression.WEB, Corporate Equality Index Archive,weblink Human Rights Campaign Foundation, July 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2010, In August 2018, Microsoft implemented a policy for all companies providing subcontractors to require 12 weeks of paid parental leave to each employee. This expands on the former requirement from 2015 requiring 15 days of paid vacation and sick leave each year.NEWS, Dreyfuss, Emily, Will Others Follow Microsoft's Lead on Paid Parental Leave?,weblink September 1, 2018, WIRED, August 31, 2018,weblink September 1, 2018, live, In 2015, Microsoft established its own parental leave policy to allow 12 weeks off for parental leave with an additional 8 weeks for the parent who gave birth.WEB, Kastrenakes, Jacob, Microsoft says its US contractors must offer paid parental leave,weblink September 1, 2018, The Verge, August 31, 2018,weblink September 1, 2018, live,


In 2011, Greenpeace released a report rating the top ten big brands in cloud computing on their sources of electricity for their data centers. At the time, data centers consumed up to 2% of all global electricity and this amount was projected to increase. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said "we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today,"WEB, Greenpeace,weblink Dirty Data Report Card, August 22, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink September 10, 2013, live, and called on "Amazon, Microsoft and other leaders of the information-technology industry must embrace clean energy to power their cloud-based data centers.""Amazon, Microsoft: Let's keep 'the cloud' clean" {{Webarchive|url= |date=December 4, 2013}}, Phil Radford In 2013, Microsoft agreed to buy power generated by a Texas wind project to power one of its data centers."Microsoft looks to boost eco credentials with wind-powered data centre" {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 6, 2017}}, Suzanne Goldenberg Microsoft is ranked on the 17th place in Greenpeace's Guide to Greener Electronics (16th Edition) that ranks 18 electronics manufacturers according to their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling and climate change.WEB,weblink Guide to Greener Electronics â€“ Greenpeace International (16th Edition), Greenpeace International, April 3, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2012, Microsoft's timeline for phasing out brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and phthalates in all products is 2012 but its commitment to phasing out PVC is not clear. As of January 2011, it has no products that are completely free from PVC and BFRs.WEB,weblink Ranking tables October 2010 â€“ Greenpeace International, Greenpeace International, January 24, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink January 28, 2011, live, Microsoft's main U.S. campus received a silver certification from the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program in 2008, and it installed over 2,000 solar panels on top of its buildings at its Silicon Valley campus, generating approximately 15 percent of the total energy needed by the facilities in April 2005.WEB,weblink Microsoft vs. Google: Who's greener?, CNET, CBS Interactive, Mills, Elinor, June 6, 2008, July 3, 2010, Microsoft makes use of alternative forms of transit. It created one of the world's largest private bus systems, the "Connector", to transport people from outside the company; for on-campus transportation, the "Shuttle Connect" uses a large fleet of hybrid cars to save fuel. The company also subsidizes regional public transport, provided by Sound Transit and King County Metro, as an incentive.WEB,weblink Fostering Alternative Ways to Commute at Microsoft, Microsoft,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2008, In February 2010 however, Microsoft took a stance against adding additional public transport and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes to the State Route 520 and its floating bridge connecting Redmond to Seattle; the company did not want to delay the construction any further.WEB,weblink King5 Television News, Seattle hires consultant to look at 520 bridge plan, February 23, 2010, July 3, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2010, Microsoft was ranked number 1 in the list of the World's Best Multinational Workplaces by the Great Place to Work Institute in 2011.WEB,weblink Microsoft Pri0 | Microsoft named best multinational workplace, Seattle Times Newspaper, October 28, 2011, November 3, 2011, Janet I., Tu,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2012, live,


File:Aerial Microsoft West Campus August 2009.jpg|thumb|The west campus of the Microsoft Redmond campusMicrosoft Redmond campusThe corporate headquarters, informally known as the Microsoft Redmond campus, is located at One Microsoft Way in Redmond, Washington. Microsoft initially moved onto the grounds of the campus on February 26, 1986, weeks before the company went public on March 13. The headquarters has since experienced multiple expansions since its establishment. It is estimated to encompass over 8 million ft2 (750,000 m2) of office space and 30,000–40,000 employees.Fast Facts About Microsoft {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 9, 2007}}. Retrieved on August 25, 2013. Additional offices are located in Bellevue and Issaquah, Washington (90,000 employees worldwide). The company is planning to upgrade its Mountain View, California, campus on a grand scale. The company has occupied this campus since 1981. In 2016, the company bought the 32-acre campus, with plans to renovate and expand it by 25%.NEWS, Microsoft To Buy, Expand Mountain View Campus,weblink Allison, Nagel, Bisnow Media, January 25, 2016, February 3, 2019,weblink February 4, 2019, live, Microsoft operates an East Coast headquarters in Charlotte, North Carolina.WEB,weblink Microsoft East Coast Headquarters â€” Safway Services,, March 28, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 29, 2017, dead,

Flagship stores

File:TorontoMicrosoftStore8.JPG|thumb|Microsoft's TorontoTorontoOn October 26, 2015, the company opened its retail location on Fifth Avenue in New York City. The location features a five-story glass storefront and is 22,270 square feet.JOURNAL, Your First Look at Microsoft's Massive New Flagship Store,weblink Wired (magazine), Wired, Condé Nast, October 27, 2015, October 26, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2015, live, As per company executives, Microsoft had been on the lookout for a flagship location since 2009.WEB, Morris, Keiko, Microsoft Opens Flagship Store on Fifth Avenue,weblink Wall Street Journal, October 27, 2015, 0099-9660,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2015, live, The company's retail locations are part of a greaterstrategy to help build a connection with its consumers. Theopening of the store coincided with the launch of the Surface Book and SurfacePro 4.WEB, Microsoft opens the doors to its New York City flagship store,weblink The Verge, October 27, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2015, live, On November 12, 2015, Microsoft opened a second flagship store, located in Sydney's Pitt Street Mall.WEB,weblink Microsoft to open flagship store in Sydney, April 21, 2015, Chanthadavong, Aimee, December 30, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2016, live,


Microsoft adopted the so-called "Pac-Man Logo", designed by Scott Baker, in 1987. Baker stated "The new logo, in Helvetica italic typeface, has a slash between the o and s to emphasize the "soft" part of the name and convey motion and speed."BOOK, Jha, Lakshman, 2008, Customer Relationship Management: A Strategic Approach,weblink Global India Publications, 218, 978-81-907211-2-7, May 1, 2015,weblink March 23, 2019, live, Dave Norris ran an internal joke campaign to save the old logo, which was green, in all uppercase, and featured a fanciful letter O, nicknamed the blibbet, but it was discarded.WEB,weblink Remember the blibbet, Larry Osterman's WebLog, Microsoft, Osterman, Larry, July 14, 2005, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 3, 2008, live, Microsoft's logo with the tagline "Your potential. Our passion." â€” below the main corporate name â€” is based on a slogan Microsoft used in 2008. In 2002, the company started using the logo in the United States and eventually started a television campaign with the slogan, changed from the previous tagline of "Where do you want to go today?"WEB,weblink The Rise and Rise of the Redmond Empire, Wired (magazine), Wired, Condé Nast, December 1998, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2012, live, WEB,weblink McCann Thinks Local for Global Microsoft, Schmelzer, Randi, Adweek, January 9, 2006, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2012, live, WEB,weblink Microsoft set to launch new marketing campaign, Ars Technica, Condé Nast Digital, Reimer, Jeremy, January 23, 2006, August 18, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2008, live, During the private MGX (Microsoft Global Exchange) conference in 2010, Microsoft unveiled the company's next tagline, "Be What's Next."WEB,weblink New Microsoft brand logos, company tagline revealed at MGX event? (update: no new logos, tagline is a go), Joshua, Topolsky, Joshua Topolsky, Engadget, AOL, July 22, 2010, August 2, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink August 16, 2012, live, They also had a slogan/tagline "Making it all make sense."BOOK, InfoWorld Media Group, Inc., InfoWorld,weblink 1991, InfoWorld Media Group, Inc., 26, September 5, 2017,weblink March 23, 2019, live, On August 23, 2012, Microsoft unveiled a new corporate logo at the opening of its 23rd Microsoft store in Boston, indicating the company's shift of focus from the classic style to the tile-centric modern interface, which it uses/will use on the Windows Phone platform, Xbox 360, Windows 8 and the upcoming Office Suites.WEB, Meisner, Jeffrey,weblink Microsoft Unveils a New Look, The Official Microsoft Blog, August 23, 2012, August 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 25, 2012, The new logo also includes four squares with the colors of the then-current Windows logo which have been used to represent Microsoft's four major products: Windows (blue), Office (red), Xbox (green) and Bing (yellow).WEB, Eric, Steven H.,weblink NEW MICROSOFT LOGO REVEALED,, August 23, 2012, August 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 25, 2012, The logo resembles the opening of one of the commercials for Windows 95.WEB,weblink Microsoft's new logo has ties to the past, September 13, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2013, live, WEB,weblink Microsoft's logo is not new, it's from 1995, September 13, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2013, live, File:Microsoft logo (1975).svg|1975–1980: First Microsoft logo, in 1975File:Microsoft logo (1980).png|1980–1982: Second Microsoft logo, in 1980File:Microsoft Logo Historical.svg|1982–1987: Third Microsoft logo, in 1982File:Microsoft logo (1987).svg|1987–2012: Microsoft "Pac-Man" logo, designed by Scott Baker and used from 1987 to 2012File:Microsoft logo and wordmark.svg|2012–present: Fifth Microsoft logo, introduced on August 23, 2012WEB,weblink Microsoft Unveils a New Look, Microsoft, August 2012, August 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 25, 2012,


The company was the official jersey sponsor of Finland's national basketball team at EuroBasket 2015.Finland | EuroBasket 2015 {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 28, 2015}},, Retrieved September 27, 2015.

See also



External links

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