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Bill Gates
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{{other uses}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{short description|American business magnate and philanthropist}}{{Pp-semi-blp|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2018}}{{Use American English|date=March 2013}}







factoids
| birth_place = Seattle, Washington, U.S.| residence = Medina, Washington, U.S.| education = | alma_mater = Technology entrepreneurphilanthropist}}95.6 billionWEBSITE=FORBES, September 12, 2018, (November 2018)| known_for = MicrosoftTechnical advisor of Microsoft>Co-chairman of the Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationCEO of Cascade Investment>Chairman of Branded Entertainment Network|Chairman of TerraPower}}Microsoft|Berkshire Hathaway}}Melinda Gates>January 1, 1994}}| children = 3William H. Gates Sr.|Mary Maxwell Gates}}weblink|gatesnotes.org}}| signature = BillGates Signature.svg| signature_alt = William H. Gates III}}William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, investor, author, philanthropist, humanitarian, and principal founder of Microsoft Corporation.{{Sfn|Manes|1994|p=11}}WEB, Bill Gates (American computer programmer, businessman, and philanthropist),weblink March 20, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130328082612weblink">weblink March 28, 2013, During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while also being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014.In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company.NEWS, Bill Gates no longer Microsoft's biggest shareholder,weblink CNN Money, August 22, 2014, Sheridan, Patrick, May 2, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140820064251weblink">weblink August 20, 2014, {{Refn|group="lower-alpha"|Gates regularly documents his share ownership through public U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission form 4 filings.{{citation|title=MSFT|url=https://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/msft/institutional-holdings|publisher=NASDAQ|type=Holdings|accessdate=April 10, 2016|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111019112613weblink|archivedate=October 19, 2011}}{{citation|title=MSFT|publisher=NASDAQ|type=Symbol|url=http://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/msft|accessdate=April 10, 2016|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160408230653weblink|archivedate=April 8, 2016}}}} Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself.WEB, Gates steps down as Microsoft CEO,weblink forbes.com, January 13, 2000, January 21, 2016, David, Einstein, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160126145821weblink">weblink January 26, 2016, In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which was established in 2000.WEB, Microsoft Chairman Gates to leave day-to-day role,weblink money.cnn.com, January 21, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160130104313weblink">weblink January 30, 2016, He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie.WEB, Bill Gates {{!, Development of Information and Knowledge Management|url=https://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/IKM/Development_of_IKM/bill_gates.html|website=tlu.ee|accessdate=January 21, 2016|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160126074023weblink|archivedate=January 26, 2016}} He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive. This opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings.{{Sfnm|1a1=Lesinski|1y=2006|1p=96|2a1=Manes|2y=1994|2p=459}}Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained.WEB,weblink Why Putin Isn't on 'Forbes' Billionaires List, Newsweek, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171020091119weblink">weblink October 20, 2017, NEWS,weblink The Next Bill Gates, Thibault, Marie, January 19, 2010, Forbes, December 20, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120719063548weblink">weblink July 19, 2012, From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, and held it consistently from March 2014 – July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion {{as of|2017|October|lc=y}}. However, on July 27, 2017, and since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time.WEB,weblink Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos Is The Richest Perosn In The World-Again, Forbes, no,weblink March 11, 2018, {{as of|2018|August|6|df=US}}, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos.Later in his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors. He donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.WEB,weblink Bill Gates gives $4.6bn to charity in biggest donation since 2000, Neate, Rupert, August 15, 2017, the Guardian, en, April 10, 2018, In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy.WEB,weblink The $600 billion challenge, Fortune, April 16, 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170316165028weblink">weblink March 16, 2017, The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, and is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Cofounder, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Forbes, September 1, 2017, no,weblink August 20, 2017,

Early life

Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955. He is the son of William H. Gates Sr.{{efn|While his father was named William H. Gates II, he is now generally known as William H. Gates, Senior, to avoid confusion with his son.}} (b. 1925) and Mary Maxwell Gates (1929–1994). His ancestry includes English, German, Irish, and Scots-Irish.WEB,weblink Ancestry of Bill Gates, Wargs, June 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100612062031weblink">weblink June 12, 2010, no, WEB, Scottish Americans, Alba West,weblink April 29, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080511172722weblink">weblink May 11, 2008, yes, His father was a prominent lawyer, and his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J.W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, Kristi (Kristianne), and a younger sister, Libby. He is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix.{{Sfn |Manes | 1994 |p= 15}} Early on in his life, Gates observed that his parents wanted him to pursue a law career.{{Sfn |Manes|1994|p = 47}} When Gates was young, his family regularly attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.BOOK, Bill Gates: Entrepreneur and Philanthropist,weblink The Gates family regularly went to services at the University Congregational Church., Jeanne M, Lesinski, Twenty First Century Books, March 10, 2011, 978-1-58013-570-2, September 1, 2008, BOOK, Bill Gates Speaks: Insight from the World's Greatest Entrepreneur,weblink The Gates family attended the University Congregational Church, where the Reverend Dale Turner was pastor., Janet, Lowe, Wiley, March 10, 2011, 978-0-471-40169-8, January 5, 2001, BOOK, Something Happened: A Political and Cultural Overview of the Seventies,weblink Bill Gates was a member of the baby boom, born in 1955 into an upper-middle-class family near Seattle." He attended the Congregational Church, participated in the Boy Scouts, and went to a fancy private school., Edward D. Berkowitz, Edward D, Berkowitz, Columbia University Press, March 10, 2011, 978-0-231-12494-2, 2006, The family encouraged competition; one visitor reported that "it didn't matter whether it was hearts or pickleball or swimming to the dock ... there was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing".EPISODE, Part II, Triumph of the Nerds: The Rise of Accidental Empires, Cringely, Robert X.,weblink PBS, June 1996, 1, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170813010139weblink">weblink August 13, 2017, mdy-all, At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school{{Sfn | Manes| 1994| p = 24}} and wrote his first software program.WEB,weblink Bill Gates {{!, American computer programmer, businessman, and philanthropist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2018-12-07}} When Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric (GE) computer for the school's students.{{Sfn |Manes|1994|p= 27}} Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. He wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine and how it would always execute software code perfectly. When he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine."{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 12}} After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students{{snd}} Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans{{snd}} for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.{{Sfn | Manes | 1994|p = 34}}{{Citation | url =weblink | agency = V3 | title = Paul Allen spills the beans on Gates' criminal past | place = UK | deadurl = no | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130312212620weblink">weblink | archivedate = March 12, 2013 | df = mdy-all }}At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype{{clarify| date=July 2018}}, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran, Lisp, and machine language. The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when the company went out of business. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's computer program to schedule students in classes. He modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls."{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Remarks by Bill Gates, co-chair | accessdate = July 13, 2013 | work = Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation â€“ Press Room, Speeches | deadurl = no | archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130703072235weblink">weblink | archivedate = July 3, 2013 | df = mdy-all }} He later stated that "it was hard to tear myself away from a machine at which I could so unambiguously demonstrate success."{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 12}} At age 17, Gates formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the Intel 8008 processor.{{Sfn |Gates|1996| p= 14}} In 1972, Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U.S. House of Representatives.BOOK, Michael A. Schuman, Bill Gates: Computer Mogul and Philanthropist,weblink 2008, Enslow Publishers, Inc., 978-0-7660-2693-3, 34–, BOOK, Marcie Sims, Capitol Hill Pages: Young Witnesses to 200 Years of History,weblink February 9, 2018, McFarland, 978-1-4766-6972-4, 196–, Gates was a National Merit Scholar when he graduated from Lakeside School in 1973.WEB,weblink National Merit Scholarship Corporation â€“ Scholars You May Know, nationalmerit.org, October 25, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160228095002weblink">weblink February 28, 2016, William H. "Bill" Gates III, 1973... National Merit Scholarship, He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT) and enrolled at Harvard College in the autumn of 1973.WEB,weblink The new—and improved?—SAT, May 23, 2006, The Week Magazine,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060510205250weblink">weblink May 10, 2006, yes, {{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 15}} He chose a pre-law major but took mathematics and graduate level computer science courses.WEB, Timeline : Bill Gates : 1973; from google (bill gates major in harvard) result 3,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151005190613weblink">weblink October 5, 2015, While at Harvard, he met fellow student Steve Ballmer. Gates left Harvard after two years while Ballmer would stay and graduate magna cum laude. Years later, Ballmer succeeded Gates as Microsoft's CEO. He maintained that position from 2000 until his resignation from the company in 2014.BOOK,weblink Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases: Competitiveness and Globalization, Michael Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, Robert Hoskisson, 978-1-111-82587-4, 263, October 25, 2015, no,weblink September 15, 2015, January 1, 2012, In his second year, Gates devised an algorithm for pancake sorting as a solution to one of a series of unsolved problemsWEB,weblink Before Microsoft, Gates Solved A Pancake Problem, Kestenbaum, David, July 4, 2008, National Public Radio,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110919161456weblink">weblink September 19, 2011, no, mdy-all, presented in a combinatorics class by Harry Lewis, one of his professors. Gates' solution held the record as the fastest version for over thirty years;WEB,weblink University of Texas at Dallas, September 17, 2008, UT Dallas Team Bests Young Bill Gates With Improved Answer to So-Called Pancake Problem in Mathematics,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100826084836weblink">weblink August 26, 2010, yes, its successor is faster by only one percent. His solution was later formalized in a published paper in collaboration with Harvard computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou.JOURNAL, Gates, William, Papadimitriou, Christos, 1979, Bounds for sorting by prefix reversal, Discrete Mathematics (journal), Discrete Mathematics, 27, 47–57, 10.1016/0012-365X(79)90068-2, Gates did not have a definite study plan while he was a student at Harvard,{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 19}} and he spent a lot of time using the school's computers. Gates remained in contact with Paul Allen, and he joined him at Honeywell during the summer of 1974.{{Sfn |Wallace| 1993| p = 59}} The MITS Altair 8800 was released the following year. The new computer was based on the Intel 8080 CPU, and Gates and Allen saw this as the opportunity to start their own computer software company.{{Sfn |Gates|1996| p= 18}} Gates dropped out of Harvard at this time. He had talked over this decision with his parents, who were supportive of him after seeing how much their son wanted to start his own company.{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 19}} Gates explained his decision to leave Harvard, saying "...if things [Microsoft] hadn't worked out, I could always go back to school. I was officially on [a] leave [of absence]."The History of Microsoft – 1976 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170211023447weblink |date=February 11, 2017 }}: Bill Gates explaining that his departure from Harvard was reversible if Microsoft had failed.

Microsoft

BASIC

File:Altair 8800 Computer.jpg|thumb|right|MITS 8|in|mm|adj=on}} floppy disk systemAfter Gates read the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics, which demonstrated the Altair 8800, he contacted Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the creators of the new microcomputer, to inform them that he and others were working on a BASIC interpreter for the platform.JOURNAL, Microsoft Visitor Center Student Information: Key Events in Microsoft History,weblink Microsoft, .DOC, February 18, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080226224212weblink">weblink February 26, 2008, yes, In reality, Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it; they merely wanted to gauge MITS's interest. MITS president Ed Roberts agreed to meet them for a demo, and over the course of a few weeks they developed an Altair emulator that ran on a minicomputer, and then the BASIC interpreter. The demonstration, held at MITS's offices in Albuquerque, was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the interpreter as Altair BASIC. Paul Allen was hired into MITS,WEB, Microsoft history, The History of Computing Project,weblink March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080514211138weblink">weblink May 14, 2008, yes, and Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS in Albuquerque in November 1975. They named their partnership "Micro-Soft" and had their first office located in Albuquerque. Within a year, the hyphen was dropped, and on November 26, 1976, the trade name "Microsoft" was registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico. Gates never returned to Harvard to complete his studies.Microsoft's Altair BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists, but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. In February 1976, Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter in which he asserted that more than 90 percent of the users of Microsoft Altair BASIC had not paid Microsoft for it and by doing so the Altair "hobby market" was in danger of eliminating the incentive for any professional developers to produce, distribute, and maintain high-quality software.{{Sfn |Manes|1994|p=81}} This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists, but Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976, and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems. The company moved from Albuquerque to its new home in Bellevue, Washington, on January 1, 1979.During Microsoft's early years, all employees had broad responsibility for the company's business. Gates oversaw the business details, but continued to write code as well. In the first five years, according to Bill Gates' own claims, he personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit.SPEECH,weblink Gates, William 'Bill', Remarks, October 13, 2005, Waterloo, Ontario, ON, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406130809weblink">weblink April 6, 2008, yes, {{unreliable source?|date=February 2017}}

IBM partnership

IBM approached Microsoft in July 1980 in reference to an operating system for its upcoming personal computer, the IBM PC.{{r |bunnell1982febmar}} IBM first proposed that Microsoft write the BASIC interpreter. When IBM's representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system, Gates referred them to Digital Research (DRI), makers of the widely used CP/M operating system.NEWS,weblink Pioneers Die Broke, Forbes, John Steele, Gordon, Michael, Maiello, John Steele Gordon, December 23, 2002, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061029221703weblink">weblink October 29, 2006, no, IBM's discussions with Digital Research went poorly, and they did not reach a licensing agreement. IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. A few weeks later, Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS), an operating system similar to CP/M that Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products (SCP) had made for hardware similar to the PC. Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent, and later the full owner, of 86-DOS. After adapting the operating system for the PC, Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC DOS in exchange for a one-time fee of $50,000.{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 54}}Gates did not offer to transfer the copyright on the operating system, because he believed that other hardware vendors would clone IBM's system.{{Sfn | Gates | 1996 | p = 54}} They did, and the sales of MS-DOS made Microsoft a major player in the industry.{{Sfn |Manes|1994|p=193}} Despite IBM's name on the operating system, the press quickly identified Microsoft as being very influential on the new computer. PC Magazine asked if Gates were "the man behind the machine?",NEWS,weblink The Man Behind The Machine?, interview, PC Magazine, Feb–Mar 1982, February 17, 2012, Bunnell, David, 16, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509162040weblink">weblink May 9, 2013, mdy-all, and InfoWorld quoted an expert as stating "it's Gates' computer".NEWS,weblink Bill Gates, Microsoft and the IBM Personal Computer, InfoWorld, August 23, 1982, January 29, 2015, Freiberger, Paul, 22, no,weblink March 18, 2015, mdy-all, Gates oversaw Microsoft's company restructuring on June 25, 1981, which re-incorporated the company in Washington state and made Gates the president of Microsoft and its board chairman.

Windows

Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20, 1985. In August of the following year, the company struck a deal with IBM to develop a separate operating system called OS/2. Although the two companies successfully developed the first version of the new system, the partnership deteriorated due to mounting creative differences.WEB,weblink Challenges and Strategy, PDF, Groklaw, November 17, 2011,

Management style

(File:Bill Gates - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008.jpg|thumb|left|Gates delivers a speech at the World Economic Forum in Switzerland, January 2008.)From Microsoft's founding in 1975 until 2006, Gates had primary responsibility for the company's product strategy. He gained a reputation for being distant from others; as early as 1981 an industry executive complained in public that "Gates is notorious for not being reachable by phone and for not returning phone calls."NEWS,weblink Bugs in Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III: How Bad Are They?, February 28, 2011, Freiberger, Paul, August 31, 1981, InfoWorld, 49, no,weblink September 2, 2016, mdy-all, Another executive recalled that he showed Gates a game and defeated him 35 of 37 times. When they met again a month later, Gates "won or tied every game. He had studied the game until he solved it. That is a competitor."INTERVIEW, Fred Thorlin: The Big Boss at Atari Program Exchange,weblink Atari archives, April 2000, Thorlin, Fred, Kevin Savetz, December 6, 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130101040619weblink">weblink January 1, 2013, mdy-all, Gates was an executive who met regularly with Microsoft's senior managers and program managers. In firsthand accounts of these meetings, the managers described him being verbally combative. He also berated managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company's long-term interests at risk.JOURNAL, David, Rensin, The Bill Gates Interview, 1994, Playboy, WEB,weblink Steve Ballmer Speech Transcript â€“ Church Hill Club, Steve, Ballmer, October 9, 1997, Microsoft, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420152806weblink">weblink April 20, 2008, yes, He interrupted presentations with such comments as "That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard!"NEWS,weblink Walter, Isaacson, The Gates Operating System, Time, January 13, 1997, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20000619090559weblink">weblink June 19, 2000, and "Why don't you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?"WEB,weblink Breaking Windows, The Wall Street Journal, Bank, David, February 1, 1999, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160416032811weblink">weblink April 16, 2016, yes, mdy-all, The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced. When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, "I'll do it over the weekend."NEWS,weblink Glenn, Chapman, Bill Gates Signs Off, June 27, 2008, Agence France-Presse,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080630070506weblink">weblink June 30, 2008, yes, SPEECH,weblink Bill, Gates, Remarks by Bill Gates, San Diego, September 26, 1997, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420152409weblink">weblink April 20, 2008, yes, BOOK, Robert, 2004, Herbold, The Fiefdom Syndrome: The Turf Battles That Undermine Careers and Companies â€“ And How to Overcome Them, 0-385-51067-5, During Microsoft's early history, Gates was an active software developer, particularly in the company's programming language products, but his basic role in most of the company's history was primarily as a manager and executive. Gates has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100,INTERVIEW, Gates, Bill, Bill Gates, David Allison,weblink Bill Gates Interview, Transcript of a Video History Interview / Computer History Collection, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, April 10, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130402195548weblink">weblink April 2, 2013, mdy-all, but as late as 1989 he wrote code that shipped with the company's products. He remained interested in technical details; in 1985, Jerry Pournelle wrote that when he watched Gates announce Microsoft Excel, "Something else impressed me. Bill Gates likes the program, not because it's going to make him a lot of money (although I'm sure it will do that), but because it's a neat hack."NEWS,weblink PCs, Peripherals, Programs, and People, BYTE, September 1985, March 20, 2016, Pournelle, Jerry, 347, On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that over the next two years he would transition out of his day-to-day role to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors when he placed Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy.NEWS,weblink Microsoft Announces Plans for July 2008 Transition for Bill Gates, Microsoft, June 15, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060619230935weblink">weblink June 19, 2006, yes,

Antitrust litigation

{{Further |United States Microsoft antitrust case|European Union Microsoft competition case}}File:Bill Gates - United States v. Microsoft.jpg|thumb|Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27, 1998]]Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft's business practices have had Gates' approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. He argued with examiner David Boies over the contextual meaning of words such as, "compete", "concerned", and "we". The judge and other observers in the court room were seen laughing at various points during the deposition.NEWS, April 10, 2013,weblink Gates deposition makes judge laugh in court, Elizabeth, Wasserman, CNN, November 17, 1998, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130407052251weblink">weblink April 7, 2013, BusinessWeek reported:}}Gates later said he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said, "Did I fence with Boies? ... I plead guilty. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree."JOURNAL, Heilemann, John, The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth, November 1, 2000, Wired (magazine), Wired,weblink March 31, 2008, 8.11,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140528131641weblink">weblink May 28, 2014, yes, Despite Gates' denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying, and blocking competition, both in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

Appearance in ads

File:Bill Gates mugshot.png|thumb|right|Mugshots of 22-year-old Gates following his 1977 arrest for a traffic violation in Albuquerque, New MexicoAlbuquerque, New MexicoIn 2008, Gates appeared in a series of ads to promote Microsoft. The first commercial, co-starring Jerry Seinfeld, is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Gates buying shoes inside. The salesman is trying to sell Mr. Gates shoes that are a size too big. As Gates is buying the shoes, he holds up his discount card, which uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977, for a traffic violation.WEB,weblink Mugshots, The Smoking Gun, June 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100724142703weblink">weblink July 24, 2010, yes, As they are walking out of the mall, Seinfeld asks Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers. After getting a "Yes", he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible, again getting a "Yes". Some say that this is an homage to Seinfeld's own show about "nothing" (Seinfeld).WEB,weblink Adblog, MSNBC, May 23, 2014, September 8, 2008, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525233115weblink">weblink May 25, 2014, mdy-all, In a second commercial in the series, Gates and Seinfeld are at the home of an average family trying to fit in with normal people.NEWS,weblink Seinfeld and Gates Hit the Road for Vista, Ina Fried, CNET, September 11, 2008, July 26, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151231203711weblink">weblink December 31, 2015,

Post-Microsoft

File:170217-D-GO396-0147 (32577063650).jpg|thumb|Gates meets with U.S. Secretary of Defense James MattisJames MattisSince leaving day-to-day operations at Microsoft, Gates has continued his philanthropy and works on other projects.According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Gates was the world's highest-earning billionaire in 2013, as his net worth increased by US$15.8 billion to US$78.5 billion. {{as of|2014|January}}, most of Gates' assets are held in Cascade Investment LLC, an entity through which he owns stakes in numerous businesses, including Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, and Corbis Corp.NEWS, Billionaires Worth $3.7 Trillion Surge as Gates Wins 2013,weblink January 3, 2014, Bloomberg Businessweek, January 2, 2014, Matthew G. Miller, Peter Newcomb, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140103030253weblink">weblink January 3, 2014, On February 4, 2014, Gates stepped down as chairman of Microsoft to become Technology Advisor alongside new CEO Satya Nadella.NEWS, Bill Gates steps down as chairman, will assist new CEO as 'technology advisor',weblink February 4, 2014, The Verge, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140204224246weblink">weblink February 4, 2014, NEWS,weblink Microsoft names Satya Nadella to replace Steve Ballmer, February 4, 2014, BBC News, February 4, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140204181408weblink">weblink February 4, 2014, Gates provided his perspective on a range of issues in a substantial interview that was published in the March 27, 2014 issue of Rolling Stone magazine. In the interview, Gates provided his perspective on climate change, his charitable activities, various tech companies and people involved in them, and the state of America. In response to a question about his greatest fear when he looks 50 years into the future, Gates stated: "... there'll be some really bad things that'll happen in the next 50 or 100 years, but hopefully none of them on the scale of, say, a million people that you didn't expect to die from a pandemic, or nuclear or bioterrorism." Gates also identified innovation as the "real driver of progress" and pronounced that "America's way better today than it's ever been."WEB, Bill Gates: The Rolling Stone Interview,weblink Rolling Stone, Jann S. Wenner, March 28, 2014, Jeff Goodell, March 13, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140317071201weblink">weblink March 17, 2014, Gates has recently expressed concern about the existential threats of superintelligence; in a Reddit "ask me anything", he stated thatFirst the machines will do a lot of jobs for us and not be super intelligent. That should be positive if we manage it well. A few decades after that though the intelligence is strong enough to be a concern. I agree with Elon Musk and some others on this and don't understand why some people are not concerned.WEB,weblink January 28, 2015, Bill Gates Says You Should Worry About Artificial Intelligence, Eric, Mack, Forbes, February 19, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150219122941weblink">weblink February 19, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Bill Gates Is Worried About the Rise of the Machines, The Fiscal Times, February 19, 2015, Andrew, Lumby, January 28, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150219122609weblink">weblink February 19, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Apple co-founder on artificial intelligence: 'The future is scary and very bad for people', The Washington Post, Peter, Holley, March 24, 2015, April 8, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150417053459weblink">weblink April 17, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Permalink to an answer from "Hi Reddit, I'm Bill Gates and I'm back for my third AMA. Ask me anything. • /r/IAmA",weblink reddit, June 10, 2015, In a March 2015 interview, with Baidu's CEO, Robin Li, Gates claimed he would "highly recommend" Nick Bostrom's recent work, (Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies).WEB,weblink Baidu CEO Robin Li interviews Bill Gates and Elon Musk at the Boao Forum, March 29, 2015, YouTube, April 8, 2015, no,weblink May 1, 2015, In March 2018, Gates met at his home in Seattle with Mohammed bin Salman, the reformist crown prince and de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia to discuss investment opportunities for Saudi Vision 2030."Saudi Crown Prince and Bill Gates review joint development projects ". Al Arabiya. March 31, 2018."Prince Mohammed books out hotel to dine with Murdoch". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 4, 2018.

Philanthropy

File:Millennium Development Goals - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008.jpg|thumb|Gates with Bono, Queen Rania of Jordan, former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, President Umaru Yar'Adua of Nigeria and others during the Annual Meeting 2008 of the World Economic Forum in Switzerland ]]In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy.

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, and donated some of his Microsoft stock in 1994 to create the "William H. Gates Foundation." In 2000, Gates and his wife combined three family foundations and Gates donated stock valued at $5 billion to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which was identified by the Funds for NGOs company in 2013, as the world's wealthiest charitable foundation, with assets reportedly valued at more than $34.6 billion.WEB,weblink Gates foundation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120523010101weblink">weblink May 23, 2012, yes, WEB,weblink The Top Ten US Charitable Foundations, Robin Toal, September 16, 2013, Funds For NGOs, Funds For NGOs, LLC,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407081521weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, no, April 6, 2014, The Foundation allows benefactors to access information that shows how its money is being spent, unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Wellcome Trust.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates: billionaire philanthropist, Cronin, Jon, January 25, 2005, April 1, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071015134954weblink">weblink October 15, 2007, no, BBC News, WEB,weblink Our Approach to Giving, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080404212231weblink">weblink April 4, 2008, yes, April 1, 2008, Gates has credited the generosity and extensive philanthropy of David Rockefeller as a major influence. Gates and his father met with Rockefeller several times, and their charity work is partly modeled on the Rockefeller family's philanthropic focus, whereby they are interested in tackling the global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations.JOURNAL, January 1, 2006, 2005 Annual Report,weblink yes, PDF, Rockefeller Brothers Fund,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216010301weblink">weblink February 16, 2008, February 14, 2008, {{as of|2007}}, Bill and Melinda Gates were the second-most generous philanthropists in America, having given over $28 billion to charity;WEB,weblink The 50 most generous Americans,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120222062206weblink">weblink February 22, 2012, the couple plan to eventually donate 95 percent of their wealth to charity.NEWS,weblink Bill and Melinda Gates give 95% of wealth to charity, October 18, 2010, BBC News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111013033555weblink">weblink October 13, 2011, no, The foundation is organized into four program areas: Global Development Division, Global Health Division, United States Division, and Global Policy & Advocacy Division.WEB,weblink What We Do, 2014, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140403081044weblink">weblink April 3, 2014, no, April 6, 2014, The foundation supports the use of genetically modified organisms in agricultural development. Specifically, the foundation is supporting the International Rice Research Institute in developing Golden Rice, a genetically modified rice variant used to combat Vitamin A deficiency.WEB,weblink Agricultural Development Golden Rice,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160203145910weblink">weblink February 3, 2016, yes, February 3, 2016,

Personal donations

Melinda Gates suggested that people should emulate the philanthropic efforts of the Salwen family, which had sold its home and given away half of its value, as detailed in The Power of Half.NEWS,weblink They half it in them, Bina Abraham, October 1, 2010, Gulf News, March 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110121122929weblink">weblink January 21, 2011, yes, Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done, and on December 9, 2010, Bill and Melinda Gates, and investor Warren Buffett signed a commitment they called the "Giving Pledge." The pledge is a commitment by all three to donate at least half of their wealth over the course of time to charity.NEWS,weblink Four Strategic Generosity Lessons, Moss, Rosabeth, December 14, 2010, Business Week, March 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110225154751weblink">weblink February 25, 2011, yes, WEB,weblink 40 billionaires pledge to give away half of wealth,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121104012340weblink">weblink November 4, 2012, yes, August 8, 2010, NEWS,weblink A Rich Gift: Homemade Jelly for Bill and Melinda Gates, Robyn Griggs Lawrence, February 22, 2011, Mother Earth News, March 10, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110224045032weblink">weblink February 24, 2011, yes, Gates has also provided personal donations to educational institutions. In 1999, Gates donated $20 million to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building" that was designed by architect Frank Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Donates $20 million to MIT, Matthew G.H. Chun, April 14, 1999, The Harvard Crimson, The Harvard Crimson, Inc,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407070541weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, no, April 6, 2014, The Maxwell Dworkin Laboratory of the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is named after the mothers of both Gates and Microsoft President Steven A. Ballmer, both of whom were students (Ballmer was a member of the School's graduating class of 1977, while Gates left his studies for Microsoft), and donated funds for the laboratory's construction.WEB,weblink Our Campus TEACHING, RESEARCH, AND ADMINISTRATIVE SPACES, 2014, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, President and Fellows of Harvard College,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407083133weblink">weblink April 7, 2014, no, April 6, 2014, Gates also donated $6 million to the construction of the Gates Computer Science Building, completed in January 1996, on the campus of Stanford University. The building contains the Computer Science Department (CSD) and the Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of Stanford's Engineering department.WEB,weblink Gates Computer Science Building, 2014, Stanford Engineering, Stanford University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140401153102weblink">weblink April 1, 2014, yes, April 6, 2014, On August 15, 2014, Bill Gates posted a video of himself on Facebook in which he is seen dumping a bucket of ice water on his head. Gates posted the video after Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg challenged him to do so in order to raise awareness for the disease ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).WEB,weblink Bill Gates, Facebook,weblink May 1, 2015, no, August 15, 2014, Since about 2005, Bill Gates and his foundation have taken an interest in solving global sanitation problems. For example, they announced the "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge", which has received considerable media interest.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates Can't Build a Toilet, Kass, Jason, November 18, 2013, March 24, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150325040746weblink">weblink March 25, 2015, no, New York Times, New York Times Opinion Pages, To raise awareness for the topic of sanitation and possible solutions, Gates drank water that was "produced from human feces" in 2014 â€“ in fact it was produced from a sewage sludge treatment process called the Omni-processor.WEB,weblink BBC news article "Bill Gates drinks water distilled from human faeces",weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150111050713weblink">weblink January 11, 2015, no, January 11, 2015, WEB,weblink From poop to portable, This Ingenious Machine Turns Feces into Drinking Water, January 5, 2015, gatesnotes, The Blog of Bill Gates,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113004648weblink">weblink January 13, 2015, no, January 13, 2015, In early 2015, he also appeared with Jimmy Fallon on The Tonight Show and challenged him to see if he could taste the difference between this reclaimed water or bottled water.WEB,weblink Bill Gates and Jimmy Drink Poop Water, January 22, 2015, Youtube Channel of The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon,weblink May 7, 2015, no, In November 2017, Gates said he would give $50 million to the Dementia Discovery Fund, a venture capital that seeks treatment for Alzheimer's disease. He also pledged an additional $50 million to start-up ventures working in Alzheimer's research.WEB,weblink Bill Gates makes $100 million personal investment to fight Alzheimer's, www.reuters.com,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171113144626weblink">weblink November 13, 2017, no, November 13, 2017, Bill and Melinda Gates have said that they intend to leave their three children $10 million each as their inheritance. With only $30 million kept in the family, they appear to be on a course to give away about 99.96 percent of their wealth.WEB,weblink Briefly Noted {{!, Excellence in Philanthropy {{!}} The Philanthropy Roundtable|website=www.philanthropyroundtable.org|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160211210606weblink|archivedate=February 11, 2016|deadurl=no|access-date=March 10, 2016}} On 25 August 2018, Gates distributed $600,000 through his Melinda and Gates Foundation via UNICEF which is helping flood affected victims in Kerala, India.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates follows Thalapathy Vijay's unique way to help Kerala flood victims - Tamil Movie News - IndiaGlitz.com, IndiaGlitz.com, 2018-08-25,

Criticism

In 2007, the Los Angeles Times criticized the foundation for investing its assets in companies that have been accused of worsening poverty, polluting heavily, and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell to developing countries.NEWS,weblink Dark butt over good works of Gates Foundation, January 7, 2007, Los Angeles Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919114432weblink">weblink September 19, 2008, no, , Los Angeles Times, January 7, 2006.In response to press criticism, the foundation announced a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.NEWS,weblink Gates Foundation to review investments, Heim, Kristi, January 10, 2007, The Seattle Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070516015458weblink">weblink May 16, 2007, yes, , The Seattle Times, January 10, 2007. It subsequently canceled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.weblink" title="archive.is/20071014062302weblink">Gates Foundation to maintain its investment plan, The Austin Statesman, January 14, 2007. {{cbignore|bot=medic}}{{Dead link|date=April 2016}} The Gates Millennium Scholars program has been criticized by Ernest W. Lefever for its exclusion of Caucasian students."NEWS,weblink Bill Gates' 'Diversity' Subverts Merit, Lefever, Ernest W., November 1, 1999, Los Angeles Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120715071158weblink">weblink July 15, 2012, no, mdy-all, ", Los Angeles Times, November 1, 1999 The scholarship program is administered by the United Negro College Fund."WEB,weblink The Gates Millennium Scholars program,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115031320weblink">weblink January 15, 2013, yes, "In 2014, Bill Gates sparked a protest in Vancouver when he decided to donate $50 million to UNAIDS through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the purpose of mass circumcision in Zambia and Swaziland.WEB,weblink Bill Gates faces circumcision protest, Vancouver 24 hrs,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160322000736weblink">weblink March 22, 2016, no, March 29, 2016, WEB,weblink Bill Gates helps fund mass circumcision programme, Andy Coghlan, New Scientist,weblink March 28, 2016, no, March 29, 2016,

Charity sports events

On April 29, 2017, Bill Gates partnered with Swiss tennis legend Roger Federer in play in the Match for Africa 4, a noncompetitive tennis match at a sold-out Key Arena in Seattle. The event was in support of Roger Federer Foundation's charity efforts in Africa.WEB,weblink Live blog: Bill Gates and Roger Federer play tennis for charity in Seattle, April 30, 2017,weblink May 1, 2017, no, Federer and Gates played against John Isner, the top-ranked American player for much of this decade, and Mike McCready, the lead guitarist for Pearl Jam. Gates and Federer won the match 6–4. Overall, they raised $2 million for children in Africa.WEB, Match For Africa 4 a Huge Hit for Federer's Foundation,weblink Tennis.com, May 16, 2018, The following year, Gates and Federer returned to play in the Match for Africa 5 on March 5, 2018 at San Jose's SAP Center. Their opponents were Jack Sock, one of the top American players and a grand slam winner in doubles, and Savannah Guthrie, a co-anchor for NBC's Today show. Gates and Federer recorded their second match victory together by a score of 6–3 and the event raised over $2.5 million.WEB, Roger Federer's Match For Africa Raises More Than $2.5 Million,weblink Tennis.com, May 16, 2018,

Recognition

File:Steve Jobs and Bill Gates (522695099).jpg|thumb|left|(Steve Jobs]] and Gates at the fifth {{nowrap|D: All Things Digital}} conference (D5) in 2007)In 1987, Gates was listed as a billionaire in Forbes magazine's 400 Richest People in America issue. He was worth $1.25 billion and was the world's youngest self-made billionaire. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes The World's Billionaires list and was the wealthiest from 1995 to 1996,see Forbes World's Richest People weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011116194239weblink">1996, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011116194404weblink">1997, and weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011116194603weblink">1998 1998 to 2007, 2009, and has been since 2014. Gates was number one on Forbes' 400 Richest Americans list from 1993 through to 2007, 2009, and 2014 through 2017.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates tops US wealth list 15 years continuously, Wahba, Phil, September 17, 2008, November 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081218124744weblink">weblink December 18, 2008, no, Reuters, NEWS,weblink Here's Why Jeff Bezos Is Not Truly The Richest Person In History, Kirsch, Noah, Forbes, January 11, 2018,weblink January 11, 2018, no, en, Time magazine named Gates (Time 100: The Most Important People of the Century#The only people to shape both the 20th century and the early 21st|one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century), as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005, and 2006. Time also collectively named Gates, his wife Melinda and U2's lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts.{{harvnb|Lesinski|2006|p=102}} In 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of "Heroes of our time".NEWS,weblink Heroes of our time â€“ the top 50, Cowley, Jason, June 22, 2006, New Statesman, February 17, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071231104453weblink">weblink December 31, 2007, yes, UK, Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the "Top 50 Cyber Elite" by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999, and was included in The Guardian as one of the "Top 100 influential people in media" in 2001.NEWS,weblink Gates 'second only to Blair', September 26, 1999, March 30, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081229025050weblink">weblink December 29, 2008, no, BBC News, According to Forbes, Gates was ranked as the fourth most powerful person in the world in 2012,JOURNAL, December 5, 2012, The World's Most Powerful People,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121230133410weblink">weblink December 30, 2012, June 30, 2013, Forbes, up from fifth in 2011.JOURNAL, November 2, 2011, The World's Most Powerful People,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111103062220weblink">weblink November 3, 2011, June 30, 2013, Forbes, In 1994, he was honored as the 20th Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society (DFBCS). In 1999, Gates received New York Institute of Technology's President's Medal.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Speaks of Opportunities and Challenges Facing "Generation I", News Center, Microsoft,weblink December 31, 2015, no, October 25, 2015, Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Breukelen, The Netherlands, in 2000;PRESS RELEASE, Eredoctoraat Universiteit Nyenrode voor Wim Kok, August 13, 2003, Nyenrode Business Universiteit,weblink Dutch, February 18, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080218131826weblink">weblink February 18, 2008, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2002;WEB,weblink Honorary doctors at KTH, About KTH, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150417073005weblink">weblink April 17, 2015, no, January 19, 2015, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2005; Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in April 2007;WEB,weblink Bill Gates Awarded Honorary Doctorate of Tsinghua, April 19, 2007, Tsinghua University,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707030916weblink">weblink July 7, 2011, yes, June 9, 2010, Harvard University in June 2007;NEWS,weblink Bill Gates Gets Degree After 30 Years, Hughes, Gina, June 8, 2007, February 18, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071227044031weblink">weblink December 27, 2007, yes, Yahoo!, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, in 2007,WEB,weblink Karolinska Institutet Medicine hedersdoktorer 1910‐2013, May 22, 2013, Karolinska Institutet, Swedish, Honorary doctors of medicine at the Karolinska Institute 1910–2013, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150501122820weblink">weblink May 1, 2015, no, January 19, 2015, and Cambridge University in June 2009.NEWS,weblink The Chancellor in Cambridge to confer Honorary Degrees, University of Cambridge, June 12, 2009, August 20, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090817065342weblink">weblink August 17, 2009, yes, University of Cambridge, He was also made an honorary trustee of Peking University in 2007.NEWS,weblink Gates how piracy worked for me in China, Blakely, Rhys, July 18, 2007, The Times, April 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110611221948weblink">weblink June 11, 2011, no, London, Gates was made an Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005.NEWS,weblink Knighthood for Microsoft's Gates, March 2, 2005, February 18, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080309105026weblink">weblink March 9, 2008, no, BBC News, In November 2006, he was awarded the Placard of the Order of the Aztec Eagle, together with his wife Melinda who was awarded the Insignia of the same order, both for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program "".WEB,weblink Proclamation of the Award, Diario Oficial de la Federación,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080306200919weblink">weblink March 6, 2008, yes, March 30, 2008, Gates received the 2010 Bower Award for Business Leadership from The Franklin Institute for his achievements at Microsoft and his philanthropic work.WEB,weblink Bower Award for Business Leadership, 2010, The Franklin Institute,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100726214011weblink">weblink July 26, 2010, no, June 30, 2013, Also in 2010, he was honored with the Silver Buffalo Award by the Boy Scouts of America, its highest award for adults, for his service to youth.JOURNAL, September–October 2010, 2010 Silver Buffalo Recipients, Scouting, 39, In 2002, Bill and Melinda Gates received the Jefferson Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged.National Winners | public service awards {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101124043935weblink|date=November 24, 2010}}. Jefferson Awards.org. Retrieved on September 4, 2013. He was given the 2006 James C. Morgan Global Humanitarian Award from the Tech Awards.WEB,weblink The 2006 James C. Morgan Global Humanitarian Award, The Tech Museum of Innovation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140402233330weblink">weblink April 2, 2014, no, April 2, 2014, In 2015 Gates, along with his wife Melinda, received the Padma Bhushan, India's third-highest civilian award for their social work in the country.NEWS,weblink Padma Awards â€“ Press Information Board of India,weblink January 26, 2015, yes, Ministry of Home Affairs, India, WEB,weblink Padma awards 2015 announced: Advani, Amitabh among 104 awardees, Zee News, Barack Obama honored Bill and Melinda Gates with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for their philanthropic efforts in 2016,WEB,weblink President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, November 16, 2016, whitehouse.gov, The White House,weblink November 22, 2016, no, November 16, 2016, and François Hollande awarded Bill and Melinda in the following year with France's highest national award – the Legion of Honour for their charity efforts.WEB,weblink Bill et Melinda Gates décorés de la Légion d'Honneur, Ambassade de France aux Etats-Unis – Washington, D.C., April 21, 2017, Embassy of France, Washington, D.C., France in the United States / Embassy of France in Washington, D.C., fr, Bill and Melinda Gates awarded the Legion of Honor,weblink March 15, 2018, yes, March 15, 2018, Entomologists named Bill Gates' flower fly, , in his honor in 1997.WEB,weblink Bill Gates' Flower Fly Eristalis gatesi Thompson, Thompson, F. Christian, August 19, 1999, The Diptera Site,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080212030504weblink">weblink February 12, 2008, yes, February 18, 2008,

Personal life

File:Bill og Melinda Gates 2009-06-03 (bilde 01).JPG|thumb|right|Gates and his wife Melinda, June 2009]]Gates married Melinda French on a golf course on the Hawaiian island of Lanai on January 1, 1994; he was 38 and she was 29. They have three children: Jennifer Katharine (b. 1996), Rory John (b. 1999), and Phoebe Adele (b. 2002). Gates' oldest daughter Jennifer is an equestrian rider who competed in the 2018 Longines Global Champions Tour.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates' Daughter Jennifer Aims High in Miami Beach Horse-Jumping Competition, PEOPLE.com, June 7, 2018, en, The family resides in a modern design mansion, which is an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina near Seattle in Washington state, United States. According to 2007 King County public records, the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property taxes are $991,000. The {{convert|66000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} estate has a {{convert|60|ft|m|adj=on}} swimming pool with an underwater music system, as well as a {{convert|2500|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} gym and a {{convert|1000|sqft|m2|abbr=on}} dining room.NEWS,weblink coverage of the Gates' Medina, Washington estate, Forbes, May 22, 2002, June 9, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100326042414weblink">weblink March 26, 2010, no, In an interview with Rolling Stone, Gates stated in regard to his faith:The moral systems of religion, I think, are super important. We've raised our kids in a religious way; they've gone to the Catholic church that Melinda goes to and I participate in. I've been very lucky, and therefore I owe it to try and reduce the inequity in the world. And that's kind of a religious belief. I mean, it's at least a moral belief.In the same interview, Gates said:I agree with people like Richard Dawkins that mankind felt the need for creation myths. Before we really began to understand disease and the weather and things like that, we sought false explanations for them. Now science has filled in some of the realm â€“ not all â€“ that religion used to fill. But the mystery and the beauty of the world is overwhelmingly amazing, and there's no scientific explanation of how it came about. To say that it was generated by random numbers, that does seem, you know, sort of an uncharitable view [laughs]. I think it makes sense to believe in God, but exactly what decision in your life you make differently because of it, I don't know.WEB,weblink Bill Gates: The Rolling Stone Interview, Goodell, Jeff, March 27, 2014, Rolling Stone, April 14, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140509035553weblink">weblink May 9, 2014, mdy-all, Gates purchased the Codex Leicester, a collection of scientific writings by Leonardo da Vinci, for $30.8 million at an auction in 1994.{{harvnb|Lesinski|2006|p=74}} Gates is an avid reader, and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby.NEWS, Paterson, Thane, "He had come a long way to this blue lawn and his dream must have seemed so close he could hardly fail to grasp it"-FSF (Advice for Bill Gates: A Little Culture Wouldn't Hurt), Business Week, June 13, 2000,weblink archiveurl=weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080501175753weblink">weblink deadurl= yes, He also enjoys playing bridge, tennis, and golf.HTTP://WWW.MICROSOFT.COM/PRESSPASS/EXEC/BILLG/DEFAULT.ASPX?TAB=BIOGRAPHY >TITLE=BILL GATES: CHAIRMAN YEAR=2008 ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 28, 2008 URL=HTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/1/HI/BUSINESS/3428721.STM ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 1, 2010 ARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 1, 2009, no, In 1999, his wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion.{{harvnb|Fridson|2001|p=113}} Despite his wealth and extensive business travel, Gates usually flew coach in commercial aircraft until 1997, when he bought a private jet.NEWS,weblink New Jet Eases Travel Hassles For Bill Gates, The New York Times, October 27, 1997, September 2, 2012, Zuckerman, Laurence,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120905015017weblink">weblink September 5, 2012, no, mdy-all, Since 2000, the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft's stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multibillion-dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. In a May 2006 interview, Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought.NEWS, Bolger, Joe, May 5, 2006, I wish I was not the richest man in the world, says Bill Gates, The Times, UK,weblink March 31, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080923194553weblink">weblink September 23, 2008, no, In March 2010, Gates was the second wealthiest person behind Carlos Slim, but regained the top position in 2013, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires List.NEWS, Bill Gates Retakes World's Richest Title From Carlos Slim,weblink Forbes, May 30, 2013, Cuadros, Alex, Harrison, Crayton, May 17, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100924110301weblink">weblink September 24, 2010, NEWS,weblink The Times of India, Bill Gates regains world's richest man title: Forbes, March 3, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160914002942weblink">weblink September 14, 2016, mdy-all, Carlos Slim retook the position again in June 2014NEWS,weblink Forbes Billionaires list,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111203144229weblink">weblink December 3, 2011, no, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Mexico's Carlos Slim Reclaims World's Richest Man Title From Bill Gates, Forbes, June 7, 2014, September 1, 2014, Estevez, Dolia, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140901151225weblink">weblink September 1, 2014, mdy-all, (but then lost the top position back to Gates). Between 2009 and 2014, his wealth doubled from {{USD}}40 billion to more than {{USD}}82 billion.WEB, The World's Billionaires, Forbes,weblink November 30, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129074957weblink">weblink November 29, 2014, Since October 2017, Gates was surpassed by Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos as the richest person in the world.Bill Gates has held the top spot on the list of The World's Billionaires for 18 out of the past 23 years.NEWS,weblink Bill Gates, Forbes, August 25, 2017, en, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100924110301weblink">weblink September 24, 2010, Gates has several investments outside Microsoft, which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616,667 and $350,000 bonus totalling $966,667.WEB, Microsoft 2006 Proxy Statement,weblink Microsoft, October 6, 2007, February 14, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219022338weblink">weblink February 19, 2008, yes, In 1989, he founded Corbis, a digital imaging company. In 2004, he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett.NEWS, Fried, Ina, December 14, 2004, Gates joins board of Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway,weblink CNET, March 31, 2008,weblink" title="archive.is/20120908081751weblink">weblink September 8, 2012, yes, mdy-all, In 2016, he was discussing his gaming habits when he revealed that he was color-blind.WEB,weblink This Was Bill Gates' Favorite XBLA Game, Alex Osborn, February 18, 2016, IGN, Ziff Davis, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160219110709weblink">weblink February 19, 2016, In a BBC interview, Gates claimed "I've paid more tax than any individual ever, and gladly so... I've paid over $6 billion in taxes."WEB, Newsnight Interview,weblink BBC, August 23, 2017, January 24, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170823202858weblink">weblink August 23, 2017, He is a proponent of higher taxes, particularly for the rich.WEB, US Should Pay More Tax,weblink ABC, August 23, 2017, May 28, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170707113753weblink">weblink July 7, 2017, Gates' days are planned for him, similar to the US President's schedule, on a minute-by-minute basis.WEB,weblink Bill Gates: He eats Big Macs for lunch and schedules every minute of his day – meet the man worth $80 billion, Mary Riddell, October 21, 2016, The Telegraph,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161024094352weblink">weblink October 24, 2016, no, October 24, 2016,

External business ventures and investments

  • Cascade Investments LLC, a private investment and holding company incorporated in the United States, controlled by Bill Gates and headquartered in Kirkland, Washington.
  • bgC3, a new think-tank company founded by Gates.
  • Corbis, a digital image licensing and rights services company.
  • TerraPower, a nuclear reactor design company.
  • Eclipse Aviation, a defunct manufacturer of very light jets. Gates was a major stake-holder early on in the project.
  • ResearchGate, a social networking site for scientists. Gates participated in a $35 million round of financing along with other investors.WEB,weblink Bill Gates Joins $35 Million Funding in Startup ResearchGate, Bloomberg, Levy, Jared Ari, June 4, 2013, January 28, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109223625weblink">weblink January 9, 2015,

Books, films, social media and radio

Books

Gates has written two books:
  • The Road Ahead, written with Microsoft executive Nathan Myhrvold and journalist Peter Rinearson, was published in November 1995. It summarized the implications of the personal computing revolution and described a future profoundly changed by the arrival of a global information superhighway.
  • Business @ the Speed of Thought was published in 1999, and discusses how business and technology are integrated, and shows how digital infrastructures and information networks can help getting an edge on the competition.

Documentaries

{{external media | width = 210px | align = right | video1 = The Machine That Changed The World; Interview with Bill Gates, 1990 (raw video), 44:03, Open Vault WGBHWEB, Machine That Changed The World, The; Interview with Bill Gates, 1990 (raw video), WGBH Educational Foundation, WGBH Open Vault, 1990,weblink September 19, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161014153941weblink">weblink October 14, 2016, mdy-all, }}

Feature films

  • 1999: Pirates of Silicon Valley, a film which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft from the early 1970s to 1997. Gates is portrayed by Anthony Michael Hall.
  • 2002: Nothing So Strange, a mocumentary featuring Gates as the subject of a modern assassination. Gates briefly appears at the start, played by Steve Sires.
  • 2010: The Social Network, a film which chronicles the development of Facebook. Gates is portrayed by Steve Sires.WEB,weblink 'Bogus Bill' has a blast playing billionaire in 'The Social Network', KVAL 13, October 25, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150730024100weblink">weblink July 30, 2015,
  • 2015: Steve Jobs vs. Bill Gates: The Competition to Control the Personal Computer, 1974–1999: Original film from the National Geographic Channel for the American Genius series.WEB,weblink American Genius, American Genius, September 10, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150910170511weblink">weblink September 10, 2015,

Social media

In 2013, Gates became a LinkedIn Influencer.Wills, Amanda. "Bill Gates Joins LinkedIn {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130807051649weblink |date=August 7, 2013 }}", Mashable, New York, June 13, 2013. Retrieved on July 30, 2013.

Video and film clips

Radio

Gates was the guest on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs on January 31, 2016, in which he talks about his relationships with his father and Steve Jobs, meeting Melinda Ann French, the start of Microsoft and some of his habits (for example reading The Economist "from cover to cover every week"). His choice of things to take on a desert island were, for music: "Blue Skies" by Willie Nelson; book: The Better Angels of Our Nature by Steven Pinker; and luxury item: a DVD Collection of Lectures from The Teaching Company.WEB,weblink BBC Radio 4 â€“ Desert Island Discs, Bill Gates, BBC, March 29, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160320092444weblink">weblink March 20, 2016,

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group="lower-alpha"}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, How to Be a Billionaire: Proven Strategies from the Titans of Wealth, Martin, Fridson, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, 0-471-41617-7, harv,
  • BOOK, The Road Ahead, Gates, Bill, 1996, Penguin Books, 0-14-026040-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Bill Gates, biography, Jeanne M., Lesinski, 2006, A&E Television Networks, 0-8225-7027-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Gates: How Microsoft's Mogul Reinvented an Industry and Made Himself The Richest Man in America, 0-671-88074-8, 1994, Touchstone Pictures, Manes, Stephen, harv,
  • BOOK, James, Wallace, 1993, Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire, HarperCollins Publishers, New York City, 0-471-56886-4, harv,

Further reading

External links

  • {{Official websiteweblink}}
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140730231918weblink">weblinkweblink Microsoft News Center: Bill Gates Profile, July 30, 2014, yes,
  • {{C-SPAN|billgates}}
  • {{IMDb name|0309540}}
  • {{TED speaker}}
  • {{WorldCat id|lccn-n91-8414}}
  • {{OL author}}
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