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University of Michigan
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{{About|the main campus located in Ann Arbor, Michigan}}{{Distinguish|Michigan State University}}{{short description|Public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2014}}







factoids
WEBSITE=THE UNIVERSITY RECORD ACCESSDATE=15 NOVEMBER 2018, |president = Mark Schlissel|provost = Martin PhilbertARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WAYBACK.ARCHIVE-IT.ORG/ALL/20131101064603/HTTP://BICENTENNIAL.UMICH.EDU/RESOURCES/U-MS-FOUNDINGS-IN-DETROIT-AND-ANN-ARBOR-KEY-DATES/ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2013ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 28, 2016, mdy-all, Flagship university>FlagshipPublic universitySea grant colleges>Sea grantSpace grantAssociation of American Universities>Big Ten Academic Alliance>Universities Research Association>APLU}}WEBSITE=U-M OFFICE OF BUDGET AND PLANNING ACCESSDATE=30 OCTOBER 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181119030053/HTTP://OBP.UMICH.EDU/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/ALMANAC/ALMANAC_CH1_SEPT2018.PDF DEAD-URL=YES, |undergrad= 29,821|postgrad= 16,181DATE=NOVEMBER 13, 2014PAGE=3ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150317204906/HTTP://OBP.UMICH.EDU/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/PUBDATA/FACTSFIGURES/STAFFFED+MAX_UMAA+HOSP+ALL_FALL14.PDFDEAD-URL=YES, mdy-all, DATE=NOVEMBER 11, 2014PAGE=15ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150317205428/HTTP://OBP.UMICH.EDU/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/PUBDATA/FACTSFIGURES/FACULTYHRDEF_UMAA_FALL14.PDFDEAD-URL=YES, mdy-all, Ann Arbor, Michigan>Ann Arbor|state = Michigan|country = United States42378317display=inline,title}}3177km2}}Total: {{convertacreARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 15, 2007 YEAR=2006 ACCESSDATE=APRIL 29, 2007 DEADURL=YES, PUBLISHER=OFFICE OF GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGANACCESSDATE=JULY 7, 2015, {{college color boxes|Michigan Wolverines}}Michigan Wolverines>WolverinesNCAA Division I – Big Ten Conference>Big Tenwww.umich.edu}}|logo= University of Michigan logo.svg|logo_size = 250}}The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; it was founded in 1817 in Detroit, as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, 20 years before the territory became a state. The school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto {{convert|40|acre|ha}} of what is now known as Central Campus. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than {{convert|34|e6sqft|acre km2|adj=pre|gross}} spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, and a Center in Detroit. The university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities.Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion,WEB,weblink November 18, 2018, University of Michigan spends 2nd most on research at $1.5 billion, WEB,weblink University of Michigan, Encyclopædia Britannica, December 7, 2014, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.NEWS,weblink IU research Center to House Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education {{!, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching|date=2014-10-07|work=Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching|access-date=2017-12-22|language=en-US}} In 2019, it ranked 8th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.WEB,weblink SCImago Institutions Rankings - Higher Education - All Regions and Countries - 2019 - Overall Rank, www.scimagoir.com, {{as of|2018|October}}, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan. Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) as well as professional degrees in architecture, business, medicine, law, pharmacy, nursing, social work, public health, and dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world.WEB,weblink Michigan Listed Among Ten Most Powerful Alumni Networks {{!, Michigan Ross|website=michiganross.umich.edu|access-date=2017-01-10}}Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines. They are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals.WEB,weblink Michigan in the Olympics - by sport University of Michigan Athletics, bentley.umich.edu,

History

File:JasperCropseyUniversityOfMichigan.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|University of Michigan (1855) alt=Painting of a rolling green landscape with trees with a row of white buildings in the backgroundThe University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward specifically invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, and Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships. Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside {{convert|40|acre|ha}} in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason. The original {{convert|40|acre|ha}} was the basis of the present Central Campus.WEB,weblink The Central Forty and The Diag (1837), University of Michigan History and Traditions Committee, April 29, 2007, This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe (Chippewa), Odawa (Ottawa), and Bodewadimi (Potawatomi) Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs.WEB,weblink AIUM: About, www.umich.edu, 2018-03-07, In 1821, the university was officially renamed the University of Michigan. The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Timelines: General University Timeline, Bentley Historical Library, July 5, 2007, December 26, 2008, April 21, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090421020242weblink">weblink yes, By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students, many of whom were Civil War veterans. Women were first admitted in 1870,WEB,weblink Suggested Research Topics – Gender and Social Space on the University Campus, 1870-1970, Bentley Historical Library, September 26, 2008, December 25, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090313030542weblink">weblink March 13, 2009, yes, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes (without matriculating) in 1866-7.WEB,weblink WOOD, Alice Robinson Boise, Brennan, T. Corey, Departmental Web Site Template {{!, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey|language=en-gb|access-date=2019-01-22}} James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, architecture, engineering, government, and medicine. U-M also became the first American university to use the seminar method of study.BOOK, Brubacher, John Seiler, Higher Education in Transition, July 1, 1997, Transaction Publishers, 187, 1-56000-917-9, Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and also served in high-ranking posts in the government.From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, chemistry, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, and two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives. The university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted.WEB, October 10, 2005, October 26, 2007,weblink Getting In, The New Yorker, October 16, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016053247weblink">weblink yes, Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."WEB,weblink Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy, Peace Corps, October 14, 1960, August 28, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101003041524weblink">weblink October 3, 2010, mdy-all, During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U.S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, and radar jamming.After the war, enrollment expanded rapidly and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third (or 7,700) were veterans supported by the G.I. Bill. As the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project.WEB, August 28, 2010,weblink MMPEI–History, Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute, December 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081229015555weblink">weblink yes, In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union.(File:UniversityofMIchiganDiag.JPG|thumb|left|The Central Campus Diag, viewed from the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library, looking North|alt=Red brick plaza, surrounded by trees with green leaves, with two white tents and an American flag flying from a flagpole in the center)Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first ever faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in Southeast Asia.JOURNAL, Newman, Matthew, Vietnam teach-in 30 years ago,weblink Michigan Today, October 1995, August 28, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100602090041weblink">weblink June 2, 2010, mdy-all, WEB, December 22, 2008,weblink A Decade of Dissent:Teach-Ins, Bentley Historical Library, August 28, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100727123100weblink">weblink July 27, 2010, yes, In response to a series of sit-ins in 1966 by Voice, the campus political party of Students for a Democratic Society, U-M's administration banned sit-ins. In response, 1,500 students participated in a one-hour sit-in inside the Administration Building, now known as the LSA Building. In April 1968 following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a group of several dozen black students occupied the Administration Building to demand that the university make public its three-year-old commitment as a federal contractor to affirmative action and to increase its efforts with respect to recruiting more African American students, faculty and staff. At that time there were no African American coaches, for instance, in the Intercollegiate Athletics Department. The occupation was ended by agreement after seven hours.Former U-M student and noted architect Alden B. Dow designed the current Fleming Administration Building, which was completed in 1968. The building's plans were drawn in the early 1960s, before student activism prompted a concern for safety. But the Fleming Building's fortress-like narrow windows, all located above the first floor, and lack of exterior detail at ground level, led to a campus rumor that it was designed to be riot-proof. Dow denied those rumors, claiming the small windows were designed to be energy efficient.NEWS, Holmes, Jake,weblink Explained: Coleman's castle, The Michigan Daily, April 6, 2007, April 6, 2008, April 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080426131943weblink">weblink yes, During the 1970s, severe budget constraints slowed the university's physical development; but in the 1980s, the university received increased grants for research in the social and physical sciences. The university's involvement in the anti-missile Strategic Defense Initiative and investments in South Africa caused controversy on campus.NEWS,weblink This Week in Daily history, September 23, 2003, The Michigan Daily, December 25, 2008, BOOK, The Michiganensian Yearbook (Class of 1984), University of Michigan, 1984–1985, 164, During the 1980s and 1990s, the university devoted substantial resources to renovating its massive hospital complex and improving the academic facilities on the North Campus. In its 2011 annual financial report, the university announced that it had dedicated $497 million per year in each of the prior 10 years to renovate buildings and infrastructure around the campus. The university also emphasized the development of computer and information technology throughout the campus.In the early 2000s, U-M faced declining state funding due to state budget shortfalls. At the same time, the university attempted to maintain its high academic standing while keeping tuition costs affordable. There were disputes between U-M's administration and labor unions, notably with the Lecturers' Employees Organization (LEO) and the Graduate Employees Organization (GEO), the union representing graduate student employees. These conflicts led to a series of one-day walkouts by the unions and their supporters.NEWS, Saini, Kjyot,weblink GSIs walk out, March 25, 2005, The Michigan Daily,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930184907weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, April 28, 2007, yes, The university is engaged in a $2.5 billion construction campaign.NEWS, New York Times, B6,weblink A Rust Belt Oasis, the University of Michigan Is Spending Billions to Grow, Schneider, Keith, December 31, 2008, December 31, 2008, (File:UniversityofMichiganLawLibrary.jpg|thumb|right|Law Library Interior|alt=Law Library)In 2003, two lawsuits involving U-M's affirmative action admissions policy reached the U.S. Supreme Court (Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger). President George W. Bush publicly opposed the policy before the court issued a ruling.NEWS,weblink President Bush Discusses Michigan Affirmative Action Case, Office of the Press Secretary, White House, January 15, 2003, December 27, 2008, The court found that race may be considered as a factor in university admissions in all public universities and private universities that accept federal funding. But, it ruled that a point system was unconstitutional. In the first case, the court upheld the Law School admissions policy, while in the second it ruled against the university's undergraduate admissions policy.The debate continued because in November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposal 2, banning most affirmative action in university admissions. Under that law, race, gender, and national origin can no longer be considered in admissions.NEWS,weblink University of Michigan Drops Affirmative Action for Now, January 11, 2007, Associated Press, The Washington Post, January 12, 2007, David N., Goodman, U-M and other organizations were granted a stay from implementation of the law soon after that referendum. This allowed time for proponents of affirmative action to decide legal and constitutional options in response to the initiative results. In April 2014, the Supreme Court ruled in Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action that Proposal 2 did not violate the U.S. Constitution. The admissions office states that it will attempt to achieve a diverse student body by looking at other factors, such as whether the student attended a disadvantaged school, and the level of education of the student's parents.On May 1, 2014, University of Michigan was named one of 55 higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints." President Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault was organized for such investigations.NEWS,weblink U.S. Department of Education Releases List of Higher Education Institutions with Open Title IX Sexual Violence Investigations, U.S. Department of Education, May 1, 2014, July 14, 2014, The University of Michigan's acceptance rate is 23.5% in 2018.WEB,weblink Student Profile, The rate of new freshman enrollment has been fairly stable since 2010.

Campus

The Ann Arbor campus is divided into four main areas: the North, Central, Medical, and South campuses. The physical infrastructure includes more than 500 major buildings,WEB,weblink Environmental Protection Management Practices: Flood Control, University of Michigan Occupational Safety and Environmental Health, March 8, 2013, with a combined area of more than 34 million square feet or {{convert|781|acre|km2}}.WEB,weblink 2009 Annual Environmental Report, The Regents of the University of Michigan, 7, The Central and South Campus areas are contiguous, while the North Campus area is separated from them, primarily by the Huron River.WEB,weblink Ann Arbor Map, University of Michigan, MM&D, March 8, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130413071623weblink">weblink April 13, 2013, mdy-all, There is also leased space in buildings scattered throughout the city, many occupied by organizations affiliated with the University of Michigan Health System. An East Medical Campus has recently been developed on Plymouth Road, with several university-owned buildings for outpatient care, diagnostics, and outpatient surgery.WEB,weblink Street Map to Rachel Upjohn Building, University of Michigan Health System, October 25, 2008, —The linked map shows the entire East Medical Campus.In addition to the U-M Golf Course on South Campus, the university operates a second golf course on Geddes Road called Radrick Farms Golf Course. The golf course is only open to faculty, staff and alumni.WEB,weblink Welcome to Radrick Farms Golf Course, University of Michigan, April 8, 2013, Another off-campus facility is the Inglis House, which the university has owned since the 1950s. The Inglis House is a {{convert|10,000|sqft|m2|adj=on}} mansion used to hold various social events, including meetings of the Board of Regents, and to host visiting dignitaries.WEB, Duderstadt, Anne, April 28, 2007,weblink The Inglis House Estate at the University of Michigan, University of Michigan, The university also operates a large office building called Wolverine Tower in southern Ann Arbor near Briarwood Mall. Another major facility is the Matthaei Botanical Gardens, which is located on the eastern outskirts of Ann Arbor.WEB,weblink Campus Planning – Overview Report 1998 (Introduction and Summary), April 22, 1998, 3, University of Michigan – Architecture, Engineering and Construction,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140423130901weblink">weblink March 8, 2013, April 23, 2014, yes, All four campus areas are connected by bus services, the majority of which connect the North and Central campuses. There is a shuttle service connecting the University Hospital, which lies between North and Central campuses, with other medical facilities throughout northeastern Ann Arbor.WEB, August 28, 2010,weblink Bus Routes and Schedules, University of Michigan Parking & Transportation Services, July 21, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100721201046weblink">weblink yes,

Central Campus

(File:Hill Auditorium 2010.jpg|thumb|Hill Auditorium and Burton Tower|alt=Red brick building with white stone facade. A tall white-colored stone clock tower with a green roof is in the background)Central Campus was the original location of U-M when it moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. It originally had a school and dormitory building (where Mason Hall now stands) and several houses for professors on {{convert|40|acre|ha}} of land bounded by North University Avenue, South University Avenue, East University Avenue, and State Street. The President's House, located on South University Avenue, is the oldest building on campus as well as the only surviving building from the original {{convert|40|acre|ha|adj=on}} campus. Because Ann Arbor and Central Campus developed simultaneously, there is no distinct boundary between the city and university, and some areas contain a mixture of private and university buildings.WEB,weblink 2008 Annual Environmental Report, The Regents of the University of Michigan, 2008, 9, Residence halls located on Central Campus are split up into two groups: the Hill Neighborhood and Central Campus.WEB, Undergraduate Housing Overviews,weblink University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, March 8, 2013, Central Campus is the location of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, and is immediately adjacent to the medical campus. Most of the graduate and professional schools, including the Ross School of Business, the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, the Law School and the School of Dentistry, are on Central Campus. Two prominent libraries, the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library (which are connected by a skywalk), are also on Central Campus.WEB,weblink The University of Michigan Campus, University of Michigan School of Information, April 8, 2013, May 15, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515005725weblink">weblink yes, as well as museums housing collections in archaeology, anthropology, paleontology, zoology, dentistry and art. Ten of the buildings on Central Campus were designed by Detroit-based architect Albert Kahn between 1904 and 1936. The most notable of the Kahn-designed buildings are the Burton Memorial Tower and nearby Hill Auditorium.WEB,weblink A Chronology of University of Michigan Buildings, 1840-1999, July 5, 2007, Bentley Historical Library, August 28, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100819203735weblink">weblink August 19, 2010, mdy-all,

North Campus

(File:Vocational training for S.A.T.C. in University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Class in Pole-Climbing in the course for... - NARA - 533483.tif|thumb|right|Students learn pole climbing in course for telephone electricians, c. 1918)North Campus is the most contiguous campus, built independently from the city on a large plot of farmland—approximately {{convert|800|acre|km2}}—that the university bought in 1952.NEWS, Migliore, Greg,weblink Contest seeks U-M North Campus hub designs, Ann Arbor Business Review, January 31, 2008, August 28, 2010, It is newer than Central Campus, and thus has more modern architecture, whereas most Central Campus buildings are classical or gothic in style. The architect Eero Saarinen, based in Birmingham, Michigan, created one of the early master plans for North Campus and designed several of its buildings in the 1950s, including the Earl V. Moore School of Music Building.JOURNAL, Carter, Brian, 2000, Eero Saarinen-Operational Thoroughness A Way of Working, Dimensions Volume Fourteen, 32–39, North and Central Campuses each have unique bell towers that reflect the predominant architectural styles of their surroundings. Each of the bell towers houses a grand carillon. The North Campus tower is called Lurie Tower.BOOK, Duderstadt, Anne,weblink 2003, The University of Michigan College of Engineering, 83, Millennium Project, University of Michigan, The University of Michigan's largest residence hall, Bursley Hall, is located on North Campus.North Campus houses the College of Engineering, the School of Music, Theatre & Dance, the Stamps School of Art & Design, the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, and an annex of the School of Information.WEB,weblink North Campus Map, University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, August 16, 2012, April 8, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130413075505weblink">weblink April 13, 2013, yes, The campus is served by the Duderstadt Center, which houses the Art, Architecture and Engineering Library. The Duderstadt Center also contains multiple computer labs, video editing studios, electronic music studios, an audio studio, a video studio, multimedia workspaces, and a 3D virtual reality room.WEB,weblink Welcome to the James and Anne Duderstadt Center, February 1, 2006, The Regents of the University of Michigan, March 8, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130330084003weblink">weblink March 30, 2013, mdy-all, Other libraries located on North Campus include the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and the Bentley Historical Library.

South Campus

South Campus is the site for the athletic programs, including major sports facilities such as Michigan Stadium, Crisler Center, and Yost Ice Arena. South Campus is also the site of the Buhr library storage facility, Revelli Hall, home of the Michigan Marching Band, the Institute for Continuing Legal Education,WEB,weblink South Campus Map, University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, April 8, 2013, April 13, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130413083624weblink">weblink yes, and the Student Theatre Arts Complex, which provides shop and rehearsal space for student theatre groups.WEB,weblink Student Theatre Arts Complex, University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, August 16, 2012, April 8, 2013, The university's departments of public safety and transportation services offices are located on South Campus.U-M's golf course is located south of Michigan Stadium and Crisler Arena. It was designed in the late 1920s by Alister MacKenzie, the designer of Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia, home of the Masters Tournament.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Golf Course, MGoBlue, University of Michigan Athletic Department, August 28, 2010, The course opened to the public in the spring of 1931. The University of Michigan Golf Course was included in a listing of top holes designed by what Sports Illustrated calls "golf's greatest course architect". The U-M Golf Course's signature No. 6 hole—a {{convert|310|yd|m|-1|adj=on}} par 4, which plays from an elevated tee to a two-tiered, kidney-shaped green protected by four bunkers—is the second hole on the Alister MacKenzie Dream 18 as selected by a five-person panel that includes three-time Masters champion Nick Faldo and golf course architect Tom Doak. The listing of "the best holes ever designed by Augusta National architect Alister MacKenzie" is featured in SI's Golf Plus special edition previewing the Masters on April 4, 2006.NEWS, University of Michigan Athletic Department, MGoBlue,weblink U-M Golf Course Hole Listed Among MacKenzie's Best, April 5, 2006, August 28, 2010,

Organization and administration

{{See also|President of the University of Michigan|Board of Regents of the University of Michigan}}{| class="toccolours" style="float:right; margin-left:1em; font-size:90%; line-height:1.4em; width:300px;"! colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | College/school foundingWEB,weblink University of Michigan Timelines: Departmental History, November 4, 2008, Bentley Historical Library, December 26, 2008, July 24, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080724171549weblink">weblink yes, College/school >| Year founded
University of Michigan College of Literature, Science, and the Arts>College of Literature, Science, and the Arts 1841University of Michigan Health System>School of Medicine 1850University of Michigan College of Engineering>College of Engineering 1854University of Michigan Law School>School of Law 1859University of Michigan School of Dentistry>School of Dentistry 1875University of Michigan College of Pharmacy>School of Pharmacy 1876University of Michigan School of Music>School of Music, Theatre & Dance 1880University of Michigan School of Nursing>School of Nursing 1893Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning>A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture & Urban Planning 1906Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies >| 1912Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy >| 1914University of Michigan School of Education>School of Education 1921Ross School of Business>Stephen M. Ross School of Business 1924University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment>School of Natural Resources & Environment 1927University of Michigan School of Public Health>School of Public Health 1941University of Michigan School of Social Work>School of Social Work 1951University of Michigan School of Information>School of Information 1969Penny W. Stamps School of Art & Design >| 1974University of Michigan School of Kinesiology>School of Kinesiology 1984The University of Michigan consists of a flagship campus in Ann Arbor, with two regional campuses in Dearborn and Flint. The Board of Regents, which governs the university and was established by the Organic Act of March 18, 1837, consists of eight members elected at large in biennial state elections{{harvnb|Hebel|2004}} for overlapping eight-year terms.WEB,weblink About the Board of Regents, University of Michigan Board of Regents, December 25, 2008, WEB, October 3, 2007, December 26, 2008,weblink Regents of the University of Michigan: Historical Background, Bentley Historical Library, September 8, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080908002643weblink">weblink yes, Between the establishment of the University of Michigan in 1837 and 1850, the Board of Regents ran the university directly; although they were, by law, supposed to appoint a Chancellor to administer the university, they never did. Instead, a rotating roster of professors carried out the day-to-day administration duties.{{harvnb|Hinsdale|1906|p=37}}The President of the University of Michigan is the principal executive officer of the university. The office was created by the Michigan Constitution of 1850, which also specified that the president was to be appointed by the Regents of the University of Michigan and preside at their meetings, but without a vote.State of Michigan, 1850, Article 13, section 8 Today, the president's office is at the Ann Arbor campus, and the president has the privilege of living in the President's House, the university's oldest building, located on Central Campus in Ann Arbor.WEB,weblink President's House, October 3, 2007, Bentley Historical Library, December 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080820232655weblink">weblink August 20, 2008, yes, Mark Schlissel is the 14th and current president of the university and has served since July 2014.There are thirteen undergraduate schools and colleges.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Studies, University of Michigan, December 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217040925weblink">weblink December 17, 2008, yes, By enrollment, the three largest undergraduate units are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, and the Ross School of Business.WEB, October 2014, UM News Service, March 8, 2015,weblink Enrollment by Degree Type & School/College,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317210814weblink">weblink March 17, 2015, yes, mdy-all, At the graduate level, the Rackham Graduate School serves as the central administrative unit of graduate education at the university.WEB,weblink What is Rackham?, University of Michigan Rackham Graduate School, December 25, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081207153452weblink">weblink December 7, 2008, mdy-all, There are 18 graduate schools and colleges, the largest of which are the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, the College of Engineering, the Law School, and the Ross School of Business. Professional degrees are conferred by the Schools of Architecture, Public Health, Dentistry, Law, Medicine, Urban Planning and Pharmacy. The Medical School is partnered with the University of Michigan Health System, which comprises the university's three hospitals, dozens of outpatient clinics, and many centers for medical care, research, and education.

Endowment

{{as of|2017}}, U-M's financial endowment (the "University Endowment Fund") was valued at $10.9 billion.WEB,weblink U-M endowment rebounds to $10.9B with 13.8 percent return on investment – University of Michigan News, ns.UMich.edu, October 21, 2017, As of Oct 19, 2017. WEB, U-M endowment rebounds to $10.9B with 13.8 percent return on investment, Michigan News,weblink Oct 19, 2017, The endowment is primarily used according to the donors' wishes, which include the support of teaching and research. In mid-2000, U-M embarked on a fund-raising campaign called "The Michigan Difference", which aimed to raise $2.5 billion, with $800 million designated for the permanent endowment.WEB,weblink Leaders & Best – Philanthropy at Michigan, 2004, The University of Michigan Office of Development, August 28, 2010, PDF, June 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100607045731weblink">weblink yes, Slated to run through December 2008, the university announced that the campaign had reached its target 19 months early in May 2007.NEWS, Gershman, Dave,weblink U-M's Michigan Difference campaign hits goal, May 18, 2007, Ann Arbor News, May 18, 2007, September 27, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927193543weblink">weblink yes, Ultimately, the campaign raised $3.2 billion over 8 years. Over the course of the capital campaign, 191 additional professorships were endowed, bringing the university total to 471 {{as of|2009|lc=y}}.WEB,weblink 2009 Financial Report – The Michigan Difference {Campaign Summary}, The Regents of the University of Michigan, 2009, August 31, 2010, Like nearly all colleges and universities, U-M suffered significant realized and unrealized losses in its endowment during the second half of 2008. In February 2009, a university spokesperson estimated losses of between 20 and 30 percent.NEWS, Kroll, Andy,weblink 'U' estimates endowment losses of 20 to 30 percent since end of June, The Michigan Daily, December 7, 2008, February 7, 2009, In November 2013, the university launched the "Victors for Michigan" campaign with a $4 billion goal.WEB, Gringlas, Sam,weblink University hopes to raise $4 billion in Victors for Michigan campaign, Michigan Daily, November 7, 2013, November 26, 2013, NEWS, Vis, Bridgit, UM launches $4 billion Victors for Michigan fundraising campaign,weblink Crains Detroit Business, November 26, 2013, In 2017, the university announced that the campaign had met the goal 18 months ahead of schedule. In 2018, the university announced that the original $4 billion campaign had exceeded its goal by raising $5 billion from 382,000 donors.NEWS,weblink Setting a Record, University of Michigan Raises $5 Billion, 2018-10-05, The College Post, 2018-10-05, en-US,

Student government

(File:AngellHall2010.JPG|thumb|left|Central Campus: Angell Hall, one of the major buildings of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts|alt=White-colored stone building with columns in the center of the facade)Housed in the Michigan Union, the Central Student Government (CSG) is the central student government of the University. With representatives from each of the University's colleges and schools, including graduate students, CSG represents students and manages student funds on the campus. CSG is a 501(c)(3) organization, independent from the University of Michigan.WEB,weblink IRS Form 990, FY 2012, yes,weblink October 18, 2014, mdy-all, In recent years CSG has organized Airbus, a transportation service between campus and the Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, and has led the university's efforts to register its student population to vote, with its Voice Your Vote Commission (VYV) registering 10,000 students in 2004. VYV also works to improve access to non-partisan voting-related information and increase student voter turnout.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071003010504weblink">weblink yes, October 3, 2007, About Voice Your Vote, 2006, University of Michigan CSG, March 21, 2007, CSG was successful at reviving Homecoming activities, including a carnival and parade, for students after a roughly eleven-year absence in October 2007,NEWS, Shubert, Cathe,weblink Homecoming parade, carnival to return, The Michigan Daily, September 19, 2007, April 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080426130223weblink">weblink April 26, 2008, yes, and during the 2013-14 school year, was instrumental in persuading the University to rescind an unpopular change in student football seating policy at Michigan Stadium.NEWS, Woodhouse, Kellie,weblink How a Persistent Student Government Got Michigan to Scrap General Admission Football Seating, March 12, 2014, MLive, In 2017, CSG successfully petitioned the Ann Arbor City Council to create a Student Advisory Council to give student input into Ann Arbor city affairs.WEB, Ann Arbor City Council Unanimously Approves Student Advisory Council,weblink April 2, 2017, yes,weblink April 3, 2017, mdy-all, There are student governance bodies in each college and school, independent of Central Student Government. Undergraduate students in the LS&A are represented by the LS&A Student Government (LSA SG).WEB, Who We Are,weblink February 11, 2013, yes,weblink May 15, 2013, mdy-all, Engineering Student Government (ESG) manages undergraduate student government affairs for the College of Engineering. Graduate students enrolled in the Rackham Graduate School are represented by the Rackham Student Government (RSG), and law students are represented by the Law School Student Senate (LSSS) as is each other college with its own respective government. In addition, the students who live in the residence halls are represented by the University of Michigan Residence Halls Association (RHA), which contains the third most constituents after CSG and LSA SG.WEB, Residence Hall Government,weblink University of Michigan, February 11, 2013, A longstanding goal of the student government is to create a student-designated seat on the Board of Regents, the university's governing body.NEWS,weblink Denied again: University should have a student regent, The Michigan Daily, June 29, 1998, September 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081013100636weblink">weblink October 13, 2008, yes, Such a designation would achieve parity with other Big Ten schools that have student regents. In 2000, students Nick Waun and Scott Trudeau ran for the board on the statewide ballot as third-party nominees. Waun ran for a second time in 2002, along with Matt Petering and Susan Fawcett.NEWS,weblink Regent candidates discuss tuition, health care issues at forum, October 21, 2002, The University Record Online, April 28, 2007, Although none of these campaigns has been successful, a poll conducted by the State of Michigan in 1998 concluded that a majority of Michigan voters would approve of such a position if the measure were put before them. A change to the board's makeup would require amending the Michigan Constitution.NEWS, Holmes, Erin, September 8, 1998,weblink Board of regents says no to MSA student regent campaign fee, The Michigan Daily, April 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013222504weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, yes,

Academics









factoids
{|class="infobox" style="width: 22em;"! colspan="2" style="font-size: 100%; text-align: center;" |USNWR graduate school rankingsWEB, University of Michigan – Ann Arbor – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, 2 June 2017,weblink | Business| 7| Education| 15| Engineering| 5| Law| 8| Medicine: Primary Care| 5| Medicine: Research| 9| Nursing: Doctorate| 15| Nursing: Master's| 11{|class="infobox" style="width: 22em;"! colspan="2" style="font-size: 100%; text-align: center;" |USNWR departmental rankings| Biological Sciences| 19| Chemistry| 15| Clinical Psychology| 16| Computer Science| 13| Earth Sciences| 8| Economics| 12| English| 8| Fine Arts| 20| Health Care Management| 1| History| 6| Library and Information Studies| 5| Mathematics| 9| Nursing–Midwifery| 1| Pharmacy| 3| Physics| 11| Political Science| 4| Psychology| 3| Public Affairs| 8| Public Health| 4| Social Work| 1| Sociology| 1Statistics|Biostatistics programs are not considered in the No. 12 ranking. Michigan is No. 15 when Biostatistics programs are considered}}| 12The University of Michigan is a large, four-year, residential research university accredited by the Higher Learning Commission.WEB,weblink Carnegie Classifications – University of Michigan, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, July 22, 2010, WEB,weblink U-M Accreditation 2010, University of Michigan, July 22, 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110101105139weblink">weblink January 1, 2011, Directory of HLC Institutions – University of Michigan, The Higher Learning Commission, North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, May 5, 2013, yes, The four-year, full-time undergraduate program comprises the majority of enrollments and emphasizes instruction in the arts, sciences, and professions with a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate programs. The university has "very high" research activity and the comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees in medicine, law, and dentistry. U-M has been included on Richard Moll's list of Public Ivies.BOOK, Moll, Richard, The Public Ivys: America's Flagship Undergraduate Colleges, New York, Viking Adult, 1985, 61, 0-670-58205-0, With over 200 undergraduate majors, and 100 doctoral and 90 master's programs,WEB, The University of Michigan – Degrees and Areas of Study,weblink 2009, U-M Provost's Office, August 31, 2010, June 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100608011640weblink">weblink yes, U-M has conferred 6,490 undergraduate degrees, 4,951 graduate degrees, and 709 first professional degrees in 2011-2012.WEB,weblink Degrees Conferred by Degree Level & School/College, University of Michigan Office of Budget & Planning, October 16, 2012, 1–2, August 31, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130204162106weblink">weblink February 4, 2013, yes, mdy-all, National honor societies such as Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Tau Beta Pi have chapters at U-M.WEB,weblink Honors And Awards For Superior Academic Achievement, University of Michigan College of LS&A, September 30, 2010, June 14, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100614165029weblink">weblink yes, Degrees "with Highest Distinction" are recommended to students who rank in the top 3% of their class, "with High Distinction" to the next 7%, and "with Distinction" to the next 15%. Students earning a minimum overall GPA of 3.4 who have demonstrated high academic achievement and capacity for independent work may be recommended for a degree "with Highest Honors," "with High Honors," or "with Honors." Those students who earn all A's for two or more consecutive terms in a calendar year are recognized as James B. Angell Scholars and are invited to attend the annual Honors Convocation, an event which recognizes undergraduate students with distinguished academic achievements.Out-of-state undergraduate students pay between $36,001.38 and $43,063.38 annually for tuition while in-state undergraduate students pay between $11,837.38 and $16,363.38 annually.WEB,weblink Academic Year Tuition and Fees for Full-Time Students (1) By Degree Level, Academic Unit, and Residency, June 18, 2010, University of Michigan Office of Budget & Planning, August 31, 2010, April 5, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140405180025weblink">weblink yes, U-M provides financial aid in the form of need-based loans, grants, scholarships, work study, and non-need based scholarships, with 77% of undergraduates in 2007 receiving financial aid.WEB, The University of Michigan – Financial Aid Awarded to Undergraduates (Fall 2007),weblink 2009, U-M Provost's Office, August 31, 2010, June 8, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100608011640weblink">weblink yes, WEB, March 5, 2013,weblink Project on Student Debt: Michigan, The Institute for College Access & Success, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130410115104weblink">weblink April 10, 2013, yes, For undergraduates in 2008, 46% graduated averaging approximately $25,586 of debt. The university is attempting to increase financial aid availability to students by devoting over $1.53 billion in endowment funds to support financial aid.NEWS, Kroll, Andy,weblink 'U' defends financial aid endowment spending, The Michigan Daily, March 3, 2008, April 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080625211648weblink">weblink June 25, 2008, yes, NEWS, Serwach, Joe~, August 14, 2006,weblink M-PACT expansion replaces some loans with grants, The University Record Online, March 21, 2007, WEB, May, Jerry,weblink Report to the Regents, September 15, 2011, Regents of the University of Michigan, March 5, 2013,

Research

{{See also|List of University of Michigan faculty and staff}}Michigan is one of the founding members (1900) of the Association of American Universities. With over 6,200 faculty members, 73 of whom are members of the National Academy and 471 of whom hold an endowed chair in their discipline,WEB,weblink The Top American Research Universities, December 2004, The Center (University of Florida), November 14, 2007, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071127062228weblink">weblink November 27, 2007, mdy-all, the university manages one of the largest annual collegiate research budgets of any university in the United States, totaling about $1 billion in 2009.WEB,weblink Annual Report on Research and Scholarship FY2009 Financial Summary, January 21, 2010, University of Michigan Office of the Vice President for Research, August 31, 2010, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100606135859weblink">weblink June 6, 2010, yes, The Medical School spent the most at over $445 million, while the College of Engineering was second at more than $160 million. U-M also has a technology transfer office, which is the university conduit between laboratory research and corporate commercialization interests. In 2009, the university consummated a deal to purchase a facility formerly owned by Pfizer. The acquisition includes over {{convert|170|acre|km2}} of property, and 30 major buildings comprising roughly {{convert|1600000|sqft|m2}} of wet laboratory space, and {{convert|400000|sqft|m2}} of administrative space. As of the purchase date, the university's intentions for the space were not announced, but the expectation is that the new space will allow the university to ramp up its research and ultimately employ in excess of 2,000 people.WEB, Lessnau, Laura, University of Michigan News Service, December 20, 2008,weblink U-M to buy Pfizer's former Ann Arbor property, August 31, 2010, (File:Biomedical Science Research 2010.jpg|thumb|A. Alfred Taubman Biomedical Science Research Building at the U-M Medical School)The university is also a major contributor to the medical field with the EKG,WEB,weblink History, University of Michigan Health System, 2010, August 29, 2010, gastroscope,BOOK, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, Inventors and Inventions, 2008, Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 928, 0-7614-7761-6, and the announcement of Jonas Salk's polio vaccine. The university's {{convert|13000|acre|km2|adj=on}} biological station in the Northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan is one of only 47 Biosphere Reserves in the United States.WEB,weblink United States of America – Focal point for biosphere reserves, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, November 1, 2000, August 29, 2010, In the mid-1960s U-M researchers worked with IBM to develop a new virtual memory architectural modelWEB,weblink B. W. Arden, B. A. Galler, T. C. O'Brien, F. H. Westervelt, Program and Addressing Structure in a Time-Sharing Environment, Journal of the ACM (JACM), v.13 n.1, p.1-16, January 1966, 10.1145/321312.321313, Portal.acm.org, January 30, 2012, that became part of IBM's Model 360/67 mainframe computer (the 360/67 was initially dubbed the 360/65M where the "M" stood for Michigan).JOURNAL, Topol, Susan, A History of MTS — 30 Years of Computing Service, University of Michigan Information Technology Digest, May 13, 1996, The Michigan Terminal System (MTS), an early time-sharing computer operating system developed at U-M, was the first system outside of IBM to use the 360/67's virtual memory features.WEB, Mills, David,weblink Michigan Terminal System, January 23, 2005, August 31, 2010, David L. Mills, U-M is home to the National Election Studies and the University of Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index. The Correlates of War project, also located at U-M, is an accumulation of scientific knowledge about war. The university is also home to major research centers in optics, reconfigurable manufacturing systems, wireless integrated microsystems, and social sciences. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and the Life Sciences Institute are located at the university. The Institute for Social Research (ISR), the nation's longest-standing laboratory for interdisciplinary research in the social sciences,WEB, Frantilla, Anne, September 1998,weblink Social Science in the Public Interest: A Fiftieth-Year History of the Institute for Social Research, Bentley Historical Library,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090205080145weblink">weblink February 5, 2009, December 25, 2008, PDF, yes, is home to the Survey Research Center, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Political Studies, Population Studies Center, and Inter-Consortium for Political and Social Research. Undergraduate students are able to participate in various research projects through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP) as well as the UROP/Creative-Programs.WEB, August 28, 2010, About UROP,weblink University of Michigan Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program, September 23, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080923081017weblink">weblink yes, The Michigan Spin Physics Center focuses on studies of spin effects in high polarized proton-proton elastic and inelastic scattering. These polarized scattering experiments use the world-class solid and jet polarized proton targets, which are developed, upgraded and tested at the Center.The U-M library system comprises nineteen individual libraries with twenty-four separate collections—roughly 13.3 million volumes.WEB,weblink Statistical Highlights 2011-2012, Regents of the University of Michigan, March 5, 2013, U-M was the original home of the JSTOR database, which contains about 750,000 digitized pages from the entire pre-1990 backfile of ten journals of history and economics, and has initiated a book digitization program in collaboration with Google.WEB,weblink Michigan Digitization Project, University of Michigan Library, October 2, 2010, The University of Michigan Press is also a part of the U-M library system.In the late 1960s U-M, together with Michigan State University and Wayne State University, founded the Merit Network, one of the first university computer networks.WEB,weblink Merit's History, Merit Network, September 15, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090207130720weblink">weblink February 7, 2009, mdy-all, —A university press release called a demonstration of the network (with a connection between U-M and Wayne State University) on December 14, 1971, as "a milestone in higher education" and an "historic event." The Merit Network was then and remains today administratively hosted by U-M. Another major contribution took place in 1987 when a proposal submitted by the Merit Network together with its partners IBM, MCI, and the State of Michigan won a national competition to upgrade and expand the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone from 56,000 to 1.5 million, and later to 45 million bits per second.WEB,weblink Merit Network: History, Merit Network, March 21, 2007, In 2006, U-M joined with Michigan State University and Wayne State University to create the University Research Corridor. This effort was undertaken to highlight the capabilities of the state's three leading research institutions and drive the transformation of Michigan's economy.NEWS, Serwach, Joe,weblink URC fuels new industries, September 22, 2008, University of Michigan News Service, December 25, 2008, The three universities are electronically interconnected via the Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR, pronounced 'MY-lar'), a high-speed data network providing 10 Gbit/s connections between the three university campuses and other national and international network connection points in Chicago.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020628030018weblink">weblink yes, June 28, 2002, What is Michigan LambdaRail (MiLR)?, MiLR, Michigan LambdaRail, August 31, 2010,

Big Ten Academic Alliance

The University of Michigan is a participant in the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA) is the academic consortium of the universities in the Big Ten Conference. Engaging in $10 billion in research in 2014-2015, BTAA universities provide powerful insight into important issues in medicine, technology, agriculture, and communities. Students at participating schools are also allowed "in-house" borrowing privileges at other schools' libraries.WEB,weblink Reciprocal Library Borrowing, Big Ten Academic Alliance, July 1, 2016, The BTAA uses collective purchasing and licensing, and has saved member institutions $19 million to date.WEB,weblink Purchasing and Licensing, Big Ten Academic Alliance, July 1, 2016, Course sharing,WEB,weblink Sharing Access to Courses, Big Ten Academic Alliance, 30 June 2016, professional development programs,WEB,weblink Leadership Development, Big Ten Academic Alliance, 30 June 2016, study abroad and international collaborations,WEB,weblink Global Collaborations, Big Ten Academic Alliance, 30 June 2016, and other initiatives are also part of the BTAA.

Student body

Fall Admission Statistics">

Admissions{| style"float:right; font-size:85%; margin:10px; text-align:center; font-size:85%; margin:auto;" class"wikitable"|+ Fall Admission Statistics

!   !2018WEB,weblink Student Profile {{!, Undergraduate Admissions|website=admissions.umich.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-05-15}}!! 2017 !! 2016 !! 2015!! 201weblink| Applicants|65,684| 49,776| Admits|15,468| 16,047| Admit rate|23.5%| 32.2%| Enrolled|6,685| 6,505| SAT range|1380-1540| 1920-2210| ACT range|31-34| 29-33In recent years, annual numbers of applications for freshman admission have exceeded 50,000. Around 15,000 students are admitted annually, with a target freshman class of about 6,000 students.WEB,weblink Student Profile, University of Michigan Admissions, May 31, 2016, WEB, Woodhouse, Kellie,weblink U-M Entering Class of 2013 Preliminary Admissions Statistics, May 23, 2013, annarbor.com, June 29, 2013, Students come from all 50 U.S. states and more than 100 countries.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Admissions – Prospective Students, University of Michigan Office of Admissions, August 31, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100608220217weblink">weblink June 8, 2010, yes, mdy-all, Approximately 95 percent of the university's incoming class of 2018 had a high school GPA of 3.5 and higher, with the average accepted GPA being a 3.85. The middle 50 percent of admitted applicants reported an SAT score of 2040-2280 (Critical Reading 660-760, Math 690-790, Writing 670-770) and an ACT score of 30-34. Full-time students make up about 97 percent of the student body. Among full-time students, the university has a first-time student retention rate of 97 percent.WEB,weblink Common Data Set 2014-2015, University of Michigan Office of Budget and Planning, September 2014, March 8, 2015,

Enrollment

In Fall 2016, the university had an enrollment of 44,718 students: 28,983 undergraduate students, 12,565 graduate students and 2,665 first professional students in a total of 600 academic programs. Of all students, 37,954 (84.9%) are U.S. citizens or permanent residents and 6,764 (15.1%) are international students.{| style="text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em; margin:10px" class="wikitable"Demographics of student body (Fall 2018)ETHNICITY REPORTS,weblink Office of the Registrar, University of Michigan, 30 October 2018, See Demographics of Michigan and Demographics of the United States for references.! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate !! Michigan !! U.S. Census! African American| 12.4%! Asian American| 4.3%! European American| 74.1%! Hispanic American| 14.7%! Native American| 0.8%! International student| N/AIn 2014, undergraduates were enrolled in 12 schools or colleges: About 61 percent in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts; 21 percent in the College of Engineering; 5.3 percent in the Ross School of Business; 3.3 percent in the School of Kinesiology; 2.7 percent in the School of Music, Theatre & Dance; and 2 percent in the School of Nursing. Small numbers of undergraduates were enrolled in the colleges or schools of Art & Design, Architecture & Urban Planning, Dentistry, Education, Pharmacy, and Public Policy. In 2014, the School of Information opened to undergraduates, with the new Bachelor of Science in Information degree. Among undergraduates, 70 percent graduate with a bachelor's degree within four years, 86 percent graduate within five years and 88 percent graduating within six years.Of the university's 12,714 non-professional graduate students, 5,367 are seeking academic doctorates and 6,821 are seeking master's degrees. The largest number of master's degree students are enrolled in the Ross School of Business (1,812 students seeking MBA or Master of Accounting degrees) and the College of Engineering (1,456 students seeking M.S. or M.Eng. degrees). The largest number of doctoral students are enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (2,076) and College of Engineering (1,496). While the majority of U-M's graduate degree-granting schools and colleges have both undergraduate and graduate students, a few schools only issue graduate degrees. Presently, the School of Natural Resources and Environment, School of Public Health, and School of Social Work only have graduate students.In Fall 2014, 2,709 Michigan students were enrolled in U-M's professional schools: the School of Dentistry (628 students), Law School (1,047 students), Medical School (1300 students), and College of Pharmacy (436 students).

Student life

Residential life

(File:UMichNorthQuad2011.JPG|upright|thumb|left|North Quad Residence Hall|alt=Red brick facade with white stone fronts and angled roof)The University of Michigan's campus housing system can accommodate approximately 10,000 students, or nearly 25 percent of the total student population at the university.WEB,weblink About University Housing, University of Michigan Housing, August 29, 2010, The residence halls are located in three distinct geographic areas on campus: Central Campus, Hill Area (between Central Campus and the University of Michigan Medical Center) and North Campus. Family housing is located on North Campus and mainly serves graduate students. The largest residence hall has a capacity of 1,270 students,WEB,weblink Residence Hall Overviews Bursley Hall, University of Michigan Housing, August 29, 2010, while the smallest accommodates 25 residents.WEB,weblink Residence Hall Overviews Henderson House, University of Michigan Housing, August 29, 2010, A majority of upper-division and graduate students live in off-campus apartments, houses, and cooperatives, with the largest concentrations in the Central and South Campus areas.The residential system has a number of "living-learning communities" where academic activities and residential life are combined. These communities focus on areas such as research through the Michigan Research Community, medical sciences, community service and the German language.WEB,weblink Michigan Learning Communities, UM Undergraduate Housing, August 29, 2010, The Michigan Research Community and the Women in Science and Engineering Residence Program are housed in Mosher-Jordan Hall. The Residential College (RC), a living-learning community that is a division of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts, also has its principal instructional space in East Quad. The Michigan Community Scholars Program, dedicated to civic engagement, community service learning and intercultural understanding and dialogue, is located in West Quad.WEB, Michigan Community Scholars Program,weblink February 7, 2013, The Lloyd Hall Scholars Program (LHSP) is located in Alice Lloyd Hall. The Health Sciences Scholars Program (HSSP) is located in Couzens Hall. The North Quad complex houses two additional living-learning communities: the Global Scholars ProgramNEWS,weblink North Quad to feature study of media, information technology, January 26, 2005, University of Michigan News Service, April 28, 2007, and the Max Kade German Program.WEB,weblink Max Kade Residence, Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures, September 19, 2010, August 6, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100806213624weblink">weblink yes, It is "technology-rich," and houses communication-related programs, including the School of Information, the Department of Communication Studies, and the Department of Screen Arts and Cultures.NEWS, Huston, Caitlin,weblink North Quad to showcase state-of-the-art technology, international programs, The Michigan Daily, July 25, 2010, September 30, 2010, NEWS, Maughan, Linsey,weblink New North Quad residence hall complex on track for opening in fall 2010, September 3, 2009, AnnArbor.com, August 29, 2010, North Quad is also home to services such as the Language Resource Center and the Sweetland Center for Writing.WEB,weblink North Quadrangle, University of Michigan Housing, January 16, 2011, The residential system also has a number of "theme communities" where students have the opportunity to be surrounded by students in a residential hall who share similar interests. These communities focus on global leadership, the college transition experience, and internationalism.Theme Communities. UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012. The Adelia Cheever Program is housed in the Helen Newberry House.Adelia Cheever Program. UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012. The First Year Experience is housed in the Baits II Houses and Markley Hall along with portions of all other buildings with the exception of North Quad, Northwood, and Stockwell Hall.First Year Experience. UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012. The Sophomore Experience is housed in Stockwell Hall and the Transfer Year Experience is housed in Northwood III.WEB,weblink Second Year Experience – University Housing, Transfer Experience. UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012. The newly organized International Impact program is housed in North Quad.International Impact. UM Undergraduate Housing. 2009. Retrieved February 8, 2012.

Groups and activities

(File:Michigan Union 2009.JPG|thumb|Michigan Union on Central Campus|alt=Red brick building with large windows, tall central tower, and green ivy growing on the facade)The University lists 1,438 student organizations.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Directory of Student Organizations – Maize Pages, University of Michigan Student Assembly, May 22, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101124035157weblink">weblink November 24, 2010, mdy-all, With a history of student activism, some of the most visible groups include those dedicated to causes such as civil rights and labor rights, such as local chapters of Students for a Democratic Society and United Students Against Sweatshops (USAS). The latter group seeks to hold accountable multinational companies that exploit their workers in factories around the world where college apparel is produced. Although the student body generally leans toward left-wing politics,NEWS, Bakopoulos, Dean,weblink The Michigan Daily,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090525140204weblink">weblink May 25, 2009, Places I'll remember: A farewell to Ann Arbor, April 17, 1997, August 29, 2010, yes, there are also conservative groups, such as Young Americans for Freedom, and non-partisan groups, such as the Roosevelt Institute.There are also several engineering projects teams, including the University of Michigan Solar Car Team, which has placed first in the North American Solar Challenge six times and third in the World Solar Challenge four times.WEB,weblink About Us – Past Teams, UM Solar Car Teams, August 31, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100705142947weblink">weblink July 5, 2010, yes, Michigan Interactive Investments, the TAMID Israel Investment Group, and the Michigan Economics SocietyWEB, About Us, Michigan Economic Society, March 5, 2013,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101129133838weblink">weblink November 29, 2010, yes, are also affiliated with the university.The university also showcases many community service organizations and charitable projects, including Foundation for International Medical Relief of Children, Dance Marathon at the University of Michigan,WEB,weblink Meet DMUM, Dance Marathon, Inc., August 31, 2010, The Detroit Partnership, Relay For Life, U-M Stars for the Make-A-Wish Foundation, InnoWorks at the University of Michigan, SERVE, Letters to Success, PROVIDES, Circle K, Habitat for Humanity,WEB,weblink UM Habitat for Humanity, UM Habitat for Humanity, July 14, 2007, and Ann Arbor Reaching Out. Intramural sports are popular, and there are recreation facilities for each of the three campuses.WEB, UM Department of Recreational Sports,weblink About Our Facilities, January 22, 2007, April 28, 2007, February 9, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080209120744weblink">weblink yes, Fraternities and sororities play a role in the university's social life; approximately 17 percent of undergraduates are involved in Greek life. Membership numbers for the 2009-2010 school year reached the highest in the last two decades. Four different Greek councils—the Interfraternity Council, Multicultural Greek Council, National Pan-Hellenic Council, and Panhellenic Association—represent most Greek organizations. Each council has a different recruitment process.WEB,weblink Welcome to Greek Life, Division of Student Affairs – Greek Life at the University of Michigan, August 29, 2010, The Michigan Union and Michigan League are student activity centers located on Central Campus; Pierpont Commons is on North Campus. The Michigan Union houses a majority of student groups, including the student government. The William Monroe Trotter House, located east of Central Campus, is a multicultural student center operated by the university's Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs.WEB,weblink About the Trotter Multicultural Center, University of Michigan Division of Student Affairs, August 31, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100823141107weblink">weblink August 23, 2010, mdy-all, The University Activities Center (UAC) is a student-run programming organization and is composed of 14 committees.WEB,weblink About UAC, University Activities Center, February 16, 2010, Each group involves students in the planning and execution of a variety of events both on and off campus.The Michigan Marching Band, composed of more than 350 students from almost all of U-M's schools,WEB,weblink Sections, The Michigan Marching Band, August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100923133257weblink">weblink September 23, 2010, yes, is the university's marching band. Over 100 years old,WEB, History, The Michigan Marching Band,weblink August 29, 2010,weblink June 12, 2010, yes, the band performs at every home football game and travels to at least one away game a year. The student-run and led University of Michigan Pops Orchestra is another musical ensemble that attracts students from all academic backgrounds. It performs regularly in the Michigan Theater. The University of Michigan Men's Glee Club, founded in 1859 and the second oldest such group in the country, is a men's chorus with over 100 members.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Kathryn, Shattuck, Yale Glee Club at 150, at Carnegie Hall, April 7, 2011, Its eight-member subset a cappella group, the University of Michigan Friars, which was founded in 1955, is the oldest currently running a cappella group on campus.WEB,weblink Our History, The University of Michigan Friars, August 29, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100831110950weblink">weblink August 31, 2010, mdy-all, The University of Michigan also encourages many cultural and ethnic student organizations on campus. There are currently over 317 organizations under this category.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Maize Pages – Organizations, yes,weblink December 9, 2014, mdy-all, There are organizations for almost every culture from the Arab Student AssociationWEB,weblink Arab Student Association – Home, yes,weblink December 9, 2014, mdy-all, to African Students AssociationWEB,weblink African Students Association – Home, yes,weblink December 9, 2014, mdy-all, to even the Egyptian Student Association.WEB,weblink Egyptian Student Association – Home, yes,weblink December 9, 2014, mdy-all, These organizations hope to promote various aspects of their culture along with raising political and social awareness around campus by hosting an assortment of events throughout the school year. These clubs also help students make this large University into a smaller community to help find people with similar interests and backgrounds.

Media and publications

The student newspaper is The Michigan Daily, founded in 1890 and editorially and financially independent of the university. The Daily is published five days a week during academic year, and weekly from May to August. Other student publications at the university include the conservative The Michigan Review and the progressive Michigan Independent. The humor publication Gargoyle Humor Magazine is also published by Michigan students.WCBN-FM (88.3 FM) is the student-run college radio station which plays in freeform format. WOLV-TV is the student-run television station that is primarily shown on the university's cable television system.Several academic journals are published at the university:

Athletics

File:MichiganStadium2010UConn.JPG|thumb|A football game at alt=Crowded stadium with yellow-colored "Michigan" written on a green fieldThe University of Michigan's sports teams are called the Wolverines. They participate in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly Division I-A) and in the Big Ten Conference in all sports except women's water polo, which is a member of the Collegiate Water Polo Association. U-M boasts 27 varsity sports, including 13 men's teams and 14 women's teams.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Athletics Varsity Sports, MGoBlue, University of Michigan Athletic Department, February 9, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130301041006weblink">weblink March 1, 2013, mdy-all, In 10 of the past 14 years concluding in 2009, U-M has finished in the top five of the NACDA Director's Cup, a ranking compiled by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics to tabulate the success of universities in competitive sports. U-M has finished in the top 10 of the Directors' Cup standings in 14 of the award's 16 seasons and has placed in the top six in nine of the last 10 seasons.WEB,weblink Learfield Sports Directors' Cup Previous Scoring, National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics, August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110102202358weblink">weblink January 2, 2011, yes, mdy-all,

Football

The Michigan football program ranks first in NCAA history in total wins (925 through the end of the 2015 season) and first among FBS schools in winning percentage (.731).WEB,weblink Football Bowl Subdivision Records: All-Time Won-Loss Records, 98, National Collegiate Athletics Association, March 3, 2016, The team won the first Rose Bowl game in 1902. U-M had 40 consecutive winning seasons from 1968 to 2007, including consecutive bowl game appearances from 1975 to 2007.WEB, Bentley Historical Library, December 25, 2008,weblink University of Michigan Athletics History: All-Time University of Michigan Football Record 1879-2007, May 31, 2008, The Wolverines have won a record 42 Big Ten championships. The program has 11 national championships, most recently in 1997,WEB, University of Michigan Football – National Championships,weblink Bentley Historical Library, April 10, 2006, August 29, 2010, and has produced three Heisman Trophy winners: Tom Harmon, Desmond Howard and Charles Woodson.WEB,weblink Heisman Winners, Heisman Trophy at Heisman.com, 2010, August 29, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140801004040weblink">weblink August 1, 2014, Michigan Stadium is the largest college football stadium in the nation and one of the largest football-only stadiums in the world, with an official capacity of 107,601WEB, U-M Announces New Seating Capacity for Michigan Stadium,weblink University of Michigan Department of Athletics, August 7, 2015, August 7, 2015, (the extra seat is said to be "reserved" for Fritz CrislerWEB,weblink Michigan Stadium, MGoBlue, University of Michigan Athletic Department, April 8, 2013, ) though attendance—frequently over 111,000 spectators—regularly exceeds the official capacity.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070313183556weblink">weblink March 13, 2007, The Michigan Stadium Story – Once Again the Biggest House, 1998, Bentley Historical Library, March 23, 2007, yes, The NCAA's record-breaking attendance has become commonplace at Michigan Stadium, especially since the arrival of head coach Bo Schembechler. U-M has fierce rivalries with many teams, including Michigan State, Notre Dame, and Ohio State; ESPN has referred to the Michigan-Ohio State rivalry as the greatest rivalry in American sports.NEWS, January 3, 2005, March 23, 2007, ESPN,weblink The 10 greatest rivalries, U-M also has all-time winning records against Michigan State, Notre Dame, and Ohio State.WEB,weblink University of Michigan Football All-Time Records vs. Opponents, MGoBlue, University of Michigan Athletic Department, July 6, 2016,

Men's ice hockey

File:Ray Fisher Stadium.jpg|thumb|right|Ray Fisher Stadium, home of the Michigan baseball team ]]The men's ice hockey team, which plays at Yost Ice Arena, has won nine national championships.WEB,weblink Men's Ice Hockey (Division I): Championship History, NCAA, March 5, 2013,

Men's basketball

The men's basketball team, which plays at the Crisler Center, has appeared in five Final Fours and won the national championship in 1989. The men's basketball program became involved in a scandal involving payments from a booster during the 1990s. This led to the program being placed on probation for a four-year period. The program also voluntarily vacated victories from its 1992–1993 and 1995–1999 seasons in which the payments took place, as well as its 1992 and 1993 Final Four appearances.NEWS, Cnockaert, Jim, Accident's effects still felt six years later: Roberson: It changed the athletic department, March 22, 2002, Ann Arbor News, The men's basketball team has most recently won back-to-back Big Ten Tournament Championships, against Wisconsin in 2017 and Purdue in 2018.

Other sports

The men's wrestling, men's gymnastics, and women's volleyball teams compete at the Cliff Keen Arena, dedicated and named after longtime wrestling coach Cliff Keen in 1990.U-M is also home to 29 men's and women's club sports teams, such as rugby, hockey, volleyball, boxing, soccer, and tennis.

In the Olympics

Through the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 178 U-M students and coaches had participated in the Olympics, winning medals in every Summer Olympics except 1896, and winning gold medals in all but four Olympiads. U-M students have won a total of 151 Olympic medals: 72 gold, 39 silver, and 40 bronze.WEB,weblink Michigan in the Olympics, February 5, 2016, Bentley Historical Library, August 28, 2010,

School songs

The University of Michigan's fight song, "The Victors," was written by student Louis Elbel in 1898 following the last-minute football victory over the University of Chicago that won a league championship. The song was declared by John Philip Sousa as "the greatest college fight song ever written."BOOK, Michael Hondorp, Fabrikant Alexis, University of Michigan College Prowler Off the Record, January 1, 2005, College Prowler, Inc, 1-59658-163-8, 118, The song refers to the university as being "the Champions of the West." At the time, U-M was part of the Western Conference, which would later become the Big Ten Conference. Michigan was considered to be on the Western Frontier when it was founded in the old Northwest Territory.Although mainly used at sporting events, the Michigan fight song is often heard at other events as well. President Gerald Ford had it played by the United States Marine Band as his entrance anthem during his term as president from 1974 to 1977, in preference over the more traditional "Hail to the Chief",BOOK, Rozell, Mark J., The Press and the Ford Presidency, October 15, 1992, University of Michigan Press, 0-472-10350-4, 38, and the Michigan Marching Band performed a slow-tempo variation of the fight song at his funeral.NEWS, Singer, Michelle,weblink Gerald Ford Returns Home For The Last Time, January 3, 2007, CBS News, February 18, 2010, The fight song is also sung during graduation commencement ceremonies. The university's alma mater song is "The Yellow and Blue." A common rally cry is "Let's Go Blue!" which had a complementary short musical arrangement written by former students Joseph Carl, a sousaphonist, and Albert Ahronheim, a drum major.NEWS, Stieg, Bill,weblink A Catchy Intro To A Cheer Became Music To The Ears Of Myriad Fans, May 21, 1984, Sports Illustrated,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202160254weblink">weblink December 2, 2008, December 25, 2008, yes, Before "The Victors" was officially the University's fight song, the song "There'll Be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight" was considered to be the school song.WEB,weblink The Michiganesian Yearbook, 1999, 186, After Michigan temporarily withdrew from the Western Conference in 1907, a new Michigan fight song "Varsity" was written in 1911 because the line "champions of the West" was no longer appropriate.WEB, The Eugene Fischer Years: 1906-1914,weblink Michigan Marching Band website, Regents of the University of Michigan, April 9, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120331162125weblink">weblink March 31, 2012, yes,

Alumni

In addition to the late U.S. president Gerald Ford, the university has produced twenty-six Rhodes Scholars. {{as of|2012}}, the university has almost 500,000 living alumni.WEB,weblink Alumni, University of Michigan, September 7, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101111165617weblink">weblink November 11, 2010, yes, More than 250 Michigan graduates have served as legislators as either a United States Senator (40 graduates) or as a Congressional representative (over 200 graduates), including former House Majority Leader Dick Gephardt and U.S. Representative Justin Amash, who represents Michigan's Third Congressional District.WEB,weblink About Justin Amash, March 6, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202184948weblink">weblink December 2, 2010, yes, Mike Duggan, Mayor of Detroit, earned his bachelor and law degree at Michigan, while Michigan Governor Rick Snyder earned his bachelor, M.B.A., and J.D. degrees from Michigan. Current Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson received his medical degree from the U-M medical school. Thomas E. Dewey, another Michigan alumnus, was the Governor of New York from 1943 to 1954, and was the Republican Party's presidential nominee in the 1944 and 1948 presidential elections. The 13th President of Pakistan, Arif Alvi, completed his master's degree in prosthodontics in 1975.U-M's contributions to aeronautics include aircraft designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson of Lockheed Skunk Works fame,WEB,weblink Biographical Memoirs-Clarence Leonard (kelly) Johnson, The National Academies Press, August 31, 2010, Lockheed president Willis Hawkins, and several astronauts including the all-U-M crews of both Gemini 4BOOK, Shayler, David, Gemini, Springer, 2001, 1-85233-405-3, 103, and Apollo 15.NEWS, Graboski, Leah, Debunking the Moon Myth,weblink March 28, 2006, The Michigan Daily, March 10, 2007, U-M counts among its matriculants twenty-one billionaires and prominent company founders and co-founders including Google co-founder Larry PageWEB,weblink Corporate Information – Google Management: Larry Page, Google, Inc., August 29, 2010, and Dr. J. Robert Beyster, who founded Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in 1969.BOOK, Dr. J. Robert Beyster and Peter Economy, The SAIC Solution: How We Built an $8 Billion Employee-Owned Technology Company, John Wiley & Sons, 2007, 190–191, 0-470-13931-5, Several U-M graduates contributed greatly to the field of computer science, including Claude Shannon (who made major contributions to the mathematics of information theory),WEB,weblink Shannon Statue Dedicated at the University of Michigan, University of Michigan EECS, November 9, 2001, August 29, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100731230211weblink">weblink July 31, 2010, mdy-all, and Turing Award winners Edgar Codd, Stephen Cook, Frances E. Allen and Michael Stonebraker. Marjorie Lee Browne received her M.S. in 1939 and her doctoral degree in 1950, becoming the third African American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics.Marjorie Lee Browne – Mathematicians of the African Diaspora. Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.History of Black Women in the Mathematical Sciences. Math.buffalo.edu. Retrieved July 17, 2013. Katharine Coman, who taught and researched at Wellesley College, was the first female statistics professor in the US.Fitzpatrick, Paul J. (1955). "The Early Teaching of Statistics in American Colleges and Universities". The American Statistician. 9 (5): 12–18. doi:10.2307/2685503. JSTOR 2685503.{{Rp|15}}Notable writers who attended U-M include playwright Arthur Miller,WEB,weblink Famous U-M Alumni, Alumni Association University of Michigan,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100712122532weblink">weblink July 12, 2010, August 29, 2010, yes, essayists Susan Orlean and Sven Birkerts, journalists and editors Mike Wallace, Jonathan Chait of The New Republic, Indian author and columnist Anees Jung, Daniel Okrent, and Sandra Steingraber, food critics Ruth Reichl and Gael Greene, novelists Brett Ellen Block, Elizabeth Kostova, Marge Piercy, Brad Meltzer, Betty Smith, and Charles Major, screenwriter Judith Guest, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Theodore Roethke, National Book Award winners Keith Waldrop and Jesmyn Ward, composer/author/puppeteer Forman Brown, and Alireza Jafarzadeh (a Middle East analyst, author, and TV commentator).In Hollywood, famous alumni include actors Michael Dunn, Darren Criss, James Earl Jones, David Alan Grier, actresses Lucy Liu, Gilda Radner, and Selma Blair, television director Mark Cendrowski, and filmmaker Lawrence Kasdan. Many Broadway and musical theatre actors, including Gavin Creel, Andrew Keenan-Bolger, his sister Celia Keenan-Bolger, and Taylor Louderman attended U-M for musical theatre. The musical theatre group StarKid Productions had their start at the University, and staged multiple productions there.WEB,weblink The StarKids Are All Right: The rise of a 'U' theater troupe from the Basement to the national stage, The Michigan Daily, en, 2019-03-05, Musical graduates include operatic soprano Jessye Norman, singer Joe Dassin, jazz guitarist Randy Napoleon, and Mannheim Steamroller founder Chip Davis. Well-known composers who are alumni include Frank Ticheli, Andrew Lippa, and the Oscar and Tony Award-winning duo Benj Pasek and Justin Paul. Pop Superstar Madonna and rock legend Iggy Pop attended but did not graduate.Other U-M graduates include former Dean of Harvard Law School Martha Minow, assisted-suicide advocate Dr. Jack Kevorkian, Weather Underground radical activist Bill Ayers,BOOK, Ayers, Bill, Fugitive Days: A Memoir, New York: Penguin Books, 2003, 0-8070-7124-2, activist Tom Hayden, architect Charles Moore,WEB,weblink Who, Charles Moore Foundation, October 26, 2008, the Swedish Holocaust hero Raoul Wallenberg,WEB, Penny, Schreiber,weblink The Wallenberg Story, The Wallenberg Foundation (University of Michigan), February 14, 2007, and Civil War General Benjamin D. Pritchard.BOOK, Greenm James J., The Life and Times of General B. D. Pritchard, Allegan: Allegan County Historical Society, 1979, 2, Neurosurgeon and CNN chief medical correspondent Sanjay Gupta attended both college and medical school at the University.NEWS, Sanjay Gupta, CNN,weblink August 31, 2010, Clarence Darrow attended law school at U-M at a time when many lawyers did not receive any formal education. Frank Murphy, who was mayor of Detroit, governor of Michigan, attorney general of the United States, and Supreme Court justice was also a graduate of the Law School. Conservative pundit Ann Coulter is another U-M law school graduate (J.D. 1988).Vaughn R. Walker, a federal district judge in California who overturned the controversial California Proposition 8 in 2010 and ruled it unconstitutional, received his undergraduate degree from U-M in 1966.WEB,weblink History of the Federal Judiciary – Biographical Directory of Federal Judges: Walker, Vaughn R., Federal Judicial Center, April 8, 2013, Some notorious graduates of the University are 1910 convicted murderer Dr. Harvey Crippen, late 19th-century American serial killer Herman Webster Mudgett (also known as H. H. Holmes), and "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski.U-M athletes have starred in Major League Baseball, the National Football League and National Basketball Association as well as other professional sports. Notable among recent players is Tom Brady of the New England Patriots. Three players have won college football's Heisman Trophy, awarded to the player considered the best in the nation: Tom Harmon (1940), Desmond Howard (1991) and Charles Woodson (1997). Professional golfer John Schroeder and Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps also attended the University of Michigan, with the latter studying Sports Marketing and Management. Phelps also swam competitively for Club Wolverine, a swimming club associated with the university.NEWS, Michaelis, Vicki, Phelps' dominant pool dream still alive,weblink USA Today, February 13, 2007, October 25, 2008, National Hockey League players Marty Turco, Chris Summers, Max Pacioretty, Carl Hagelin, Brendan Morrison, Jack Johnson, and Michael Cammalleri all played for U-M's ice hockey team. Baseball Hall of Famers George Sisler and Barry Larkin also played baseball at the university.The university claims the only alumni association with a chapter on the moon, established in 1971 when the crew of Apollo 15 placed a charter plaque for a new U-M Alumni Association on the lunar surface. The plaque states: "The Alumni Association of The University of Michigan. Charter Number One. This is to certify that The University of Michigan Club of The Moon is a duly constituted unit of the Alumni Association and entitled to all the rights and privileges under the Association's Constitution." According to the Apollo 15 astronauts, several small U-M flags were brought on the mission.

References

Specific

{{Reflist}}

General

  • BOOK, Fiske, Edward B., Fiske Guide to Colleges 2005 (Twenty-first Edition), Naperville, IL, Sourcebooks, Inc, 2004, 1-4022-0229-6,
  • BOOK, Fleming, Robben W., Tempests into Rainbows: Managing Turbulence, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1996, 0-472-10674-0,
  • JOURNAL, Hebel, Sara, State Regents: Should They Be Elected or Appointed?,weblink October 15, 2004, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 51, 8, A1, harv,
  • BOOK, Hinsdale, Burke A., 1906, History of the University of Michigan, Demmon, Isaac,weblink University of Michigan, 0-932212-33-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Holtzer (editor), Susan., Special to the Daily: The 1st 100 Years of Editorial Freedom at the Michigan Daily, Caddo Gap Press, 0-9625945-2-0, 1990,
  • BOOK, Peckham, Howard H., The Making of The University of Michigan 1817–1992, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1994, 0-472-06594-7,
  • WEB,weblink Facts & Figures, University of Michigan Office of Budget & Planning, October 25, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100817184202weblink">weblink August 17, 2010, yes, mdy-all,
  • Nelson, Greg. (2009). M is for Michigan Football University of Michigan Press. {{ISBN|978-0-472-03387-4}}.
  • Duderstadt, Anne. Karels, Liene. (editors). (2003). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100619221714weblink">The University of Michigan: A Seasonal Portrait. University of Michigan Press. {{ISBN|978-1-85841-107-1}}.

External links

{{Commons|University of Michigan}}
  • {{Official website}}
  • University of Michigan Athletics website
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    • EB1911, Michigan, University of, x, x,
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    • AMCYC, Michigan, University of, x, x,
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