aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{about||the episode of the television series The Americans|Arpanet (The Americans)}}{{short description|Early packet switching network that was the first to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2011}}

(File:Arpanet map 1973.jpg|thumb|upright=1.4|ARPA network map 1973)(File:Arpanet 1974.svg|thumb|upright=1.4|ARPANET network map 1974)The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet-switching network and the first network to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. The ARPANET was initially founded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.L. A. Lievrouw, Handbook of New Media: Student Edition (p. 253) (edited by L. A. Lievrouw, S. M. Livingstone), published by SAGE 2006 (abridged, reprint, revised), 475 pages, {{ISBN|1412918731}} [Retrieved 2015-08-15].BOOK,weblink G. Schneider, J. Evans, K. Pinard, The Internet – Illustrated, Cengage Learning, 2009, 978-0538750981, 2015-08-15, K. G. Coffman & A. M. Odlyzco, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV-B: Systems and Impairments, published by Academic Press, 22 May 2002, 1022 pages, Optics and Photonics, {{ISBN|0080513190}}, (edited by I. Kaminow & T. Li) [Retrieved 2015-08-15].BOOK,weblink R. Oppliger, Internet and Intranet Security, 12, Artech House, 2001, 1580531660, 2015-08-15, BOOK,weblink H. Bidgoli, The Internet Encyclopedia, John Wiley & Sons, 2004, 0471689963, 2: G–O, 2015-08-15, The packet-switching methodology employed in the ARPANET was based on concepts and designs by Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, Donald Davies, and Lawrence Roberts.WEB,weblink Lawrence Roberts Manages The ARPANET Program, Living, 6 November 2008, The TCP/IP communications protocols were developed for the ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, and incorporated concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin.As the project progressed, protocols for internetworking were developed by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981, when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment of national supercomputing centers at several universities and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990.


Historically, voice and data communications were based on methods of circuit switching, as exemplified in the traditional telephone network, wherein each telephone call is allocated a dedicated, end to end, electronic connection between the two communicating stations. Such stations might be telephones or computers. The temporarily dedicated line typically comprises many intermediary lines which are assembled into a chain that reaches from the originating station to the destination station. With packet switching, a network could share a single communication link for communication between multiple pairs of receivers and transmitters.The earliest ideas for a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users were formulated by computer scientist J. C. R. Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), in April 1963, in memoranda discussing the concept of the "Intergalactic Computer Network". Those ideas encompassed many of the features of the contemporary Internet. In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and Control programs at the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). He convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor that this network concept was very important and merited development, although Licklider left ARPA before any contracts were assigned for development."J.C.R. Licklider And The Universal Network", Living InternetSutherland and Taylor continued their interest in creating the network, in part, to allow ARPA-sponsored researchers at various corporate and academic locales to utilize computers provided by ARPA, and, in part, to quickly distribute new software and other computer science results."IPTO – Information Processing Techniques Office", Living Internet Taylor had three computer terminals in his office, each connected to separate computers, which ARPA was funding: one for the System Development Corporation (SDC) Q-32 in Santa Monica, one for Project Genie at the University of California, Berkeley, and another for Multics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Taylor recalls the circumstance: "For each of these three terminals, I had three different sets of user commands. So, if I was talking online with someone at S.D.C., and I wanted to talk to someone I knew at Berkeley, or M.I.T., about this, I had to get up from the S.D.C. terminal, go over and log into the other terminal and get in touch with them. I said, "Oh Man!", it's obvious what to do: If you have these three terminals, there ought to be one terminal that goes anywhere you want to go. That idea is the ARPANET".NEWS, An Internet Pioneer Ponders the Next Revolution, John Markoff,weblink The New York Times, 20 September 2008, 20 December 1999,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2008, no, Meanwhile, since the early 1960s, Paul Baran at the RAND Corporation had been researching systems that could survive nuclear war and developed the idea of distributed adaptive message block switching.WEB,weblink Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet, RAND corporation, 29 March 2011, Donald Davies at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) independently invented the same concept in 1965.WEB, Scantlebury, Roger, Internet pioneers airbrushed from history,weblink 25 June 2013, The Guardian, 1 August 2015, WEB, Packets of data were the key...,weblink NPL, 1 August 2015, His work, presented by a colleague, initially caught the attention of ARPANET developers at a conference in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967.BOOK, Isaacson, Walter, The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, 2014, Simon & Schuster, 9781476708690, 237,weblink He gave the first public demonstration, having coined the term packet switching, on 5 August 1968 and incorporated it into the NPL network in England.NEWS, The accelerator of the modern age,weblink BBC News, 19 May 2009, 5 August 2008, Elizabeth Feinler created the first Resource Handbook for ARPANET in 1969 which led to the development of the ARPANET directory.{{Sfn|Evans|2018|p=112}} The directory, built by Feinler and a team made it possible to navigate the ARPANET.{{Sfn|Evans|2018|p=113}}{{Sfn|Evans|2018|p=116}} Larry Roberts at ARPA applied Davies' concepts of packet switching for the ARPANET.JOURNAL, Martin, Cambell-Kelly, Pioneer Profiles: Donald Davies, Computer Resurrection, 44, Autumn 2008, 0958-7403,weblink The NPL network followed by the ARPANET were the first two networks in the world to use packet switching,WEB, Roberts, Lawrence G., The Evolution of Packet Switching,weblink 9 April 2016, November 1978,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Donald Davies,, none, ; WEB,weblink Donald Davies,, and were themselves connected together in 1973.BOOK,weblink C. Hempstead, W. Worthington, Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology, Routledge 8 Aug 2005, 992 pages, (edited by C. Hempstead, W. Worthington), 2015-08-15, 9781135455514, 8 August 2005, (source: Gatlinburg, ... Association for Computing Machinery)BOOK, M. Ziewitz, I. Brown, yes, Research Handbook on Governance of the Internet, 7, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 978-1849805049, 2015-08-16,weblink


Bob Taylor convinced ARPA's Director Charles M. Herzfeld to fund a network project in February 1966, and Herzfeld transferred a million dollars from a ballistic missile defense program to Taylor's budget.Markoff, John, Innovator who helped create PC, Internet and the mouse, New York Times, April 15, 2017, p.A1 Taylor hired Larry Roberts as a program manager in the ARPA Information Processing Techniques Office in January 1967 to work on the ARPANET. In April 1967, Roberts held a design session on technical standards. The initial standards for identification and authentication of users, transmission of characters, and error checking and retransmission procedures were discussed. At the meeting, Wesley Clark proposed minicomputers called Interface Message Processors (IMPs) should be used to interface to the network rather than the large mainframes that would be the nodes of the ARPANET. Roberts modified the ARPANET plan to incorporate Clark's suggestion. The plan was presented at the ACM Symposium in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, in October 1967.WEB, Lawrence Roberts Manages The ARPANET Program,weblink Living Internet, 5 September 2017, 7 January 2000, WEB, IMP -- Interface Message Processor,weblink Living Internet, 5 September 2017, 7 January 2000, WEB, Lawrence Roberts,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 September 2017, WEB, Roberts, Lawrence G. Dr, The Evolution of Packet Switching,weblink 5 September 2017, November 1978,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, Donald Davies' work on packet switching and the NPL network, presented by a colleague (Roger Scantlebury), came to the attention of ARPANET developers at this conference.BOOK, Gillies, James, Cailliau, Robert, How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web, 2000, Oxford University Press, 0192862073, 25,weblink BOOK, Isaacson, Walter, The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, 2014, Simon & Schuster, 9781476708690, 237,weblink Roberts applied Davies' concept of packet switching for the ARPANET,WEB, Inductee Details - Donald Watts Davies,weblink National Inventors Hall of Fame, 6 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2017, yes, dmy-all, and sought input from Paul Baran and Leonard Kleinrock. Building on his earlier work on queueing theory, Kleinrock modelled the performance of packet-switched networks, which underpinned the development of the ARPANET. The NPL network was using line speeds of 768 kbit/s, and the proposed line speed for the ARPANET was upgraded from 2.4 kbit/s to 50 kbit/s.WEB, Brief History of the Internet,weblink Internet Society, July 12, 2017, By mid-1968, Roberts had prepared a complete plan for the computer network and gave a report to Taylor on June 3, who approved it on June 21. After approval by ARPA, a Request for Quotation (RFQ) was issued for 140 potential bidders. Most computer science companies regarded the ARPA proposal as outlandish, and only twelve submitted bids to build a network; of the twelve, ARPA regarded only four as top-rank contractors. At year's end, ARPA considered only two contractors, and awarded the contract to build the network to Bolt, Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN) on 7 April 1969.The initial, seven-person BBN team were much aided by the technical specificity of their response to the ARPA RFQ, and thus quickly produced the first working system. This team was led by Frank Heart and included Robert Kahn. The BBN-proposed network closely followed Roberts' ARPA plan: a network composed of small computers called Interface Message Processors (or IMPs), similar to the later concept of routers, that functioned as gateways interconnecting local resources. At each site, the IMPs performed store-and-forward packet switching functions, and were interconnected with leased lines via telecommunication data sets (modems), with initial data rates of {{gaps|56|kbit/s}}. The host computers were connected to the IMPs via custom serial communication interfaces. The system, including the hardware and the packet switching software, was designed and installed in nine months.WEB, Looking back at the ARPANET effort, 34 years later,weblink 5 September 2017, February 2003, The BBN team continued to interact with the NPL team.BOOK, Abbate, Jane, Inventing the Internet, 2000, MIT Press, 0262261332, 38,weblink JOURNAL, Frank, Heart, Bob Kahn, Robert, Kahn, Severo, Ornstein, Severo Ornstein, William, Crowther, William Crowther (programmer), David, Walden, The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer Network,weblink 1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc., 36, 565, 1970, 10.1145/1476936.1477021, The first-generation IMPs were built by BBN Technologies using a rugged computer version of the Honeywell DDP-516 computer configured with {{gaps|24|KB}} of expandable magnetic-core memory, and a 16-channel Direct Multiplex Control (DMC) direct memory access unit.WEB, Wise, Adrian,weblink Honeywell DDP-516,, 21 September 2008, The DDP-516 computer processor was made from small-scale integration DTL monolithic silicon integrated circuits.JOURNAL, Dec 1966, u-COMP DDP-516 COMPUTER,weblink Computers and Automation, 26, BOOK, u-COMP DDP-516 General Purpose I/C Digital Computer, 1966, Honeywell,weblink 3, The DMC established custom interfaces with each of the host computers and modems. In addition to the front-panel lamps, the DDP-516 computer also features a special set of 24 indicator lamps showing the status of the IMP communication channels. Each IMP could support up to four local hosts, and could communicate with up to six remote IMPs via early Digital Signal 0 leased telephone lines. The network connected one computer in Utah with three in California. Later, the Department of Defense allowed the universities to join the network for sharing hardware and software resources.

Debate on design goals

According to Stephen J. Lukasik, who as Deputy Director and Director of DARPA (1967–1974) was "the person who signed most of the checks for Arpanet's development":}}The ARPANET incorporated distributed computation, and frequent re-computation, of routing tables. This increased the survivability of the network in the face of significant interruption. Automatic routing was technically challenging at the time. The ARPANET was designed to survive subordinate-network losses, since the principal reason was that the switching nodes and network links were unreliable, even without any nuclear attacks. Resource scarcity supported the creation of the ARPANET, according to Charles Herzfeld, ARPA Director (1965–1967):}}The ARPANET was operated by the military during the two decades of its existence, until 1990.Janet Abbate (2000) Inventing the Internet pp.194-5Vernon W. Ruttan (2005) Is War Necessary for Economic Growth? p.125The Internet Society agrees with Herzfeld in a footnote in their online article, A Brief History of the Internet:
(footnote 5)}}
Paul Baran, the first to build a theoretical model for communication using packet switching, conducted the RAND study referenced above. Baran confirmed that though the ARPANET did not exactly share his project's goal, his work had greatly contributed to the development of the ARPANET.NEWS, Brand, Stewart,weblink Founding Father, 9, Wired (magazine), Wired, March 2001, 03, 31 December 2011, Minutes taken by Elmer Shapiro of Stanford Research Institute at the ARPANET design meeting of 9–10 October 1967 indicate that a version of Baran's routing method and suggestion of using a fixed packet size was expected to be employed.WEB,weblink Shapiro: Computer Network Meeting of October 9-10, 1967,, (File:First-arpanet-imp-log.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Historical document: First ARPANET IMP log: the first message ever sent via the ARPANET, 10:30 pm PST on 29 October 1969 (6:30 UTC on 30 October 1969). This IMP Log excerpt, kept at UCLA, describes setting up a message transmission from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.)The initial ARPANET consisted of four IMPs:"ARPANET – The First Internet", Living Internet The first successful message on the ARPANET was sent by UCLA student programmer Charley Kline, at 10:30 pm PST on 29 October 1969 (6:30 UTC on 30 October 1969), from Boelter Hall 3420.NEWS, Browsing history: A heritage site has been set up in Boelter Hall 3420, the room the first Internet message originated in,weblink Jessica Savio, Daily Bruin, UCLA, 1 April 2011, Kline transmitted from the university's SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the Stanford Research Institute's SDS 940 Host computer. The message text was the word login; on an earlier attempt the l and the o letters were transmitted, but the system then crashed. Hence, the literal first message over the ARPANET was lo. About an hour later, after the programmers repaired the code that caused the crash, the SDS Sigma 7 computer effected a full login. The first permanent ARPANET link was established on 21 November 1969, between the IMP at UCLA and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. By 5 December 1969, the entire four-node network was established.WEB, Internet Began 35 Years Ago at UCLA with First Message Ever Sent Between Two Computers,weblink Chris Sutton, UCLA, 2 September 2004,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2008,

Growth and evolution

File:First Internet Demonstration, 1977.jpg|thumb|right|First Internet demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNETSATNETIn March 1970, the ARPANET reached the East Coast of the United States, when an IMP at BBN in Cambridge, Massachusetts was connected to the network. Thereafter, the ARPANET grew: 9 IMPs by June 1970 and 13 IMPs by December 1970, then 18 by September 1971 (when the network included 23 university and government hosts); 29 IMPs by August 1972, and 40 by September 1973. By June 1974, there were 46 IMPs, and in July 1975, the network numbered 57 IMPs. By 1981, the number was 213 host computers, with another host connecting approximately every twenty days.In 1973, a transatlantic satellite link connected the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) to the ARPANET, making Norway the first country outside the US to be connected to the network. At about the same time a terrestrial circuit added a London IMP.WEB,weblink NORSAR becomes the first non-US node on ARPANET, the predecessor to today's Internet, NORSAR (Norway Seismic Array Research), 14 November 2017, no,weblink 11 September 2017, This connectivity later evolved into the SATNET.In 1975, the ARPANET was declared "operational". The Defense Communications Agency took control since ARPA was intended to fund advanced research. At about this time, the first ARPANET encryption devices were deployed to support classified traffic.In September 1984 work was completed on restructuring the ARPANET giving U.S. military sites their own Military Network (MILNET) for unclassified defense department communications.DEFENSE DATA NETWORK NEWSLETTER DDN-NEWS 26, 6 May 1983ARPANET INFORMATION BROCHURE (NIC 50003) Defense Communications Agency, December 1985. Controlled gateways connected the two networks. The combination was called the Defense Data Network (DDN).BOOK, ARPANET, the Defense Data Network, and Internet, The Froehlich/Kent Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, Alex McKenzie, Dave Walden, CRC Press, 1991, 341–375, 1,weblink 978-0-8247-2900-4, Separating the civil and military networks reduced the 113-node ARPANET by 68 nodes. The MILNET later became the NIPRNet.

Rules and etiquette

Because of its government funding, certain forms of traffic were discouraged or prohibited. A 1982 handbook on computing at MIT's AI Lab stated regarding network etiquette:DOCUMENT, Stacy, Christopher C., 1982-09-07, Getting Started Computing at the AI Lab, en-US, 1721.1/41180,


Support for inter-IMP circuits of up to 230.4 kbit/s was added in 1970, although considerations of cost and IMP processing power meant this capability was not actively used.1971 saw the start of the use of the non-ruggedized (and therefore significantly lighter) Honeywell 316 as an IMP.It could also be configured as a Terminal Interface Processor (TIP), which provided terminal server support for up to 63 ASCII serial terminals through a multi-line controller in place of one of the hosts.JOURNAL, The Early Days of the Arpanet, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 1058-6180, July–September 2009, 67, 31, 3, Peter T., Kirstein, Peter T. Kirstein,weblink 10.1109/mahc.2009.35, The 316 featured a greater degree of integration than the 516, which made it less expensive and easier to maintain. The 316 was configured with 40 kB of core memory for a TIP. The size of core memory was later increased, to 32 kB for the IMPs, and 56 kB for TIPs, in 1973.In 1975, BBN introduced IMP software running on the Pluribus multi-processor. These appeared in a few sites. In 1981, BBN introduced IMP software running on its own C/30 processor product.The original IMPs and TIPs were phased out as the ARPANET was shut down after the introduction of the NSFNet, but some IMPs remained in service as late as July 1990."NSFNET – National Science Foundation Network", Living InternetBOOK,weblink Digital Communication, 9783642543319, Meinel, Christoph, Sack, Harald, 21 February 2014, The ARPANET Completion Report, jointly published by BBN and ARPA, concludes that:
section 2.3.4}}
In the wake of the decommissioning of the ARPANET on 28 February 1990, Vinton Cerf wrote the following lamentation, entitled "Requiem of the ARPANET":BOOK, Abbate, Janet, 11 June 1999, Inventing the Internet, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 0-262-01172-7, Inventing the Internet, Senator Albert Gore, Jr. authored the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991, commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill", after hearing the 1988 concept for a National Research Network submitted to Congress by a group chaired by Leonard Kleinrock. The bill was passed on 9 December 1991 and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which Al Gore called the information superhighway.The ARPANET project was honored with two IEEE Milestones, both dedicated in 2009.WEB,weblink Milestones:Birthplace of the Internet, 1969, IEEE Global History Network, IEEE, 4 August 2011, WEB,weblink Milestones:Inception of the ARPANET, 1969, IEEE Global History Network, IEEE, 4 August 2011,

Software and protocols

The starting point for host-to-host communication on the ARPANET in 1969 was the 1822 protocol, which defined the transmission of messages to an IMP.Interface Message Processor: Specifications for the Interconnection of a Host and an IMP, Report No. 1822, Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) The message format was designed to work unambiguously with a broad range of computer architectures. An 1822 message essentially consisted of a message type, a numeric host address, and a data field. To send a data message to another host, the transmitting host formatted a data message containing the destination host's address and the data message being sent, and then transmitted the message through the 1822 hardware interface. The IMP then delivered the message to its destination address, either by delivering it to a locally connected host, or by delivering it to another IMP. When the message was ultimately delivered to the destination host, the receiving IMP would transmit a Ready for Next Message (RFNM) acknowledgement to the sending, host IMP.Unlike modern Internet datagrams, the ARPANET was designed to reliably transmit 1822 messages, and to inform the host computer when it loses a message; the contemporary IP is unreliable, whereas the TCP is reliable. Nonetheless, the 1822 protocol proved inadequate for handling multiple connections among different applications residing in a host computer. This problem was addressed with the Network Control Program (NCP), which provided a standard method to establish reliable, flow-controlled, bidirectional communications links among different processes in different host computers. The NCP interface allowed application software to connect across the ARPANET by implementing higher-level communication protocols, an early example of the protocol layering concept incorporated to the OSI model."NCP – Network Control Program", Living InternetIn 1983, TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the ARPANET's principal protocol, and the ARPANET then became one component of the early Internet."TCP/IP Internet Protocol", Living Internet

Network applications

NCP provided a standard set of network services that could be shared by several applications running on a single host computer. This led to the evolution of application protocols that operated, more or less, independently of the underlying network service, and permitted independent advances in the underlying protocols.In 1971, Ray Tomlinson, of BBN sent the first network e-mail ({{IETF RFC|524}}, {{IETF RFC|561}}).WEB,weblink The First Network Email, Tomlinson, Ray, BBN, 6 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 May 2006, By 1973, e-mail constituted 75 percent of the ARPANET traffic.By 1973, the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) specification had been defined ({{IETF RFC|354}}) and implemented, enabling file transfers over the ARPANET.The Network Voice Protocol (NVP) specifications were defined in 1977 ({{IETF RFC|741}}), then implemented, but, because of technical shortcomings, conference calls over the ARPANET never worked well; the contemporary Voice over Internet Protocol (packet voice) was decades away.

Password protection

The Purdy Polynomial hash algorithm was developed for the ARPANET to protect passwords in 1971 at the request of Larry Roberts, head of ARPA at that time. It computed a polynomial of degree 224 + 17 modulo the 64-bit prime p = 264 − 59. The algorithm was later used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to hash passwords in the VMS operating system and is still being used for this purpose.

ARPANET in a broader context

(File:ARPANET and related projects - DARPA Technical Accomplishments An Historical Review of DARPA Projects, IDA Paper P-2192, 1990.jpg|thumb|right|ARPANET in a broader context)The ARPANET was related to many other research projects, which either influenced the ARPANET design, or which were ancillary projects or spun out of the ARPANET.

The ARPANET in popular culture

  • (Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing), a 30-minute documentary filmVIDEO, Steven King (Producer), Peter Chvany (Director/Editor), 1972, Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing,weblink 20 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 April 2013, dmy-all, featuring Fernando J. Corbató, J. C. R. Licklider, Lawrence G. Roberts, Robert Kahn, Frank Heart, William R. Sutherland, Richard W. Watson, John R. Pasta, Donald W. Davies, and economist, George W. Mitchell.
  • (List of Benson episodesSeason 6: 1984–85|"Scenario"), a February 1985 episode of the U.S. television sitcom Benson (season 6, episode 20), was the first incidence of a popular TV show directly referencing the Internet or its progenitors. The show includes a scene in which the ARPANET is accessed."Scenario", Benson, Season 6, Episode 132 of 158, American Broadcasting Company (ABC), Witt/Thomas/Harris Productions, 22 February 1985
  • There is an electronic music artist known as "Arpanet", Gerald Donald, one of the members of Drexciya. The artist's 2002 album Wireless Internet features commentary on the expansion of the internet via wireless communication, with songs such as NTT DoCoMo, dedicated to the mobile communications giant based in Japan.{{citation needed |date=June 2014}}
  • Thomas Pynchon mentions the ARPANET in his 2009 novel Inherent Vice, which is set in Los Angeles in 1970, and in his 2013 novel Bleeding Edge.{{citation needed |date=June 2014}}
  • The 1993 television series The X-Files featured the ARPANET in a season 5 episode, titled "Unusual Suspects". John Fitzgerald Byers offers to help Susan Modeski (known as Holly ... "just like the sugar") by hacking into the ARPANET to obtain sensitive information.The X-Files Season 5, Ep. 3 "Unusual Suspects".{{Better source |date=June 2014}}
  • In the spy-drama television series The Americans, a Russian scientist defector offers access to ARPANET to the Russians in a plea to not be repatriated (Season 2 Episode 5 "The Deal"). Episode 7 of Season 2 is named 'ARPANET' and features Russian infiltration to bug the network.
  • In the television series Person of Interest, main character Harold Finch hacked the ARPANET in 1980 using a homemade computer during his first efforts to build a prototype of the Machine.Season 2, Episode 11 "2PiR" (stylised "2piR")Season 3, Episode 12 "Aletheia" This corresponds with the real life virus that occurred in October of that year that temporarily halted ARPANET functions.WEB,weblink BBC News - SCI/TECH - Hacking: A history,, WEB,weblink Hobbes' Internet Timeline - the definitive ARPAnet & Internet history,, The ARPANET hack was first discussed in the episode 2PiR (stylised 2piR) where a computer science teacher called it the most famous hack in history and one that was never solved. Finch later mentioned it to Person of Interest Caleb Phipps and his role was first indicated when he showed knowledge that it was done by "a kid with a homemade computer" which Phipps, who had researched the hack, had never heard before.
  • In the third season of the television series Halt and Catch Fire, the character Joe MacMillan explores the potential commercialization of the ARPANET.

See also




  • BOOK,weblink Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet, Evans, Claire L., Portfolio/Penguin, 2018, 9780735211759, New York, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Arthur L., Norberg, Judy E., O'Neill, Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1962–1982, Johns Hopkins University, 1996, 153–196, 978-0-8018-6369-1,
  • REPORT,weblink A History of the ARPANET: The First Decade, BBN Technologies, Bolt, Beranek & Newman Inc., Arlington, VA, 1 April 1981,
  • BOOK, Katie, Hafner, Matthew, Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet, Simon and Schuster, 1996, 0-7434-6837-6,
  • BOOK, Abbate, Janet, 11 June 1999, Inventing the Internet, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 0-262-01172-7, 36–111, Inventing the Internet,
  • BOOK, Michael A., Banks, Michael A. Banks, On the Way to the Web: The Secret History of the Internet and Its Founders, APress/Springer Verlag, 2008, 978-1-4302-0869-3,
  • BOOK, Peter H., Salus, Peter H. Salus, Casting the Net: from ARPANET to Internet and Beyond, Addison-Wesley, 1 May 1995, 978-0-201-87674-1,
  • BOOK, M. Mitchell, Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J. C. R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal, Viking, New York, 23 August 2001, 0-670-89976-3,weblink
  • WEB,weblink The Computer History Museum, SRI International, and BBN Celebrate the 40th Anniversary of First ARPANET Transmission, Computer History Museum, 27 October 2009,

Oral histories

  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Robert E. Kahn, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 24 April 1990, 15 May 2008, Focuses on Kahn's role in the development of computer networking from 1967 through the early 1980s. Beginning with his work at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), Kahn discusses his involvement as the ARPANET proposal was being written and then implemented, and his role in the public demonstration of the ARPANET. The interview continues into Kahn's involvement with networking when he moves to IPTO in 1972, where he was responsible for the administrative and technical evolution of the ARPANET, including programs in packet radio, the development of a new network protocol (TCP/IP), and the switch to TCP/IP to connect multiple networks.
  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Vinton Cerf, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 24 April 1990, 1 July 2008, Cerf describes his involvement with the ARPA network, and his relationships with Bolt Beranek and Newman, Robert Kahn, Lawrence Roberts, and the Network Working Group.
  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Paul Baran, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 5 March 1990, 1 July 2008, Baran describes his work at RAND, and discusses his interaction with the group at ARPA who were responsible for the later development of the ARPANET.
  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Leonard Kleinrock, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 3 April 1990, 1 July 2008, Kleinrock discusses his work on the ARPANET.
  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Larry Roberts, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 4 April 1989, 1 July 2008,
  • WEB,weblink Oral history interview with Stephen Lukasik, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 17 October 1991, 1 July 2008, Lukasik discusses his tenure at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the development of computer networks and the ARPANET.

Detailed technical reference works

  • CONFERENCE, Larry, Roberts, Lawrence Roberts (scientist), Tom, Marrill,weblink Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers, Fall AFIPS Conference, October 1966,
  • CONFERENCE, Larry, Roberts, Lawrence Roberts (scientist),weblink Multiple computer networks and intercomputer communication, ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles, October 1967,
  • CONFERENCE, D. W., Davies, Donald Davies, K. A., Bartlett, R. A., Scantlebury, P. T.,weblink Wilkinson, A digital communications network for computers giving rapid response at remote terminals, ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, October 1967,
  • CONFERENCE, Larry, Roberts, Lawrence Roberts (scientist), Barry, Wessler,weblink Computer Network Development to Achieve Resource Sharing, Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 1970, {{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=Darkmorpher |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • CONFERENCE, Frank, Heart, Bob Kahn, Robert, Kahn, Severo, Ornstein, Severo Ornstein, William, Crowther, William Crowther (programmer), David, Walden, The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer Network,weblink 1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc., 36, 551–567, 1970, 10.1145/1476936.1477021,
  • CONFERENCE, Stephen, Carr, Stephen, Crocker, Stephen Crocker, Vint Cerf, Vinton, Cerf, Host-Host Communication Protocol in the ARPA Network, 33,weblink 1970 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc., 36, 589–598, 1970, 10.1145/1476936.1477024,
  • CONFERENCE, Severo, Ornstein, Severo Ornstein, Frank, Heart, William, Crowther, William Crowther (programmer), S. B., Russell, H. K., Rising, A., Michel, The Terminal IMP for the ARPA Computer Network, 1972 Spring Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Proc., 40, 243–254, 1972, 10.1145/1478873.1478906,
  • CONFERENCE, John, McQuillan, John M. McQuillan, William, Crowther, William Crowther (programmer), Bernard, Cosell, David, Walden, Frank, Heart, Improvements in the Design and Performance of the ARPA Network, 1972 Fall Joint Computer Conference part II, AFIPS Proc., 41, 741–754, 1972, 10.1145/1480083.1480096,
  • BOOK, Elizabeth J. Feinler, Feinler, Elizabeth J., Jon Postel, Postel, Jonathan B., B000EN742K, ARPANET Protocol Handbook, NIC 7104, Network Information Center (NIC), SRI International, Menlo Park, January 1978,
  • JOURNAL, Larry, Roberts, Lawrence Roberts (scientist),weblink The Evolution of Packet Switching, Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1978, 10.1109/PROC.1978.11141, 66, 11, 1307–1313, 3 September 2005,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2016, yes, dmy-all,
  • JOURNAL, Larry, Roberts, Lawrence Roberts (scientist),weblink The ARPANET & Computer Networks, September 1986, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM,

External links

{{Commons category|ARPANET}}
  • WEB,weblink ARPANET Maps 1969 to 1977, 4 January 1978, California State University, Dominguez Hills (CSUDH), 17 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2012,
  • WEB, David C., Walden, February 2003, East Sandwich, Massachusetts,weblink Looking back at the ARPANET effort, 34 years later, Living Internet,, 17 August 2005,
  • WEB,weblink The Computer History Museum, Images of ARPANET from 1964 onwards, 29 August 2004, Timeline.
  • WEB,weblink Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet, RAND Corporation, 3 September 2005,
  • WEB, Leonard, Kleinrock, Leonard Kleinrock, University of California, Los Angeles, UCLA,weblink The Day the Infant Internet Uttered its First Words, 11 November 2004, Personal anecdote of the first message ever sent over the ARPANET
  • WEB,weblink Doug Engelbart's Role in ARPANET History, 2008, 3 September 2009,
  • WEB,weblink Internet Milestones: Timeline of Notable Internet Pioneers and Contributions, 6 January 2012, Timeline.
  • WEB,weblink DARPA and the Internet Revolution, Mitch, Waldrop, 50 years of Bridging the Gap, DARPA, 78–85, April 2008, 26 August 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 September 2012, dmy-all,
  • WEB,weblink A picture of the ARPANET team, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2014, dmy-all,
  • WEB,weblink Robert X Cringely: A Brief History of the Internet,
{{American research and education networks}}{{DARPA}}{{Telecommunications}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "ARPANET" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:51pm EDT - Tue, Aug 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott