aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the U.S. state}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2017}}

Quaker State| motto = Virtue, Liberty and Independence| Former = Province of Pennsylvania| OfficialLang = NoneEnglish language>English 90.15%Spanish language 4.09%German language>German (Including Pennsylvania German language) 0.87%Chinese language>Chinese 0.47%Italian language 0.43%MOST SPOKEN LANGUAGES IN PENNSYLVANIA IN 2010 PUBLISHER =MLA DATA CENTER, November 4, 2012, | population_demonym = Pennsylvanian| image_map = Pennsylvania in United States.svgHarrisburg, Pennsylvania>Harrisburg| LargestCity = Philadelphia| LargestMetro = Delaware ValleyTom Wolf (D)}}John Fetterman (D)}}Joe Scarnati (Republican Party (United States)>R)Mike Turzai (Republican Party (United States)>R)General Assembly}}Pennsylvania State Senate>State SenatePennsylvania House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesBob Casey Jr. (D)}}{{nowrapPat Toomey (Republican Party (United States)>R)}}| Representative = 9 Democrats9 Republicans| postal_code = PA| TradAbbreviation = Pa., Penn., Penna.Pennsylvania (song)>Pennsylvania| population_rank = 5th| 2010Pop = 12,807,060 (2018)| population_density_rank = 9th| 2000DensityUS = 284| 2000Density = 110TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 25th| area_rank = 33rd| area_total_sq_mi = 46,055| area_total_km2 = 119,283| area_land_sq_mi = 44,816.61| area_land_km2 = 116,074| area_water_sq_mi = 1,239| area_water_km2 = 3,208| area_water_percent = 2.7| AdmittanceOrder = 2nd| AdmittanceDate = December 12, 1787Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| Longitude = 74° 41′ to 80° 31′ W| Latitude = 39° 43′ to 42° 16′ N| width_mi = 283| width_km = 455| length_mi = 170| length_km = 273Mount Davis (Pennsylvania)>Mount DavisHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 3,213| elevation_max_m = 979| elevation_ft = 1,100| elevation_m = 340Delaware River at {{nobreak>Delaware border}}| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| iso_code = US-PA| website =weblink| State Law Enforcement = Pennsylvania State Police}}

|Dance = Polka|Fossil = Trilobite|Soil = Hazleton|Route Marker = PA-18.svg|Quarter = 1999 PA Proof.png|QuarterReleaseDate = 1999}}{{maplink|frame=yes|frame-width=265|zoom=5|type=shape|text=Interactive map of Pennsylvania}}Pennsylvania ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Pennsylvania.ogg|ˌ|p|ɛ|n|s|əl|ˈ|v|eɪ|n|i|ə}} {{respell|PEN|səl|VAY|nee|ə}}), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 5th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Census count in 2010. It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407). The state capital and its 10th-largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has {{convert|140|mi|km|0}} of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary.WEB,weblink General Coastline and Shoreline Mileage of the United States, NOAA Office of Coastal Management, December 31, 2016, The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. Part of Pennsylvania (along the Delaware River), together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78.


{{Further|Geography of Pennsylvania|List of counties in Pennsylvania}}File:Pennsylvania-counties-map.gif|thumb|left|Counties of Pennsylvania ]]File:Flickr - Nicholas T - Canyon Vista.jpg|thumb|right|World's End State Park, Sullivan County ]]Pennsylvania is {{convert|170|mi|km|0}} north to south and {{convert|283|mi|km|0}} east to west.WEB,weblink Pennsylvania geography,, July 31, 2010, Of a total {{convert|46055|sqmi|km2|0}}, {{convert|44817|sqmi|km2|0}} are land, {{convert|490|sqmi|km2|0}} are inland waters, and {{convert|749|sqmi|km2|0}} are waters in Lake Erie.2006 Statistical Abstract: Geography & Environment: Land and Land Use{{dead link|date=July 2010}} It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States.WEB,weblink Pennsylvania Time Zone,, July 31, 2010, Pennsylvania has {{convert|51|mi|km|0}}WEB,weblink National Park Service: Our Fourth Shore,, December 22, 2003, July 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 18, 2011, mdy-all, of coastline along Lake Erie and {{convert|57|mi|km|0}} of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean.The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39° 43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley). The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston (Greater Pittston), and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region.The state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain.

Adjacent states and province



(File:Pennsylvania Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Pennsylvania)File:Flickr - Nicholas T - Endless Mountains Landscape (1).jpg|thumb|Autumn in North Branch Township, Wyoming County, PennsylvaniaWyoming County, PennsylvaniaPennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa). The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south.Summers are generally hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over {{convert|100|in|cm}} of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage.weblink {{webarchive |url= |date=May 17, 2015 }}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;font-size:90%;"|Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities (in °F)! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000; height:30px;"| City! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jan.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Feb.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Mar.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Apr.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| May.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jun.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Jul.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Aug.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Sep.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Oct.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Nov.! style="background:#e5afaa; color:#000;"| Dec.! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Scranton 33/19 37/21 46/28 59/38 70/48 78/56 82/61 80/60 72/52 61/41 49/33 38/24! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Erie 34/21 36/21 44/27 56/38 67/48 76/58 80/63 79/62 72/56 61/45 50/37 38/27! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Pittsburgh 36/21 39/23 49/30 62/40 71/49 79/58 83/63 81/62 74/54 63/43 51/35 39/25! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Harrisburg 37/23 41/25 50/33 62/42 72/52 81/62 85/66 83/64 76/56 64/45 53/35 41/27! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Philadelphia 40/26 44/28 53/34 64/44 74/54 83/64 87/69 85/68 78/60 67/48 56/39 45/30! style="background:#f8f3ca; color:#000; height:16px;"| Allentown 36/20 40/22 49/29 61/39 72/48 80/58 84/63 82/61 75/53 64/41 52/33 40/24Sources:HTTP://WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/XMACIS.PHP?WFO=PHI>TITLE=NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CLIMATEPUBLISHER=, HTTP://WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/XMACIS.PHP?WFO=BGM>TITLE=NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CLIMATEPUBLISHER=, HTTP://WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/XMACIS.PHP?WFO=CTP>TITLE=CLIMATE INFORMATION â€” NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CENTRAL PAPUBLISHER=, HTTP://WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/XMACIS.PHP?WFO=PBZ>TITLE=NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CLIMATEPUBLISHER=, HTTP://WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV/CLIMATE/XMACIS.PHP?WFO=CLE>TITLE=NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CLIMATEPUBLISHER=,


{{See also|List of Pennsylvania firsts|List of people from Pennsylvania}}Historically, as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape (also Delaware), the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun (also Tionontati, Kentatentonga, Tobacco, Wenro) louis, franquelin, jean baptiste. "Franquelin's map of Louisiana.". Retrieved August 17, 2017. and the presumably Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali.(Extrapolation from the 16th-century Spanish, 'Cali' ˈkali a rich agricultural area – geographical sunny climate. also 1536, Cauca River, linking Cali, important for higher population agriculture and cattle raising & Colombia's coffee is produced in the adjacent uplands. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 'Cali', city, metropolis, urban center. Pearson Education 2006. "Calica", Yucatán place name called rock pit, a port an hour south of Cancún. Sp. root: "Cal", limestone. Also today, 'Calicuas', supporting cylinder or enclosing ring, or moveable prop as in holding a strut) Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae,weblink{{dead link|date=March 2018}} Tutelo, Saponi, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.N.Y. Hist. Col. Vol. V, p. 633"Life of Brainerd" p. 167"Lambreville to Bruyas Nov. 4,1696" N.Y. Hist. Col. Vol. III, p. 484WEB,weblink Pennsylvania Indian tribes,, June 7, 2014, Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600.Hale, Horatio "The Iroquois Book of Rites" 1884.

17th century

File:Darlington map of Pennsylvania 1680.png | thumb |left|upright=0.9| British map of Pennsylvania from 1680 (from the Darlington CollectionDarlington Collection Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America.BOOK, Paullin, Charles O., John K. (ed.), Wright, Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, 1932, Carnegie Institution of Washington and American Geographical Society, New York and Washington, D.C., Plate 42, BOOK, Swindler, William F. (ed.), Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions, 1973–1979, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 10, 17–23, BOOK, Van Zandt, Franklin K., Boundaries of the United States and the Several States, Geological Survey Professional Papers, 909, 1976, United States Government Publishing Office, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 74, 92, The Dutch were the first to take possession.By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware.BOOK, Munroe, John A., Colonial Delaware: A History, 1978, KTO Press, Millwood, New York, 9–12, In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) but settled few colonists there.BOOK, Munroe, John A., Colonial Delaware: A History, 1978, KTO Press, Millwood, New York, 16, BOOK, McCormick, Richard P., New Jersey from Colony to State, 1609–1789. New Jersey Historical Series, Volume 1, 1964, D. Van Nostrand Company, Princeton, New Jersey, 12, File:Edward Hicks - Penn's Treaty.jpeg|thumb|Penn's Treaty with the Indians, by Edward HicksEdward HicksOn March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today's Pennsylvania.BOOK, Swindler, William F., Editor, Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions, 4, 1973–1979, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 278–280, On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River. The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor.BOOK, Van Zandt, Franklin K., Boundaries of the United States and the Several States; Geological Survey Professional Paper 909, 1976, United States Government Publishing Office, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 79, BOOK, Swindler, William F., Editor, Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions, 1973–1979, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 6, 375–377, This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware.File:John Dickinson portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|John Dickinson ]]The Peace of Breda between England, France and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667,BOOK, Farnham, Mary Frances; Compiler., Farnham Papers (1603–1688). Volumes 7 and 8 of Documentary History of the State of Maine, 1901–1902, Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 2nd Series., Portland, Maine, 311, 314, 7, BOOK, Parry, Clive (Editor), Consolidated Treaty Series; 231 Volumes, 1969–1981, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 231, 10, Consolidated Treaty Series, although there were temporary reversions.On September 12, 1672, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch re-conquered New York Colony/New Amsterdam, establishing three County Courts which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware and Pennsylvania. The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland.BOOK, Fernow, B., Editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Volumes 12–15, 1853–1887, Albany, New York, 507–508, This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War, and reverted all political situations to the status quo ante bellum. The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names.BOOK, Parry, Clive (Editor), Consolidated Treaty Series; 231 Volumes, 1969–1981, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 136, 13, By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, but the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674.BOOK, Fernow, B., Editor, Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York; Volumes 12–15, 1853–1887, Albany, New York, 515, 12, Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania and Delaware.BOOK, Armstrong, Edward; Editor, Record of the Court at Upland, in Pennsylvania, 1676 to 1681, 1860, Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania Volume 7, 119, 198, On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charterCharter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681. This charter, granted by Charles II (England) to William Penn, constituted him and his heirs proprietors of the province, which, in honor of his father, Admiral William Penn, (whose cash advances and services were thus requited,) was called Pennsylvania. To perfect his title, William Penn purchased, on 1682-08-24, a quit-claim from the Duke of York to the lands west of the Delaware River embraced in his patent of 1664 to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000BOOK,weblink Pennsylvania Society of Colonial Governors, Volume 1, Pennsylvania Society of Colonial Governors, 180–181, 1916, Samuel Carpenter,
(around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation)WEB,weblink Measuring Worth, Measuring Worth, July 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2011, mdy-all, owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2008, Quakers and the political process,, March 28, 2006, July 31, 2010, The King named it Pennsylvania (literally "Penn's Woods") in honor of the Admiral. Penn, the son, who wanted it to be called New Wales, and then Sylvania (from the Latin silva: "forest, woods"), was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant.WEB,weblink Wales on Britannia: Facts About Wales & the Welsh,, September 16, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2015, dead, mdy-all, Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction.
(File:A mapp of ye improved part of Pensilvania in America, divided into countyes townships and lotts - cropped, curves.jpg|thumb|right|A map of Pennsylvania divided into counties, townships, and lots)What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania-Delaware Border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681.BOOK, Armstrong, Edward; Editor, Record of the Court at Upland, in Pennsylvania, 1676 to 1681, 1860, Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 7, 196, BOOK, Swindler, William F., Editor, Sources and Documents of United States Constitutions. 10 Volumes, 1973–1979, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, New York, 243, 8, The Quaker leader William Penn had signed a peace treaty with Tammany, leader of the Delaware tribe, beginning a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers and the Indians.David Yount (2007). "How the Quakers invented America". Rowman & Littlefield. p.82. {{ISBN|0-7425-5833-9}} Additional treaties between Quakers and other tribes followed. The treaty of William Penn was never violated.Sydney G. Fisher (2009). "The Quaker Colonies". Echo Library. p.13 {{ISBN|1-4068-5110-8}}

18th century

Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. The Colony issued "bills of credit", which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also met with the "cautious approval" of Adam Smith.Hamilton, Alexander and Syrett, Harold C. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 1963, page 240.James Smith wrote that in 1763, "the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania." Further, "This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state."WEB,weblink An account of the remarkable occurrences in the life and travels of Colonel James Smith (Late a citizen of Bourbon County, Kentucky) : during his captivity with the Indians, in the years 1755,'56, '57, '58, & '59, Internet Archive, Lexington : John Bradford, 1799, The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac's War.File:PhiladelphiaPresidentsHouse.jpg|thumb|President's House (Philadelphia). The Masters-Penn mansion housed Pennsylvania's governor in the early 1770s. It later served as the presidential mansion of George Washington and John AdamsJohn AdamsAfter the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates.WEB,weblink Library of Congress timeline 1764–1765,, July 31, 2010, Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768.WEB,weblink Dickinson Letters,, July 31, 2010, When the Founding Fathers of the United States convened in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress.WEB,weblink Library of Congress timeline 1773–1774,, July 31, 2010, The Second Continental Congress, which also met in Philadelphia (in May 1775), drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia,WEB,weblink Library of Congress: Primary documents – The Declaration of Independence,, July 20, 2010, July 31, 2010, but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of ConfederationArticles of Confederation into a new union. Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Union.WEB,weblink Nine Capitals of the United States,, March 26, 2009, July 31, 2010, The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed.WEB,weblink Constitution FAQs, National Constitution Center, June 19, 2016, Pennsylvania became the first large state, and the second state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on December 12, 1787,WEB,weblink Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution of 1787,, July 31, 2010, five days after Delaware became the first. At the time it was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen States. Because One-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke German, the Constitution was presented in German to include those citizens in the discussion. Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg acted as the chairman of the state's ratifying convention.WEB,weblink Pennsylvania ratifies the Constitution, A&E Television Networks, LLC, September 18, 2017, Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded after the States united. Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson.(File:HillsCapitol.jpg|thumb|The "Hills Capitol", used from 1821 until it burned down in 1897)For half a century, the Commonwealth's General Assembly (legislature) met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 15, 2000, Pennsylvania's Capitals,, July 31, 2010, mdy-all, But it needed a more central location, as for example the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware. So, in 1799 the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse, and finally in 1812 to Harrisburg.

19th century

The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821, when the Federal-style "Hills Capitol" (named for its builder, Stephen Hills, a Lancaster architect) was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government by the prescient, entrepreneurial son and namesake of John Harris, Sr., a Yorkshire native who had founded a trading post in 1705 and ferry (1733) on the east shore of the Susquehanna River.WEB,weblink History of John Harris, Mrs. Carlyle C. Browne (descendant of Sarah Ann Harris, fifth daughter of Alfred Bingham Harris, and granddaughter of Elisha John Harris of the Mansion, Harrisburg PA, USA), 2001, February 14, 2011, The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue.The General Assembly met at Grace Methodist Church on State Street (still standing) until a new capitol could be built. Following an architectural selection contest that many alleged had been "rigged", Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and a roughly finished, somewhat industrial building (the Cobb Capitol) was completed. The General Assembly refused to occupy the building. Political and popular indignation in 1901 prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania architects, and Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb's building into magnificent public work finished and dedicated in 1907.The new state Capitol drew rave reviews. Its dome was inspired by the domes of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and the United States Capitol. President Theodore Roosevelt called it "the most beautiful state Capital in the nation" and said, "It's the handsomest building I ever saw" at the dedication. In 1989, The New York Times praised it as "grand, even awesome at moments, but it is also a working building, accessible to citizens ... a building that connects with the reality of daily life".James Buchanan, of Franklin County, the only bachelor President of the United States (1857–1861),WEB,weblink James Buchanan White House biography,, July 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2008, was the only one to be born in Pennsylvania. The Battle of Gettysburg—the major turning point of the Civil War—took place near Gettysburg.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, Battle of Gettysburg, January 14, 2009, An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces including 8,600 African American military volunteers.Pennsylvania was also the home of the first commercially drilled oil well. In 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, Edwin Drake successfully drilled the well, which led to the first major oil boom in United States history.

20th century

{{expand section|date=June 2016}}File:Federal Emergency Relief Administration, FERA camp for unemployed women in Arcola, PA - NARA - 196583.tif|thumb|Franklin D. Roosevelt's FERA camp for unemployed women, 1934]]At the beginning of the 20th century Pennsylvania's economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production and other forms of industrial manufacturing. A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries which often employed children and people who could not speak English.In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911.WEB,weblink About the Area,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-03-14, dead, 30 July 2018, The forest is located in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. The Allegheny is the state's only national forest.WEB, The National Forests of the United States, Forest History Society,weblink June 16, 2018, The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history.WEB,weblink Backgrounder on the Three Mile Island Accident, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, June 21, 2018, NEWS,weblink In Japan, workers struggling to hook up power to Fukushima reactor, King, Laura, Kenji, Hall, Mark, Magnier, March 18, 2011, Los Angeles Times,

21st century

Within the first half of 2003, the annual Tekko commences in Pittsburgh.WEB, Tekko 2019, About Tekko,weblink February 21, 2019, In October 2018, the Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation experienced the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting.WEB, 'They showed his photo, and my stomach just dropped': Neighbors recall synagogue massacre suspect as a loner, Washington Post, October 28, 2018,weblink February 21, 2019,


{{Further|List of people from Pennsylvania}}As of 2018, Pennsylvania has an estimated population of 12,823,989, which is an increase of 18,452 from the previous year and an increase of 121,610 since the year 2010. Net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. From 2008 to 2012, 5.8% of the population was foreign-born.WEB,weblink Pennsylvania QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, October 7, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014,

Place of origin

Of the people residing in Pennsylvania, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, October 7, 2014, Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin America (30.6%), with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%).The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census:WEB, American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau,weblink American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates,, July 31, 2010, WEB,weblink Puerto Ricans in Pennsylvania, November 8, 2011, Pennsylvania Racial Breakdown of Population">

Racial breakdown{| class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size: 90%;"|+ Pennsylvania Racial Breakdown of Population

! Racial composition !! 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 25, 2008, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States,, May 4, 2014, mdy-all, !! 2000WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead,, January 11, 2014, January 11, 2014, !! 2010WEB, 2010 Census Data,weblink 2010 Census Data,, May 4, 2014, White American>White 88.5% 85.4% 81.9%African American>Black 9.2% 10.0% 10.9%Asian American>Asian 1.2% 1.8% 2.8%Native Americans in the United States>Native 0.1% 0.1% 0.2%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – –Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 1.0% 1.5% 2.4%Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.2% 1.9%As of 2011, 32.1% of Pennsylvania's population younger than age one were minorities."Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012.Pennsylvania's Hispanic population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, making it one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. The significant growth of the Hispanic population is due to immigration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, which is a US territory, but to a lesser extent from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations, as well as from the wave of Hispanics leaving New York and New Jersey for safer and more affordable living. The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, which was fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, as well the many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. The Black and African American population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population amongst the state's peers (New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan). The White population declined by 0.7%, a trend that is beginning to reverse itself.{{when|date=July 2019}} Twelve other states saw decreases in their White populations.WEB, 2010 Census Data,weblink 2010 Census Data – 2010 Census,, July 7, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2011, The state of Pennsylvania has a high in-migration of black and Hispanic people from other nearby states, with eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases.WEB,weblink Research Brief : The Commonwealth's Official Source for Population and Economic Statistics, March 9, 2011,, June 26, 2016, WEB,weblink Puerto Ricans Leave N.Y. Report Tells Where They Go – Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2015, mdy-all, The majority of Hispanics in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS),, WEB,weblink Thedailyjournal – Puerto Rico's population exodus is all about jobs,, Most of the remaining Hispanic population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans. Most Hispanics are concentrated in Philadelphia, Lehigh Valley and South Central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Black race, has markedly increased in recent years.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Population, July 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 20, 2013, mdy-all, The Hispanic population is greatest in Bethlehem, Allentown, Reading, Lancaster, York, and around Philadelphia. It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. As of 2010, it is estimated that about 85% of all Hispanics in Pennsylvania live within a {{convert|150|mi|km|adj=mid}} radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living within the city itself.Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the US south during the colonial era. There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Hispanic origins.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS),, Most blacks live in the Philadelphia area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania. Whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Italian, and English immigrants. Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for their notable Amish communities. The "Wyoming Valley" or the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Metropolitan Area has a large concentration of whites. It has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area in the U.S., with 96.2% of its population claiming to be white with no Hispanic background.The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon.WEB, Population and Population Centers by State – 2000, United States Census Bureau, December 3, 2008,weblink dead,weblink September 18, 2008, mdy-all, (File:PennsylvaniaDemography.svg|thumb|State population from 1790 to 2000)(File:Pennsylvania population map 1.png|thumb|Pennsylvania's population distribution)

Age and poverty

The state had the fourth-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2010 – 15.4%, as compared to 13.0% nationwide.WEB, Table 16: Resident Population by Age and State: 2010,weblink United States Census Bureau, 26 April 2019, According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the state's poverty rate was 12.5% in 2017, compared to 13.4% for the United States as a whole.WEB, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates,weblink United States Census Bureau, 26 April 2019, {{US Census population|1790= 434373|1800= 602365|1810= 810091|1820= 1049458|1830= 1348233|1840= 1724033|1850= 2311786|1860= 2906215|1870= 3521951|1880= 4282891|1890= 5258113|1900= 6302115|1910= 7665111|1920= 8720017|1930= 9631350|1940= 9900180|1950= 10498012|1960= 11319366|1970= 11793909|1980= 11863895|1990= 11881643|2000= 12281054|2010= 12702379|estyear=2018|estimate=12807060TITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUS ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 22, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20121220045933/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP FORMAT=PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=JANUARY 10, 2019, }}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"Population Aged 65 and Older: Top 10 StatesTABLE 16: RESIDENT POPULATION BY AGE AND STATE: 2010,weblink United States Census Bureau, 26 April 2019, ! State !! % of population| 17.3| 16.0| 15.9| 15.4| 14.9| 14.8| 14.6| 14.5| 14.4| 14.4

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother! Race! 2013WEB,weblink Statistics,, ! 2014WEB,weblink Statistics,, ! 2015WEB,weblink Statistics,, ! 2016WEB,weblink National Vital Statistics Reports Volume 67, Number 1, January 31, 2018, 2018-07-11, ! 201weblinkWhite Americans>White| 109,007 (77.3%)| 110,809 (77.9%)| 109,595 (77.7%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 98,751 (70.0%)| 99,306 (69.8%)| 97,845 (69.4%)| 94,520 (67.8%)| 92,297 (67.0%)African Americans>Black| 24,770 (17.6%)| 24,024 (16.9%)| 24,100 (17.1%)| 18,338 (13.1%)| 18,400 (13.4%)Asian Americans>Asian| 6,721 (4.7%)| 7,067 (5.0%)| 6,961 (4.9%)| 6,466 (4.6%)| 6,401 (4.6%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 423 (0.3%)| 368 (0.3%)| 390 (0.3%)| 86 (0.1%)| 135 (0.1%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 14,163 (10.1%)| 14,496 (10.2%)| 14,950 (10.6%)| 15,348 (11.0%)| 15,840 (11.5%)| Total Pennsylvania| 140,921 (100%)| 142,268 (100%)| 141,047 (100%)| 139,409 (100%)| 137,745 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin have not been collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"|+ Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Pennsylvania! Language !! Percentage of population(as of 2010)| 4.09%Pennsylvania German language>Pennsylvania German) 0.87%Standard Chinese>Mandarin) 0.47%| 0.43%| 0.34%| 0.29%| 0.25%| 0.21%| 0.20%| 0.17%As of 2010, 90.15% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 4.09% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.87% (103,502) German (which includes Pennsylvania Dutch) and by 0.47% (56,052) Chinese (which includes Mandarin) of the population over the age of five. In total, 9.85% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.WEB,weblink Pennsylvania, Modern Language Association, August 12, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 19, 2006, mdy-all,

Pennsylvania German language

Pennsylvania German is often—even though misleadingly—called "Pennsylvania Dutch". The term "Dutch" used to mean "German"WEB,weblink Definition of "dutch",, July 31, 2010, (including the Netherlands), before the Latin name for them replaced it (but stuck with the Netherlands). When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people (Pennsylvania German) it means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander". Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch", (Pennsylvania German: "Deitsch"). The Pennsylvania German language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. It is closest to Palatine German. Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites (principally in the Lancaster County area), whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities, though a few words have passed into English usage.


{{Bar box|title = Religion in Pennsylvania (2014)WEB
, Religious composition of adults in Pennsylvania
, Religious Landscape Study
, The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
, 2017
, October 5, 2017, |titlebar=#ddd|width = |barwidth= |left1=religion|right1=percent|float=right|bars=
{{Bar percent|Protestant|purple|47}}{{Bar percent|Catholic|Dodgerblue|24}}{{Bar percent|None|black|21}}{{Bar percent|Other faiths/don't know|gray|2}}{{Bar percent|Hindu|orange|1}}{{Bar percent|Jehovah's witnesses|red|1}}{{Bar percent|Jewish|Blue|0.8}}{{Bar percent|Muslim|green|0.6}}}}File:Lancaster County Amish 03.jpg|thumb|An Amish family riding in a traditional Amish buggy in Lancaster County, PennsylvaniaLancaster County, PennsylvaniaOf all the colonies, only Rhode Island had religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, Religious diversity in Pennsylvania, February 20, 2007, Voltaire, writing of William Penn in 1733, observed: "The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. The chief is, to ill–treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God."BOOK, Voltaire, François-Marie ("Voltaire"), Arouet, Philosophic Letters, 1733, Republished in: BOOK, The Works of Voltaire: A Contemporary Version, XXXIX: Short Studies on English and American Topics, 209, John, Morley, William F., Fleming, Tobias, Smollett, 1901, New York, E. R. DuMont,weblink August 4, 2015, One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity, which continues to the present.Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379. Of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. According to the Association of religion data archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University, the largest religions in Pennsylvania by adherents are the Roman Catholic Church with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members.The third-largest single denomination is the Presbyterian Church (USA){{clarify|reason=contradicts immediately preceding sentence|date=July 2019}} with 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations. Pennsylvania, especially its western part and the Pittsburgh area, has one of the highest percentages of Presbyterians in the nation. The Presbyterian Church in America is also significant, with 112 congregations and 23,000 adherents; the EPC{{clarify|reason=what does the acronym stand for?|date=July 2019}} has around 50 congregations, as well as the ECO.{{clarify|reason=what does the acronym stand for?|date=July 2019}} The next largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ, has 180,000 members and 627 congregations. American Baptist Churches USA (Northern Baptist Convention) is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the 1700s.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report,, December 5, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink July 21, 2015, dead, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church in America. Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among the states.WEB, Webb Design Inc.,weblink Amish Country | Ohio | Visitor Information,, July 31, 2010, In the year 2000 there was a total Amish population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania and a further 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren. The total Anabapist population including BruderhofWEB,weblink A visit to Spring Valley Bruderhof {{!, ||language=en-US|access-date=May 25, 2017}} was 232,631, about 2 percent of the population.Donald B. Kraybill and C. Nelson Hostetter: Anabaptist World USA, Scottdale, PA and Waterloo, Ontario, 2001, pages 200–201. While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers, and much of the historic character of the Commonwealth is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents in 2010.WEB,weblink Friends General Conference States (2010) – QuickLists – The Association of Religion Data Archives,, {{As of|2014}}, the religious affiliations of the people of Pennsylvania are:

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Pennsylvania" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 11:31pm EDT - Tue, Oct 22 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott