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Tunisia
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{{translal-Jumhūrīyah at-Tūnisīyah}}{{native nameRépublique tunisienne}}| common_name = Tunisia | image_flag = Flag of Tunisia.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Tunisia.svg| symbol_type = Coat of armsPUBLICATION-DATE=26 JANUARY 2014 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE= 9 FEBRUARY 2014, Humat al-Hima{{smallDefenders of the Homeland}}{{center>(File:Humat al-Hima.ogg)}}| image_map = Location Tunisia AU Africa.svgcountryprefix=region=Africa|region_color=light blue}}| image_map2 = Tunisia - Location Map (2013) - TUN - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Tunis| largest_city = capital36N11type:city}}ArabicTUNISIAN CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE 1 PUBLICATION-DATE=26 JANUARY 2014 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=9 FEBRUARY 2014, Translation by the University of Bern: "Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic." | languages_type = Spoken languages Tunisian ArabicArabic, Tunisian Spoken. Ethnologue (19 February 1999). Retrieved on 5 September 2015. Berber languages>BerberHTTP://GLOBAL.BRITANNICA.COM/TOPIC/TAMAZIGHT-LANGUAGE>TITLE=TAMAZIGHT LANGUAGEWORK=NAWAAT, HTTP://RESEARCHDIRECT.UWS.EDU.AU/ISLANDORA/OBJECT/UWS:573>TITLE=AN OUTLINE OF THE SHILHA (BERBER) VERNACULAR OF DOUIRET (SOUTHERN TUNISIA)WORK=TUNISIALIVE, {{dead linkbot=InternetArchiveBot French (commercial and educational)}}Arabs>Arab (60%), European Tunisians (1%), Turks in Tunisia>Turkish,{{Harvnb2009Jews>Jewish and other (1%)Islam (state religion; 99.1% Sunni Islam>Sunniothers (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)|demonym = Tunisian Unitary state Semi-presidential system>semi-presidential}} republicFROSINI>FIRST1=JUSTINFIRST2=FRANCESCODATE=2014ISBN=978-1-317-59745-2URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=4FK2BQAAQBAJ&PG=PA4, Choudhry, Sujit; Stacey, Richard (2014) "Semi-presidential government in Tunisia and Egypt". International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved 7 January 2016.President of Tunisia>President| leader_name1 = Beji Caid EssebsiHead of Government of Tunisia>Head of Government| leader_name2 = Youssef ChahedAssembly of the Representatives of the People (Tunisia)>Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleHistory of Tunisia>Formation| established_event1 = Husainid Dynasty inaugurated| established_date1 = 15 July 1705French Fourth Republic>France| established_date2 = 20 March 1956History of modern Tunisia>Republic declared| established_date3 = 25 July 1957Tunisian Revolution>Revolution Day| established_date4 = 14 January 2011| area_km2 = 163610| area_rank = 91st | area_sq_mi = 63170| percent_water = 5.0PUBLISHER=NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS-TUNISIA ACCESSDATE=12 SEPTEMBER 2016 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150904023615/HTTP://WWW.INS.NAT.TN/INDEXEN.PHP DF=, | population_census = | population_estimate_year = 2016| population_estimate_rank = 79th| population_census_year = | population_density_km2 = 63 | population_density_sq_mi = 163| population_density_rank = 133rdPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, | GDP_PPP_year = 2017| GDP_PPP_rank = | GDP_PPP_per_capita = $12,065| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = | GDP_nominal = $40.289 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2017| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $3,553| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = | Gini = 36.1 | Gini_year = 2010| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK ACCESSDATE=19 JANUARY 2013, | HDI = 0.725 | HDI_year = 2016| HDI_change = increase DATE=2016 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 97th| currency = Tunisian dinar| currency_code = TNDCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Right- and left-hand traffic#Tunisia>right| calling_code = +216.tn ar.تونس}}HTTP://WWW.IANA.ORG/REPORTS/2010/TUNIS-REPORT-16JUL2010.HTML YEAR=2010 ACCESSDATE=8 NOVEMBER 2010, }}| area_magnitude = 1 E11| country_code = +216}}Tunisia ({{IPAc-en|UK|tj|uː|ˈ|n|ɪ|z|i|ə|,_|-|ˈ|n|ɪ|s|-}}, {{IPAc-en|US|-|ˈ|n|iː|ʒ|ə|,_|-|ˈ|n|iː|ʃ|ə|,_|-|ˈ|n|ɪ|ʒ|ə|,_|-|ˈ|n|ɪ|ʃ|ə}};{{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|isbn=9781405881180}} {{audio|help=no|tounes bel tounsi.wav|Tūnis}}; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; ), officially the Republic of Tunisiaweblink ( {{audio|help=no|tounesjmr.wav|al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya}}) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering {{convert|165,000|km2|sqmi|abbr=off}}. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast.Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its {{convert|1,300|km|mi|abbr=off}} of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar.Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World.WEB,weblink Tunisia {{!, Country report {{!}} Freedom in the World {{!}} 2015|website=freedomhouse.org|access-date=12 September 2016}}NEWS,weblink Tethered by history, The Economist, 0013-0613, 12 September 2016, It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe{{spaced ndash}} in particular with FranceTunisie – France-Diplomatie – Ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international. Diplomatie.gouv.fr. Retrieved on 5 September 2015. and with Italy{{fr icon}} Pourquoi l'Italie de Matteo Renzi se tourne vers la Tunisie avant l'Europe | JOL Journalism Online Press. Jolpress.com (28 February 2014). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.Ghanmi, Monia (12 September 2014) weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140914025940weblink">"La Tunisie renforce ses relations avec l'Italie". Magharebia{{spaced ndash}} have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization.In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014,NEWS,weblink Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre, Jeune Afrique, 25 June 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.WEB, Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll,weblink BBC News, 23 November 2014,

Etymology

{{see also|Tunis#Etymology|label 1=Etymology of Tunis}}The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix {{nowrap|-ia}}, evolved from French .,BOOK, Room, Adrian, Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites, McFarland, 2006, 385, 0-7864-2248-3, in turn generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed , which means "to lay down" or "encampment".BOOK, Peter M., Rossi, Wayne Edward, White, Articles on the Middle East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal, Pierian Press, University of Michigan, 1980, 132, It is sometimes also associated with the Punic goddess Tanith (aka Tunit),BOOK, Taylor, Isaac, Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008, 281, 0-559-29668-1, ancient city of Tynes.BOOK, Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor, E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Brill, 1987, 838, 90-04-08265-4, BOOK, Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty, Oxford University Press, 2006, 705, 0-19-283159-3, Livy, John Yardley, Hoyos, Dexter, yes, and others associated with the word "" (different from ) in Arabic which is a verb that means to socialize and to be friendly.The French derivative was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian ({{transl|ru|Tunís}}) and Spanish . In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic , and only by context can one tell the difference.Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present day name of the continent Africa.

History

Antiquity

File:Dougga Thugga-130240.jpg|thumb|left|Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage SiteWorld Heritage SiteFarming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, and spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes.It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians went to the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians. The Medes settled and were known as Mauri, later Moors.Banjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity, Princeton University Press, 2013 p.147File:CarthageMap.png|thumb|Carthaginian-held territory before the first First Punic War]]The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers are descended. The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120331154523weblink">weblink yes, 31 March 2012, Carthage and the Numidians, Hannibalbarca.webspace.virginmedia.com, 28 October 2011, WEB,weblink LookLex / Tunisia / Dougga / Numidian Wall, Looklex.com, 28 October 2011, WEB,weblink Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57), Fanaticus.org, 12 December 2001, 28 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927024947weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink LookLex / Tunisia / Chemtou / Numidian Altar & Roman Temple, Looklex.com, 28 October 2011, WEB,weblink Numidia (ancient region, Africa), Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 28 October 2011, At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC (Bizerte, Utica). The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians.WEB,weblink The City of Carthage: From Dido to the Arab Conquest, PDF, 8 January 2013, After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. The people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Baal and Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet, which was altered in Roman times.A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 yearsweblink accessed 23/07/2017Following the Battle of Carthage in 149 BC, Carthage was conquered by Rome. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the main granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized.WEB,weblink History of Tunisia – Lonely Planet Travel Information, Planet, Lonely, www.lonelyplanet.com, en, 2017-07-07, File:Archaeological Site of Carthage-130238.jpg|thumb|Ruins of CarthageCarthageDuring the Roman period, the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: the prosperity of the area depended on agriculture. Called the Granary of the Empire, the area of actual Tunisia and coastal Tripolitania, according to one estimate, produced one million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire. Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits.By the 2nd century, olive oil rivaled cereals as an export item. In addition to the cultivations and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slip, and wool.File:Amphitheatre El Jem(js)1.jpg|thumb|The Roman amphitheater in El DjemEl DjemThere was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem (where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire).Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Donatist, Encyclopædia Britannica, During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430 to 533 AD), the Germanic Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in North Africa that included present-day Tripoli. The region was easily reconquered in 533–534 AD, during the rule of Emperor Justinian I, by the Eastern Romans led by General Belisarius.John Bagnell Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, Part 2, Courier Corporation, 1958 pp.124–148

Middle Ages

File:Great Mosque of Kairouan, flat roof and domes.jpg|thumb|Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the MaghrebMaghrebSometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part of the 8th century, Arab Muslim conquest occurred in the region. They founded the first Islamic city in North Africa, Kairouan. It was there in 670 AD that the Mosque of Uqba, or the Great Mosque of Kairouan, was constructed;.BOOK, Davidson, Linda Kay, Gitlitz, David Martin, Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : An Encyclopedia,weblink 2002, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-004-8, 302, This mosque is the oldest and most prestigious sanctuary in the Muslim West with the oldest standing minaret in the world;BOOK, Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, Historic Cities of the Islamic World,weblink 2007, BRILL, 978-90-04-15388-2, 264, it is also considered a masterpiece of Islamic art and architecture.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120422091651weblink">weblink 22 April 2012, Kairouan inscription as World Heritage, Kairouan.org, 2 May 2010, yes, Tunis was taken in 695, re-taken by the Byzantine Eastern Romans in 697, but lost finally in 698. The transition from a Latin-speaking Christian Berber society to a Muslim and mostly Arabic-speaking society took over 400 years (the equivalent process in Egypt and the Fertile Crescent took 600 years) and resulted in the final disappearance of Christianity and Latin in the 12th or 13th centuries. The majority of the population were not Muslim until quite late in the 9th century; a vast majority were during the 10th. Also, some Tunisian Christians emigrated; some richer members of society did so after the conquest in 698 and others were welcomed by Norman rulers to Sicily or Italy in the 11th and 12th centuries – the logical destination because of the 1200 year close connection between the two regions.Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman, Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439–700, 2012, pp. 358–378)The Arab governors of Tunis founded the Aghlabid Dynasty, which ruled Tunisia, Tripolitania and eastern Algeria from 800 to 909. Tunisia flourished under Arab rule when extensive systems were constructed to supply towns with water for household use and irrigation that promoted agriculture (especially olive production).BOOK, Lapidus, Ira M., A History of Islamic Societies,weblink 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-77933-3, 302–303, BOOK, Ham, Anthony, Hole, Abigail, Willett, David., Tunisia, Lonely Planet, 2004, 3, 65, 1-74104-189-9, This prosperity permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the construction of new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and Raqadda (877).After conquering Cairo, the Fatimids abandoned Tunisia and parts of Eastern Algeria to the local Zirids (972–1148).BOOK, Stearns, Peter N., Leonard Langer, William, The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001, 6, 129–131, 0-395-65237-5, Zirid Tunisia flourished in many areas: agriculture, industry, trade, and religious and secular learning.BOOK, Houtsma, M. Th., E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936,weblink 1987, BRILL, 978-90-04-08265-6, 852, Management by the later Zirid emirs was neglectful though, and political instability was connected to the decline of Tunisian trade and agriculture.BOOK, Singh, Nagendra Kr, International encyclopaedia of islamic dynasties, 4: A Continuing Series, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2000, 105–112, 81-261-0403-1, BOOK, General history of Africa, James Currey Publishers, 171–173, 0-85255-093-6, J. Ki-Zerbo, G. Mokhtar, A. Adu Boahen, I. Hrbek, The depredation of the Tunisian campaigns by the Banu Hilal, a warlike Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the Fatimids of Egypt to seize North Africa, sent the region's rural and urban economic life into further decline. Consequently, the region underwent rapid urbanisation as famines depopulated the countryside and industry shifted from agriculture to manufactures.Abulafia, "The Norman Kingdom of Africa", 27. The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun wrote that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert.WEB,weblink Populations Crises and Population Cycles, Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Galtoninstitute.org.uk, 19 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130527170154weblink">weblink 27 May 2013, The main Tunisian cities were conquered by the Normans of Sicily under the Kingdom of Africa in the 12th century, but following the conquest of Tunisia in 1159–1160 by the Almohads the Normans were evacuated to Sicily. Communities of Tunisian Christians would still exist in Tunisia up to the 14th century. The Almohads initially ruled over Tunisia through a governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph. Despite the prestige of the new masters, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the townsfolk and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Muslim Armenian adventurer Karakush. Also, Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids between 1182 and 1183 and again between 1184 and 1187weblink greatest threat to Almohad rule in Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniya, relatives of the Almoravids, who from their base in Mallorca tried to restore Almoravid rule over the Maghreb. Around 1200 they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia until they were crushed by Almohad troops in 1207. After this success, the Almohads installed Walid Abu Hafs as the governor of Tunisia. Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until 1230 when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent. During the reign of the Hafsid dynasty, fruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states.BOOK, Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual,weblink 2004, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-2137-8, 46, In the late 16th century the coast became a pirate stronghold (see: Barbary States).

Ottoman Tunisia

In the last years of the Hafsid dynasty, Spain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered by the Ottoman Empire.File:Siège de Tunis 1535.JPG|thumb|left|Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slavegalley slaveThe first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn't until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French conquest of Tunisia in 1881.Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces. Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors, the Beys, Tunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established in 1705, lasted until 1957.BOOK, Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual,weblink 2004, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-2137-8, 55, This evolution of status was from time to time challenged without success by Algiers. During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language.Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; it lost territory to the west (Constantine) and to the east (Tripoli).File:Tunis Bab Souika 1899.jpg|thumb|Medina quarter of Tunis]]Great epidemics ravaged Tunisia in 1784–1785, 1796–1797 and 1818–1820.BOOK, Panzac, Daniel, Barbary Corsairs: The End of a Legend, 1800–1820,weblink 2005, BRILL, 978-90-04-12594-0, 309, In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy.BOOK, Clancy-Smith, Julia A., Rebel and Saint: Muslim Notables, Populist Protest, Colonial Encounters (Algeria and Tunisia, 1800–1904),weblink 1997, University of California Press, 978-0-520-92037-8, 157, Tunisian international debt grew unmanageable. This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a Protectorate in 1881.

French Tunisia (1881–1956)

(File:A Churchill tank and other vehicles parade through Tunis, 8 May 1943. NA2880.jpg|thumb|upright=0.95|British tank moves through Tunis during the liberation, 8 May 1943)In 1869, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy. In 1881, using the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeria, the French invaded with an army of about 36,000 and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo (Al Qasr as Sa'id).BOOK, Gearon, Eamonn, The Sahara: A Cultural History,weblink 2011, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-986195-8, 117, With this treaty, Tunisia was officially made a French protectorate, over the objections of Italy. Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. In 1910 there were 105,000 Italians in Tunisia.BOOK, Ion Smeaton Munro, Through fascism to world power: a history of the revolution in Italy, 1933, A. Maclehose & co., 221, During World War II, French Tunisia was ruled by the collaborationist Vichy government located in Metropolitan France. The antisemitic Statute on Jews enacted by the Vichy was also implemented in Vichy North Africa and overseas French territories. Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from 1940 to 1943 was part of the Shoah in France.From November 1942 until May 1943, Vichy Tunisia was occupied by Nazi Germany. SS Commander Walter Rauff continued to implement the Final Solution there. From 1942–1943, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaign, a series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May 1943.BOOK, Gordon, Williamson, Gordon Williamson (writer), Afrikakorps 1941–43,weblink 1991, Osprey, 978-1-85532-130-4, 24, BOOK, Palmer, Michael A., The German Wars: A Concise History, 1859–1945,weblink 2010, Zenith Imprint, 978-0-7603-3780-6, 199,

Post-independence (1956–2011)

Tunisia achieved independence from France in 1956 with Habib Bourguiba as Prime Minister. A year later, Tunisia was declared a republic, with Bourguiba as the first President.NEWS, Habib Bourguiba: Father of Tunisia,weblink BBC, 6 April 2000, From independence in 1956 until the 2011 revolution, the government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour and the Socialist Destourian Party, were effectively one. Following a report by Amnesty International, The Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world."NEWS, Ian Black, Middle East editor,weblink Amnesty International censures Tunisia over human right, The Guardian, 13 July 2010, 19 January 2013, London, In November 1987, doctors declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian constitution.NEWS, AP,weblink A Coup Is Reported In Tunisia, NYtimes.com, 7 November 1987, 2 May 2010, The anniversary of Ben Ali's succession, 7 November, was celebrated as a national holiday. He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years (well over 80 percent of the vote), the last being 25 October 2009,WEB, Yannick Vely,weblink Ben Ali, sans discussion, ParisMatch.com, 23 November 2009, 2 May 2010, until he fled the country amid popular unrest in January 2011.Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruptionWEB, Elaine Ganley, Jenny Barchfield,weblink Tunisians hail fall of ex-leader's corrupt family, Sandiegounion-tribune.com, 28 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716003853weblink">weblink 16 July 2011, and plundering the country's money. Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement,JOURNAL, Tsourapas, Gerasimos, The Other Side of a Neoliberal Miracle: Economic Reform and Political De- Liberalization in Ben Ali’s Tunisia, Mediterranean Politics, 2015, 18, 1, 23–41, 10.1080/13629395.2012.761475,weblink 4 December 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220060553weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, dmy-all, while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi, controlled much of the business sector in the country.WEB,weblink Tunisie: comment s'enrichit le clan Ben Ali?, French, RadicalParty.org, 2 May 2010, The First Lady Leila Ben Ali was described as an "unabashed shopaholic" who used the state airplane to make frequent unofficial trips to Europe's fashion capitals.WEB, Caught in the Net: Tunisia's First Lady,weblink Foreign Policy, 13 December 2007, Tunisia refused a French request for the extradition of two of the President's nephews, from Leila's side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of having stolen two mega-yachts from a French marina.WEB,weblink Ajaccio – Un trafic de yachts entre la France et la Tunisie en procès, 30 September 2009, French, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303204309weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy-all, Ben Ali's son-in-law Sakher El Materi was rumoured as being primed to eventually take over the country.WEB, Florence Beaugé,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110121043720weblink">weblink 21 January 2011, Le parcours fulgurant de Sakhr El-Materi, gendre du président tunisien Ben Ali, LeMonde.fr, 24 October 2009, 2 May 2010, yes, Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International, Freedom House, and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected.WEB,weblink Tunisia, Amnesty.org, 2 May 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429093617weblink">weblink 29 April 2011, Protectionline.org, Protectionline.org, 18 January 2010, 2 May 2010, yes, The regime obstructed in any way possible the work of local human rights organizations.WEB,weblink Droits de l'Homme : après le harcèlement, l'asphyxie, RFI.fr, 16 December 2004, 2 May 2010, In 2008, in terms of Press freedom, Tunisia was ranked 143rd out of 173.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110114230027weblink">weblink yes, 14 January 2011, Dans le monde de l'après-11 septembre, seule la paix protège les libertés, RSF.org, 22 October 2008, 2 May 2010,

Post-revolution (since 2011)

{{see also|Tunisian Revolution}}File:Tunisia Unrest - VOA - Tunis 14 Jan 2011 (2).jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian RevolutionTunisian RevolutionThe Tunisian RevolutionWEB, Yasmine Ryan,weblink How Tunisia's revolution began – Features, Al Jazeera English, 26 January 2011, 13 February 2011, WEB,weblink Wikileaks might have triggered Tunis' revolution, Alarabiya, 15 January 2011, 13 February 2011, was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that was precipitated by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,NEWS, Spencer, Richard,weblink Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots, Telegraph, 13 January 2011, 14 January 2011, London, a lack of freedom of speech and other political freedomsWEB, Ryan, Yasmine,weblink Tunisia's bitter cyberwar, Al Jazeera English, 16 January 2011, 14 January 2011, and poor living conditions. Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests.WEB,weblink Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in Egypt and Tunisia, Defenddemocracy.org, 11 February 2011, The protests inspired the Arab Spring, a wave of similar actions throughout the Arab world.The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy. Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 January 2011, ultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 January 2011, after 23 years in power.Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi. Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources. A decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists.WEB,weblink When fleeing Tunisia, don't forget the gold, Korea Times, 25 January 2011, 19 January 2013, On 3 March 2011, the president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 23 October 2011.{{Citation needed|date=September 2016}} International and internal observers declared the vote free and fair. The Ennahda Movement, formerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, won a plurality of 90 seats out of a total of 217.NEWS, Tunisia Moves to the Next Stage, El Amrani, Issandr, Lindsey, Ursula, Middle East Report, Middle East Research and Information Project, 8 November 2011,weblink On 12 December 2011, former dissident and veteran human rights activist Moncef Marzouki was elected president.NEWS, Zavis, Alexandra, Former dissident sworn in as Tunisia's president,weblink Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 13 December 2011, 13 December 2011, In March 2012, Ennahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state. Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties.WEB, Tunisia's constitution will not be based on Sharia: Islamist party,weblink Al Arabiya, 18 February 2013, On 6 February 2013, Chokri Belaid, the leader of the leftist opposition and prominent critic of Ennahda, was assassinated.NEWS, Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid shot dead outside his home,weblink Los Angeles Times, 18 February 2013, Jeffrey, Fleishman, 6 February 2013, In 2014, President Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and Dignity Commission, as a key part of creating a national reconciliationweblink was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists in 2015, first killing 22 people at the Bardo National Museum, and later killing 38 people at the Sousse beachfront. Tunisian president, Beji Caid Essebsi, renewed the state of emergency in October for three more months.NEWS,weblink The real reason Tunisia renewed its state of emergency, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220140248weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, dmy-all, The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet won the 2015 Nobel Peace Prize for its work in building a peaceful, pluralistic political order in Tunisia."The Nobel Peace Prize 2015". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 15 December 2016.

Geography

(File:Tunisia map of Köppen climate classification.svg|thumb|Tunisia map of Köppen climate classification.)File:Téboursouk.jpg|thumb|left|View of the central Tunisian plateau at TéboursoukTéboursoukTunisia is situated on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Nile Delta. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east. It lies between latitudes 30° and 38°N, and longitudes 7° and 12°E. An abrupt southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west-east in the north, and north-south in the east.Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north-south extent. Its east-west extent is limited. Differences in Tunisia, like the rest of the Maghreb, are largely north-south environmental differences defined by sharply decreasing rainfall southward from any point. The Dorsal, the eastern extension of the Atlas Mountains, runs across Tunisia in a northeasterly direction from the Algerian border in the west to the Cape Bon peninsula in the east. North of the Dorsal is the Tell, a region characterized by low, rolling hills and plains, again an extension of mountains to the west in Algeria. In the Khroumerie, the northwestern corner of the Tunisian Tell, elevations reach {{convert|1050|m|ft}} and snow occurs in winter.The Sahel, a broadening coastal plain along Tunisia's eastern Mediterranean coast, is among the world's premier areas of olive cultivation. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. Much of the southern region is semi-arid and desert.Tunisia has a coastline {{convert|1148|km|mi|}} long. In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of {{convert|24|nmi|1|lk=in}}, and a territorial sea of {{convert|12|nmi|1}}.BOOK, Ewan W., Anderson, International Boundaries: Geopolitical Atlas,weblink 2003, Psychology Press, 978-1-57958-375-0, 816,

Climate

Tunisia's climate is Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110209110533weblink">weblink 9 February 2011, Climate of Tunisia, Bbc.co.uk, 2 May 2010, yes, The south of the country is desert. The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The south is semiarid, and merges into the Sahara. A series of salt lakes, known as chotts or shatts, lie in an east-west line at the northern edge of the Sahara, extending from the Gulf of Gabes into Algeria. The lowest point is Chott el Djerid at {{convert|17|m|ft}} below sea level and the highest is Jebel ech Chambi at {{convert|1544|m|ft}}.BOOK, Aldosari, Ali, Middle East, western Asia, and northern Africa,weblink Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-7571-2, 2006, 1270–, {{Weather box|location = Climate data for Tunisia in general|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan high C = 14.7|Feb high C = 15.7|Mar high C = 17.6|Apr high C = 20.3 |May high C = 24.4|Jun high C = 28.9|Jul high C = 32.4|Aug high C = 32.3|Sep high C = 29.2|Oct high C = 24.6|Nov high C = 19.6|Dec high C = 15.8|Jan low C = 6.4|Feb low C = 6.5|Mar low C = 8.2|Apr low C = 10.4|May low C = 13.8|Jun low C = 17.7|Jul low C = 20.1|Aug low C = 20.7|Sep low C = 19|Oct low C = 15.2|Nov low C = 10.7|Dec low C = 7.5|rain colour = green|Jan rain mm = 50.5|Feb rain mm = 45.3|Mar rain mm = 43.4|Apr rain mm = 35.5|May rain mm = 21|Jun rain mm = 10.8|Jul rain mm = 3.7|Aug rain mm = 8.8|Sep rain mm = 10.5|Oct rain mm = 38.6|Nov rain mm = 46.4|Dec rain mm = 56.4ACCESSDATE=13 MAY 2016, |date=July 2015}}

Politics

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:right; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Béji Caïd Essebsi 2015-05-20.jpg (File:PM Youssef Chahed.png|150px)Beji Caid EssebsiPresident since 2014Youssef ChahedPrime Minister since 2016Tunisia is a representative democracy and a republic with a president serving as head of state, prime minister as head of government, a unicameral parliament, and a civil law court system. The Constitution of Tunisia, adopted 26 January 2014, guarantees rights for women and states that the President's religion "shall be Islam". In October 2014 Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring.WEB,weblink Tunisia holds first election under new constitution, 26 October 2014, 26 October 2014, The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. There are now over 100 legal parties, including several that existed under the former regime. During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. While some older parties are well-established and can draw on previous party structures, many of the 100-plus parties extant as of February 2012 are small.WEB, Tunisia (03/09/12),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121013143542weblink">weblink yes, 13 October 2012, US Department of State, 9 March 2012, Rare for the Arab world, women held more than 20% of seats in the country's pre-revolution bicameral parliament.WEB, Inter-Parliamentary Union,weblink TUNISIA. Majlis Al-Nuwab (Chamber of Deputies), Inter-Parliamentary Union, 19 January 2013, In the 2011 constituent assembly, women held between 24% and 31% of all seats.NEWS, 49 femmes élues à l'assemblée constituante : 24% des 217 sièges,weblink Leaders, 28 October 2011, 27 October 2014, NEWS, Ben Hamadi
, Monia, 29 April 2014, Tunisie: Selma Znaidi, une femme de plus à l'Assemblée,weblink Al Huffington Post, 27 October 2014,
Tunisia is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. On 23 November 2014 Tunisia held its first Presidential Election following the Arab Spring in 2011.NEWS, 23 November 2014, Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll,weblink BBC News, 23 November 2014, The Tunisian legal system is heavily influenced by French civil law, while the Law of Personal Status is based on Islamic law.WEB, Tunisia,weblink Reunite International, 18 February 2013, Sharia courts were abolished in 1956.A Code of Personal Status was adopted shortly after independence in 1956, which, among other things, gave women full legal status (allowing them to run and own businesses, have bank accounts, and seek passports under their own authority). The code outlawed the practices of polygamy and repudiation and a husband's right to unilaterally divorce his wife.WEB,weblink State Department page on Tunisia, State.gov, 19 March 2009, 2 May 2010, Further reforms in 1993 included a provision to allow Tunisian women to transmit citizenship even if they are married to a foreigner and living abroad.BOOK, Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document,weblink 10 February 2013, 2003, United Nations Publications, 978-92-1-130252-3, 190, The Law of Personal Status is applied to all Tunisians regardless of their religion. The Code of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in North Africa and the Muslim world.JOURNAL, Tamanna, Nowrin, Personal status laws in Morocco and Tunisia: a comparative exploration of the possibilities for equality-enhancing reform in Bangladesh, Feminist Legal Studies, 16, 3, 323–343, 10.1007/s10691-008-9099-9, December 2008,

Human rights

After the revolution, a number of Salafist groups emerged and in some occasions have violently repressed artistic expression that is viewed to be hostile to Islam.NEWS,weblink Scores arrested after Tunis art riots, AlJazeera, 12 June 2012, Since the revolution, some non-governmental organizations have reconstituted themselves and hundreds of new ones have emerged. For instance, the Tunisian Human Rights League, the first human rights organization in Africa and the Arab world, operated under restrictions and state intrusion for over half of its existence, but is now completely free to operate. Some independent organizations, such as the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, the Association of Tunisian Women for Research and Development, and the Bar Association also remain active.Homosexuality is illegal in Tunisia and can be punished by up to three years in prison.WEB, State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition,weblink International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, 17 May 2016, On December 7, 2016, two Tunisian men were arrested on suspicion of homosexual activity in Sousse.NEWS, Two Men Sentenced To 8 Months In Jail For Suspicion Of Being Gay,weblink Instinct Magazine, March 14, 2017, According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 94% of Tunisians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society."The Global Divide on Homosexuality." pewglobal. 4 June 2013The Tunisian regime has been criticised{{by whom|date=August 2017}} for its policy on recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences for consuming cannabis. Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population.NEWS,weblink The Tunisian women locked up for smoking a joint, BBC, 18 March 2016, In 2017, Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime.NEWS,weblink It will no longer be legal to rape a woman in Tunisia if you marry her afterwards, 2017-07-28, The Independent, 2017-08-01, en-GB, Also, the law allowing rapists to escape punishment by marrying the victim was abolished. According to Human Rights Watch, 47% of Tunisian women have been subject to domestic violence.WEB,weblink Våld mot kvinnor blir olagligt i Tunisien – Nyheter (Ekot), Radio, Sveriges, 2017-08-01, NEWS,weblink Våldtäktslagen tas bort i Tunisien, Nyheter, SVT, SVT Nyheter, 2017-08-01, sv,

Military

(File:Defense.gov News Photo 060403-F-4883S-096.jpg|thumb|Tunisian Armed Forces){{As of|2008}}, Tunisia had an army of 27,000 personnel equipped with 84 main battle tanks and 48 light tanks. The navy had 4,800 personnel operating 25 patrol boats and 6 other craft. The Tunisian Air Force has 154 aircraft and 4 UAVs. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,000-member national guard.BOOK, International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, February 2008, Taylor & Francis Group, 978-1-85743-461-3, Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of GDP {{As of|2006|lc=y}}. The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security. Tunisia has participated in peacekeeping efforts in the DROC and Ethiopia/Eritrea.WEB,weblink Tunisia – Armed forces, Nationsencyclopedia.com, 18 January 2011, 8 January 2013, United Nations peacekeeping deployments for the Tunisian armed forces have been in Cambodia (UNTAC), Namibia (UNTAG), Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi, Western Sahara (MINURSO) and the 1960s mission in the Congo, ONUC.The military has historically played a professional, apolitical role in defending the country from external threats. Since January 2011 and at the direction of the executive branch, the military has taken on increasing responsibility for domestic security and humanitarian crisis response.

Administrative divisions

{{Labelled map of Tunisia|float=right}}Tunisia is subdivided into 24 governorates (Wilaya), which are further divided into 264 "delegations" or "districts" (mutamadiyat), and further subdivided into municipalities (baladiyats)WEB,weblink Tunisia Governorates, Statoids.com, 2 May 2010, and sectors (imadats).WEB,weblink Portail de l'industrie Tunisienne, French, Tunisieindustrie.nat.tn, 19 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130106172919weblink">weblink 6 January 2013, {{clear}}

Economy

(File:Tunisia Export Treemap.png|thumb|upright=1.6|A proportional representation of Tunisia's exports.)Tunisia is an export-oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically connected elites.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511202245weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, GTZ in Tunisia, gtz.de, GTZ, 20 October 2010, yes, Tunisia's Penal Code criminalises several forms of corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office, extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework is not effectively enforced.WEB, Tunisia Corruption Profile,weblink Business Anti-Corruption Portal, 14 July 2015, However, according to the Corruption Perceptions Index published annually by Transparency International, Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt Arab African-country in 2016, with a score of 41. Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism. In 2008 it had a GDP of US$41 billion (official exchange rates), or $82 billion (purchasing power parity).WEB, Tunisia,weblink CIA World Factbook, 15 October 2012,weblink 16 October 2012, The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%, and services 62.8%. The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. Although Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment especially among youth.Tunisia was in 2009 ranked the most competitive economy in Africa and the 40th in the world by the World Economic Forum.WEB,weblink The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings, 16 September 2009, weforum.org, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101030003958weblink">weblink 30 October 2010, Tunisia has managed to attract many international companies such as AirbusWEB,weblink 16 September 2009, Airbus build plant in tunisia, Eturbonews, 29 January 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110515001138weblink">weblink 15 May 2011, dmy-all, and Hewlett-Packard.WEB,weblink 16 September 2009, HP to open customer service center in Tunisia, africanmanager.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120628150014weblink">weblink 28 June 2012, dmy-all, Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009.WEB,weblink Trouble in paradise: How one vendor unmasked the 'economic miracle', Mobile.france24.com, 11 January 2011, 28 October 2011, The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports. Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner. Tunisia was the first Mediterranean country to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union, in July 1995, although even before the date of entry came into force, Tunisia started dismantling tariffs on bilateral EU trade. Tunisia finalised the tariffs dismantling for industrial products in 2008 and therefore was the first Mediterranean country to enter in a free trade area with EU.WEB,weblink 16 September 2009, Bilateral relations Tunisia EU, europa.eu, Tunis Sports City is an entire sports city currently being constructed in Tunis, Tunisia. The city that will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion.WEB,weblink Tunis Sport City, 16 September 2009, Sportcitiesinternational.com, The Tunis Financial harbour will deliver North Africa's first offshore financial centre at Tunis Bay in a project with an end development value of US$3 billion.WEB,weblink Tunis Financial Harbour, 16 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090710184342weblink">weblink 10 July 2009, dmy-all, The Tunis Telecom City is a US$3 billion project to create an IT hub in Tunis.WEB,weblink Vision 3 announces Tunis Telecom City, 16 September 2009, www.ameinfo.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090716184111weblink">weblink 16 July 2009, dmy-all, Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha. The city will consist of residential, medical, financial, industrial, entertainment and touristic buildings as well as a port zone for a total cost of US$80 Billion. The project is financed by Tunisian and foreign enterprises.Welcome at TEC – Tunisia Economic City. Tunisiaec.com (4 April 2015). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.On 29 and 30 November, Tunisia held an investment conference Tunisia2020 to attract $30 billion in investment projects.NEWS,weblinkweblink {{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}

Tourism

File:Sidi Bou Said 09.jpg|thumb|(Sidi Bou Said]]: a major tourist destination)File:Dougga Thugga-130243.jpg|thumb|left|The front of the capitol at ruins of Dougga, another tourist destination, qualified as World Heritage Site by UNESCOUNESCOAmong Tunisia's tourist attractions are its cosmopolitan capital city of Tunis, the ancient ruins of Carthage, the Muslim and Jewish quarters of Jerba, and coastal resorts outside of Monastir. According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries." NEWS, A Night, and Day, In Tunisia at a New Resort, Glusac, Elaine, The New York Times, 22 November 2009,weblink

Energy

{{Pie chart|thumb = rightARCHIVEDATE=16 JULY 2011 ACCESSDATE=12 NOVEMBER 2009 WORK=STEG.COM.TN DF=, '''|other = |label1 = Thermal steam|value1 = 44|color1 = #DD1100|label2 = Combined Cycle|value2 = 43|color2 = #0088DD|label3 = Gas turbine|value3 = 11|color3 = #115500|label4 = Wind, Hydroelectric, Solar|value4 = 2|color4 = #FFFF00}}The majority of the electricity used in Tunisia is produced locally, by state-owned company STEG (Société Tunisienne de l'Electricité et du Gaz). In 2008, a total of 13,747 GWh was produced in the country.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081121023612weblink">weblink 21 November 2008, STEG, company website, 28 October 2009, steg.com.tn, yes, Oil production of Tunisia is about {{convert|97600|oilbbl/d}}. The main field is El Bourma.WEB,weblink Oil and Gas in Tunisia, 9 October 2009, mbendi.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060513163641weblink">weblink 13 May 2006, dmy-all, Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. Currently there are 12 oil fields.WEB,weblink MBendi oilfields in Tunisia, 31 October 2009, mbendi.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060513163641weblink">weblink 13 May 2006, dmy-all, Tunisia had plans for two nuclear power stations, to be operational by 2019. Both facilities are projected to produce 900–1000 MW. France is set to become an important partner in Tunisia's nuclear power plans, having signed an agreement, along with other partners, to deliver training and technology.NEWS,weblink Tunisias nuclear plans, Reuters, 23 April 2009, WEB,weblink Tunisia : A civil nuclear station of 1000 Megawatt and two sites are selected, 4 November 2009, africanmanager.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514052549weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, dmy-all, {{As of|2015}}, Tunisia has abandoned these plans. Instead, Tunisia is considering other options to diversify its energy mix, such as renewable energies, coal, shale gas, liquified natural gas and constructing a submarine power interconnection with Italy.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-09-15, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150915080856weblink">weblink 15 September 2015, dmy-all, According to the Tunisian Solar Plan (which is Tunisia's Renewable Energy Strategy not limited to solar, contrary to what its title may suggest, proposed by the National Agency for Energy Conservation), Tunisia's objective is to reach a share of 30% of renewable energies in the electricity mix by 2030, most of which should be accounted for by wind power and photovoltaicsweblink {{As of|2015}}, Tunisia had a total renewable capacity of 312 MW (245 MW wind, 62 MW hydropower, 15 MW photovoltaics.)WEB,weblink Tunisia Energy Situation,weblink

Transport

The country maintains {{convert|19232|km|mi}} of roads, with three highways: the A1 from Tunis to Sfax (works ongoing for Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4 Tunis – Bizerte. There are 29 airports in Tunisia, with Tunis Carthage International Airport and Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. A new airport, Enfidha – Hammamet International Airport opened in 2011. The airport is located north of Sousse at Enfidha and is to mainly serve the resorts of Hamammet and Port El Kantaoui, together with inland cities such as Kairouan. Five airlines are headquartered in Tunisia: Tunisair, Syphax airlines, Karthago Airlines, Nouvelair, and Tunisair Express. The railway network is operated by SNCFT and amounts to {{convert|2135|km|mi}} in total. The Tunis area is served by a Light rail network named Metro Leger which is managed by Transtu.

Water supply and sanitation

Tunisia has achieved the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation services in the Middle East and North Africa. {{As of|2011}}, access to safe drinking water became close to universal approaching 100% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas.WEB, World Health Organization, World_Health_Organization, UNICEF, Joint Monitoring Programme for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation,weblink 27 December 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080216075751weblink">weblink 16 February 2008, dmy-all, Tunisia provides good quality drinking water throughout the year.{{fr}}
Ministere du Developpement et de la Cooperation Internationale, Banque Mondiale et Programme "Participation Privee dans les infrastructures mediterreeanees"(PPMI):Etude sur la participation privée dans les infrastructures en Tunisie, Volume III, 2004, accessed on 21 March 2010
Responsibility for the water supply systems in urban areas and large rural centres is assigned to the Sociéte Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux(SONEDE), a national water supply authority that is an autonomous public entity under the Ministry of Agriculture. Planning, design and supervision of small and medium water supplies in the remaining rural areas are the responsibility of the Direction Générale du Génie Rurale (DGGR).In 1974, ONAS was established to manage the sanitation sector. Since 1993, ONAS has had the status of a main operator for protection of water environment and combating pollution.The rate of non-revenue water is the lowest in the region at 21% in 2012.WEB, Chiffres clés,weblink SONEDE, 27 December 2013,

Demographics

(File:Arabs leaving mosque, Tunis, Tunisia-LCCN2001699400.jpg|thumb|Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899)(File:World Book Day in Tunisia 2012.jpg|thumb|upright|Tunisian students)According to the CIA, as of 2017, Tunisia has a population of 11,403,800 inhabitants. The government has supported a successful family planning program that has reduced the population growth rate to just over 1% per annum, contributing to Tunisia's economic and social stability.

Ethnic groups

According to the 1956 Tunisian census, Tunisia had a population at the time of 3,783,000 residents, primarily consisting of Berbers (Amazigh) and self identified Arabs. The proportion of speakers of Berber dialects was much lower, at 2% of the population.BOOK, Owen's Commerce & Travel and International Register, 1964, Owen's Commerce & Travel Limited, 273,weblink 7 January 2018, The proportion of the self identified Arabs is now estimated at

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