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Bernie Sanders
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{{for|the Canadian hockey player|Bernie Saunders}}{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{short description|United States Senator from Vermont}}{{Use American English | date = August 2018}}{{Use mdy dates | date = March 2016}}







factoids
| term_start3 = January 3, 1991| term_end3 = January 3, 2007| predecessor3 = Peter Plympton Smith| successor3 = Peter WelchList of mayors of Burlington, Vermont>Mayor of Burlington| term_start4 = April 6, 1981| term_end4 = April 4, 1989| predecessor4 = Gordon Paquette| successor4 = Peter Clavelle| birth_name = Bernard Sanders19418}}| birth_place = Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.Independent politician>Independent (1977–2015; since 2016)Liberty Union Party>Liberty Union (1971–77) Democratic (2015–2016){{marriage1964end=div}}Jane O'Meara Sanders>1988}}}}WEBSITE=SEN. BERNIE SANDERSACCESS-DATE=2019-02-21, (including Levi Sanders)Larry Sanders (politician)>Larry Sanders (brother)Brooklyn CollegeUniversity of Chicago (Bachelor of Arts>BA)weblink|Senate website}}| signature = Bernie Sanders signature.svg| signature_alt = Official signature of Bernie Sanders}}{{Bernie Sanders series}}Bernard Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician who has served as the junior United States Senator from Vermont since 2007. Vermont's at-large Congressman from 1991 to 2007, he is the longest serving independent in U.S. congressional history and a member of the Democratic caucus. Sanders ran unsuccessfully for the 2016 Democratic nomination for president and is running again in 2020. A self-described democratic socialist and progressive, Sanders is known for his opposition to economic inequality. On domestic policy, he broadly supports labor rights, and has supported universal and single-payer healthcare, paid parental leave, and tuition-free tertiary education. On foreign policy, he broadly supports reducing military spending, pursuing more diplomacy and international cooperation, and putting greater emphasis on labor rights and environmental concerns when negotiating international trade agreements.Sanders was born and raised in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, and attended Brooklyn College before graduating from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student he was an active protest organizer for the Congress of Racial Equality and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during the civil rights movement. After settling in Vermont in 1968, Sanders ran unsuccessful third-party political campaigns in the early to mid-1970s. As an independent, he was elected mayor of Burlington in 1981 by a margin of ten votes. He was reelected three times. He won election to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1990, representing Vermont's at-large congressional district; he later co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus. Sanders served as a U.S. Representative for 16 years before being elected to the U.S. Senate in 2006. He was reelected to the Senate in 2012 and 2018.In April 2015 Sanders announced his campaign for the 2016 Democratic nomination for President of the United States. Initially considered a long shot, he went on to win 23 primaries and caucuses and approximately 43% of pledged delegates, to Hillary Clinton's 55%. His campaign was noted for its supporters' enthusiasm, as well as for his rejection of large donations from corporations, the financial industry, and any associated Super PAC. In July 2016 he formally endorsed Clinton in her general election campaign against Republican Donald Trump, while urging his supporters to continue the "political revolution" his campaign began. In February 2019 Sanders announced a second presidential campaign, joining multiple other Democratic candidates pursuing the party nomination.

Early life

(File:Bernie Sanders 1959 High School Yearbook.jpg|thumb|Sanders as a senior in high school, 1959)Sanders was born on September 8, 1941, in Brooklyn, New York City.NEWS,weblink February 18, 2016, Bernie Sanders's '100% Brooklyn' Roots Are as Unshakable as His Accent, Jason, Horowitz, July 24, 2015, The New York Times, WEB,weblink February 18, 2016, Bernie Sanders, Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, WEB,weblink February 18, 2016, Bernie Sanders Biography, Biography.com, A&E Television Networks, LLC, WEB,weblink February 18, 2016, Sanders, Bernard (1941 – ), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Office of the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives' Office of History and Preservation and the Office of the Historian of the United States Senate, His father, Elias Ben Yehuda Sanders,Stated on Finding Your Roots, October 3, 2017 was born in SÅ‚opnice, Galicia in Austria-Hungary (now part of Poland),NEWS, Bernie Sanders' ancestral town in Poland kvells over his Iowa performance,weblink February 3, 2016, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 2, 2016, WEB,weblink Eli Sanders, Geni.com, January 23, 2016, to a Jewish family; in 1921, Elias immigrated to the United States, where he became a paint salesman.New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957 immigration record: Eliasz Gitman, sailing from Antwerp, mother Jetti Gutman, citizenship in 1927 as Elias SandersNEWS, Chana, Jas, Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story,weblink January 20, 2016, Tablet (magazine), Tablet, August 20, 2015, Soltys told them that at the time the Nazis invaded Poland, Romek was the leader of Slopnice's Jewish community. "Which of course," Larry said, "meant he was one of the first to be killed.", His mother, Dorothy "Dora" Sanders ({{née|Glassberg}}), was born in New York CityWEB, Gaudiano, Nicole, April 28, 2015, OnPolitics: 6 things to know about Bernie Sanders, USA Today,weblink July 19, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150727170730weblink">weblink July 27, 2015, to Jewish immigrant parents from Poland and Russia.WEB,weblink Bessie Glassberg (Goldberg), Geni.com, January 27, 2016, WEB,weblink Benjamin Glassberg, Geni.com, January 27, 2016, Birthplace: Radzyn Podlaski, RadzyÅ„ Podlaski County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland, Sanders became interested in politics at an early age: "A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932. He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important."{{efn|Hitler lost the election for the presidency of Germany on March 13, 1932, when Hindenburg received 49.6 percent of the vote to Hitler's 30.1 percent.NEWS, Kessler, Glenn, Glenn Kessler (journalist), August 28, 2015, Why you shouldn't retweet Sanders's claim that Hitler 'won an election', The Washington Post,weblink March 26, 2016, But the Nazi Party, led by Hitler, won a plurality in the Reichstag, Germany's lower house of parliament, in July 1932, and retained its status as the largest party thereafter.WEB, Matthews, Dylan, August 28, 2015, Sanders Gets History Right on Hitler's Rise to Power, Vox (website), Vox via Sen. Bernie Sanders's Official Website,weblink March 26, 2016, }}WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders' Quote About Hitler Winning An Election Is Powerful. It's Also Misleading, Bustle, August 28, 2015,weblink January 21, 2016, no, Madhuri, Sathish, WEB, Feldmann, Linda, June 11, 2015, Bernie Sanders: 'I'm Proud to be Jewish', The Christian Science Monitor, 'I'm proud to be Jewish,' the Independent from Vermont – and candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination – responded Thursday at a press breakfast hosted by the Monitor. Though, he added, 'I'm not particularly religious.' As a child, Sanders said, being Jewish taught him 'in a very deep way what politics is about. A guy named Adolf Hitler won an election in 1932,' the senator said. 'He won an election, and 50 million people died as a result of that election in World War II, including 6 million Jews. So what I learned as a little kid is that politics is, in fact, very important.',weblink June 13, 2015, WEB,weblink Sanders Could Be The First Jewish President, But He Doesn't Like To Talk About It, November 2, 2015, NPR, In the 1940s, many of Sanders' relatives in German-occupied Poland were killed in the Holocaust, including his uncle Abraham Schnützer, who was killed in 1942.WEB,weblink Sanders: 'My father's family was wiped out by Hitler', McCaskill, Nolan D, March 6, 2016, Politico, April 15, 2017, Sanders lived on East 26th Street in Midwood, Brooklyn.Horowitz, Jason. "Bernie Sanders's '100% Brooklyn' Roots Are as Unshakable as His Accent", The New York Times, July 24, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2016. He attended elementary school at P.S. 197 in Brooklyn, where he won a borough championship on the basketball team.WEB, Bump, Philip, January 29, 2016, The untold story of Bernie Sanders, high school track star, The Washington Post,weblink January 29, 2016, WEB, Felsenthal, Carol, May 4, 2015, Bernie Sanders Found Socialism at the University of Chicago, Chicago magazine, He graduated from Brooklyn's P.S. 197 and James Madison High School where he was captain of his high school track team.,weblink July 18, 2015, He attended Hebrew school in the afternoons, and celebrated his bar mitzvah in 1954.BOOK, Stone, Kurt F., The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members, 2010, Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Maryland, 9780810857315, 755001191, 483,weblink Sanders's older brother, Larry, said that during their childhood, the family never lacked for food or clothing, but major purchases, "like curtains or a rug," were difficult to afford.NEWS, Smith, Nicola, Bernie ropes in British brother for showdown with Clinton,weblink January 22, 2016, Sunday Times (London), January 17, 2016, Sanders attended James Madison High School, also in Brooklyn, where he was captain of the track team and took third place in the New York City indoor one-mile race. In high school, Sanders lost his first election, finishing last out of three candidates for the student body presidency. Not long after his high school graduation, his mother died at the age of 46; his father died a few years later on August 4, 1962, at the age of 57.{{anchor|Civil Rights Movement}}Sanders studied at Brooklyn College for a year in 1959–60NEWS, Bernie Sanders Fast Facts,weblink October 13, 2015, CNN, August 20, 2015, before transferring to the University of Chicago and graduating with a bachelor of arts degree in political science in 1964. He has described himself as a mediocre college student because the classroom was "boring and irrelevant," while the community provided his most significant learning.Talbot, Margaret. "The Populist Prophet", The New Yorker (October 12, 2015).

Early career

{{See also|Electoral history of Bernie Sanders}}

Political activism

Sanders would later describe his time in Chicago as "the major period of intellectual ferment in my life".WEB,weblink What Chicago Taught Bernie, Kampf-Lassin, Miles, 3 March 2019, Jacobin (magazine), 4 March 2019, While at the University of Chicago, Sanders joined the Young People's Socialist League (the youth affiliate of the Socialist Party of America),NEWS, Kruse, Michael, July 9, 2015, Bernie Sanders Has a Secret: Vermont, his son and the hungry early years that made him the surging socialist he is today, Politico, After he graduated from James Madison High School in 1959, he went to Brooklyn College for a year before transferring to the University of Chicago, where he joined the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Student Peace Union, and the Young People's Socialist League.,weblink July 18, 2015, and was active in the Civil Rights Movement as a student for the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).NEWS, Kelly, Amita, April 29, 2015, 5 Things You Should Know About Bernie Sanders, NPR,weblink July 19, 2015, JOURNAL, Nichols, John, John Nichols (journalist), July 6, 2015, Bernie Sanders Speaks, The Nation,weblink July 19, 2015, Under Sanders's chairmanship, the university chapter of CORE merged with the university chapter of SNCC.WEB,weblink Here's What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement, Mother Jones, February 11, 2016, February 11, 2016, Tim Murphy, In January 1962, Sanders went to a rally at the University of Chicago administration building to protest university president George Wells Beadle's segregated campus housing policy. "We feel it is an intolerable situation when Negro and white students of the university cannot live together in university-owned apartments," Sanders said at the protest. Sanders and 32 other students then entered the building and camped outside the president's office.NEWS, Frizell, Sam, May 26, 2015, The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders, Time,weblink September 10, 2015, NEWS, Perlstein, Rick, January 2015, A political education, The University of Chicago Magazine,weblink September 10, 2015, After weeks of sit-ins, Beadle and the university formed a commission to investigate discrimination.NEWS, Craven, Jasper, August 26, 2015, Can Sanders' civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?, Chicago Tribune,weblink January 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160108182818weblink">weblink no, 1085-6706, Following further protests, in the summer of 1963 the University of Chicago ended official racial segregation in private university housing. Joan Mahoney, a member of the University of Chicago CORE chapter at the time and a fellow participant in the sit-ins, described Sanders in a 2016 interview as "...{{nbsp}}a swell guy, a nice Jewish boy from Brooklyn, but he wasn't terribly charismatic. One of his strengths, though, was his ability to work with a wide group of people, even those he didn't agree with".WEB,weblink 'He wasn't terribly charismatic': Bernie Sanders leads a civil rights protest in 1962, Booth, Hannah, September 16, 2016, The Guardian, September 16, 2016, Sanders once spent a day putting up fliers protesting against police brutality, only to eventually notice that a Chicago police car was shadowing him and taking them all down.Sanders attended the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream" speech.Frizell, Sam. "The Radical Education of Bernie Sanders", Time (May 26, 2015).WEB, Sanders, Bernie, News August 25, Senate.gov,weblink June 17, 2015, That summer, he was fined $25 ({{Inflation|US|25|1963|fmt=eq}}) for resisting arrest during a demonstration in Englewood against segregation in Chicago's public schools.NEWS, Skiba, Katherine, February 22, 2016, Arrest photo of young activist Bernie Sanders emerges from Tribune archives, Chicago Tribune,weblink May 28, 2018, NEWS, Murphy, Tim, August 26, 2015, Read 21-Year-Old Bernie Sanders' Manifesto on Sexual Freedom, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones,weblink September 10, 2015, In addition to his civil rights activism during the 1960s and 1970s,WEB,weblink Here's What Bernie Sanders Actually Did in the Civil Rights Movement, Mother Jones, February 11, 2016, March 31, 2016, Murphy, Tim, Sanders was active in several peace and antiwar movements. He was a member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Student Peace Union while attending the University of Chicago. Sanders applied for conscientious objector status during the Vietnam War; his application was eventually turned down, by which point he was too old to be drafted. Although he opposed the war, Sanders never criticized those who fought and has been a strong supporter of veterans' benefits.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders on frontline for veterans, The Washington Post, April 14, 2013, September 30, 2015, Vogel, Steve, WEB, Parks, Mary Alice, August 31, 2015, Bernie Sanders Applied for 'Conscientious Objector' Status During Vietnam, Campaign Confirms, ABC News,weblink September 30, 2015, He also was briefly an organizer with the United Packinghouse Workers of America whilst in Chicago. Sanders also worked on the reelection campaign of Leon Despres, a prominent Chicago alderman who was opposed to mayor Richard J. Daley's Democratic Party machine. During his student years he also read a variety of American and European political authors, from Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and John Dewey to Karl Marx and Erich Fromm.WEB,weblink His Most Radical Move, McCrummen, Stephanie, February 5, 2016, The Washington Post, January 21, 2017,

Professional history

After graduating from college, Sanders returned to New York City, where he initially worked at a variety of jobs, including Head Start teacher, psychiatric aide, and carpenter. In 1968, Sanders moved to Vermont because he had been "captivated by rural life." After his arrival there he worked as a carpenter, filmmaker, and writerBernie Sanders: From hippie migrant to would-be president The Washington Post, April 30, 2015 who created and sold "radical film strips" and other educational materials to schools.The 25 best things we learned from Bernie Sanders' book MSNBC, May 28, 2015 He also wrote several articles for the alternative publication The Vermont Freeman.JOURNAL, Sanders, Bernard, March 29, 1969, Cuba: the Other Side of the Story,weblink Vermont Freeman, March 10, 2016, PDF,weblink March 10, 2016, no, mdy-all,

Liberty Union campaigns

Sanders began his electoral political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party, which originated in the anti-war movement and the People's Party. He ran as the Liberty Union candidate for governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976 and as a candidate for U.S. senator in 1972 and 1974.Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.) RollCall.com. Retrieved August 19, 2015. In the 1974 senatorial race, Sanders finished third (5,901 votes; 4%), behind 33-year-old Chittenden County State's Attorney Patrick Leahy (D, VI; 70,629 votes; 49%) and two-term incumbent U.S. Representative Dick Mallary (R; 66,223 votes; 46%)."Election Results Search: 1974 Election Results"{{Dead link|date=April 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, sec.state.vt.us; further: pdf for "1974GEUSSen.xls". Citation for votes (total for Leahy and percentages calculated from spreadsheet). Retrieved May 2, 2015.Nelson, Garrison, "Jim Jeffords: Reluctant Rebel" Section: "1974: Changing the Congressional Guard", vtdigger.org, September 14, 2014. Citation for other candidate's full names and brief bios. Retrieved May 2, 2015.The 1976 campaign proved to be the zenith of Liberty Union's influence, with Sanders collecting 11,000 votes for governor and the party. This forced the races for lieutenant governor and secretary of state to be decided by the state legislature when its vote total prevented either the Republican or Democratic candidates for those offices from garnering a majority of votes. The campaign drained the finances and energy of the Liberty Union, however, and in October 1977, less than a year after the conclusion of the 1976 campaign, Sanders and the Liberty Union candidate for attorney general, Nancy Kaufman, announced their retirement from the party.Following his resignation from the Liberty Union Party in 1977, Sanders worked as a writer and the director of the nonprofit American People's Historical Society (APHS).Arena Profile: Sen. Bernie Sanders. Politico. Retrieved August 19, 2015. While with the APHS, he made a 30-minute documentary about American Socialist leader and presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs.Bernard Sanders (1979). Eugene V. Debs: Trade Unionist, Socialist, Revolutionary, 1855–1926 – Introduction on YouTube. Retrieved July 13, 2015.

Mayor of Burlington

File:City Hall Burlington Vermont from southeast on Main Street.jpg|thumb|Burlington, VermontBurlington, VermontIn 1980, Sanders ran for mayor of Burlington, Vermont (pop. 38,000), at the suggestion of his close friend and political confidante Richard Sugarman, a professor of religion at the University of Vermont. He was mayor for eight years, from April 6, 1981, to April 4, 1989.WEB,weblink Sanders: 'We begin a political revolution', Burbank, April, Donoghue, Mike, May 26, 2015, Burlington Free Press, en, 2019-03-12,

Campaigns

The 39-year-old Sanders ran against incumbent Democratic mayor Gordon "Gordie" Paquette, a five-term mayor who had served as a member of the Burlington City Council for 13 years before that, building extensive community ties and a willingness to cooperate with Republican leaders in controlling appointments to various commissions. Republicans had found Paquette so unobjectionable that they failed to field a candidate in the March 1981 race against him, leaving Sanders as his principal opponent. Sanders's effort was further aided by the decision of the candidate of the Citizens Party, Greg Guma, to exit the race so as not to split the progressive vote. Two other candidates in the race, independents Richard Bove and Joe McGrath, proved to be essentially non-factors in the campaign, with the battle coming down to Paquette and Sanders.BOOK, Guma, Greg, The People's Republic: Vermont and the Sanders Revolution, New England Press, 1989, South Burlington, Vermont, 19–42, 9780933050785, Sanders castigated the pro-development incumbent as an ally of prominent shopping center developer Antonio Pomerleau, while Paquette warned of ruin for Burlington if Sanders was elected. The Sanders campaign was bolstered by a wave of optimistic volunteers as well as by a series of endorsements from university professors, social welfare agencies, and the police union. The final result came as a shock to the local political establishment, with the maverick Sanders winning by just 10 votes.Sanders was reelected three times, defeating both Democratic and Republican candidates. He received 53% of the vote in 1983 and 55% in 1985.NEWS, Charles, Hillinger, Two Politicians Who Broke Mold in Vermont,weblink Los Angeles Times, April 28, 1985, November 2, 2015, In his final run for mayor in 1987, Sanders defeated Paul Lafayette, a Democrat endorsed by both major parties.NEWS, March 4, 1987, Re-election easy for Socialist mayor, Spokane Chronicle, Burlington, Vermont, A6,weblink In 1986, Sanders unsuccessfully challenged incumbent Governor Madeleine Kunin (D) in her run for reelection. Running as an independent, Sanders finished third with 14% of the vote. Kunin won with 47%, followed by Lt. Governor Peter P. Smith (R) with 38%.After serving four two-year terms, Sanders chose not to seek reelection in 1989. He lectured in political science at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government that year and at Hamilton College in 1991.NEWS, WSJ Sanders Profile, The Wall Street Journal,weblink January 18, 2013,

Administration

During his mayoralty, Sanders called himself a socialist and was so described in the press.NEWS, Banks, Russell, Russell Banks, October 5, 2015, Bernie Sanders, the Socialist Mayor, The Atlantic,weblink January 21, 2016, NEWS, April 7, 1981, Self-Styled Socialist Takes Oath as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont, Associated Press, Boston Globe, During his first term, his supporters, including the first Citizens Party City Councilor Terry Bouricius, formed the Progressive Coalition, the forerunner of the Vermont Progressive Party.WEB, Senator Bernie Sanders, Vermont Progressive Party,weblink June 8, 2015, The Progressives never held more than six seats on the 13-member city council, but they had enough to keep the council from overriding Sanders's vetoes. Under Sanders, Burlington became the first city in the country to fund community-trust housing.WEB, Dreier, Peter, Clavel, Pierre, Bernie's Burlington: What Kind of Mayor Was Bernie Sanders?, HuffPost, June 4, 2015,weblink August 6, 2015, During the 1980s, Sanders was a consistent critic of U.S. foreign policy in Latin America.WEB,weblink Third Political Parties in America, February 3, 1989, C-SPAN, November 16, 2018, 34:27, In 1985, Burlington City Hall hosted a foreign policy speech by Noam Chomsky. In his introduction, Sanders praised Chomsky as "a very vocal and important voice in the wilderness of intellectual life in America" and said he was "delighted to welcome a person who I think we're all very proud of."Bethania Palma Markus (August 11, 2015). The Bernie effect: Noam Chomsky says Sanders will push the Democratic Party to the left. The Raw Story. Retrieved August 21, 2015.NEWS, Chomsky Speech at Burlington City Hall – 1985, YouTube,weblink August 21, 2015, Sanders's administration balanced the city budget and drew a minor league baseball team, the Vermont Reds, then the Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds, to Burlington. Under his leadership, Burlington sued the local television cable franchise, winning reduced rates for customers.As mayor, Sanders led extensive downtown revitalization projects. One of his primary achievements was the improvement of Burlington's Lake Champlain waterfront. In 1981, Sanders campaigned against the unpopular plans by Burlington developer Tony Pomerleau to convert the then-industrialNEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders kicks off 2016 bid from Clinton's left, The Bellingham Herald, May 26, 2015,weblink December 9, 2015, no, Gram, Dave, Thomas, Ken, Associated Press, mdy-all, waterfront property owned by the Central Vermont Railway into expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices.BOOK, Reynolds, David, 1997, Democracy Unbound: Progressive Challenges to the Two Party System, South End Press, 162,weblink 9780896085633, Sanders ran under the slogan "Burlington is not for sale" and successfully supported a plan that redeveloped the waterfront area into a mixed-use district featuring housing, parks, and public space. Today, the waterfront area includes many parks and miles of public beach and bike paths, a boathouse, and a science center.Sanders hosted and produced a public-access television program, Bernie Speaks with the Community, from 1986 to 1988.WEB,weblink Bernie Speaks with the Community, Center for Media and Democracy, February 10, 2016, 2011-09-27, NEWS, Murphy, Tim,weblink I Can't Stop Watching These Old Clips of Bernie Sanders' Cable-Access Show, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, November 10, 2015, February 10, 2016, He collaborated with 30 Vermont musicians to record a folk album, We Shall Overcome, in 1987.NEWS, Davis, Mark,weblink Bernie Sanders Recorded a Folk Album. No Punchline Required, Seven Days (newspaper), Seven Days, September 17, 2014, February 10, 2016, NEWS, Kaczynski, Andrew,weblink Watch This 1980s Bernie Sanders Public Access Show On Recording His Folk Album, BuzzFeed, June 25, 2015, February 10, 2016, In 1987, U.S. News & World Report ranked Sanders as one of America's best mayors.AV MEDIA,weblink Real Change, November 1, 2015, YouTube, {{As of|2013}}, Burlington was regarded as one of the most livable cities in the nation.WEB, 10 Great Places to Live, 2013, kiplinger.com,weblink WEB, Cillizza, Chris, August 20, 2015, Bernie Sanders: The 'Uncola' of American politics, The Washington Post,weblink

U.S. House of Representatives

(File:Bernie Sanders 104th Congress.jpg|thumb|Representative Sanders in 1991)File:Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders 1993 (1).jpg|thumb|right|Sanders meeting in 1993 with then-First Lady Hillary Clinton (his future rival in the 2016 Democratic primaries) to discuss her plan to reform the healthcare system ]]{{See also|Electoral history of Bernie Sanders}}Sanders's 1990 victory made him the first independent candidate to be elected to Congress since Frazier Reams in 1950. It was noted by The Washington Post and others as the first election of a socialist to the United States House of Representatives in decades.NEWS, Daly, Christopher B., November 11, 1990, For Vermont's Sanders, Victory Followed Long Path; First Socialist Elected to House in Decades Gets Attention With Frank Talk of Class Conflict, The Washington Post,weblink March 18, 2017, Sanders served in the House from 1991 until he became a senator in 2007.

Elections

In 1988, incumbent Republican Congressman Jim Jeffords decided to run for the U.S. Senate, vacating the House seat representing Vermont's at-large congressional district. Former Lieutenant Governor Peter P. Smith (R) won the House election with a plurality, securing 41% of the vote. Sanders, who ran as an independent, placed second with 38% of the vote, while Democratic State Representative Paul N. Poirier placed third with 19% of the vote.WEB, VT At-Large Race, November 8, 1988, ourcampaigns.com,weblink February 17, 2013, Two years later, Sanders ran for the seat again and defeated the incumbent Smith by a margin of 56% to 39%.WEB,weblink Vermont State archives – General Election Results, March 31, 2016, Sanders was the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives since Frazier Reams's election to represent Ohio 40 years earlier.NEWS, Pertman, Adam, November 11, 1990, 'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist, Boston Globe,weblink He served as a representative for 16 years, winning reelection by large margins except during the 1994 Republican Revolution, when he won by 3%, with 50% of the vote.WEB,weblink Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 8, 1994, May 12, 1995,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151114171645weblink">weblink November 14, 2015, no, Carle, Robin H.,

Legislation

File:Bernie Sanders at Milton High School - Milton, Vermont.jpg|thumb|Sanders meeting with students at Milton High School in Milton, VermontMilton, VermontDuring his first year in the House, Sanders often alienated allies and colleagues with his criticism of both political parties as working primarily on behalf of the wealthy. In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus, a group of mostly liberal Democrats that Sanders chaired for its first eight years, while still refusing to join the Democratic Party or caucus.NEWS, Is Bernie Sanders a Democrat?,weblink October 17, 2016, PolitiFact,

Banking reform

In 1999, Sanders voted and advocated against rolling back the Glass–Steagall Legislation provisions that kept investment banks and commercial banks separate entities.NEWS,weblink Who should pay?, Brattleboro Reformer, September 23, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529131100weblink">weblink May 29, 2015, no, He was a vocal critic of Federal Reserve Chair Alan Greenspan; in June 2003, during a question-and-answer discussion with the then-Chairman, Sanders told him that he was concerned that Greenspan was "way out of touch" and "that you see your major function in your position as the need to represent the wealthy and large corporations".WEB, Statement of Congressman Sanders on 7/16/2003 regarding: Congressman Sanders' Questioning of Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan, Web.archive.org,weblink August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060926023514weblink">weblink September 26, 2006, Bernie Sanders vs. Alan Greenspan (Best Video Quality). C-SPAN video on YouTube. Retrieved June 20, 2015.Edmund Andrews for The New York Times. October 23, 2008 Greenspan Concedes Error on RegulationWEB,weblink Greenspan Admits Free Market Ideology Flawed, NPR, October 24, 2008, January 18, 2016, Naylor, Brian,

Gun-related

In 1993, Sanders voted against the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks when buying guns and imposed a waiting period on firearm purchasers in the United States; the bill passed by a vote of 238–187.WEB, Qiu, Linda, July 10, 2015, Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?, Politifact,weblink August 31, 2015, WEB, Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614, US House of Representatives, Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink November 17, 2014, In 1994, Sanders voted in favor of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act. Sanders said he voted for the bill "because it included the Violence Against Women Act and the ban on certain assault weapons". He was nevertheless extremely critical of the other parts of the bill.Jonathan Capehart, "Hillary Clinton on 'superpredator' remarks: 'I shouldn't have used those words'", The Washington Post (February 25, 2016).WEB, Where do Hillary Clinton and Bernie Sanders stand on the death penalty?, Politifact,weblink February 26, 2016, Although he acknowledged that "clearly, there are some people in our society who are horribly violent, who are deeply sick and sociopathic, and clearly these people must be put behind bars in order to protect society from them", he maintained in his intervention before the House that the government's ill-thought policies played a large part in "dooming tens of millions of young people to a future of bitterness, misery, hopelessness, drugs, crime, and violence". In this same intervention, he argued that the repressive policies introduced by the bill were not addressing the causes of violence, stating that "we can create meaningful jobs, rebuilding our society, or we can build more jails".Congressional Record Volume 140, Number 39 (Wednesday, April 13, 1994).In 1998, Sanders voted for a bill that would have increased minimum sentencing for possession of a gun while committing a federal crime to 10 years in prison, including nonviolent crimes such as marijuana possession.NEWS, Kristian, Bonnie, Bernie Sanders is not nearly as progressive as you think he is,weblink February 11, 2019, The Week, February 9, 2016, WEB, Qiu, Linda, Did Bernie Sanders vote against background checks and waiting periods for gun purchases?,weblink politifact.com, Poynter Institute, February 11, 2019, WEB, HR 424 - Minimum Sentences for Gun Crimes - National Key Vote,weblink votesmart.org, Vote Smart, February 11, 2019, In 2005, he voted for the Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act.WEB, Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534, Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink July 18, 2007, The act's purpose was to prevent firearms manufacturers and dealers from being held liable for negligence when crimes have been committed with their products.NEWS, Bradner, Eric, July 5, 2015, Bernie Sanders wants to 'bring us to the middle' on guns, CNN,weblink July 6, 2015, {{as of|2016}} Sanders has said that he has changed his position and would vote for legislation to defeat this bill.

Patriot Act

Sanders was a consistent critic of the Patriot Act.WEB, Tau, Byron, May 7, 2015, Rand Paul, Bernie Sanders Revel in NSA Ruling, The Guardian,weblink August 19, 2015, As a member of Congress, he voted against the original Patriot Act legislation.WEB, Final Vote Results for Roll Call 398, Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink May 19, 2015, After its 357-to-66 passage in the House, Sanders sponsored and voted for several subsequent amendments and acts attempting to curtail its effects,WEB, Hudson, David L., Jr., May 25, 2004, Patriot Act, Libraries and First Amendment, First Amendment Center,weblink May 19, 2015, and voted against each re-authorization.NEWS, Sanders, Bernie, May 7, 2015, Bernie Sanders: It's Time To End Orwellian Surveillance of Every American, Time,weblink July 19, 2015, In June 2005, Sanders proposed an amendment to limit Patriot Act provisions that allow the government to obtain individuals' library and book-buying records. The amendment passed the House by a bipartisan majority, but was removed on November 4 of that year in House–Senate negotiations and never became law.JOURNAL, November 4, 2005, Sanders' Freedom to Read Language Dropped from Spending Bill, American Library Association Washington Office Newsline, 14, 107,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060604000337weblink">weblink June 4, 2006,

War in Iraq

Sanders voted against the resolutions authorizing the use of force against Iraq in 1991 and 2002, and opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq. He voted for the 2001 Authorization for Use of Military Force Against TerroristsWEB, Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342, Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives,weblink October 13, 2014, that has been cited as the legal justification for controversial military actions since the September 11 attacks.NEWS, Johnsen, Gregory D., January 16, 2014, 60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History, Buzzfeed,weblink October 13, 2014, Sanders voted for a non-binding resolution expressing support for troops at the outset of the invasion of Iraq, but gave a floor speech criticizing the partisan nature of the vote and the George W. Bush administration's actions in the run-up to the war. Regarding the investigation of what turned out to be a leak of CIA agent Valerie Plame's identity by a State Department official, Sanders stated: "The revelation that the President authorized the release of classified information in order to discredit an Iraq war critic should tell every member of Congress that the time is now for a serious investigation of how we got into the war in Iraq and why Congress can no longer act as a rubber stamp for the President."NEWS, Yost, Pete, April 7, 2006, Libby: Bush, Cheney OK'd leak campaign, Associated Press,weblink December 9, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151209220920weblink">weblink Bennington Banner, yes, mdy-all,

Other

In 1996, Sanders voted against a bill that would have prohibited police purchasing of tanks and armored carriers.WEB, H.R. 728 (104th): Local Government Law Enforcement Block Grants Act of 1995,weblink govtrack.us, Civic Impulse, February 11, 2019, On November 2, 2005, Sanders voted against the Online Freedom of Speech Act, which would have exempted the Internet from the campaign finance restrictions of the McCain–Feingold Bill.WEB, November 2, 2005, H.R.1606 – Online Freedom of Speech Act: Final Vote Results For Roll Call 559, Congress.gov,weblink

Sponsored legislation that became law

U.S. Senate

Elections

File:Sanders swearing-in3.jpg|thumb|right|Sanders being sworn in as a U.S. senator by then Vice President Dick Cheney in the Old Senate ChamberOld Senate ChamberSanders entered the race for the U.S. Senate on April 21, 2005, after Senator Jim Jeffords announced that he would not seek a fourth term. Chuck Schumer, chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, endorsed Sanders, a critical move as it meant that no Democrat running against Sanders could expect to receive financial help from the party. Sanders was also endorsed by Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid of Nevada and Democratic National Committee chairman and former Vermont governor Howard Dean. Dean said in May 2005 that he considered Sanders an ally who "votes with the Democrats 98 percent of the time."WEB, May 22, 2005, Meet the Press: Transcript, NBC News,weblink August 1, 2011, Then-Senator Barack Obama also campaigned for Sanders in Vermont in March 2006.WEB, Krieg, Gregory, July 9, 2015, Watch Young Senator Barack Obama Campaign for Bernie Sanders in 2006, mic.com, Back in March 2006, the future president traveled to Vermont to headline a rally and fundraiser for then-Rep. Bernie Sanders, an independent running for Senate, and Pete Welch, a Democrat seeking election to Sanders's House seat.,weblink July 20, 2015, Sanders entered into an agreement with the Democratic Party, much as he had as a congressman, to be listed in their primary but to decline the nomination should he win, which he did.NEWS, Taylor, Jessica, June 24, 2015, This Quirky New Hampshire Law Might Keep Bernie Sanders Off The Ballot, NPR, He did appear on the Democratic primary ballot in Vermont for the Senate in both 2006 and 2012, winning their primary, but he declined the nomination both times so he could run as an independent.,weblink July 20, 2015, NEWS, Nichols, John, John Nichols (journalist), May 26, 2015, 'Don't Underestimate Me': Bernie Sanders Knows a Thing or Two About Winning, The Nation, When Vermont Senator Jim Jeffords, a Republican who turned independent in his last term, announced that he was stepping down in 2006, Sanders jumped into a race that a number of Democrats would have liked to run. He won the Democratic primary and then declined the nomination, mounting an audacious independent run that was not supposed to be easy.,weblink July 20, 2015, In the most expensive political campaign in Vermont's history,NEWS, Ring, Wilson, November 7, 2006, Sanders, Welch are winners in Vermont, Boston Globe, Associated Press,weblink January 25, 2007, Sanders defeated businessman Rich Tarrant by an approximately 2-to-1 margin. Many national media outlets projected Sanders as the winner just after the polls closed, before any returns came in. He was reelected in 2012 with 71% of the vote,WEB, Vermont Election Results, Decision 2012, NBC News,weblink April 21, 2013, 2011-12-02, and again in 2018 with 67% of the vote.WEB,weblink Vermont electoral results, 2018, Vermont Secretary of State, November 2018, State of Vermont,

Legislation

Prior to his 2016 presidential run, Sanders was known as a legislator who advocated for progressive causes, but "rarely forged actual legislation or left a significant imprint on it."NEWS,weblink Sanders had big ideas but little impact on Capitol Hill, POLITICO, June 4, 2018, en, According to The New York Times, "Big legislation largely eludes Mr. Sanders because his ideas are usually far to the left of the majority of the Senate ... Mr. Sanders has largely found ways to press his agenda through appending small provisions to the larger bills of others."NEWS,weblink Via Legislative Side Doors, Bernie Sanders Won Modest Victories, March 14, 2016, The New York Times, June 4, 2018, en-US, 0362-4331, During his time in the Senate, Sanders had lower "legislative effectiveness" than the average Senator, as measured by the number of sponsored bills that passed and successful amendments made.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton was a more effective lawmaker than Bernie Sanders, Lazarus, Jeffrey, April 7, 2016, Washington Post, June 4, 2018, en-US, 0190-8286,

Banking reform

Sanders has advocated greater democratic participation by citizens, campaign finance reform, and a constitutional amendment or judicial decision that would overturn Citizens United v. FEC.WEB,weblink Legislation: Campaign Finance, Bernie Sanders: U.S. Senator for Vermont, Senate.gov, February 17, 2013, Saving American Democracy Amendment. December 8, 2011. Sanders Senate web siteNEWS,weblink If We Don't Overturn Citizens United, The Congress Will Become Paid Employees of the Billionaire Class, Sanders, Bernie, March 22, 2015, HuffPost, July 18, 2015, He calls for comprehensive financial reforms,WEB,weblink Text of Bernie Sanders' Wall Street and economy speech, MarketWatch, January 6, 2016, such as breaking up "too big to fail" financial institutions, restoring Glass–Steagall legislation, reforming the Federal Reserve Bank and allowing the Post Office to offer basic financial services in economically marginalized communities.{{refn|NEWS, Sanders, Bernie, May 7, 2015, Break Up Big Banks, HuffPost,weblink August 18, 2015, WEB, Everett, Burgess, Bernie Sanders backs big bank breakups, in contrast with Hillary Clinton,weblink Politico, Politico, August 18, 2015, NEWS, Sanders, Bernie, Bernie Sanders: To Rein In Wall Street, Fix the Fed,weblink The New York Times, December 23, 2015, WEB, Pinsker, Joe, Bernie Sanders's Highly Sensible Plan to Turn Post Offices Into Banks,weblink The Atlantic, January 6, 2016, 2015-10-20, }}File:Bernie Sanders - full 2010-12-10 filibuster.webm|thumb|right|Sanders spoke for more than eight hours in his December 2010 filibusterfilibusterOn September 24, 2008, Sanders posted an open letter to Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson decrying the initial bank bailout proposal; it drew more than 8,000 citizen cosigners in 24 hours.WEB,weblink (Video) Bailout Petition Statement, September 24, 2008, Senate.gov,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081014003612weblink">weblink October 14, 2008, yes, August 29, 2010, On January 26, 2009, Sanders and Democrats Robert Byrd, Russ Feingold, and Tom Harkin were the sole majority members to vote against confirming Timothy Geithner as United States Secretary of the Treasury.WEB,weblink U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records: Roll Call Vote, Senate.gov, August 29, 2010, In 2008 and 2009, Sanders voted against the Troubled Asset Relief Program (also referred to as the Wall Street bailout) which was a program to purchase toxic banking assets and provide loans to banks which were in free fall at the time.NEWS,weblink Clinton-Sanders Bailout Brawl - FactCheck.org, March 7, 2016, FactCheck.org, June 4, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink In Michigan, Hillary Clinton says Bernie Sanders 'was against the auto bailout', @politifact, June 4, 2018, en, Among Sanders' proposed financial reforms is the auditing of the Federal Reserve, which would reduce the independence of the Federal Reserve in monetary policy deliberations; Federal Reserve officials say that 'Audit the Fed' legislation would expose the Federal Reserve to undue political pressure from lawmakers who do not like its decisions.NEWS,weblink 'Audit the Fed' bill fails despite support from Paul, Sanders, Robb, Greg, MarketWatch, December 16, 2017, en-US, WEB,weblink democrats-kill-rand-pauls-audit-the-fed-bill-though-sanders-votes-yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160112230625weblink">weblink January 12, 2016, yes, NEWS,weblink Sanders to vote for Paul's 'Audit the Fed' bill, Schroeder, Peter, January 12, 2016, TheHill, December 16, 2017, In 2016, Sanders voted for the Federal Reserve Transparency Act, which included proposals for a reformed audit of the Federal Reserve System.

Supreme Court nominees

On March 17, 2016, Sanders said he would support Merrick Garland's nomination to the Supreme Court, though he added, "there are some more progressive judges out there."NEWS,weblink Sanders: I wouldn't have picked Garland for Supreme Court, Hanna, Trudo, Nick, Gass, Politico, March 17, 2016, Sanders opposed Neil Gorsuch's nomination to the Court, saying that Gorsuch had "refused to answer legitimate questions." Sanders also objected to the possibility of Senate Republicans using the nuclear option to "choke off debate and ram the nomination through the Senate."NEWS,weblink Sanders to oppose Gorsuch's nomination, Jordain, Carney, The Hill, March 23, 2017, Sanders voted against confirmation of Gorsuch as Associate Supreme Court Justice.NEWS,weblink How Senators Voted on the Gorsuch Confirmation, Carlsen, Audrey, April 7, 2017, The New York Times, May 14, 2018, 0362-4331,

Taxes

{{anchor|2010 filibuster|2010 Filibuster|filibuster}} On December 10, 2010, Sanders delivered an {{frac|8|1|2}}–hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, the proposed extension of the Bush-era tax rates that eventually became law, arguing that the legislation would favor the wealthiest Americans. "Enough is enough!{{nbsp}} ... How many homes can you own?" he asked.NEWS, December 10, 2010, Memoli, Michael A., Sen. Bernie Sanders ends filibuster, Los Angeles Times,weblink August 1, 2011, WEB, Burleigh, Nina, October 25, 2011, Bernie Sanders' war on the banks, Salon,weblink July 19, 2015, NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders Holds Old-School Filibuster Against Obama-GOP Tax Cut Deal, Condon, Stephanie, December 10, 2010, May 14, 2018, A long speech such as this is commonly known as a filibuster, but because it did not block action, it was not technically a filibuster under Senate rules.NEWS, December 10, 2010, Senator Sanders Filibuster, C-SPAN,weblink June 1, 2015, In response to the speech, hundreds of people signed online petitions urging Sanders to run in the 2012 presidential election, and pollsters began measuring his support in key primary states. Progressive activists such as Rabbi Michael Lerner and economist David Korten publicly voiced their support for a prospective Sanders run against President Barack Obama.NEWS, Nichols, John, John Nichols (journalist), December 29, 2010, That 'Sanders for President' Talk is Real Enough, But Bernie's Not Going There, The Nation,weblink Sanders's speech was published in February 2011 by Nation Books as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class, with authorial proceeds going to Vermont nonprofit charitable organizations.WEB,weblink Sanders's 8.5 Hour Tax Cut Filibuster Gets a Book, Paul, Bedard, US News, March 15, 2011, May 15, 2016,

Labor

(File:Sanders Introduces $15 Minimum Wage.jpg|thumb|Sanders introduced legislation to raise the federal minimum wage to $15 an hour, April 2017)In April 2017, Sanders introduced a bill that would raise the minimum wage for federal contract workers to $15 an hour{{spnd}}an increase over an earlier Democratic $12 an hour proposal{{spnd}}which was co-sponsored by two other progressive Democrats.Samantha Lachman (July 22, 2015). Bernie Sanders Introduces $15 Minimum Wage Bill As Federal Contract Workers Strike. HuffPost. Retrieved August 18, 2015.On May 9, 2018, Sanders introduced the Workplace Democracy Act, a bill that would expand labor rights by making it easier for workers to join a union, ban right-to-work laws and some anti-union provisions of the Taft Hartley Act, and outlaw some union-busting tactics. It was endorsed by several Democratic senators, including Elizabeth Warren, Kirsten Gillibrand, Tammy Baldwin and Sherrod Brown. Announcing the legislation, Sanders said, "If we are serious about reducing income and wealth inequality and rebuilding the middle class, we have got to substantially increase the number of union jobs in this country."NEWS, Kampf-Lassin, Miles, May 9, 2018, Bernie Sanders Has a Sweeping Plan to Expand Union Rights and Workplace Democracy,weblink In These Times, May 12, 2018, On September 5, 2018, Sanders partnered with Ro Khanna to introduce the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act, which would require large corporations to pay for food stamps and Medicaid benefits their employees receive, rather than shifting the burden onto taxpayers.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders's BEZOS bill takes aim at how Amazon pays workers, Emily, Stewart, Vox, September 5, 2018, September 14, 2018, Khanna said, "if you bag groceries, you should be able to buy groceries." Sanders said, "Taxpayers in this country should not be subsidizing a guy who's worth $150 billion, whose wealth is increasing by $260 million every single day," referring to Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders introduces "Stop BEZOS" bill to tax Amazon for underpaying workers, Adi, Robertson, The Verge, September 5, 2018, September 14, 2018, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders targets Amazon, Walmart with 100% tax, Kate, Gibson, CBS, September 5, 2018, September 14, 2018, The bill has received some support from conservatives; Fox News pundit Tucker Carlson endorsed the proposal on air.NEWS,weblink Why Bernie Sanders and Tucker Carlson agree on food stamps, Arthur, Delaney, The Huffington Post, August 31, 2018, September 14, 2018, On October 2, 2018, Bezos raised the minimum wage at Amazon to $15, effective November 1; Sanders commended him.NEWS, Santus, Rex, October 2, 2018, Jeff Bezos just caved to activists and Bernie Sanders and raised Amazon's minimum wage to $15,weblink Vice, October 4, 2018, What Mr. Bezos today has done is not only enormously important for Amazon's hundreds of thousands of employees. It could well be, and I think it will be, a shot heard around the world.,

Sponsored legislation that became law

Committees and caucuses

Senators participate in committees that are responsible for certain types of legislation and in caucuses that build a legislative constituency for shaping legislation of interest to its members.

Committee assignments

As an independent, Sanders worked out a deal with the Senate Democratic leadership in which he agreed to vote with the Democrats on all procedural matters unless the Democratic whip, Dick Durbin, agreed that he need not (a request rarely made or granted). In return, he was allowed to keep his seniority and received the committee seats that would have been available to him as a Democrat; in 2013–14, he was chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs (during the Veterans Health Administration scandal)."Bernie Sanders criticized for leadership in VA committee", CNN (October 15, 2015).WEB, Needham, Vicki, December 12, 2014, Senate Democrats lock in key committee memberships, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill,weblink July 19, 2015, Sanders became the ranking minority member on the Senate Budget Committee in January 2015; he had previously been chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee for two years. Since January 2017, he has been Chair of the Senate Democratic Outreach Committee. He appointed economics professor Stephanie Kelton, a modern monetary theory scholar, as the chief economic adviser for the committee's Democratic minority and presented a report aimed at helping "rebuild the disappearing middle class", which included proposals to raise the minimum wage, boost infrastructure spending, and increase Social Security payments.WEB, Resnikoff, Ned, February 19, 2015, Bernie Sanders, mulling presidential run, adopts novel stance on deficit, Al Jazeera,weblink March 25, 2015, According to his senate website, Sanders's other committee assignments during 2016 were as follows:WEB,weblink Committee Assignments, Staff, sanders.senate.gov, US Senate, December 29, 2016,

Caucus memberships

Sanders was only the third senator from Vermont to caucus with the Democrats, after Jeffords and Leahy. His caucusing with the Democrats gave them a 51–49 majority in the Senate during the 110th Congress in 2007–08. The Democrats needed 51 seats to control the Senate because Vice President Dick Cheney would have broken any tie in favor of the Republicans.Jones, Van and Conrad, Ariane. Rebuild the Dream, p. 27 (Nation Books 2012). He is a member of the following caucuses:

Approval ratings

Polling conducted in August 2011 by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders's approval rating was 67% and his disapproval rating 28%, making him then the third-most popular senator in the country. Both the NAACP and the NHLA have given Sanders 100% voting scores during his tenure in the Senate.MAGAZINE,weblink Give the People What They Want: Bernie Sanders' signature issues aren't 'white' issues, Jacobin (magazine), Jacobin, June 29, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150721162037weblink">weblink July 21, 2015, no, Ackerman, Seth, 2158-2602, In 2015, Sanders was named one of the Top 5 of The Forward 50.WEB, November 11, 2015,weblink Forward 50 2015, Forward.com, November 11, 2015, In a November 2015 Morning Consult poll, Sanders had an approval rating of 83% among his constituents, making him the most popular senator in the country. Fox News found Sanders to have the highest net favorability at +28 points of any prominent politician included in its March 2017 poll.Everyone loves Bernie Sanders. Except, it seems, the Democratic party. The Guardian. March 17, 2017. He ranked third in 2014 and first in both 2015 and 2016.Bernie Sanders Is America's Most Popular Senator, New Survey Says. Newsweek. November 24, 2015.WEB, Easley, Jason, August 2, 2011, Americans Love Socialism: Bernie Sanders Is The 3rd Most Popular US Senator, Politics USA,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141229152746weblink">weblink December 29, 2014, July 18, 2015, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders is America's Most Popular Senator, Mitch McConnell its Least, Newsweek, April 28, 2016, September 17, 2016, Wofford, Taylor, In April 2017, a nationwide Harvard-Harris Poll found Sanders had the highest favorability rating of the leading political figures included in the poll, a standing confirmed by subsequent polling.NEWS,weblink Poll: McConnell the country’s least popular politician, The Hill (newspaper), August 24, 2017, Jonathan, Easley,

2016 presidential campaign

File:Bernie Sanders before a crowd in Conway, NH, on August 24, 2015 (20876809366).jpg|thumb|Sanders speaking in Conway, New HampshireConway, New HampshireFile:Bernie Seattle 07.jpg|thumb|Sanders supporters lined up to hear him speak in Seattle, WashingtonSeattle, WashingtonFile:Bernie Sanders at Rutgers, May 2016.jpg|thumb|Sanders speaking at Rutgers UniversityRutgers UniversitySanders announced his intention to seek the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States on April 30, 2015,WEB, Kane, Paul, Rucker, Philip, April 30, 2015, An unlikely contender, Sanders takes on 'billionaire class' in 2016 bid, The Washington Post,weblink April 30, 2015, NEWS, Rappeport, Alan, April 29, 2015, Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President, The New York Times,weblink April 30, 2015, WEB, Cogan, Marin, April 30, 2015, Daily Intelligencer: Bernie Sanders Is Officially Running for President â€“ That Doesn't Mean You Can Ask Him About Hillary Clinton, New York (magazine), New York,weblink July 18, 2015, and his campaign was officially launched on May 26, 2015, in Burlington. In his announcement, Sanders said, "I don't believe that the men and women who defended American democracy fought to create a situation where billionaires own the political process," and made this a central idea throughout his campaign. Senator Elizabeth Warren welcomed Sanders's entry into the race, saying, "I'm glad to see him get out there and give his version of what leadership in this country should be," but never endorsed him.NEWS, Pointdujour, Prisca, May 2, 2015, Elizabeth Warren praises Bernie Sanders prez bid, Boston Herald,weblink May 3, 2015, NEWS, Kamisar, Ben, June 19, 2015, Ready for Warren Endorses Sanders, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill,weblink February 24, 2016, Initially considered a long shot, Sanders won 23 primaries and caucuses and approximately 46% of pledged delegates to Clinton's 54%. His campaign was noted for its supporters' enthusiasm, as well as for his rejection of large donations from corporations, the financial industry, and any associated Super PAC. Some of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) emails leaked to the public in June and July 2016 showed that the committee leadership favored Clinton over Sanders and had worked to help Clinton win the nomination.WEB, Aaron, Blake,weblink Here are the latest, most damaging things in the DNC's leaked emails, The Washington Post, July 24, 2016, On July 12, 2016, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton in her unsuccessful general election campaign against Republican Donald Trump, while urging his supporters to continue the "political revolution" his campaign had begun.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders endorses Hillary Clinton, MJ, Lee, Dan, Merica, Jeff, Zeleny, Jeff Zeleny, CNN, May 15, 2018, July 12, 2016,

Campaign methods

Unlike the other major candidates, Sanders did not pursue funding through a Super PAC or by wealthy donors, instead focusing on small individual donations.NEWS, Bradner, Eric, April 30, 2015, Sanders doesn't want billionaires' backing, CNN,weblink May 4, 2015, His presidential campaign raised $1.5 million within 24 hours of his official announcement.NEWS, Thomas, Ken, May 1, 2015, Sanders raises $1.5M after announcing presidential bid, Associated Press, Yahoo News,weblink July 19, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150722043633weblink">weblink July 22, 2015, mdy-all, At year's end the campaign had raised a total of $73 million from more than one million people making 2.5 million donations, with an average donation of $27.16.NEWS, January 2, 2016, Sanders raises $33M in final quarter, $73M total for 2015, Politico,weblink January 2, 2016, The campaign reached 3.25 million donations by the end of January 2016, raising $20 million in that month alone.Bernie Sanders' Small Donor Fundraising Continues To Set Records. HuffPost. January 31, 2015.Sanders used social media to help his campaign gain momentum,NEWS, Corasaniti, Nick, May 18, 2015, Seeking the Presidency, Bernie Sanders Becomes Facebook Royalty Through Quirky Sharing, The New York Times,weblink May 21, 2015, posting content to online platforms such as Twitter and Facebook and answering questions on Reddit. He gained a large grassroots organizational following online. A July 29, 2015 meetup organized online brought 100,000 supporters to more than 3,500 simultaneous events nationwide.Lisa Lerer (July 30, 2015). More than 100,000 people participated in a mega-grassroots Bernie Sanders event. Business Insider. Retrieved August 19, 2015.Sanders's campaign events in June 2015 drew overflow crowds around the country, to his surprise.Sofia Tesfaye (June 16, 2015). America is feeling the Bern: Bernie Sanders draws overflow crowds â€“ and surges in the polls. Salon. Retrieved June 16, 2015.John Wagner (June 15, 2015). Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.Tamara Keith (June 15, 2015). Bernie Sanders 'Stunned' By Large Crowds Showing Up For Him. NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015. When Hillary Clinton and Sanders made public appearances within days of each other in Des Moines, Iowa, Sanders drew larger crowds, even though he had already made numerous stops around the state and Clinton's visit was her first in 2015.WEB, Jacobs, Ben, June 25, 2015, Bernie Sanders closes on Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire Democrats poll,weblink The Guardian, July 2, 2015, On July 1, 2015, Sanders's campaign stop in Madison, Wisconsin, drew the largest crowd of any 2016 presidential candidate to that date, with an estimated turnout of 10,000.WEB, Seitz-Wald, Alex, July 1, 2015, Bernie Sanders draws biggest crowd of any 2016 candidate yet, MSNBC,weblink July 2, 2015, WEB, Reilly, Mollie, Bernie Sanders Draws His Biggest Crowd Yet In Progressive Stronghold, HuffPost,weblink July 2, 2015, Over the following weeks he gained even larger crowds: 11,000 in Arizona,WEB, Wagner, John, July 19, 2015, Bernie Sanders draws his biggest crowd yet â€“ in Arizona of all places, The Washington Post,weblink July 21, 2015, 15,000 in Seattle,WEB, Connelly, Joel, August 8, 2015, Bernie Sanders draws 15,000 people at UW, state's biggest political crowd since 2010 Obama visit, Seattle Post-Intelligencer,weblink August 9, 2015, and 28,000 in Portland.Chris Cillizza (August 10, 2015). This Bernie Sanders crowd shot should make Hillary Clinton a little jittery. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2015.

Party presidential debates

{{see also|2016 Democratic National Committee email leak}}The 2016 Democratic Party presidential debates occurred among candidates in the campaign for the Democratic Party's nomination for the President of the United States. The DNC announced in May 2015 that there would be six debates. Critics alleged that the small number of debates and the schedule, with half of the debates on Saturday or Sunday nights, were part of the DNC's deliberate attempt to protect the front-runner, Hillary Clinton.NEWS,weblink How Saturday debates protect Hillary Clinton, Doug, Mataconis, December 22, 2015, December 23, 2015, The Christian Science Monitor, In February 2016, Clinton's and Sanders's campaigns agreed in principle to holding four more debates for a total of ten.WEB, Greg Sargent, It's on: Looks like we're getting four more Democratic debates, The Washington Post,weblink February 3, 2016, March 30, 2016, Clinton dropped out of the tenth debate, scheduled to take place just before the California primary, citing a need to devote her time to making direct contact with California voters and preparing for the general election.NEWS,weblink Delegate math: Clinton wins, and how AP counts delegates, Associated Press, June 4, 2018, en-US, Sanders expressed disappointment that Clinton canceled the debate "before the largest and most important primary in the presidential nominating process".WEB, Clinton declines to debate Sanders in California,weblink Merica, Dan, Stelter, Brian, May 24, 2016, CNN, November 16, 2016,

Polls and news coverage

An NBC/Wall Street Journal poll conducted in May found Clinton and presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump in a "dead heat", but the same poll found that if Sanders were the Democratic nominee, 53% of voters would support him to 39% for Trump.WEB,weblink Meet the Press, NBC, May 23, 2016, May 23, 2016, Murray, Mark, Clinton and Trump were the least popular likely candidates in the poll's history, while Sanders received a 43% positive, 36% negative rating.WEB,weblink First Read: Clinton's Challenge Is Winning Over Sanders Voters, NBC, May 23, 2016, May 23, 2016, Dann, Carrie, Chuck Todd, Todd, Chuck, Murray, Mark, Polls showed that Democratic voters older than 50 preferred Clinton by a large margin but those under 50 overwhelmingly favored Sanders.WEB,weblink Why young voters are flocking to Sanders and older ones to Clinton, April 19, 2016, September 6, 2016, Decker, Cathleen, Some supporters raised concerns that publications such as The New York Times minimized coverage of the Sanders campaign in favor of other candidates', especially Trump's and Clinton's. The Times's own "public editor" or ombudsman reviewed her paper's coverage of Sanders and found that {{as of|2015|September|lc=y}} her paper "hasn't always taken it very seriously. The tone of some stories is regrettably dismissive, even mocking at times. Some of that is focused on the candidate's age, appearance and style, rather than what he has to say." She also found that the Times's coverage of Sanders's campaign was much scanter than its coverage of that of Trump, the Republican candidate also initially considered a long shot, with 63 articles covering the Trump campaign and 14 covering the Sanders campaign.WEB, Sullivan, Margaret, Public Editor's Journal: Has The Times Dismissed Bernie Sanders?, The New York Times, September 9, 2015,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923132816weblink">weblink September 23, 2015, no, WEB,weblink Gabriel, Debenedetti, Nick, Gass, Bernie Sanders overtakes Hillary Clinton in Iowa, Politico, September 11, 2015, A December 2015 report found that the three major networks{{spnd}}CBS, NBC, and ABC{{spnd}}had spent 234{{nbsp}}minutes reporting on Trump and 10{{nbsp}}minutes on Sanders, despite their similar polling results. The report noted that ABC World News Tonight had spent 81{{nbsp}}minutes on Trump and less than one{{nbsp}}minute on Sanders during 2015.WEB,weblink Report: Top News Shows Give Trump 234 Minutes, Sanders 10 Minutes, 6:06, Democracy Now, December 15, 2015, December 15, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151216021357weblink">weblink December 16, 2015, no, In November 2016, Amy Goodman of Democracy Now! noted that on March 15, Super Tuesday III, the speeches of Trump, Clinton, Marco Rubio, and Ted Cruz were broadcast in full. Sanders was in Phoenix, Arizona, on that date, speaking to a rally larger than any of the others, but his speech was not mentioned, let alone broadcast.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders: "I Was Stunned" by Corporate Media Blackout During Democratic Primary, Other analysts disputed that the media was biased against Sanders. According to Vox's Matthew Yglesias, the media was biased in his favor, as it had a "systematic self-interested bias toward exaggerating how close the race is."NEWS,weblink After Wisconsin, Sanders is worse off than ever in the delegate race, Vox, May 29, 2018, In September 2015, George Washington University political scientist John Sides failed to find evidence that there was less coverage of Sanders than would be expected for a candidate who was considered unlikely to win,NEWS,weblink Is the media biased against Bernie Sanders? Not really., Sides, John, September 23, 2015, Washington Post, May 29, 2018, en-US, 0190-8286, saying, "if anything, you could make the case for the opposite: that Sanders is getting more coverage than he 'should' based on his chances of winning, perhaps because the media's framing the Democratic race as competitive makes it more interesting to readers." The media coverage that Sanders did get was far less negative than Clinton's, according to Sides. Jonathan Stray of Harvard University's Nieman Lab found in January 2016 that media coverage of Sanders was proportional to his standing in the polls.NEWS,weblink How much influence does the media really have over elections? Digging into the data, Nieman Lab, May 29, 2018, A 2016 report by the Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy found that Sanders did not get much media coverage in early 2015 due to initial low poll numbers, but as he "began to get coverage, it was overwhelmingly positive in tone. Sanders' coverage in 2015 was the most favorable of any of the top candidates, Republican or Democratic",NEWS,weblink Pre-Primary News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Race: Trump's Rise, Sanders' Emergence, Clinton's Struggle, June 13, 2016, Shorenstein Center, May 29, 2018, en-US, while Clinton received "by far the most negative coverage of any candidate." A second 2016 Shorenstein Center report found that "Sanders was the only candidate during the primary period to receive a positive balance of coverage"NEWS,weblink News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Primaries: Horse Race Reporting Has Consequences, July 11, 2016, Shorenstein Center, May 29, 2018, en-US, and that the ratio of Clinton-Sanders coverage in 2016 was 54–46% in weeks 5–11 and 61–39% in weeks 12–19, while the ratio of Trump-Clinton-Sanders coverage was 43–37–20% in weeks 20–24. As the primary progressed, coverage of Sanders was increasingly dominated by his electoral defeats and increasingly smaller chance to win the Democratic nomination.An analysis in Newsweek found that 12% of those who voted for Sanders in the Democratic primary voted for Trump in the general election, enough to swing the election in his favor. However, by comparison, 25% of those who voted for Clinton in the 2008 Democratic primary voted for Republican nominee John McCain in the general election.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders Voters Helped Trump and Here's Proof, Le Miere, Jason, August 23, 2017, Newsweek, May 25, 2018,

Conclusion

File:Bernie Sanders Nashua Oct 2016 - 2.jpg|thumb|Sanders campaigning for Hillary Clinton at Nashua Community CollegeNashua Community CollegeAfter the final primary election, Clinton became the presumptive Democratic nominee.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders, Still Running, Pledges to 'Make Certain' Donald Trump Is Defeated, The New York Times, June 16, 2016, June 18, 2016, Alcindor, Yamiche, On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton,NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders endorses Hillary Clinton, CNN, July 12, 2016, July 13, 2016, and continued to work with the Democratic National Convention organizers to implement the progressive positions he had been campaigning for. Sanders spoke at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 25, giving Clinton his full support. Some of Sanders's supporters attempted to protest Clinton's nomination and booed when Sanders called for party unity. Sanders responded, "Our job is to do two things: to defeat Donald Trump and to elect Hillary Clinton ... It is easy to boo, but it is harder to look your kids in the face if we are living under a Trump presidency."NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders: 'I am proud to stand with her', CNN, July 26, 2016, July 26, 2016, Collinson, Stephen, On November 8, in the general election, Sanders received almost 6% of the vote in Vermont, though no longer a candidate. This was the highest share of a statewide presidential vote for a write-in draft campaign in American history.NEWS,weblink Ralph Nader Got The Most Write-In Votes For President Ever, But Election Write-Ins Have A Long History, Warner, Claire, September 6, 2017, He also received more votes in Vermont than Gary Johnson, the Libertarian candidate, and Jill Stein, the Green candidate, combined.WEB,weblink Vermont Election Night Results, vtelectionresults.sec.state.vt.us, September 6, 2017, Elsewhere, it was possible to vote for Sanders as a write-in candidate in twelve states,NEWS,weblink How Many Write-In Votes Did Bernie Sanders Get in the Election?, Dwilson, Stephanie Dube, November 16, 2016, Heavy.com, September 6, 2017, and exact totals of write-in votes for Sanders were published in three states: California,WEB,weblink Presidential election results in California, 2016, sos.ca.gov, September 6, 2017, New Hampshire,WEB,weblink President of the United States – 2016 General Election – NHSOS, sos.nh.gov, September 6, 2017, and Vermont. In those three states, Sanders received 111,850 write-in votes, which was approximately 15% of the write-in votes nationwide, and In September 2018, The Guardian published two op-ed pieces on the need for international progressive cooperation to challenge the rising threat of globalism, threat of authoritarianism and wealth inequality, one by SandersNEWS,weblink A new authoritarian axis demands an international progressive front {{!, Bernie Sanders|last=Sanders|first=Bernie|work=The Guardian|access-date=October 27, 2018|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}} and another by European progressive Yanis Varoufakis.NEWS,weblink Our new international movement will fight rising fascism and globalists {{!, Yanis Varoufakis|last=Varoufakis|first=Yanis|work=The Guardian|access-date=October 27, 2018|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}} In late October, Varoufakis announced the upcoming launch of Progressives International on November 30 in Vermont.NEWS,weblink Sanders and Varoufakis Announce Alliance to Craft 'Common Blueprint for an International New Deal', Common Dreams, October 27, 2018, en, In 2018, Sanders sponsored a bill with Senators Chris Murphy (DCT) and Mike Lee (RUT) to invoke the 1973 War Powers Resolution to end U.S. support for the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen,NEWS,weblink Senate votes to end U.S. support for war in Yemen, rebuking Trump and Saudi Arabia, Detrow, Scott, December 13, 2018, NPR, January 1, 2019, which has resulted in hundreds of thousands of civilian casualtiesNEWS,weblink Senate advances bill to end U.S. involvement in Yemen war after 'inadequate' briefing on Saudi Arabia, Caldwell, Leigh Ann, November 28, 2018, NBC News, January 1, 2019, and "millions more suffering from starvation and disease".NEWS,weblink The Senate is moving closer to ending US support for the war in Yemen, Ward, Alex, November 28, 2018, Vox (website), Vox, January 1, 2019, Sanders first introduced the bill in February 2018 but the Senate voted to table the motion the next month;WEB,weblink Senate Joint Resolution 54 of the 115th Congress: A joint resolution to direct the removal of United States Armed Forces from hostilities in the Republic of Yemen that have not been authorized by Congress, December 19, 2018, Congress.gov, January 1, 2019, after the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi in October 2018 (which, according to multiple intelligence agencies, was ordered by Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman),NEWS,weblink Senate votes to end aid for Yemen fight over Khashoggi killing and Saudis' war aims, Davis, Julie Hirschfeld, December 13, 2018, The New York Times, January 1, 2019, Schmitt, Eric, en-US, 0362-4331, Sanders's bill attracted bipartisan co-sponsors and support, and the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 56–41 on December 13.In a statement after the Senate's passage of the bill, Sanders said the following about his rationale for leading the bipartisan effort to pass it:WEB,weblink Sanders statement after Senate passes Yemen War Powers Resolution, Sanders, Bernie, December 13, 2018, United States Senate, Senate.gov, en, January 1, 2019, The bill must also be passed by the House and signed by President Trump before it becomes law; if it does, it will be the first-ever invocation of the War Powers Resolution.In March 2019 Sanders, along with seven other members of Congress including Elizabeth Warren and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, signed a pledge written by veterans and their families to bring a "responsible and expedient" end to U.S. military interventions around the globe.NEWS, Emmons, Alex, Grim, Ryan, March 4, 2019, Sanders, Warren, Ocasio-Cortez, and Other Lawmakers Sign Pledge to End America's "Forever Wars",weblink The Intercept, March 9, 2019,

2020 presidential campaign

File:Bernie Sanders March 2019 (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|200px|Sanders at his second presidential rally at Navy Pier in ChicagoChicagoOn February 19, 2019, Sanders announced on Vermont Public Radio that he would seek the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election.WEB,weblink He's In For 2020: Bernie Sanders Is Running For President Again, News, V. P. R., www.vpr.org, en, 2019-02-19, On the same day, he announced his campaign in an interview with John Dickerson on CBS This MorningWEB, Bernie Sanders announces 2020 run: Full transcript,weblink cbsnews.com, CBS This Morning, 24 February 2019, 19 February 2019, and in an email to his supporters.WEB, Soga, Aki, Bernie Sanders announces 2020 presidential campaign,weblink burlingtonfreepress.com, Burlington Free Press, 24 February 2019, 19 February 2019, Sanders had declined the Vermont Democratic Party nomination for U.S. Senate in 2006, 2012 and 2018, which caused an unsuccessful legal challenge to his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2016. Along with his 2019 campaign announcement, he said he would abide by a new Democratic Party rule for presidential candidates and would affirm his membership in that party.WEB,weblink Independent Bernie Sanders to put in writing that he's a 'bona fide' Democrat, John, DiStaso, February 22, 2019, WMUR, On March 5, 2019, he signed a formal statement, known as a "loyalty pledge," that he is a member of the Democratic Party and will serve as a Democrat if elected. News reports noted that the day before he had signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to his Senate seat in 2024.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders signs DNC loyalty pledge: 'I am a member of the Democratic Party', Seitz-Wald, Alex, March 5, 2019, NBC News, 7 March 2019,

Political positions

{{American socialism|Activists}}{{Social democracy sidebar}}Sanders is a self-described democratic socialist,{{refn|NEWS, Associated Press, April 30, 2015, Bernie Sanders confirms presidential run and damns America's inequities, The Guardian, The self-described 'democratic socialist' enters the race as a robust liberal alternative ...,weblink June 19, 2015, NEWS, Dreier, Peter, Peter Dreier, May 5, 2015, Bernie Sanders' Socialism Is as American as Apple Pie, HuffPost, because the 73‑year{{bracket, ‑, old U.S. senator from Vermont describes himself as a 'democratic socialist.' |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/peter-dreier/bernie-sanders-socialism-_b_7210120.html |accessdate=May 5, 2015}}WEB, Lerer, Lisa, July 16, 2009, Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?, The Politico, Only a handful of members, including self-described democratic socialist Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), criticized ...,weblink April 19, 2010, NEWS, Powell, Michael, November 6, 2006, Exceedingly Social But Doesn't Like Parties, The Washington Post, He knows what the corporate media might do with his answer, but whatever ... 'Yeah. I wouldn't deny it. Not for one second. I'm a democratic socialist.',weblink November 26, 2012, }} and progressive who admires the Nordic model of social democracy and has been a proponent of workplace democracy.{{refn|See:
  • WEB, Sanders, Bernie, May 26, 2013, What Can We Learn From Denmark?, HuffPost,weblink August 19, 2013,
  • NEWS, Issenberg, Sasha, January 9, 2010, Sanders a growing force on the far, far left, Boston Globe, You go to Scandinavia, and you will find that people have a much higher standard of living, in terms of education, health care, and decent paying jobs.,weblink August 24, 2013,
  • WEB, Ben, Schreckinger, Jonathan, Topaz, July 6, 2015,weblink The socialist surge, Politico, August 18, 2015, {{nnbsp, 'I believe that, in the long run, major industries in this state and nation should be publicly owned and controlled by the workers themselves,' he wrote in 1976.}}
  • Bernie Sanders is Ayn Rand's worst nightmare: He's changing how we view socialism â€“ and exposing free market parasites. Salon October 8, 2015.}}WEB, McMurry, Evan, May 3, 2015, Bernie Sanders: America Should Look More Like Scandinavia, Mediaite,weblink June 4, 2015, In November 2015, Sanders gave a speech at Georgetown University about his view of democratic socialism, including its place in the policies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson.WEB,weblink How Bernie Sanders Explains Democratic Socialism, Clare, Foran, The Atlantic, Senator Bernie Sanders on Democratic Socialism in the United States {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170720220054weblink |date=July 20, 2017 }}. BernieSanders.com, November 19, 2015. In defining what democratic socialism means to him, Sanders said: "I don't believe government should take over the grocery store down the street or own the means of production, but I do believe that the middle class and the working families who produce the wealth of America deserve a decent standard of living and that their incomes should go up, not down. I do believe in private companies that thrive and invest and grow in America, companies that create jobs here, rather than companies that are shutting down in America and increasing their profits by exploiting low-wage labor abroad." Based on Sanders's positions and votes throughout his political career, Noam Chomsky and Thomas Frank have described Sanders as "a New Dealer".{{efn|Thomas Frank's comments are mentioned in the following book review: NEWS, Lozada, Carlos, March 11, 2016, The liberal war over the Obama legacy has already begun,weblink The Washington Post, March 17, 2016, }}

Party affiliations

Sanders joined Vermont's Liberty Union Party in 1971 and was a candidate for several offices, never coming close to winning election. He became party chairman, but quit in 1977 to become an independent.NEWS,weblink Liberty Union Party Chief in Vermon Quits Position, October 12, 1977, Nashua Telegraph, March 1, 2016, AP, In 1980 he served as an elector for the Socialist Workers Party.NEWS,weblink The case against Bernie, Alterman, Eric, 2019-04-15, en-US, 0027-8378, In 1981 Sanders ran as an independent for mayor of Burlington, Vermont, and defeated the Democratic incumbent. He was reelected three times.NEWS,weblink What Kind of Mayor Was Bernie Sanders?, Dreier, Peter, 2015-06-02, 2019-03-12, Clavel, Pierre, en-US, 0027-8378, Sanders first ran for the US House of Representatives in 1990 and for the US Senate in 2005, each time adopting a strategy of winning the Democratic Party primary, thereby eliminating Democratic challengers, and then running as an independent in the general election.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders is still borrowing the Democratic Party, Blake, Aaron, May 21, 2018, The Washington Post, 2019-03-12, He continued this strategy through his reelection in the 2018 United States Senate election in Vermont.WEB,weblink Sanders to run as a Democrat — but not accept nomination, Dovere, Edward-Isaac, POLITICO, en, 2019-03-12, Throughout his tenure in Congress, he has been listed as an independent. He caucused with the Congressional Progressive Caucus in the HouseNEWS,weblink The Socialist Senator, Leibovich, Mark, January 21, 2007, The New York Times, July 18, 2015, Mark Leibovich, while refusing to join the Democratic caucus or party, and caucuses with the Democrats in the Senate. Sanders's campaigns for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination have created controversy about his affiliation. On the 2016 campaign trail, he affirmed that he was a Democrat running for the Democratic nomination. But both Sanders and the Senate website continued to refer to him as an independent senator during and after the campaign. His party status became ambiguous once again in March 2019 when he signed a formal "loyalty pledge" to the Democratic Party stating that he is a member of the party and will serve as a Democrat if elected president. He signed the pledge the day after he signed paperwork to run as an independent for reelection to the Senate in 2024.

Evaluations of his ideology

Commentators have noted the consistency of Sanders's views throughout his political career.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders has had consistent message for 4 decades, May 11, 2015, The Seattle Times, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151111064629weblink">weblink November 11, 2015, yes, 0745-9696, NEWS, Maddow, Rachel, Bernie Sanders' track record distinguished by consistency,weblink October 13, 2015, MSNBC, August 13, 2015, Many have examined his political platform and variety of democratic socialism and found it to be based on tax-funded social benefits rather than social ownership of the means of production.Some writers have variously described Sanders's political philosophy as "welfarism"WEB,weblink Democrats Are Not Socialists, and Neither Is Bernie Sanders, Samuel Goldman, August 15, 2015, The American Conservative, November 16, 2015, or "social democracy"NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders, Democratic Socialist Capitalist, Josh Barro, October 20, 2015, The New York Times, November 16, 2015, but not democratic socialism as defined as "an attempt to create a property-free, socialist society".WEB,weblink Explaining "democratic socialism", Nancy Marshall-Genzer, November 18, 2015, Marketplace Elections, November 19, 2015, Some members of various US socialist parties and organizations have said that Sanders is a reformer of capitalism, not a socialist.WEB,weblink Real socialists think Bernie is a sellout, Patricia Murphy, October 10, 2015, The Daily Beast, February 3, 2016, WEB,weblink #WeNeedBernie, Democratic Socialists of America, Dsausa.org, July 27, 2016,weblink July 9, 2018, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink A Former Ally Says Bernie Sanders Has Changed, Mark Davis, July 19, 2015, The Daily Beast, February 3, 2016, Others distinguish among socialism, social democracy, and democratic socialism, and describe his philosophy as an extension of such existing liberal programs in the US as Social Security and MedicareNEWS,weblink Stop Calling Bernie Sanders a Socialist, Benson, Thor, April 30, 2015, The New Republic, July 18, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink A leading socialist explains what Bernie Sanders's socialism gets right{{snd, and wrong|last=Matthews|first=Dylan|date=November 20, 2015|work=Vox|access-date=July 19, 2018}}WEB,weblink Chomsky: Sanders Is the Best but Won't Win 'Bought Elections', Telesur, February 11, 2016, Telesur, February 18, 2016, and more consistent with the social democracy found in much of Europe, especially the Nordic countries.NEWS,weblink Bernie's Democratic Socialism Isn't Socialism, It's Social Democracy, Worstall, Tim, Forbes, July 18, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders and the rise of American social democracy, Cooper, Ryan, January 10, 2018, July 18, 2018,

Bush Administration

In March 2006, after a series of resolutions passed in various Vermont towns calling for him to bring articles of impeachment against George W. Bush, Sanders stated that it would be "impractical to talk about impeachment" with Republicans in control of the House and Senate.NEWS, Associated Press, March 8, 2006, Vermont Town Votes to Impeach President,weblink July 19, 2015, Sanders said in a statement that although the Bush administration 'has been a disaster for our country, and a number of actions that he has taken may very well not have been legal,' given the reality that the Republicans control the House and the Senate, 'it would be impractical to talk about impeachment.', Still, Sanders made no secret of his opposition to the Bush Administration, which he regularly criticized for its cuts to social programs.WEB, Office of Bernie Sanders, May 20, 2004, Sanders Blasts Bush's Housing Secretary on Housing Cuts in Vermont, US House of Representatives,weblink August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060926074517weblink">weblink September 26, 2006, WEB, Sanders, Bernie, Have They No Shame?, TPMCafe.com, June 24, 2005,weblink August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071114164102weblink">weblink November 14, 2007, WEB, February 20, 2006, Bernie Speaks Out Against The President's Attempt to Eliminate Critical Program Providing Food to Low-Income Seniors, Internet Archive: Wayback Machine,weblink'4791', August 29, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060926083930weblink">weblink September 26, 2006, yes, video,

Climate change

Sanders advocates bold action to reverse global warming and substantial investment in infrastructure, with "energy efficiency and sustainability" and job creation as prominent goals.Bernie Sanders at People's Climate March: To Stop Global Warming, Get Dirty Money Out of Politics. Democracy now! September 22, 2014.Ashley Halsey III (January 27, 2015).Bernie Sanders wants to spend $1 trillion on infrastruture. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. He considers climate change the greatest threat to national security.WEB,weblink Sanders: Climate change still greatest threat to national security, The Hill, 2015, NEWS, Totten, Shay, January 15, 2007, Sanders to push global warming legislation in Senate, Vermont Guardian, Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-VT, said Monday he was making good on at least one of a handful of campaign promises â€“ introducing a bill designed to cut U.S. contributions to global greenhouse gas emissions in the next decade. ... Sanders added that construction of new power plants is "extraordinarily expensive" and he would prefer to see federal funding support used to expand the development of sustainable energy, as well as biofuels.,weblink May 8, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150508004601weblink">weblink yes, Sanders opposes the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline on the grounds that, like the Keystone XL Pipeline, it "will have a significant impact on our climate."Bernie Sanders Just Asked President Obama to Halt the Dakota Access Pipeline. Mother Jones. October 13, 2016.

Democratic Party

Born into a Democratic-voting family, Sanders was first introduced to political activism when his brother Larry joined the Young Democrats of America and campaigned for Adlai Stevenson II in 1956.{{sfn|Sanders|2016|p=9}} Although elected Mayor of Burlington as an independent, Sanders endorsed Democratic presidential candidates Walter Mondale in 1984 and Jesse Jackson in 1988. His endorsement of Mondale was lukewarm (telling reporters that "if you go around saying that Mondale would be a great president, you would be a liar and a hypocrite"), but he supported Jackson enthusiastically.WEB,weblink This Is the Campaign That Explains Bernie Sanders, Murphy, Tim, December 17, 2015, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, January 22, 2017, The Washington Post reported that the Jackson campaign helped inspire Sanders to work more closely with the Democratic Party.Once elected to the House of Representatives, Sanders joined the Democratic caucus, though some conservative southern Democrats initially barred him from the caucus as they believed that allowing a self-described socialist to join it would harm their electoral prospects. He soon came to work constructively with Democrats, voting with the party more than 90 percent of the time during his tenure in the House and Senate.Starting in November 2015, in connection with his presidential campaign, Sanders's announcements suggested that not only was he running as a Democrat, but that he would run as a Democrat in future elections.NEWS,weblink Kathleen, Ronayne, Burlington Free Press, Sanders declares as Democrat in NH primary, November 5, 2015, Sanders says he'll run as a Democrat in future elections. He says, 'I am running as a Democrat obviously, I am a Democrat now.', Blomquist, Dan and Way, Robert. "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary", Boston Globe (November 5, 2015): "When a reporter asked Sanders his party allegiance after he filed, Sanders responded, 'I'm a Democrat.' He then called on Buckley, the Democratic chairman, who confirmed the senator's party allegiance. Sanders added that he would run as a Democrat in any future elections."Seitz-Wald, Alex and Koenig, Kailani. "Sanders Files for New Hampshire State Ballot Without Incident", NBC News (November 5, 2015): "Sanders declared himself a Democrat Thursday, and said he will run as a Democrat in future elections, and that was good enough for Gardner." When challenged by Clinton about his party commitment, he said, "Of course I am a Democrat and running for the Democratic nomination."Clinton, Sanders clash over what it means to be progressive CNN. February 5, 2016. Since he remained a senator, elected as an independent, the United States Senate website continued to refer to Sanders as an independent during the campaign and upon his return to the Senate.See search results for "Sanders (I-VT)" at www.senate.gov. He confirmed at the end of the campaign that he remained an independent in the senate for the balance of his term, since that was how he was elected.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders to Return to Senate as an Independent, The Wall Street Journal, July 26, 2016, August 6, 2016, Peter, Nicholas, Sanders advocated that, following Trump's victory in the 2016 elections, the Democratic Party undergo a "series of reforms" and that it had to "break loose from its corporate establishment ties and, once again, become a grass-roots party of working people, the elderly and the poor."Bernie Sanders: Where the Democrats Go From Here. The New York Times. November 11, 2016.Sanders drew parallels between his campaign and that of the Labour Party in the 2017 UK general election.NEWS, Roberts, Dan, Asthana, Anushka,weblink 'There's a real similarity': Corbyn gets rousing support from Bernie Sanders, The Guardian, June 2, 2017, July 15, 2017, NEWS, Kentish, Ben,weblink Bernie Sanders praises 'courageous' Jeremy Corbyn for 'revitalising democracy', The Independent, June 2, 2017, July 15, 2017, He wrote in The New York Times that "the British elections should be a lesson for the Democratic Party" and urged the Democrats to stop holding on to an "overly cautious, centrist ideology", arguing that "momentum shifted to Labour after it released a very progressive manifesto that generated much enthusiasm among young people and workers".NEWS, Sanders, Bernie,weblink Bernie Sanders: How Democrats Can Stop Losing Elections, The New York Times, June 13, 2017, August 1, 2017, NEWS, Hasan, Mehdhi,weblink Prime Minister Jeremy Corbyn sitting down with President Bernie Sanders no longer sounds so outlandish, New Statesman, June 26, 2017, August 1, 2017, He had earlier praised Jeremy Corbyn's stance on class issues.NEWS, Wilkinson, Michael,weblink Bernie Sanders 'backs Jeremy Corbyn' in Labour leadership race, The Daily Telegraph, August 23, 2016, July 15, 2017, In October 2017, Sanders stated that he would run for reelection as an independent in 2018 though pressured to run as a Democrat.NEWS,weblink Sanders to run as an independent in 2018, Thomsen, Jacqueline, October 22, 2017, The Hill, November 12, 2017,

Distribution of wealth

Sanders opposed the 2017 Trump/Republican federal budget plan, calling it "a budget for the billionaire class, for Wall Street, for corporate CEOs, and for the wealthiest people in this country ... nothing less than a massive transfer of wealth from working families, the elderly, children, the sick and the poor to the top 1%".NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders: Trump's budget is immoral, Sanders, Bernie, CNN, October 25, 2017, Following the November 2017 revelations from the Paradise Papers and a recent report from the Institute for Policy Studies which says just three people, Jeff Bezos, Bill Gates and Warren Buffett, own more wealth than the bottom half of the U.S. population, Sanders stated that "we must end global oligarchy" and that "we need, in the United States and throughout the world, a tax system which is fair, progressive and transparent."NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders: We must end global oligarchy, Sanders, Bernie, November 13, 2017, November 13, 2017, CNN,

Foreign policy

On June 12, 2017, U.S. senators reached an agreement on legislation imposing new sanctions on Russia and Iran. The bill was opposed only by Sanders and Republican Rand Paul."US bill on Russia sanctions prompts German, Austrian outcry". Deutsche Welle. June 15, 2017.Addressing Westminster College in a September 2017 speech, Sanders laid out a "progressive foreign policy" that pushes for greater international collaboration, an adherence to U.S.-led international agreements such as the Paris Agreement and the Iran nuclear deal framework, and the promotion of human rights and democratic ideals. He emphasized the evils associated with "outrageous" global economic inequality and climate change, and urged reining in the use of U.S. military power, saying it "must always be a last resort". Sanders also heavily criticized U.S. support for "murderous regimes" during the Cold War, such as those in Iran, Chile and El Salvador, and said that those actions continue to make the U.S. less safe.NEWS, Hancock, Jason, September 21, 2017, Bernie Sanders, in Missouri speech, takes aim at 'outrageous' inequalities,weblink The Kansas City Star, September 24, 2017, NEWS, Detrow, Scott, September 21, 2017, Bernie Sanders Lays Out His Foreign Policy Vision,weblink NPR, September 24, 2017, He also spoke critically of Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections and the way President Trump has handled the crisis.Berman, Paul. "The Foreign Policy of the American ..." Tablet Magazine. November 18, 2018. November 27, 2018.In September 2017, Sanders said that Saudi Arabia is "an undemocratic country that has supported terrorism around the world, it has funded terrorism. ... They are not an ally of the United States.""Bernie Sanders: Saudi Arabia Is “Not an Ally” and the U.S. Should “Rethink” Its Approach to Iran". The Intercept. February 28, 2018. In an October 2018 column for The New York Times, Sanders called on the United States to end its backing of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, saying that US support for this war makes it complicit in crimes against humanity and is unconstitutional because its participation has not been authorized by Congress.NEWS, Sanders, Bernie, October 24, 2018, Bernie Sanders: We Must Stop Helping Saudi Arabia in Yemen,weblink The New York Times, October 26, 2018,

Gun laws

Sanders supports banning assault weapons, universal federal background checks, and closing the gun show loophole.WEB, Ben, Kamisar, Gun control push complicates Sanders's 2020 ambitions -,weblink The Hill, March 25, 2018, WEB,weblink Represent: Senate Vote 97: Defeats Manchin–Toomey Background Checks Proposal, ProPublica, May 28, 2018, Derek, Willis, Allison, McCartney, Jeremy B., Merrill, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders on Gun Control, Ontheissues.org, July 27, 2016, In 1990, Sanders was supported by the NRA in his bid to become a U.S. Representative in exchange for opposing both the competing campaign of Peter Smith, who had reversed his stance on firearm restrictions, and waiting periods for handgun purchases.WEB,weblink How the National Rifle Association helped get Bernie Sanders elected, Fahrenthold, David A., July 19, 2015, Washington Post, en, July 16, 2018, In 1993, while a U.S. Representative, he voted against the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (which established background checks and wait periods), and in 2005 he voted for legislation that gave gun manufacturers legal immunity against claims of negligence, but {{as of|2016|lc=y}} he has said that he would support repealing that law.NEWS,weblink Analysis {{!, Everything you wanted to know about Bernie Sanders's record on guns|last=Lee|first=Michelle Ye Hee|date=January 26, 2016|work=Washington Post|access-date=June 4, 2018|language=en-US|issn=0190-8286}} In 1996, he voted against additional funding to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for research on issues related to firearms, but in 2016 he called for an increase in CDC funding for the study of gun violence.

Health care

(File:Don't Take Our Health Care Rally (35501942056).jpg|thumb|Don't Take Our Health Care rally in Columbus, Ohio, June 2017)Sanders is a staunch supporter of a universal health care system, and has said, "If you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer." He advocates lowering the cost of drugs that are expensive because they remain under patent for years; some drugs that cost thousands of dollars per year in the U.S. are available for hundreds, or less, in countries where they can be obtained as generics.NEWS, Carter, Zach, May 19, 2012, Bernie Sanders Offers Plan To Cut Prescription Drug Prices, HuffPost,weblink August 16, 2014, As chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, Sanders has introduced legislation to reauthorize and strengthen the Older Americans Act, which supports Meals on Wheels and other programs for seniors.WEB, May 23, 2015, Older Americans Act,weblink July 4, 2015, He supported the Affordable Care Act, though he said it did not go far enough.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders: Obamacare is a 'good Republican program', CNN, September 24, 2013, Bryan, Koenig, On May 4, 2017, in response to the House vote to repeal and replace The Affordable Care Act, Sanders predicted "thousands of Americans would die" from no longer having access to health care.NEWS,weblink Thousands will die if House bill becomes law, Bernie Sanders says, Leinz, Vales, CNN, May 4, 2017, Politifact rated Sanders's statement "mostly true".WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders' projection of 'thousands' of deaths from lost health coverage is well-supported, Jacobson, Louis, June 27, 2017, Politifact, June 29, 2017, In September 2017, Sanders and 15 Senate co-sponsors submitted the "Medicare for All" bill, a single-payer health care plan. The bill also covers vision and dental care, unlike Medicare. Some Republicans have called the bill "Berniecare" and "the latest Democratic push for socialized medicine and higher taxes." Sanders responded that the Republican party has no credibility on the issue of health care after voting for legislation that would take health insurance away from 32 million people under the Affordable Care Act ("Obamacare").WEB, Kurtzleben, Danielle, Here's What's In Bernie Sanders' 'Medicare For All' Bill,weblink NPR, September 17, 2017,

Immigration

In 2007, Sanders helped kill a bill introducing comprehensive immigration reform, arguing that its guest-worker program would depress wages for American workers.NEWS,weblink Sanders and immigration? It's complicated, Politico, June 4, 2018, en, In 2010, he supported the DREAM Act, which would have provided a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants brought to the United States as minors. In 2013, he supported the Gang of Eight's comprehensive immigration reform bill after advocating for the provision of a $1.5 billion youth jobs program, which he argued would offset the harm of labor market competition with immigrants.

Social benefits

Sanders focuses on economic issues such as income and wealth inequality,WEB, On the Issues: Income and Wealth Inequality,weblink BernieSanders.com, August 19, 2015,weblink June 20, 2016, yes, mdy-all, poverty,NEWS, Pilkington, Ed, December 15, 2017, Trump turning US into 'world champion of extreme inequality', UN envoy warns,weblink The Guardian, December 16, 2017, We are moving into 2018 – we should not be living in a country with 41 million people living in poverty and so many more in extreme poverty, and nobody even talks about it. – Bernie Sanders, raising the minimum wage, universal healthcare,NEWS, Jaffe, Sarah, July 14, 2009, Sanders Schools McCain on Public Healthcare, The Nation, Senator Bernie Sanders is one of the Senate's fiercest advocates for real healthcare reform that puts Americans, not private insurance companies, first. Recently, Sanders told The Nation's Katrina vanden Heuvel, '[I]f you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer.',weblink October 16, 2013, reducing the burden of student debt,WEB, Dash, Stephen, April 22, 2015, What Is Bernie Sanders' Endgame for College Affordability and Student Loans?, HuffPost,weblink August 18, 2015, making public colleges and universities tuition-free by taxing financial transactions,NEWS, Resnikoff, Ned, May 19, 2015, Bernie Sanders unveils plan for tuition-free public colleges, Al Jazeera,weblink August 18, 2015, and expanding Social Security benefits by eliminating the cap on the payroll tax on all incomes above $250,000.Sanders Files Bill to Strengthen, Expand Social Security. Senate.gov. March 12, 2015.Nicole Woo, Janelle Jones and John Schmitt (September 2011). Who's Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap? Center for Economic and Policy Research. Retrieved September 7, 2015. He has become a prominent supporter of laws requiring companies to give their workers parental leave, sick leave, and vacation time, noting that such laws have been adopted by nearly all other developed countries.WEB, Family values agenda: paid family leave, paid sick leave, paid vacation,weblink PDF, August 18, 2015, He also supports legislation that would make it easier for workers to join or form a trade union.Bernie Sanders (December 1, 2014). An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward. HuffPost. Retrieved June 27, 2015.Ned Resnikoff (October 6, 2015). Bernie Sanders proposes sweeping labor law reforms. Al Jazeera. Retrieved October 6, 2015.

Social issues

Sanders has liberal stances on social issues. He advocated for LGBT rights as Mayor of Burlington in 1983 and voted against the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act. In 2006, Sanders indicated that the time was not right for legalization of same-sex marriage in Vermont, describing the issue as properly handled at the state, not the national, level, but in 2009 he supported the legalization of same-sex marriage in Vermont, which was enacted that year.NEWS, Frizell, Sam, Time, How Bernie Sanders Evolved on Gay Marriage,weblink October 28, 2015, August 14, 2017, He considers himself a feminist,NEWS, Tumulty, Karen,weblink Hey Bernie Sanders, are you a feminist?, The Washington Post, September 24, 2015, February 10, 2016, is pro-choice on abortion, and opposes the de-funding of Planned Parenthood.WEB, Lavender, Paige, July 29, 2015, Bernie Sanders: GOP Efforts To Defund Planned Parenthood 'An Attack On Women's Health', HuffPost,weblink October 5, 2015, Sanders has denounced institutional racism and called for criminal justice reform to reduce the number of people in prison,WEB, Thomas, Ken, August 16, 2015,weblink HuffPost, Bernie Sanders Vows To Better Address Racism, advocates a crackdown on police brutality, and supports abolishing private, for-profit prisonsIssues: Racial Justice. BernieSanders.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.Bernie Sanders declares war on the prison-industrial complex with major new bill. Salon. September 17, 2015.Bernie Sanders (September 22, 2015). We Must End For-Profit Prisons. HuffPost. Retrieved September 23, 2015. and the death penalty.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders Wants to Abolish the Death Penalty, Drew Schwartz, Vice, October 29, 2015, August 3, 2016, Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders called for an end to the death penalty on Thursday, laying out his case in a Senate floor speech just one day after Hillary Clinton{{snd, the party's 2016 frontrunner and Sanders' main rival for the nomination{{snd}}said she was opposed to abolishing the practice.}} Sanders supports Black Lives Matter.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders Tells Spike Lee What Black Lives Matter Means To Him, HuffPost, April 7, 2016, October 6, 2016, Workneh, Lilly, He supports legalizing marijuana at the federal level.Bernie Sanders Supports Ending Federal Marijuana Ban. Rolling Stone. October 28, 2015.

Trade

Calling international trade agreements a "disaster for the American worker", Sanders voted against and has spoken for years against NAFTA, CAFTA, and PNTR with China, saying that they have resulted in American corporations moving abroad. He also strongly opposes the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which he says was "written by corporate America and the pharmaceutical industry and Wall Street."NEWS, Sanders, Bernie, May 21, 2015, The TPP Must Be Defeated, HuffPost,weblink August 18, 2015, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders on Free Trade, On the Issues, January 20, 2016,

Trump Administration

Sanders criticized President Trump for appointing multiple billionaires to his cabinet.NEWS,weblink Sanders on Trump: 'This guy is a fraud', February 6, 2017, CNN, Eric, Bradner, NEWS,weblink Sanders: Trump is a 'fraud', Mallory, Shelbourne, February 5, 2017, The Hill, He criticized Trump's rolling back the Clean Power Plan of former President Barack Obama, noting the scientifically reported effect on climate change of human activity and citing Trump's calling those reports a hoax.NEWS,weblink Sanders: Prioritizing jobs over climate change is 'stupid and dangerous', March 30, 2017, The Washington Times, Douglas, Ernst, He called for caution on the Syrian Civil War, noting that "it's easier to get into a war than out of one."NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders Slams Trump's Airstrike On Syria, Juliana Rose, Pignataro, April 7, 2017, International Business Times, Sanders has promised to defeat "Trump and Trumpism and the Republican right-wing ideology".NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders in Los Angeles: 'The truth is that Trump is a pathological liar', February 21, 2017, Los Angeles Times, Javier, Panzer, Sanders gave an online reply to Trump's January 2018 State of the Union address in which he called Trump "compulsively dishonest" and criticized him for initiating "a looming immigration crisis" by ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program. He voiced concern about Trump's failure to mention the finding that Russia had interfered in the 2016 election and "will likely interfere in the 2018 midterms we will be holding ... Unless you have a very special relationship with Mr. Putin."NEWS, Diaz, Daniella, Bernie Sanders holds his own SOTU speech on-line,weblink CNN, February 4, 2018,

War and peace

Sanders strongly opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq and has criticized a number of policies instituted during the War on Terror, particularly mass surveillance and the USA Patriot Act.Flashback: Rep. Bernie Sanders Opposes Iraq War Official Senate SiteKrieg, Gregory (May 7, 2015). Bernie Sanders Rips NSA Spying and Pushes for End to Mass Surveillance. Mic.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.WEB, Statement on NSA Surveillance,weblink Sen. Bernie Sanders, October 13, 2015, Sanders criticized Israel's actions during the 2014 Gaza warWEB,weblink Bernie Sanders accuses Netanyahu of overreacting in Gaza war, The Times of Israel, November 19, 2015, and U.S. involvement in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen."Bernie Sanders Wants Congress to End U.S. Support for Yemen War. Saudi Lobbyists Fought Similar Measures Last Year.". The Intercept. February 28, 2018. On November 15, 2015, in response to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)'s attacks in Paris, Sanders cautioned against "Islamophobia" and said, "We gotta be tough, not stupid" in the war against ISIL, adding that the U.S. should continue to welcome Syrian refugees.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders on ISIS: U.S. needs to be "tough" not "stupid", Tom LoBianco, November 17, 2015, CNN,

Personal life

File:Bernie and Jane Sanders by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg|thumb|Sanders with his wife Jane O'Meara in Des Moines, IowaDes Moines, IowaIn 1963, Sanders and Deborah Shiling Messing, whom he met in college, volunteered for several months on the Israeli kibbutz Sha'ar HaAmakim. They married in 1964 and bought a summer home in Vermont; they had no children and divorced in 1966.NEWS, Wisloski, Jess, Galloway, Anne, Bernie Sanders' Early Days in Vermont: His Life, Loves and Circuitous Route to Politics, VTDigger, Montpelier, Vermont, July 9, 2015,weblink May 23, 2017, WEB, Aderet, Ofer, Mystery Solved? Haaretz Archive Reveals Which Kibbutz Bernie Sanders Volunteered On,weblink Haaretz, February 5, 2016, February 4, 2016, NEWS, Mark, Leibovich, The New York Times Magazine, The Socialist Senator, January 21, 2007,weblink January 26, 2015, Sanders's son (and only biological child), Levi Sanders, was born in 1969 to girlfriend Susan Campbell Mott. In 1988, Sanders married Jane O'Meara Driscoll ({{née|Mary Jane O'Meara}}), who later became president of Burlington College, in Burlington, Vermont.WEB, Greenhouse, Emily, May 12, 2015, Getting to Know Jane Sanders, Wife of Bernie, Bloomberg,weblink August 19, 2015, The day after their wedding, the couple visited the Soviet Union as part of an official delegation in his capacity as mayor.NEWS, George Will describes Bernie Sanders' Soviet Union honeymoon,weblink PolitiFact#PunditFact, PolitiFact, Cabaniss, Will, August 12, 2015, NEWS, How Bernie Sanders Spent His Soviet 'Honeymoon',weblink Bloomberg News#Bloomberg View, Bloomberg View, Bershidsky, Leonid, February 11, 2016, Sanders considers Jane's three children—Dave Driscoll (born 1975), Carina Driscoll (born 1974), and Heather Titus ({{née|Driscoll}}; 1971)—to be his own.NEWS, CNN, May 27, 2015, Bernie Sanders Fast Facts,weblink August 19, 2015, He also has seven grandchildren.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders Is 'Fun Grandpa': 5 Things We Learned at His Home : People.com, People, In December 1987, during his tenure as mayor of Burlington, Sanders recorded a folk album, We Shall Overcome, with 30 Vermont musicians. As he was not a skilled singer, he performed his vocals in a talking blues style.NEWS, Behind The Music: Bernie Sanders,weblink February 4, 2016, NPR, January 30, 2016, NEWS,weblink Rolling Stone, The Untold Story of Bernie Sanders' 1987 Folk Album, December 2, 2015, February 4, 2016, Tessa Stuart, Sanders appeared in a cameo role in the 1988 comedy-drama film Sweet Hearts Dance, playing a man who distributes candy to young trick-or-treaters.WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders has appeared in not one, but two low-budget rom-coms, A.V. Club.com, February 5, 2016, February 5, 2016, Joe Blevis, In 1999, he acted in the film My X-Girlfriend's Wedding Reception, playing Rabbi Manny Shevitz. In this role he mourned the Brooklyn Dodgers' move to Los Angeles, reflecting Sanders's own upbringing in Brooklyn.NEWS,weblink Daily News, New York, Bernie Sanders plays rabbi Manny Shevitz in 1999 romantic comedy, goes on long-winded Brooklyn Dodgers rant, February 4, 2016, February 4, 2016, Meg Wagner, On February 6, 2016, Sanders was a guest star alongside Larry David on Saturday Night Live, playing a Polish immigrant on a steamship that was sinking near the Statue of Liberty.WEB,weblink With A Little Help From Larry David, Bernie Sanders Does SNL, NPR, February 7, 2016, February 7, 2016, On December 4, 2015, Sanders won Time{{'}}s 2015 Person of the Year readers' poll with 10.2% of the voteWEB,weblink Bernie Sanders wins Time's Person of the Year readers' poll, Politico, December 7, 2015, December 7, 2015, NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders Wins Readers' Poll for TIME Person of the Year, Time (magazine), Time, December 7, 2015, but did not receive the editorial board's award. On March 20, 2016, he was given an honorary Coast Salish name, ,{{efn|name="CoastSalishName"|{{IPA-all|ËŒduːh.s.ˈhwuː.diː.ËŒtʃuːp}}, {{literal translation|lk=on}} 'the one lighting the fires for change and unity' in Lushootseed}} by Deborah Parker in Seattle to honor his focus on Native American issues during his presidential campaign.NEWS, March 25, 2016, Updated; originally published March 23, 2016, U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders honoured with Coast Salish name,weblink no, News (Indigenous), CBC News, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation,weblink July 24, 2018, July 24, 2018, Sanders's elder brother, Larry, lives in England.WEB, The Sanders brothers: A tale of two underdogs, BBC News,weblink He was a Green Party county councillor, representing the East Oxford division on Oxfordshire County Council, until he retired from the Council in 2013.WEB, June 4, 2009, Election results for East Oxford, Oxfordshire County Council,weblink May 19, 2014, WEB, June 8, 2013, Green County Councillor Retires, Oxfordshire Green Party,weblink July 18, 2015, Larry ran as a Green Party candidate for Oxford West and Abingdon in the 2015 British general election and came in fifth.NEWS, Hansen, Lauren, May 8, 2015, Bernie Sanders' brother lost his longshot bid for British Parliament, The Week,weblink May 8, 2015, NEWS, Collinson, Stephen, May 7, 2015, Bernie Sanders' brotherly love, CNN,weblink May 8, 2015, Sanders told CNN, "I owe my brother an enormous amount. It was my brother who actually introduced me to a lot of my ideas."On May 30, 2017, Sanders received an Honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters from Brooklyn College.NEWS, Singman, Brooke, Bernie Sanders slams GOP health care plans at New York college graduation, Fox News Channel, New York City, May 30, 2017,weblink May 30, 2017, After complaints made in 2016 by Donald Trump's Vermont campaign chairman, the FBI launched an investigation into Sanders's wife Jane's involvement in a bank loan for Burlington College when she was its president."Jane Sanders Bank Fraud Investigation: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know" Heavy.com. Retrieved June 26, 2016.Olivia Beavers (2017). FBI investigating Jane Sanders for alleged bank fraud: report TheHill.com, 05/07/17NEWS, Ring, Wilson, Feds looking into Bernie Sanders, wife over real estate deal,weblink Associated Press, New York City, June 27, 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170627122625weblink">weblink June 27, 2017, NEWS,weblink Jane Sanders Lawyers Up, Jaffe, Harry, June 22, 2017, Politico, June 26, 2017, The Washington Post reported on June 25, 2017, that Sanders himself was not under FBI investigation.NEWS,weblink Bernie Sanders: FBI inquiry into 2010 bank loan will clear wife, Weigel, David, June 25, 2017, The Washington Post, June 26, 2017, Both Sanders and his wife have retained prominent counsel during the investigation.In 2016 and again in 2017, Sanders reported earnings of just over $1 million, mostly royalties and advances for his recently published books.NEWS, Calfas, Jennifer, Bernie Sanders Made More Than $1 Million in 2016, Money, June 5, 2017,weblinkLAST=HUTZLERWORK=NEWSWEEKDATE=JUNE 23, 2018 LAST=NGUYENDATE=AUGUST 9, 2016LANGUAGE=ENLAST=MARCINDATE=2017-04-21LANGUAGE=ENLAST=ANDREWS-DYERDATE=AUGUST 10, 2016ACCESS-DATE=2019-02-05,

Religion, heritage, and values

As Sanders described his upbringing as an American Jew in a 2016 speech: his father generally attended synagogue only on Yom Kippur; he attended public schools while his mother "chafed" at his yeshiva Sunday schooling at a Hebrew school; and their religious observances were mostly limited to Passover seders with their neighbors. Larry Sanders said of their parents, "They were very pleased to be Jews, but didn't have a strong belief in God."NEWS, Berger, Joseph, Bernie Sanders Is Jewish, but He Doesn't Like to Talk About It, The New York Times, A16, February 24, 2016,weblink February 24, 2016, Bernie had a bar mitzvah at the historic Kingsway Jewish Center in Midwood, Brooklyn, where he grew up.In 1963, in cooperation with the Labor Zionist youth movement Hashomer Hatzair, Sanders and his first wife volunteered at Sha'ar HaAmakim, a kibbutz in northern Israel.NEWS, Zeveloff, Naomi, February 4, 2016, Bernie Sanders Kibbutz Revealed at Last,weblink Forward, February 4, 2016, NEWS, Mystery solved: Sanders volunteered at Kibbutz Shaar HaEmekim,weblink February 5, 2016, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 5, 2016, NEWS, Frances Stead Sellers, The kibbutz Bernie Sanders stayed in may have been revealed,weblink The Washington Post, February 5, 2016, February 6, 2016, The Monitor Breakfast – Bernie Sanders (video); The Christian Science Monitor; June 11, 2015 His motivation for the trip was as much socialistic as it was Zionistic.As Mayor of Burlington, Sanders allowed a Chabad public menorah to be placed at city hall, an action contested by the local ACLU chapter. He publicly inaugurated the Hanukkah menorah and performed the Jewish religious ritual of blessing Hanukkah candles. His early and strong support played a significant role in the now widespread public menorah celebrations around the globe.Kellner, Mark. "Bernie Sanders supported religious liberty in menorah dispute", The Washington Post (February 10, 2016).Ziri, Danielle. "Sanders may play down Judaism, but he played big role in Hannukah case", The Jerusalem Post (February 10, 2016).Johnson, Sally. "The Law; Menorah Ruling: Little New Light", The New York Times (December 9, 1988)."Some More Info on Bernie Sanders and Judaism (blog)", Chabad.org. When asked about his Jewish heritage, Sanders has said he is "proud to be Jewish".Sanders rarely speaks about religion. He describes himself as "not particularly religious" and "not actively involved" with organized religion. A press package issued by his office states "Religion: Jewish"."Press Package", www.sanders.senate.gov. Retrieved February 5, 2015. He has said he believes in God, though not necessarily in a traditional manner: "I think everyone believes in God in their own ways," he said. "To me, it means that all of us are connected, all of life is connected, and that we are all tied together."Sellers, Frances and Wagner, John. "Why Bernie Sanders doesn't participate in organized religion", The Washington Post (January 27, 2016).Winston, Kimberly. "Bernie Sanders disappoints some atheists with 'very strong religious' feelings", The Washington Post (February 4, 2016). In October 2015, on the late-night talk show, Jimmy Kimmel Live!, Kimmel asked Bernie, "You say you are culturally Jewish and you don't feel religious; do you believe in God and do you think that's important to the people of the United States?" Sanders replied:Friedman, Gabe. "Watch: Bernie Sanders talks spirituality, Larry David and marijuana on 'Jimmy Kimmel'", Haaretz (October 24, 2015).In 2016, he stated he had "very strong religious and spiritual feelings" and explained, "My spirituality is that we are all in this together and that when children go hungry, when veterans sleep out on the street, it impacts me."NEWS, Sanders discusses faith, Clinton grapples with rabbinical question on humility,weblink February 4, 2016, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, February 4, 2016, Sanders does not regularly attend synagogue, and he works on Rosh Hashanah, a day when Jews typically take a holiday from work. He has attended yahrzeit observances in memory of the deceased, for the father of a friend, and he attended a Tashlikh, an atonement ceremony, with the mayor of Lynchburg on the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah in 2015. According to Sanders's close friend Richard Sugarman, a professor of religious studies at the University of Vermont, Sanders's Jewish identity is "certainly more ethnic and cultural than religious".Kampeas, Ron. "Bernie Sanders Opens Up About Jewish Upbringing{{snd}}at Last", The Forward (October 8, 2015). Deborah Dash Moore, a Judaic scholar at the University of Michigan, has said that Sanders has a particular type of "ethnic Jewishness" that is somewhat old-fashioned.Mangla, Ismat Sarah. "Why Aren't American Jews Celebrating Bernie Sanders In 2016?", International Business Times (February 18, 2016). Sanders's wife is Roman Catholic, and he has frequently expressed admiration for Pope Francis, saying that "the leader of the Catholic Church is raising profound issues. It is important that we listen to what he has said." Sanders has said he feels "very close" to Francis's economic teachings, describing him as "incredibly smart and brave".WEB, Sanders, Bernie, February 15, 2015, Pope Francis, Senate.gov,weblink June 13, 2015, Heilman, Uriel. "New Hampshire Jews all over the map ahead of presidential primary", The Times of Israel (February 2, 2016). In April 2016, Sanders accepted an invitation from Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo, an aide close to the pope, to speak at a Vatican conference on economic and environmental issues. While at the Vatican, Sanders met briefly with the pontiff.NEWS,weblink As Bernie Sanders Heads to Vatican, a Visit With Pope Francis Seems in Doubt, Jason, Horowitz, April 15, 2016, The New York Times, April 17, 2016, NEWS,weblink Pope: Sanders encounter sign of good manners, 'nothing more', Ken, Thomas, April 16, 2016, Associated Press, April 17, 2016,

Publications

See also

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Rall, Ted, 2016, Bernie, Hollowbrook Publishing, New York, 978-1609806989,
  • JOURNAL, Rice, Tom W., 1985, Who Votes for a Socialist Mayor?: The Case of Burlington, Vermont, Polity, 10.2307/3234575, 0032-3497, 3234575, 5546248357, 17, 4, 795–806,
  • BOOK, Rosenfeld, Steven, 1992, Making History in Vermont: The Election of a Socialist to Congress, Hollowbrook Publishing, Wakefield, NH, 978-0-89341-698-0, 91034055, 24468446, 1553980M,
  • BOOK, Sanders, Bernie, 2011, The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class,weblink Nation Books, New York, 978-1-56858-684-7, 2011920256, 697261221, 25090387M,
  • BOOK, Sanders, Bernie, Gutman, Huck, 1998, 1st pub. 1997, Outsider in the House,weblink Verso, London, 978-1-85984-177-8, 97024753, 477165857,
  • BOOK, Soifer, Steven, 1991, The Socialist Mayor: Bernard Sanders in Burlington, Vermont, Praeger, Westport, CN, 978-0-89789-219-3, 90048954, 22491683, 1887682M,
  • BOOK, Sanders, Bernie, Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In,weblink November 15, 2016, St. Martin's Press, 978-1-250-13293-2, harv,

External links

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