Democratic Party (United States)

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Democratic Party (United States)
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{{other uses|Democratic Party (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Major political party in the United States}}{{use American English|date=December 2014}}{{use mdy dates|date=January 2018}}

Tom Perez (Maryland>MD)Speaker of the United States House of Representatives>Speaker of the HouseNancy Pelosi (California>CA)Party leaders of the United States Senate>Senate Minority LeaderChuck Schumer (New York (state)>NY)Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives>House Majority LeaderSteny Hoyer (Maryland>MD)Donald B. Cole (1970). Jacksonian Democracy in New Hampshire. Harvard University Press. p. 69.}}| predecessor = Democratic-Republican PartySouth Capitol Street>South Capitol St. SE,Washington, D.C., 20003| student_wing = College Democrats of AmericaHigh School Democrats of America| youth_wing = Young Democrats of America| womens_wing = National Federation of Democratic Women| wing1_title = Overseas wing| wing1 = Democrats Abroad| membership_year = 2018ACCESSDATE=MAY 30, 2019ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190530042214/HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2018/12/03/NOVEMBER-2018-BALLOT-ACCESS-NEWS-PRINT-EDITION/URL-STATUS=LIVE, | position = '''Democratic Party (United States)#Political positions''':{{•}} Modern liberalism in the United States>Modern liberalismHTTP://WWW.HUFFINGTONPOST.COM/BENJAMIN-KNOLL/OBAMA-ROMNEY-ECONOMY_B_1615862.HTML>TITLE=PRESIDENT OBAMA, THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY, AND SOCIALISM: A POLITICAL SCIENCE PERSPECTIVEACCESSDATE=JANUARY 9, 2015Social liberalismPAUL STARRTITLE=CENTER-LEFT LIBERALISMACCESSDATE=JUNE 9, 2014, '''Factions in the Democratic Party (United States)''':{{•}}New Democrats>CentrismHALE>FIRST=JOHNPUBLISHER=POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLYLOCATION=NEW YORKLAST2=KORNBLUTTITLE=IN KEY HOUSE RACES, DEMOCRATS RUN TO THE RIGHTNEWSPAPER=THE NEW YORK TIMESDATE=OCTOBER 30, 2006, {{•}} Conservative DemocratsHTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=XIJORBRPOPMFIRST=DATE=OCTOBER 9, 2010VIA=YOUTUBE, {{•}}Democratic socialismDELK>FIRST=JOSHURL=HTTP://THEHILL.COM/BLOGS/BLOG-BRIEFING-ROOM/385942-CLINTON-BEING-A-CAPITALIST-PROBABLY-HURT-HER-2016-ELECTION-PROSPECTSTHE HILL (NEWSPAPER)>THE HILLACCESSDATE=MAY 4, 2018, DEBEBEDETTI>FIRST=GABRIELURL=HTTPS://WWW.POLITICO.COM/STORY/2016/02/DEMOCRATS-POLL-SOCIALISM-219600POLITICO>DATE=FEBRUARY 22, 2016WEBSITE=YOUGOVACCESSDATE=MAY 4, 2018, MARCIN>FIRST=TIMURL=HTTP://WWW.NEWSWEEK.COM/DEMOCRATS-WANT-SOCIALIST-LEAD-THEIR-PARTY-MORE-CAPITALIST-629659NEWSWEEK>DATE=JUNE 28, 2017Left-wing populismGOLDFARB>FIRST=ZACHARY AURL=HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/POLITICS/MORE-LIBERAL-POPULIST-MOVEMENT-EMERGING-IN-DEMOCRATIC-PARTY-AHEAD-OF-2016-ELECTIONS/2013/11/30/6729A850-53A7-11E3-9E2C-E1D01116FD98_STORY.HTMLTHE WASHINGTON POST>DATE=NOVEMBER 30, 2013TITLE=THE LEFT'S UNPOPULAR POPULISMMAGAZINE=THE ATLANTICACCESSDATE=MARCH 25, 2017, SHAHID>FIRST=WALEEDURL=HTTPS://WWW.THENATION.COM/ARTICLE/AMERICA-IN-POPULIST-TIMES-AN-INTERVIEW-WITH-CHANTAL-MOUFFE/THE NATION>DATE=DECEMBER 15, 2016Progressivism in the United States>ProgressivismBALL>FIRST1=MOLLYURL=HTTPS://WWW.THEATLANTIC.COM/POLITICS/ARCHIVE/2013/12/THE-BATTLE-WITHIN-THE-DEMOCRATIC-PARTY/282235/ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 28, 2017, {{•}} Social democracy{{citationfirst=Syed Alipublisher=Global Peace Trustyear=2012}}}}| international = {{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}Red states and blue states>BlueUnited States Senate>Seats in the Senate45hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}United States House of Representatives>Seats in the House234hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Governor (United States)>State Governorships23hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>State Upper Chamber Seats874hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>State Lower Chamber Seats2579hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>Total State Legislature Seats3453hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Governor (United States)>Territorial Governorships4hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Territories of the United States>Territorial Upper Chamber Seats31hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Territories of the United States>Territorial Lower Chamber Seats0hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}| website =| country = United States}}The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party."The Democratic Party, founded in 1828, is the world's oldest political party" states BOOK, Kenneth Janda, Jeffrey M. Berry, Jerry Goldman, The Challenge of Democracy: American Government in Global Politics,weblink 2010, Cengage Learning, 276, 9780495906186, In its early years, the Party supported limited government, state sovereignty and opposed banks and the abolition of slavery. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform,BOOK, Arnold, N. Scott, Imposing values: an essay on liberalism and regulation, Oxford University Press, 2009, Florence, 978-0-495-50112-1, 3, Modern liberalism occupies the left-of-center in the traditional political spectrum and is represented by the Democratic Party in the United States.,weblink BOOK, Grigsby, Ellen, Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, Cengage Learning, 2008, Florence, 978-0-495-50112-1, 106–107, In the United States, the Democratic Party represents itself as the liberal alternative to the Republicans, but its liberalism is for the most part the later version of liberalism—modern liberalism.,weblink Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist wings; following the New Deal, however, the conservative wing of the party largely withered outside the South. The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities.BOOK, Prendergast, William B., 1999, The Catholic Voter in American Politics. The Passing of the Democratic Monolith, Washington, D.C., Georgetown University, 978-0-87840-724-8,weblink BOOK, Marlin, George J., 2004, The American Catholic Voter. 200 Years of Political Impact, South Bend, Indiana, St. Augustine, 978-1-58731-029-4,weblink Michael Corbett et al. Politics and Religion in the United States (2nd ed. 2013). After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the core bases of the two parties shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s. White evangelicals and Southerners have become heavily Republican at the state and local levels since the 1990s. People living in urban areas, women, college graduates, sexual and gender minorities, millennials, and black, Latino, Jewish, and Asian Americans tend to support the Democratic Party.WEB,weblink 1. Trends in party affiliation among demographic groups {{!, Pew Research Center|last=NW|first=1615 L. St|last2=Washington|first2=Suite 800|date=2018-03-20|language=en-US|access-date=2018-12-29|last3=Inquiries|first3=DC 20036 USA202-419-4300 {{!}} Main202-419-4349 {{!}} Fax202-419-4372 {{!}} Media}}NEWS,weblink How Asian Americans Became Democrats, The American Prospect, 2016-10-22, WEB,weblink The Democratic Party is being transformed. These House votes show how., Brownstein, Ronald, May 21, 2019, CNN, May 22, 2019, The Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.Larry E. Sullivan. The SAGE glossary of the social and behavioral sciences (2009) p 291, "This liberalism favors a generous welfare state and a greater measure of social and economic equality. Liberty thus exists when all citizens have access to basic necessities such as education, healthcare, and economic opportunities." It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy.BOOK, Levy, Jonah, The State after Statism: New State Activities in the Age of Liberalization, Harvard University Press, 2006, Florence, 978-0-495-50112-1, 198, In the corporate governance area, the center-left repositioned itself to press for reform. The Democratic Party in the United States used the postbubble scandals and the collapse of share prices to attack the Republican Party ... Corporate governance reform fit surprisingly well within the contours of the center-left ideology. The Democratic Party and the SPD have both been committed to the development of the regulatory state as a counterweight to managerial authority, corporate power, and market failure.,weblink Policies such as environmental protection, support for organized labor and labor unions, the introduction of social programs, affordable college tuition, universal health care, equal opportunity, and consumer protection form the core of the party's economic policy.WEB,weblink A Mixed Economy: The Role of the Market, March 27, 2017, On social issues, it advocates campaign finance reform, LGBT rights, police and immigration reform,WEB,weblink Two Parties, Two Platforms on Criminal Justice, Chammah, Maurice, July 18, 2016, The Marshall Project, May 22, 2019, stricter gun laws,WEB,weblink Preventing Gun Violence, Staff,, May 22, 2019, and the legalization of marijuana.WEB,weblink The 2016 Democratic Platform, Staff,, May 22, 2019, There have been 15 Democrats who have served as president of the United States. The first was Andrew Jackson, who was the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was Barack Obama, who was the 44th and held office from 2009 to 2017. As of 2019, the Democrats hold a majority in the House of Representatives, 14 state government trifectas (governorship and both legislative chambers),WEB,weblink State government trifectas, Ballotpedia, January 13, 2018, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities,WEB,weblink - is for sale (Democratic Mayors),, and 18 total state legislatures. Four of the nine sitting justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.{{TOC limit}}


File:Andrew Jackson 0.jpg|thumb|upright|Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States (1829–1837) and the first Democratic President.]]Democratic Party officials often trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party also inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party truly arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has generally positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues. They have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times.Arthur Paulson, Realignment and Party Revival: Understanding American Electoral Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century (2000) pp. 46–72.


The Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The Democratic-Republican Party favored republicanism; a weak federal government; states' rights; agrarian interests (especially Southern planters); and strict adherence to the Constitution; it opposed a national bank, close ties to Great Britain and business and banking interests. The Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800.James Roger Sharp, American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis (1993).After the War of 1812, the Federalists virtually disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans. The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans.


File:James Polk restored.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|James K. PolkJames K. PolkThe Democratic-Republican Party split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe. The faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party.MAGAZINE, Traub, James, The Ugly Election That Birthed Modern American Politics,weblink National Geographic, 6 July 2018, As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Behind the platforms issued by state and national parties stood a widely shared political outlook that characterized the Democrats: At its inception, the Democratic Party was the party of the "common man".WEB,weblink Wait, Whose Plantation Now? - The Edge of the American West, David, Silbey, The Chronicle of Higher Education, It opposed the abolition of slavery.WEB,weblink 23 maps that explain how Democrats went from the party of racism to the party of Obama, Andrew, Prokop, December 8, 2014, Vox, Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party. The Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery. In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Democrats left the party and joined Northern Whigs to form the Republican Party.Galbraith Schlisinger, Of the People: The 200 Year History of the Democratic Party (1992) ch. 1–3.Robert Allen Rutland, The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton (U. of Missouri Press, 1995) ch. 1–4.


file:Stephen A Douglas - headshot.jpg|thumb|right|170px|Senator Stephen A. DouglasStephen A. DouglasThe Democrats split over the choice of a successor to President James Buchanan along Northern and Southern lines as factions of the party provided two separate candidacies for President in the election of 1860, in which the Republican Party gained ascendancy.Jean H. Baker, Affairs of Party: Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-nineteenth Century (1983) The radical pro-slavery Fire-Eaters led a walkout at both the April Democratic convention in Charleston's Institute Hall and the June convention in Baltimore when the national party would not adopt a resolution supporting the extension of slavery into territories even if the voters of those territories did not want it. These Southern Democrats nominated the pro-slavery incumbent Vice President, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, for President and General Joseph Lane, former Governor of Oregon, for Vice President. The Northern Democrats nominated Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for President and former Governor of Georgia Herschel V. Johnson for Vice President while some Southern Democrats joined the Constitutional Union Party, backing its nominees (who had both been prominent Whig leaders), John Bell of Tennessee for President and the politician, statesman and educator Edward Everett of Massachusetts for Vice President. This fracturing of the Democrats led to a Republican victory and Abraham Lincoln was elected the 16th President of the United States.David M. Potter. The Impending Crisis, 1848–1861 (1976). ch. 16.
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The 1885 inauguration of Grover Cleveland, the only President with non-consecutive terms
As the American Civil War broke out, Northern Democrats were divided into War Democrats and Peace Democrats. The Confederate States of America, whose political leadership, mindful of the (:wikt:welter|welter) prevalent in antebellum American politics and with a pressing need for unity, largely viewed political parties as inimical to good governance and consequently the Confederacy had none or at least none with the wide organization inherent to other American parties. Most War Democrats rallied to Republican President Abraham Lincoln and the Republicans' National Union Party in the election of 1864, which featured Andrew Johnson on the Republican ticket even though he was a Democrat from the South. Johnson replaced Lincoln in 1865, but he stayed independent of both parties.Mark E. Neely. Lincoln and the Democrats: The Politics of Opposition in the Civil War (2017).The Democrats benefited from white Southerners' resentment of Reconstruction after the war and consequent hostility to the Republican Party. After Redeemers ended Reconstruction in the 1870s and following the often extremely violent disenfranchisement of African Americans led by such white supremacist Democratic politicians as Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina in the 1880s and 1890s, the South, voting Democratic, became known as the "Solid South". Although Republicans won all but two presidential elections, the Democrats remained competitive. The party was dominated by pro-business Bourbon Democrats led by Samuel J. Tilden and Grover Cleveland, who represented mercantile, banking and railroad interests; opposed imperialism and overseas expansion; fought for the gold standard; opposed bimetallism; and crusaded against corruption, high taxes and tariffs. Cleveland was elected to non-consecutive presidential terms in 1884 and 1892.Rutland, The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton (1995) ch. 5–6.


File:Breckinridgelong2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Leaders of the Democratic Party during the first half of the 20th century on 14 June 1913: Secretary of State William J. Bryan, Josephus Daniels, President Woodrow Wilson, Breckinridge Long, William Phillips, and Franklin D. RooseveltFranklin D. RooseveltAgrarian Democrats demanding free silver overthrew the Bourbon Democrats in 1896 and nominated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency (a nomination repeated by Democrats in 1900 and 1908). Bryan waged a vigorous campaign attacking Eastern moneyed interests, but he lost to Republican William McKinley.Robert W. Cherny, A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (1994)The Democrats took control of the House in 1910 and elected Woodrow Wilson as President in 1912 (when the Republicans split) and 1916. Wilson effectively led Congress to put to rest the issues of tariffs, money and antitrust, which had dominated politics for 40 years, with new progressive laws. He failed to pass the Versailles Treaty (which involved joining the League of Nations).H.W. Brands, Woodrow Wilson (2003). The weak party was deeply divided by issues such as the KKK and prohibition in the 1920s. However it did organize new ethnic voters in Northern cities.Douglas B. Craig, After Wilson: The Struggle for the Democratic Party, 1920-1934 (1993)


(File:FDR in 1933.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945))The Great Depression in 1929 that began under Republican President Herbert Hoover and the Republican Congress set the stage for a more liberal government as the Democrats controlled the House of Representatives nearly uninterrupted from 1930 until 1994 and won most presidential elections until 1968. Franklin D. Roosevelt, elected to the presidency in 1932, came forth with government programs called the New Deal. New Deal liberalism meant the regulation of business (especially finance and banking) and the promotion of labor unions as well as federal spending to aid to the unemployed, help distressed farmers and undertake large-scale public works projects. It marked the start of the American welfare state.BOOK, Ellen Russell, New Deal Banking Reforms and Keynesian Welfare State Capitalism,weblink 2007, Routledge, 3–4, 9781135910655, The opponents, who stressed opposition to unions, support for business and low taxes, started calling themselves "conservatives".Rutland, The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton (1995) ch. 7.Until the 1980s, the Democratic Party was a coalition of two parties divided by the Mason–Dixon line: liberal Democrats in the North and culturally conservative voters in the South, who though benefitting from many of the New Deal public works projects opposed increasing civil rights initiatives advocated by Northeastern liberals. The polarization grew stronger after Roosevelt died. Southern Democrats formed a key part of the bipartisan conservative coalition in an alliance with most of the Midwestern Republicans. The economically activist philosophy of Franklin D. Roosevelt, which has strongly influenced American liberalism, shaped much of the party's economic agenda after 1932.David M. Kennedy, Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945 (2001). From the 1930s to the mid-1960s, the liberal New Deal coalition usually controlled the presidency while the conservative coalition usually controlled Congress.Paul Finkelman and Peter Wallenstein, eds. The Encyclopedia Of American Political History (CQ Press, 2001) pp. 124–126.Issues facing parties and the United States after World War II included the Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement. Republicans attracted conservatives and white Southerners from the Democratic coalition with their use of the Southern strategy and resistance to New Deal and Great Society liberalism. African Americans had traditionally supported the Republican Party because of its anti-slavery civil rights policies. Following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Southern states became more reliably Republican in presidential politics, while Northeastern states became more reliably Democratic.WEB,weblink Race, Campaign Politics, and the Realignment in the South,, June 9, 2018, JOURNAL, Bullock, Charles S., Hoffman, Donna R., Gaddie, Ronald Keith, 2006, Regional Variations in the Realignment of American Politics, 1944–2004,weblink Social Science Quarterly, 87, 3, 494–518, 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00393.x, 0038-4941, June 9, 2018, The events of 1964 laid open the divisions between the South and national Democrats and elicited distinctly different voter behavior in the two regions. The agitation for civil rights by southern blacks, continued white violence toward the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson's aggressive leadership all facilitated passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. [...] In the South, 1964 should be associated with GOP growth while in the Northeast this election contributed to the eradication of Republicans., JOURNAL, Gaddie, Ronald Keith, February 17, 2012, Realignment,weblink Oxford Handbooks Online, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195381948.013.0013, June 9, 2018, JOURNAL, Stanley, Harold W., 1988, Southern Partisan Changes: Dealignment, Realignment or Both?,weblink The Journal of Politics, 50, 1, 64–88, 10.2307/2131041, 0022-3816, June 9, 2018, Events surrounding the presidential election of 1964 marked a watershed in terms of the parties and the South (Pomper, 1972). The Solid South was built around the identification of the Democratic party with the cause of white supremacy. Events before 1964 gave white southerners pause about the linkage between the Democratic party and white supremacy, but the 1964 election, passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 altered in the minds of most the positions of the national parties on racial issues., JOURNAL, Miller, Gary, Schofield, Norman, 2008, The Transformation of the Republican and Democratic Party Coalitions in the U.S.,weblink Perspectives on Politics, 6, 3, 433–50, 10.1017/S1537592708081218, 1541-0986, June 9, 2018, 1964 was the last presidential election in which the Democrats earned more than 50 percent of the white vote in the United States., WEB,weblink The Rise of Southern Republicans – Earl Black, Merle Black,, Harvard University Press, June 9, 2018, When the Republican party nominated Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater—one of the few northern senators who had opposed the Civil Rights Act—as their presidential candidate in 1964, the party attracted many racist southern whites but permanently alienated African-American voters. Beginning with the Goldwater-versus-Johnson campaign more southern whites voted Republican than Democratic, a pattern that has recurred in every subsequent presidential election. [...] Before the 1964 presidential election the Republican party had not carried any Deep South state for eighty-eight years. Yet shortly after Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, hundreds of Deep South counties gave Barry Goldwater landslide majorities., WEB,weblink Issue Evolution, Princeton University Press, June 9, 2018, JOURNAL, Miller, Gary, Schofield, Norman, 2003, Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States,weblink American Political Science Review, 97, 2, 245–60, 10.1017/S0003055403000650, 1537-5943, June 9, 2018, By 2000, however, the New Deal party alignment no longer captured patterns of partisan voting. In the intervening 40 years, the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts had triggered an increasingly race-driven distinction between the parties. [...] Goldwater won the electoral votes of five states of the Deep South in 1964, four of them states that had voted Democratic for 84 years (Califano 1991, 55). He forged a new identification of the Republican party with racial conservatism, reversing a century-long association of the GOP with racial liberalism. This in turn opened the door for Nixon's "Southern strategy" and the Reagan victories of the eighties., Studies show that Southern whites, which were a core constituency in the Democratic Party, shifted to the Republican Party due to racial conservatism.JOURNAL, Valentino, Nicholas A., Sears, David O., David O. Sears, 2005, Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South,weblink American Journal of Political Science, 49, 3, 672–88, 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00136.x, 0092-5853, June 9, 2018, Nicholas Valentino, JOURNAL, Ilyana, Kuziemko,, Ebonya, Washington,, Why Did the Democrats Lose the South? Bringing New Data to an Old Debate,weblink American Economic Review, 10.1257/aer.20161413&&from=f, 0002-8282, June 9, 2018,


File:John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|John F. KennedyJohn F. KennedyThe election of President John F. Kennedy from Massachusetts in 1960 was a partial reflection of this shift. In the campaign, Kennedy attracted a new generation of younger voters. In his agenda dubbed the New Frontier, Kennedy introduced a host of social programs and public works projects, along with enhanced support of the space program, proposing a manned spacecraft trip to the moon by the end of the decade. He pushed for civil rights initiatives and proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but with his assassination in November 1963 was not able to see its passage.James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974 (1997).
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Lyndon B. Johnson
, 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), meeting with Martin Luther King Jr. at the Oval OfficeOval OfficeKennedy's successor Lyndon B. Johnson was able to persuade the largely conservative Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with a more progressive Congress in 1965 passed much of the Great Society, which consisted of an array of social programs designed to help the poor. Kennedy and Johnson's advocacy of civil rights further solidified black support for the Democrats, but had the effect of alienating Southern whites who would eventually gravitate towards the Republican party, particularly after the election of Ronald Reagan to the presidency in 1980. The United States' involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s was another divisive issue that further fractured the fault lines of the Democrats' coalition. After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964, President Johnson committed a large contingency of combat troops to Vietnam, but the escalation failed to drive the Viet Cong from South Vietnam, resulting in an increasing quagmire, which by 1968 had become the subject of widespread anti-war protests in the United States and elsewhere. With increasing casualties and nightly news reports bringing home troubling images from Vietnam, the costly military engagement became increasingly unpopular, alienating many of the kinds of young voters that the Democrats had attracted the early 1960s. The protests that year along with assassinations of Martin Luther King Jr. and Democratic presidential candidate Senator Robert F. Kennedy (younger brother of John F. Kennedy) climaxed in turbulence at the hotly contested Democratic National Convention that summer in Chicago (which amongst the ensuing turmoil inside and outside of the convention hall nominated Vice President Hubert Humphrey) in a series of events that proved to mark a significant turning point in the decline of the Democratic party's broad coalition.Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945-1974 (1997).
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- Jimmy Carter presents his State of the Union Speech to Congress. - NARA - 183085.tif|thumb|right|Jimmy CarterJimmy CarterRepublican presidential nominee Richard Nixon was able to capitalize on the Democrat's confusion that year and won the 1968 election to become the 37th president and would win again in 1972 against Democratic nominee George McGovern, who like Robert F. Kennedy reached out to the younger anti-war and counterculture voters, but unlike Kennedy was not able to appeal to the party's more traditional white working class constituencies. During Nixon's second term, his presidency was rocked by the Watergate scandal, which forced him to resign in 1974, being succeeded by vice president Gerald Ford, who served a brief tenure. Watergate offered the Democrats an opportunity to recoup and their nominee Jimmy Carter won the 1976 presidential election. With the initial support of evangelical Christian voters in the South, Carter was temporarily able to reunite the disparate factions within the party, but inflation and the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979–1980 took their toll, resulting in a landslide victory for Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan in 1980, which shifted the tectonic plates of the political landscape in favor of the Republicans for years to come.

1980–2000 News Photo 980217-D-9880W-016.jpg
With the ascendancy of the Republicans under Ronald Reagan, the Democrats searched for ways to respond yet were unable to succeed by running traditional candidates, such as former Vice President and Democratic presidential nominee Walter Mondale, who lost to Reagan in the 1984 presidential election. Many Democrats attached their hopes to the future star of Gary Hart, who had challenged Mondale in the 1984 primaries running on a theme of "New Ideas"; and in the subsequent 1988 primaries became the de facto front-runner and virtual "shoe-in" for the Democratic presidential nomination before his campaign was ended by a sex scandal. The party nevertheless began to seek out a younger generation of leaders, who like Hart had been inspired by the pragmatic idealism of John F. Kennedy.James T. Patterson, Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore (2011).Arkansas governor Bill Clinton was one such figure, who was elected President in 1992 as the Democratic nominee. He labeled himself and governed as a "New Democrat". The party adopted a centrist economic yet socially progressive agenda, with the voter base after Reagan having shifted considerably to the right. In an effort to appeal to both liberals and fiscal conservatives, Democrats began to advocate for a balanced budget and market economy tempered by government intervention (mixed economy), along with a continued emphasis on social justice and affirmative action. The economic policy adopted by the Democratic Party, including the former Clinton administration, has been referred to as "Third Way". The Democrats lost control of Congress in the election of 1994 to the Republican Party. Re-elected in 1996, Clinton was the first Democratic President since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to two terms.Patterson. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore (2011).


File:2011 State of the Union Obama.jpg|thumb|right|Barack ObamaBarack ObamaIn the wake of the 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon as well as the growing concern over global warming, some of the party's key issues in the early 21st century have included the methods of how to combat terrorism while preserving human rights, homeland security, expanding access to health care, labor rights, environmentalism and the preservation of liberal government programs. Following twelve years of Republican congressional rule, the Democrats regained majority control of both the House and the Senate in the 2006 elections. Barack Obama won the Democratic Party's nomination and was elected as the first African American president in 2008. The Democrats gained control of both chambers of Congress in the wake of the 2007 economic recession. The Democratic Party under the Obama presidency moved forward reforms including an Economic Stimulus package, the Dodd-Frank financial reform act and the Affordable Care Act. In the 2010 elections, the Democratic Party lost control of the House and lost its majority in state legislatures and state governorships. In the 2012 elections, President Obama was re-elected, but the party kept its minority in the House of Representatives and in 2014 the party lost control of the Senate for the first time since 2006. After the 2016 election of Donald Trump, the Democratic Party transitioned into the role of an opposition party and currently hold neither the presidency nor the Senate but has won back a majority in the House from the 2018 Midterm Election.Rutland, The Democrats: From Jefferson to Clinton (1995) ch 8According to a Pew Research poll, the Democratic Party has become more socially liberal and secular compared to how it was in 1987.WEB,weblink Partisan Polarization Surges in Bush, Obama Years, June 4, 2012, U.S. Politics & Policy, Pew Research Center, February 13, 2015, Based on a poll conducted in 2014, Gallup found that 30% of Americans identified as Democrats, 23% as Republicans and 45% as independents.WEB,weblink Party Affiliation | Gallup Historical Trends,, March 18, 2014, In the same poll, a survey of registered voters stated that 47% identified as Democrats or leaned towards the party—the same poll found that 40% of registered voters identified as Republicans or leaned towards the Republican party.In 2018, Democratic congressional candidate Tom Malinowski, who was later elected, described the party:

Name and symbols

{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=150|image1=Democraticjackass.jpgHarper's Magazine>Harper's Weekly, January 19, 1870|image2=DemocraticLogo.svg|caption2=The donkey party logo remains a well-known symbol for the Democratic Party despite not being the official logo of the party.|image3=Democratslogo.svg|caption3=The Democratic donkey party logo in a modernized "kicking donkey" form}}The Democratic-Republican Party splintered in 1824 into the short-lived National Republican Party and the Jacksonian movement which in 1828 became the Democratic Party. Under the Jacksonian era, the term "The Democracy" was in use by the party, but the name "Democratic Party" was eventually settled uponBOOK, Appleby, Joyce, Thomas Jefferson, 2003, 4, 978-0-521-64841-7, Joyce Appleby,weblink and became the official name in 1844.WEB,weblink Democratic Party, Encyclopædia Britannica, January 19, 2015, Members of the party are called "Democrats" or "Dems".The term "Democrat Party" has also been in local use, but has usually been used by opponents since 1952 as a disparaging term.The most common mascot symbol for the party has been the donkey, or jackass.see weblink" title="">"History of the Democratic Donkey" Andrew Jackson's enemies twisted his name to "jackass" as a term of ridicule regarding a stupid and stubborn animal. However, the Democrats liked the common-man implications and picked it up too, therefore the image persisted and evolved.BOOK, John William Ward, Andrew Jackson: Symbol for an Age,weblink 1962, Oxford Up, 87–88, 9780199923205, Its most lasting impression came from the cartoons of Thomas Nast from 1870 in Harper's Weekly. Cartoonists followed Nast and used the donkey to represent the Democrats and the elephant to represent the Republicans.In the early 20th century, the traditional symbol of the Democratic Party in Indiana, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Ohio was the rooster, as opposed to the Republican eagle. This symbol still appears on Oklahoma, Kentucky, Indiana, and West Virginia ballots.WEB, Barbour County, West Virginia General Election Ballot, November 4, 2008,weblink dead,weblink October 24, 2008, The rooster was adopted as the official symbol of the national Democratic Party.WEB,weblink The Rooster as the Symbol of the U.S. Democratic Party, Ithaca College, June 12, 2010, January 30, 2017, In New York, the Democratic ballot symbol is a five-pointed star.WEB, Poor Ballot Design Hurts New York's Minor Parties…Again, Brennan Center for Justice, Tomas Lopez, October 23, 2014,weblink Although both major political parties (and many minor ones) use the traditional American colors of red, white and blue in their marketing and representations, since election night 2000 blue has become the identifying color for the Democratic Party while red has become the identifying color for the Republican Party. That night, for the first time all major broadcast television networks used the same color scheme for the electoral map: blue states for Al Gore (Democratic nominee) and red states for George W. Bush (Republican nominee). Since then, the color blue has been widely used by the media to represent the party. This is contrary to common practice outside of the United States where blue is the traditional color of the right and red the color of the left.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 9, 2008, Elephants Are Red, Donkeys Are Blue, Farhi, Paul, November 2, 2004, Washington Post, C01, October 11, 2016, For example, in Canada red represents the Liberals while blue represents the Conservatives. In the United Kingdom, red denotes the Labour Party and blue symbolizes the Conservative Party. Blue has also been used both by party supporters for promotional efforts—ActBlue, BuyBlue and BlueFund as examples—and by the party itself in 2006 both for its "Red to Blue Program", created to support Democratic candidates running against Republican incumbents in the midterm elections that year and on its official website.In September 2010, the Democratic Party unveiled its new logo, which featured a blue D inside a blue circle. It was the party's first official logo; the donkey logo had only been semi-official.Jefferson-Jackson Day is the annual fundraising event (dinner) held by Democratic Party organizations across the United States.NEWS, Bill, Trotter, Obama sets sights on November battle, Bangor Daily News, February 11, 2008,weblink February 12, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink February 28, 2008, It is named after Presidents Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson, whom the party regards as its distinguished early leaders.The song "Happy Days Are Here Again" is the unofficial song of the Democratic Party. It was used prominently when Franklin D. Roosevelt was nominated for president at the 1932 Democratic National Convention and remains a sentimental favorite for Democrats today. For example, Paul Shaffer played the theme on the Late Show with David Letterman after the Democrats won Congress in 2006. "Don't Stop" by Fleetwood Mac was adopted by Bill Clinton's presidential campaign in 1992 and has endured as a popular Democratic song. The emotionally similar song "Beautiful Day" by the band U2 has also become a favorite theme song for Democratic candidates. John Kerry used the song during his 2004 presidential campaign and several Democratic Congressional candidates used it as a celebratory tune in 2006.NEWS, Michael, Gruss, Local roast becomes political pep rally for Democrats, The Virginian-Pilot, November 21, 2006,weblink April 15, 2007, NEWS, Michael, Scherer, 'The Democrats are ready to lead',, November 8, 2006,weblink March 18, 2007, The 2016 campaign of Democratic Party presidential candidate Bernie Sanders used the hopeful Simon & Garfunkel song "America" for one of its campaign advertisements,NEWS,weblink New Sanders Ad Uses Simon & Garfunkel Classic 'America', January 21, 2016, NBC News, January 21, 2016, with the complete permission of the still-active duo of popular American musicians.NEWS, Corasaniti, Nick, No Split Between Simon and Garfunkel Over Bernie Sanders's Use of Their Song,weblink The New York Times, January 26, 2016, January 23, 2016, As a traditional anthem for its presidential nominating convention, Aaron Copland's "Fanfare for the Common Man" is traditionally performed at the beginning of the Democratic National Convention.

Current structure and composition

National committee

The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is responsible for promoting Democratic campaign activities. While the DNC is responsible for overseeing the process of writing the Democratic Platform, the DNC is more focused on campaign and organizational strategy than public policy. In presidential elections, it supervises the Democratic National Convention. The national convention is subject to the charter of the party and the ultimate authority within the Democratic Party when it is in session, with the DNC running the party's organization at other times. The DNC is chaired by former Labor Secretary Tom Perez.NEWS, Przybyla, Heidi, February 25, 2017, Democrats elect Tom Perez, former Labor secretary, as new party leader, USA Today,

State parties

Each state also has a state committee, made up of elected committee members as well as ex officio committee members (usually elected officials and representatives of major constituencies), which in turn elects a chair. County, town, city and ward committees generally are composed of individuals elected at the local level. State and local committees often coordinate campaign activities within their jurisdiction, oversee local conventions and in some cases primaries or caucuses and may have a role in nominating candidates for elected office under state law. Rarely do they have much funding, but in 2005 DNC Chairman Dean began a program (called the "50 State Strategy") of using DNC national funds to assist all state parties and pay for full-time professional staffers.NEWS, Gilgoff, Dan, Dean's List, July 16, 2006,weblink U.S. News & World Report,weblink July 8, 2012, April 26, 2007, dead, mdy,

Major party groups

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Barack Obama speaking to College Democrats of America in 2007.
The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC) assists party candidates in House races and its current chairman (selected by the party caucus) is Representative Cheri Bustos of Illinois. Similarly, the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC), headed by Senator Catherine Cortez Masto of Nevada, raises funds for Senate races. The Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee (DLCC), chaired by Oregon legislator Tina Kotek, is a smaller organization with much less funding that focuses on state legislative races. The DNC sponsors the College Democrats of America (CDA), a student-outreach organization with the goal of training and engaging a new generation of Democratic activists. Democrats Abroad is the organization for Americans living outside the United States and they work to advance the goals of the party and encourage Americans living abroad to support the Democrats. The Young Democrats of America (YDA) is a youth-led organization that attempts to draw in and mobilize young people for Democratic candidates but operates outside of the DNC. The Democratic Governors Association (DGA), chaired by Governor Gina Raimondo of Rhode Island, is an organization supporting the candidacies of Democratic gubernatorial nominees and incumbents. Likewise, the mayors of the largest cities and urban centers convene as the National Conference of Democratic Mayors.{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}


{{Liberalism sidebar}}{{further|Factions in the Democratic Party (United States)#Ideological wings}}Upon foundation, the Democratic Party supported agrarianism and the Jacksonian democracy movement of President Andrew Jackson, representing farmers and rural interests and traditional Jeffersonian democrats.John Ashworth, "Agrarians" & "aristocrats": Party political ideology in the United States, 1837–1846(1983) Since the 1890s, especially in northern states, the party began to favor more liberal positions (the term "liberal" in this sense describes modern liberalism, rather than classical liberalism or economic liberalism). In recent exit polls, the Democratic Party has had broad appeal across all socio-ethno-economic demographics.NEWS,weblink CNN. (2000). Exit Poll, July 11, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2007, NEWS,weblink CNN. (2004). Exit Poll, July 11, 2007, NEWS,weblink CNN. (2006). Exit Poll, July 11, 2007, Historically, the party has represented farmers, laborers, labor unions and religious and ethnic minorities as it has opposed unregulated business and finance and favored progressive income taxes. In foreign policy, internationalism (including interventionism) was a dominant theme from 1913 to the mid-1960s. In the 1930s, the party began advocating welfare spending programs targeted at the poor. The party had a fiscally conservative, pro-business wing, typified by Grover Cleveland and Al Smith; and a Southern conservative wing that shrank after President Lyndon B. Johnson supported the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The major influences for liberalism were labor unions (which peaked in the 1936–1952 era) and the African American wing, which has steadily grown since the 1960s. Since the 1970s, environmentalism has been a major new component.The Democratic Party, once dominant in the Southeastern United States, is now strongest in the Northeast (Mid-Atlantic and New England), Great Lakes region and the West Coast (including Hawaii). The Democrats are also very strong in major cities (regardless of region).Social scientists Theodore Caplow et al. argue that "the Democratic party, nationally, moved from left-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s, then moved further toward the right-center in the 1970s and 1980s".BOOK, Theodore Caplow, Howard M. Bahr, Bruce A. Chadwick, John Modell, Recent Social Trends in the United States, 1960-1990,weblink 1994, McGill-Queen's Press, 337, 9780773512122, They add: "The Republican party, nationally, moved from right-center toward the center in the 1940s and 1950s, then moved right again in the 1970s and 1980s. According to historian Walter Scheidel, both major political parties shifted towards promoting free market capitalism in the 1970s, with Republicans moving further to the political right than Democrats to the political left. He contends Democrats played a significant role in the financial deregulation of the 1990s and have pushed social welfare issues to the periphery while increasingly focusing on issues pertaining to identity politics.BOOK, Scheidel, Walter, Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century, Princeton University Press, 2017, 978-0691165028, 416,weblink


Centrist Democrats, or New Democrats, are an ideologically centrist faction within the Democratic Party that emerged after the victory of Republican George H. W. Bush in the 1988 presidential election. They are an economically liberal and "Third Way" faction which dominated the party for around 20 years starting in the late 1980s after the United States populace turned much further to the political right. They are represented by organizations such as the New Democrat Network and the New Democrat Coalition.The New Democrat Coalition is a pro-business, pro-growth and fiscally conservative congressional coalition.WEB,weblink About Us - New Democrat Coalition, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 5, 2016, mdy-all, Compared to other Democratic factions, they are mostly more supportive of the use of military force, including the war in Iraq, are more supportive of free trade and are more willing to reduce government welfare as indicated by their support for welfare reform and tax cuts.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}}One of the most influential centrist groups was the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), a nonprofit organization that advocated centrist positions for the party. The DLC hailed President Bill Clinton as proof of the viability of "Third Way" politicians and a DLC success story. The DLC disbanded in 2011 and much of the former DLC is now represented in the think tank Third Way."How the DLC Does It", Robert Dreyfuss, American Prospect, April 23, 2001.While not representing a majority of the Democratic Party electorate, a decent amount of Democratic elected officials have self-declared as being centrists. Some of these Democrats are former President Bill Clinton, former Vice President Al Gore, Senator Mark Warner, former Pennsylvania governor Ed Rendell, former senator Jim Webb, Vice President Joe Biden, congresswoman Ann Kirkpatrick and former congressman Dave McCurdy.WEB,weblink Members - New Democrat Coalition, dead,weblink September 7, 2016, mdy-all, JOURNAL, 2152360, The Making of the New Democrats, Jon F., Hale, January 1, 1995, Political Science Quarterly, 110, 2, 207–232, 10.2307/2152360, The New Democrat Network supports socially moderate, fiscally conservative Democratic politicians and operates the congressional New Democrat Coalition in the House and Senate.WEB,weblink NDN - A Progressive Think Tank and Advocacy Organization, Congressman Ron Kind is the chairperson of the coalition and former senator and 2016 Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton was a member while in Congress.WEB,weblink Senate New Democrat Coalition Members, August 26, 2002,, April 16, 2017, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink August 26, 2002, mdy-all, Before he became President, Senator Barack Obama was self-described as a New Democrat.WEB,weblink Obama: 'I am a New Democrat',, April 16, 2017,


A conservative Democrat is a member of the Democratic Party with conservative political views, or with views relatively conservative with respect to those of the national party. While such members of the Democratic Party can be found throughout the nation, actual elected officials are disproportionately found within the Southern states and to a lesser extent within rural regions of the United States generally, more commonly in the West. Historically, Southern Democrats were generally much more ideologically conservative than conservative Democrats are now.
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President Barack Obama meeting with the Blue Dog Coalition in the State Dining Room of the White House in 2009.
Many conservative Southern Democrats defected to the Republican Party, beginning with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the general leftward shift of the party. Strom Thurmond of South Carolina, Billy Tauzin of Louisiana, Kent Hance and Ralph Hall of Texas and Richard Shelby of Alabama are examples of this. The influx of conservative Democrats into the Republican Party is often cited as a reason for the Republican Party's shift further to the right during the late 20th century as well as the shift of its base from the Northeast and Midwest to the South.Into the 1980s, the Democratic Party had a conservative element, mostly from the South and Border regions. Their numbers declined sharply as the Republican Party built up its Southern base. They were sometimes humorously called "Yellow dog Democrats", or "boll weevils" and "Dixiecrats". In the House, they form the Blue Dog Coalition, a caucus of fiscal conservatives and social conservatives and moderates, primarily Southerners, willing to broker compromises with the Republican leadership. They have acted as a unified voting bloc in the past, giving its members some ability to change legislation, depending on their numbers in Congress.There was a split vote among many conservative Southern Democrats in the 1970s and 1980s. Some supported local and statewide conservative Democrats while simultaneously voting for Republican presidential candidates.Roger Chapman, Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia (2010) vol 1 Page 136


{{see also|Modern liberalism in the United States}}File:Eleanor Roosevelt at the Democratic Nationall Convention in Chicago, Illinois - NARA - 195997.jpg|thumb|left|Eleanor Roosevelt at the 1956 Democratic National Convention1956 Democratic National ConventionSocial liberals (modern liberals) and progressives constitute the majority of the Democratic voter base. Liberals thereby form the largest united demographic within the Democratic base. According to the 2012 exit poll results, liberals constituted 25% of the electorate, and 86% of American liberals favored the candidate of the Democratic Party.NEWS,weblink President Exit Polls - Election 2012 -,, March 18, 2014, White-collar college-educated professionals were mostly Republican until the 1950s, but they now compose a vital component of the Democratic Party.WEB, Judis, John B., The trouble with Howard Dean, Salon,,weblinkweblink July 8, 2012, July 11, 2003, July 19, 2007, dead, mdy, A large majority of liberals favor moving toward universal health care, with many supporting a single-payer system. A majority also favor diplomacy over military action, stem cell research, the legalization of same-sex marriage, stricter gun control and environmental protection laws as well as the preservation of abortion rights. Immigration and cultural diversity is deemed positive as liberals favor cultural pluralism, a system in which immigrants retain their native culture in addition to adopting their new culture. They tend to be divided on free trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and organizations, with some seeing them as more favorable to corporations than workers. Most liberals oppose increased military spending and the mixing of church and state.WEB,weblink Pew Research Center. (May 10, 2005). Beyond Red vs. Blue, p. 1 of 8,weblink July 8, 2012, July 12, 2007, dead, mdy, 2005-05-10, This ideological group differs from the traditional organized labor base. According to the Pew Research Center, a plurality of 41% resided in mass affluent households and 49% were college graduates, the highest figure of any typographical group. It was also the fastest growing typological group between the late 1990s and early 2000s. Liberals include most of academiaNEWS, College Faculties A Most Liberal Lot, Study Finds, Kurtz, Howard,weblink The Washington Post,,weblink July 8, 2012, July 2, 2007, March 29, 2005, dead, mdy, and large portions of the professional class.


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Senator Elizabeth Warren
Progressives are the most left-leaning, pro-labor union faction in the party who have long supported a strong regulation of business, social-welfare programs and workers' rights.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2008, Progressivism, Columbia Encyclopaedia, 2007, January 19, 2015, WEB,weblink Important Examples of Progressive Reforms, University of MIchigan, Many progressive Democrats are descendants of the New Left of Democratic presidential candidate Senator George McGovern of South Dakota whereas others were involved in the 2016 presidential candidacy of Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.In 2014, progressive Senator Elizabeth Warren set out an "Eleven Commandments of Progressivism", being tougher regulation on corporations, affordable education, scientific investment and environmentalism, net neutrality, increased wages, equal pay, collective bargaining rights, defending social safety-net programs, marriage equality, immigration reform and unabridged access to reproductive healthcare.NEWS,weblink Elizabeth Warren's 11 Commandments of Progressivism, National Journal, Additionally, progressives strongly oppose political corruption and therefore seek to advance electoral reform including campaign finance reform and voting rights.WEB,weblink Issues,, March 18, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 23, 2014, mdy-all, Today, many progressives have made a fight against economic inequality their top priority.NEWS,weblink The Invisible Primary Against Hillary Clinton, National Journal, February 3, 2014, Progressives are generally considered to be synonymous with liberals, though the two groups differ on a variety of issues,NEWS,weblink Sirotam David, What's the Difference Between a Liberal and a Progressive?, Huffington Post, March 18, 2014, May 25, 2011, such as progressives' stronger support for universal healthcare, solutions for economic inequality, and stronger environmental regulations. Progressives tend to be seen as closer to the ideology of European social-democratic parties than mainstream or establishment liberals.WEB, Meyerson, Harold, Commentary: The socialist difference: Why Democrats need both Clinton and Sanders,weblink Chicago Tribune, 28 October 2018, October 15, 2015, The Congressional Progressive Caucus is a caucus of progressive Democrats and is the single largest Democratic caucus in the House of Representatives. Its current chairs are Mark Pocan of Wisconsin and Pramila Jayapal of Washington.WEB,weblink Jayapal Joins Pocan As Co-Chair of Congressional Progressive Caucus, McPherson, Lindsey, 29 November 2018,, 20 January 2019, Its members have included Representatives Dennis Kucinich of Ohio, John Conyers of Michigan, Jim McDermott of Washington, John Lewis of Georgia, Barbara Lee of California and the late Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota. Senators Sherrod Brown of Ohio, Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, Mazie Hirono of Hawaii and Ed Markey of Massachusetts were all members of the caucus when in the House of Representatives. Today, no Democratic Senators belong to the Progressive Caucus, but independent Senator Bernie Sanders is a member.

Political positions

Economic policy:
  • Expand social security and safety net programs.NEWS,weblink Push to expand Social Security (not cut it) gets another boost, Washington Post, Greg, Sargent, March 13, 2014,
  • Increase top capital gains tax and dividend tax rates to above 28%.weblink NEWS,weblink Obama's budget proposal will take aim at the wealthy, Mufson, Steven, January 2015,,
  • Across the board tax-cuts for the low and middle class and small businesses.WEB,weblink On The Issues : Every Issue - Every Politician,, January 19, 2015,
  • Change tax rules to not encourage shipping jobs overseas.
  • Increase federal and state minimum wages.WEB,weblink What Republicans And Democrats Are Doing In The States Where They Have Total Power, Jr, Perry Bacon, 2019-05-28, FiveThirtyEight, en-US, 2019-06-05,
  • Modernize and expand access to public education and provide universal preschool education.WEB,weblink Education,, WEB,weblink Congressional Progressive Caucus : Back to Work Budget,, January 19, 2015,
  • Support for universal health care.WEB,weblink Health Care,,
  • Greater investment in infrastructure development.
  • Increase investments in scientific and technological research and development.WEB,weblink Science & Technology,,
  • Expand the use of renewable energy and diminish the use of fossil fuels.WEB,weblink 6 Energy Policy Highlights from the Democratic Party Platform, Meg Handley, US News & World Report,
  • Implement a carbon tax.WEB,weblink Democrats circulate carbon tax bill, Zack Colman, TheHill, 2013-03-12,
  • Uphold labor protections and the right to unionize.WEB,weblink PDF, THE ALLIANCE OF U.S. LABOR UNIONS AND THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY,, January 19, 2015, WEB,weblink Worker Rights, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2014, mdy-all,
  • Reform the student loan system and allow for refinancing student loans.WEB,weblink Obama Endorses Sen. Warren's Student Loan Refinancing Bill, Asma Khalid, June 9, 2014, wbur,
  • Expand free college.
  • Mandate equal pay for equal work regardless of gender, race, or ethnicity.NEWS,weblink Democrats highlight equal pay in political push, CNN, April 7, 2014,

Social policy:
  • Decriminalization or legalization of marijuana.
  • Uphold network neutrality.NEWS,weblink Obama Net Neutrality, The New York Times, January 19, 2015, Edward, Wyatt, November 10, 2014,
  • Implement campaign finance reform and electoral reform.WEB,weblink Democratic Party on Government Reform,, January 19, 2015,
  • Uphold voting rights and easy access to voting.NEWS,weblink A Call for Election Reform, Beginning with New York, The Huffington Post, June 15, 2013, WEB,weblink Voting Rights,,
  • Support for same-sex marriage and civil unions. Bans on conversion therapy.
  • Allow legal access to abortions and women's reproductive health care.
  • Reform the immigration system and allow for a pathway to citizenship.
  • Support for gun background checks and stricter gun control regulations.
  • Improve privacy laws and curtail government surveillance.
  • Opposition to the use of torture.WEB,weblink For Torture and Surveillance Commission via H.R. 104, Target The Congressional Progressive Caucus, Irregular Times, May 29, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink May 29, 2014, dead, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Democratic Party on Crime,, January 19, 2015,
  • Recognize and defend Internet freedom worldwide.

Economic issues

Equal economic opportunity, a base social safety net provided by the welfare state and strong labor unions have historically been at the heart of Democratic economic policy. The welfare state supports a progressive tax system, higher minimum wages, social security, universal health care, public education and public housing. They also support infrastructure development and government-sponsored employment programs in an effort to achieve economic development and job creation while stimulating private sector job creation.WEB,weblink Jobs and the Economy,, Additionally, since the 1990s the party has at times supported centrist economic reforms, which cut the size of government and reduced market regulations.NEWS,weblink Wall Street deregulation pushed by Clinton advisers, documents reveal, Dan Roberts, the Guardian, 2014-04-19, The party has continuously rejected laissez-faire economics as well as market socialism, instead favoring Keynesian economics within a capitalist market-based system.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}}

Fiscal policy

Democrats support a more progressive tax structure to provide more services and reduce economic inequality by making sure that the wealthiest Americans pay the highest amount in taxes.WEB,weblink How High Should Taxes Be?,, June 12, 2010, June 17, 2010, Democrats support more government spending on social services while spending less on the military.WEB,weblink The Wall Street Journal Online,, November 17, 2007, June 17, 2010, WEB, Cox, Wendell,weblink Budget Resolution Calls for Massive Tax Hikes and Spending Increases,, June 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2010, mdy-all, They oppose the cutting of social services, such as Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid and various other welfare programs,WEB,weblink U.S. GOVERNMENT > Social Support > The Social Safety Net, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2008, mdy-all, believing it to be harmful to efficiency and social justice. Democrats believe the benefits of social services in monetary and non-monetary terms are a more productive labor force and cultured population and believe that the benefits of this are greater than any benefits that could be derived from lower taxes, especially on top earners, or cuts to social services. Furthermore, Democrats see social services as essential towards providing positive freedom, i.e. freedom derived from economic opportunity. The Democratic-led House of Representatives reinstated the PAYGO (pay-as-you-go) budget rule at the start of the 110th Congress.NEWS, Day Two: House passes new budget rules, January 5, 2007,weblink Associated Press, January 5, 2007,

Minimum wage

{{see also|United States minimum wage}}The Democratic Party favors raising the minimum wage. They call for a $10.10/hour national minimum wage and think the minimum wage should be adjusted regularly.WEB,weblink Harry Reid slates minimum wage vote, Burgess Everett, POLITICO, The Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 was an early component of the Democrats' agenda during the 110th Congress. In 2006, the Democrats supported six state ballot initiatives to increase the minimum wage and all six initiatives passed.WEB,weblink The Democratic Party Platform,, March 18, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2014, In May 2017, Senate Democrats introduced the Raise the Wage Act which would raise the minimum wage to $15 an hour by 2024 and marks a leftward turn in Democratic economic policies.NEWS, Kulwin, Noah, May 25, 2017, Democrats just united on a $15-an-hour minimum wage,weblink Vice, May 29, 2017,

Health care

File:Obama signing health care-20100323.jpg|thumb|President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care ActPatient Protection and Affordable Care ActDemocrats call for "affordable and quality health care" and many advocate an expansion of government intervention in this area. Many Democrats favor national health insurance or universal health care in a variety of forms to address the rising costs of modern health insurance. Some Democrats, such as former Representatives John Conyers and John Dingell, have called for a single-payer program of Medicare for All. The Progressive Democrats of America, a group operating inside the Democratic Party, has made single-payer universal health care one of their primary policy goals.WEB,weblink Progressive Democrats of America - Priorities (Health Care for All),, June 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2010, The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by President Obama on March 23, 2010, has been one of the most significant pushes for universal health care to become a reality. By April 2014, more than 10 million Americans had enrolled in health care coverage since the launch of the Affordable Care Act.NEWS, Newsweek, Medicaid Enrollments Bring Obamacare Enrollment to More Than 10 Million, April 4, 2014, Reuters,weblink


Democrats favor improving public education by raising school standards and reforming the head start program. They also support universal preschool and expanding access to primary education, including through charter schools. They call for slashes in student loan debt and support reforms to force down tuition fees.WEB,weblink Moving America Forward 2012 Democratic National Platform,, September 14, 2012, January 13, 2018, Other proposed reforms have included nationwide universal preschool education, tuition-free college and reform of standardized testing. Democrats have the long-term aim of having low-cost, publicly funded college education with low tuition fees (like in much of Europe and Canada), which should be available to every eligible American student. Alternatively, they encourage expanding access to post-secondary education by increasing state funding for student financial aid such as Pell Grants and college tuition tax deductions.WEB, Clinton Joins Key Senate Democrats to Release Report on "The College Cost Crunch", June 28, 2006,weblink, November 25, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2006, mdy,


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- Secretary Kerry Addresses Delegates Before Signing the COP21 Climate Change Agreement on Earth Day in New York (26554283406).jpg -
Secretary of State John Kerry addresses delegates at the United Nations before signing the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016.
Democrats believe that the government should protect the environment and have a history of environmentalism. In more recent years, this stance has had as its emphasis alternative energy generation as the basis for an improved economy, greater national security and general environmental benefits.WEB,weblink Agenda â€” Environment, March 18, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2007, The Democratic Party also favors expansion of conservation lands and encourages open space and rail travel to relieve highway and airport congestion and improve air quality and economy as it "believe[s] that communities, environmental interests, and the government should work together to protect resources while ensuring the vitality of local economies. Once Americans were led to believe they had to make a choice between the economy and the environment. They now know this is a false choice".WEB,weblink Democratic Party on Environment, October 24, 2007, The most important environmental concern of the Democratic Party is climate change. Democrats, most notably former Vice President Al Gore, have pressed for stern regulation of greenhouse gases. On October 15, 2007, he won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build greater knowledge about man-made climate change and laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract these changes asserting that "the climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity".MAGAZINE, John Nicols, Al Gore Wins Nobel Peace Prize, The Nation, October 12, 2007,

Renewable energy and fossil fuels

Democrats have supported increased domestic renewable energy development, including wind and solar power farms, in an effort to reduce carbon pollution. The party's platform calls for an "all of the above" energy policy including clean energy, natural gas and domestic oil, with the desire of becoming energy independent. The party has supported higher taxes on oil companies and increased regulations on coal power plants, favoring a policy of reducing long-term reliance on fossil fuels.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, September 20, 2010, Energy Independence,, NEWS,weblink Coal state Democrats to Obama: Curb emissions? Um, no thanks., Washington Post, Sean, Sullivan, June 2, 2014, Additionally, the party supports stricter fuel emissions standards to prevent air pollution.

Trade agreements

Many Democrats support fair trade policies when it comes to the issue of international trade agreements and some in the party have started supporting free trade in recent decades.Rorty, R. (1997). Achieving Our Country: Leftist Thought In Twentieth Century America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. {{ISBN|0-674-00312-8}} In the 1990s, the Clinton administration and a number of prominent Democrats pushed through a number of agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Since then, the party's shift away from free trade became evident in the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) vote, with 15 House Democrats voting for the agreement and 187 voting against.NEWS, Weisman, Jonathan, CAFTA Reflects Democrats' Shift From Trade Bills, The Washington Post, July 6, 2005,weblink December 10, 2006, MAGAZINE, Nichols, John, CAFTA Vote Outs "Bush Democrats", The Nation, July 28, 2005,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 27, 2011, December 15, 2006, mdy-all,

Social issues

File:Shirley Chisholm.jpg|thumb|right|Shirley ChisholmShirley ChisholmThe modern Democratic party emphasizes egalitarianism and social equality through liberalism. They support voting rights and minority rights, including LGBT rights, multiculturalism and religious secularism. A longstanding social policy is upholding civil rights, which affect ethnic and racial minorities and includes voting rights, equal opportunity and racial equality. The party championed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which for the first time outlawed segregation. Democrats made civil rights and anti-racism a core party philosophy. Carmines and Stimson say that "the Democratic Party appropriated racial liberalism and assumed federal responsibility for ending racial discrimination".JOURNAL, Carmines, Edward G., Stimson, James A., 1982, Racial Issues and The Structure of Mass Belief Systems, Journal of Politics, 44, 1, 2–20, 2130281, BOOK, Talmadge Anderson, James Benjamin Stewart, Introduction to African American Studies: Transdisciplinary Approaches and Implications,weblink 2007, Black Classic Press, 205, 9781580730396, BOOK, Jeffrey M. Stonecash, New Directions in American Political Parties,weblink 2010, Routledge, 131, 9781135282059, Ideological social elements in the party include cultural liberalism, civil libertarianism and feminism. Other Democratic social policies are internationalism, open immigration, electoral reform and women's reproductive rights.

Equal opportunity

The Democratic Party supports equal opportunity for all Americans regardless of sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, creed, or national origin. Many Democrats support affirmative action programs to further this goal. Democrats also strongly support the Americans with Disabilities Act to prohibit discrimination against people based on physical or mental disability. As such, the Democrats pushed as well the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, a legal expansion that became law.WEB,weblink Civil Rights,,

Voting rights

The party is very supportive of improving voting rights as well as election accuracy and accessibility.WEB,weblink Liberalism 101: Democratic Party Agenda on Electoral Reform, Deborah White, About, They support ending voter ID laws and increasing voting time, including making election day a holiday. They support reforming the electoral system to eliminate gerrymandering as well as passing comprehensive campaign finance reform. They supported the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and as a party have often been pioneers for democracy in the United States.

Abortion and reproductive rights

{{see also|Abortion law in the United States}}The Democratic Party believe that all women should have access to birth control and support public funding of contraception for poor women. In its national platforms from 1992 to 2004, the Democratic Party has called for abortion to be "safe, legal and rare"—namely, keeping it legal by rejecting laws that allow governmental interference in abortion decisions and reducing the number of abortions by promoting both knowledge of reproduction and contraception and incentives for adoption. The wording changed in the 2008 platform. When Congress voted on the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in 2003, Congressional Democrats were split, with a minority (including former Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid) supporting the ban and the majority of Democrats opposing the legislation.WEB,weblink House Votes on 2003-530,, October 2, 2003, March 18, 2014, The Democratic Party opposes attempts to reverse the 1973 Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, which declared abortion covered by the constitutionally protected individual right to privacy under the Ninth Amendment; and Planned Parenthood v. Casey, which lays out the legal framework in which government action alleged to violate that right is assessed by courts. As a matter of the right to privacy and of gender equality, many Democrats believe all women should have the ability to choose to abort without governmental interference. They believe that each woman, conferring with her conscience, has the right to choose for herself whether abortion is morally correct.Former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid identified himself as "pro-life", Former President Jimmy Carter has expressed his view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party becoming more pro-life:WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter: Democratic Party Should Be More Pro-Life, March 29, 2012, while President Barack Obama and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi self-identify as "pro-choice". Groups such as Democrats for Life of America represent the pro-life faction of the party while groups such as EMILY's List represent the pro-choice faction. A Newsweek poll from October 2006 found that 25% of Democrats were pro-life while a 69% majority was pro-choice.WEB,weblink Abortion,, January 19, 2015, The 2016 Democratic Party platform expresses support for "'a woman’s right to safe and legal abortion' and enumerates no limits on that right."WEB,weblink Democrats Overplay Their Hand on Abortion, Alexandra, DeSanctis, February 4, 2019, The Atlantic, It further calls for the repeal of the Hyde Amendment, which prohibits the use of federal tax dollars for elective abortions.WEB,weblink Democrats Are Pushing to Use Tax Dollars to Pay for Abortions, Emma, Green, October 3, 2016, The Atlantic,


{{see also|Immigration to the United States|Illegal immigration to the United States}}File:Immigration Bill Signing - A1421-33a - 10-03-1965.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Immigration Act of 1965 as Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Senators Edward M. Kennedy and Robert F. KennedyRobert F. KennedyMany Democratic politicians have called for systematic reform of the immigration system such that residents that have come into the United States illegally have a pathway to legal citizenship. President Obama remarked in November 2013 that he felt it was "long past time to fix our broken immigration system", particularly to allow "incredibly bright young people" that came over as students to become full citizens. The Public Religion Research Institute found in a late 2013 study that 73% of Democrats supported the pathway concept, compared to 63% of Americans as a whole.NEWS, Frumin, Aliyah, Obama: 'Long past time' for immigration reform, November 25, 2013,weblink, January 26, 2014, In 2013, Democrats in the Senate passed S.744, which would reform immigration policy to allow citizenship for illegal immigrants in the United States and improve the lives of all immigrants currently living in the United States.WEB,weblink U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote,, March 18, 2014,

LGBT rights

The Democratic Party is supportive of LGBT rights. Most support for same-sex marriage in the United States has come from Democrats, although some favor civil unions instead or oppose same-sex marriage. Support for same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade according to ABC News. An April 2009 ABC News/Washington Post public opinion poll put support among Democrats at 62%NEWS,weblink Changing Views on Social Issues, April 30, 2009, May 14, 2009, whereas a June 2008 Newsweek poll found that 42% of Democrats support same-sex marriage while 23% support civil unions or domestic partnership laws and 28% oppose any legal recognition at all.WEB,weblink Civil Rights,, A broad majority of Democrats have supported other LGBT-related laws such as extending hate crime statutes, legally preventing discrimination against LGBT people in the workforce and repealing Don't ask, don't tell. A 2006 Pew Research Center poll of Democrats found that 55% supported gays adopting children with 40% opposed while 70% support gays in the military, with only 23% opposed.Less Opposition to Gay Marriage, Adoption and Military Service. Pew Research Center. March 22, 2006. Gallup polling from May 2009 stated that 82% of Democrats support open enlistment.WEB,weblink Conservatives Shift in Favor of Openly Gay Service Members, The Gallup Organization,, June 5, 2009, Lymari, Morales, The 2004 Democratic National Platform stated that marriage should be defined at the state level and it repudiated the Federal Marriage Amendment.WEB,weblink The 2004 Democratic National Platform, bot: unknown,weblink June 23, 2009, mdy,  {{small|(111 KB)}} While not stating support of same-sex marriage, the 2008 platform called for repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, which banned federal recognition of same-sex marriage and removed the need for interstate recognition, supported antidiscrimination laws and the extension of hate crime laws to LGBT people and opposed the Don't ask, don't tell military policy.WEB, Garcia, Michelle,weblink Is This the Year Democrats Embrace Marriage Equality?,, April 22, 2012, October 2, 2013, The 2012 platform included support for same-sex marriage and for the repeal of DOMA.WEB, All Things Considered,weblink Democratic Platform Endorses Gay Marriage,, September 4, 2012, October 2, 2013, On May 9, 2012, Barack Obama became the first sitting President to say he supports same-sex marriage.NEWS,weblink Obama backs same-sex marriage, CBS News, May 9, 2012, May 9, 2012, NEWS,weblink Obama Backs Gay Marriage, Sam Stein, May 9, 2012, The Huffington Post, Previously, he had opposed restrictions on same-sex marriage such as the Defense of Marriage Act, which he promised to repeal,NEWS,weblink Same-sex Marriage - Issues - Election Center 2008 -,, January 19, 2015, California's Prop 8,Obama Opposes Gay Marriage Ban. The Washington Post. By Perry Bacon Jr. July 2, 2008. and a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage (which he opposed saying that "decisions about marriage should be left to the states as they always have been"),Obama Statement on Vote Against Constitutional Amendment to Ban Gay Marriage {{webarchive|url= |date=December 8, 2008 }}. United States Senate Official Website. June 7, 2006. but also stated that he personally believed marriage to be between a man and a woman and that he favored civil unions that would "give same-sex couples equal legal rights and privileges as married couples". Earlier, when running for the Illinois Senate in 1996 he said that he "unequivocally support(ed) gay marriage" and "favor(ed) legalizing same-sex marriages, and would fight efforts to prohibit such marriages".NEWS,weblink Obama Once Supported Same-Sex Marriage 'Unequivocally',, January 13, 2009, June 17, 2010, Jason, Linkins, Senator John Kerry, Democratic presidential candidate in 2004, did not support same-sex marriage. Former presidents Bill ClintonNEWS,weblink CNN, Video: Clinton shifts on gay marriage, May 1, 2010, September 25, 2009, and Jimmy CarterNEWS, March 19, 2012,weblink President Jimmy Carter Authors New Bible Book, Answers Hard Biblical Questions, The Huffington Post, June 26, 2012, Paul, Raushenbush, and former Vice Presidents Joe Biden, Al GoreWEB,weblink Gay men and women should have the same rights Current,, January 17, 2008, June 17, 2010, November 29, 2009, dead, mdy-all, and Walter MondaleWEB, Mondale, Walter, Mondale and Dukakis Back Marriage Equality, ThinkProgress, May 16, 2013,weblink June 20, 2013, also support gay marriage.

Civil Rights – United States Citizens in Puerto Rico

The 2016 Democratic Party platform declares: "We are committed to addressing the extraordinary challenges faced by our fellow citizens in Puerto Rico. Many stem from the fundamental question of Puerto Rico's political status. Democrats believe that the people of Puerto Rico should determine their ultimate political status from permanent options that do not conflict with the Constitution, laws, and policies of the United States. Democrats are committed to promoting economic opportunity and good-paying jobs for the hardworking people of Puerto Rico. We also believe that Puerto Ricans must be treated equally by Medicare, Medicaid, and other programs that benefit families. Puerto Ricans should be able to vote for the people who make their laws, just as they should be treated equally. All American citizens, no matter where they reside, should have the right to vote for the President of the United States. Finally, we believe that federal officials must respect Puerto Rico's local self-government as laws are implemented and Puerto Rico's budget and debt are restructured so that it can get on a path towards stability and prosperity".WEB,weblink Democratic Party Platform 2016, November 11, 2016, dead,weblink November 10, 2016, mdy-all,

Legal issues

Gun control

With a stated goal of reducing crime and homicide, the Democratic Party has introduced various gun control measures, most notably the Gun Control Act of 1968, the Brady Bill of 1993 and Crime Control Act of 1994. However, some Democrats, especially rural, Southern, and Western Democrats, favor fewer restrictions on firearm possession and warned the party was defeated in the 2000 presidential election in rural areas because of the issue.MAGAZINE, Abramsky, Sasha, Democrat Killer?, The Nation, April 18, 2005,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2005, October 10, 2006, In the national platform for 2008, the only statement explicitly favoring gun control was a plan calling for renewal of the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban.WEB,weblink THE DRAFT 2008 DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL PLATFORM: RENEWING AMERICA'S PROMISE, February 4, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2012,

Death penalty

The Democratic Party supports the death penalty far less than the Republican Party. Although most Democrats in Congress have never seriously moved to overturn the rarely used federal death penalty, both Russ Feingold and Dennis Kucinich have introduced such bills with little success. Democrats have led efforts to overturn state death penalty laws, particularly in New Jersey and in New Mexico. They have also sought to prevent the reinstatement of the death penalty in those states which prohibit it, including Massachusetts and New York. During the Clinton administration, Democrats led the expansion of the federal death penalty. These efforts resulted in the passage of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, signed into law by President Clinton, which heavily limited appeals in death penalty cases.In 1992, 1993 and 1995, Democratic Texas Congressman Henry González unsuccessfully introduced the s:Death Penalty Abolition Amendment|Death Penalty Abolition Amendment]] which prohibited the use of capital punishment in the United States. Democratic Missouri Congressman William Lacy Clay, Sr. cosponsored the amendment in 1993.During his Illinois Senate career, former President Barack Obama successfully introduced legislation intended to reduce the likelihood of wrongful convictions in capital cases, requiring videotaping of confessions. When campaigning for the presidency, Obama stated that he supports the limited use of the death penalty, including for people who have been convicted of raping a minor under the age of 12, having opposed the Supreme Court's ruling in Kennedy v. Louisiana that the death penalty was unconstitutional in child rape cases."Obama Backs Death Penalty for Child Rapists". Newser, June 26, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2009. Obama has stated that he thinks the "death penalty does little to deter crime" and that it is used too frequently and too inconsistently.WEB, The Candidates on the Death Penalty,weblink July 26, 2009, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2008, In June 2016, the Democratic Platform Drafting Committee unanimously adopted an amendment to abolish the death penalty, marking the first time the party had done so in its history.WEB, Democratic Platform Drafting Meeting Concludes,weblink June 25, 2016, June 29, 2016, DNCC, dead,weblink August 2, 2016, mdy-all,


Many Democrats are opposed to the use of torture against individuals apprehended and held prisoner by the United States military and hold that categorizing such prisoners as unlawful combatants does not release the United States from its obligations under the Geneva Conventions. Democrats contend that torture is inhumane, decreases the United States' moral standing in the world and produces questionable results. Democrats largely spoke out against waterboarding.{{citation needed|date=January 2014}}Torture became a very divisive issue in the party after Barack Obama was elected President. Many centrist Democrats and members of the party's leadership supported the use of torture while the liberal wings continued to be steadfastly opposed to it.WEB,weblink Obama and Democrats' Torture Problem, Kenneth T. Walsh, US News & World Report,


Many Democrats are opposed to the Patriot Act, but when the law was passed most Democrats were supportive of it and all but two Democrats in the Senate voted for the original Patriot Act legislation in 2001. The lone nay vote was from Russ Feingold of Wisconsin as Mary Landrieu of Louisiana did not vote.WEB,weblink Senate roll call on passage of the PATRIOT Act,, April 25, 2017, January 13, 2018, In the House, the Democrats voted for the Act by 145 yea and 62 nay. Democrats split on the renewal in 2006. In the Senate, Democrats voted 34 for the 2006 renewal and 9 against. In the House, Democrats voted 66 voted for the renewal, and 124 against.{{citation needed|date=June 2017}}

Right to privacy

The Democratic Party believes that individuals should have a right to privacy. For example, many Democrats have opposed the NSA warrantless surveillance of American citizens.Some Democratic officeholders have championed consumer protection laws that limit the sharing of consumer data between corporations. Most Democrats oppose sodomy laws and believe that government should not regulate consensual noncommercial sexual conduct among adults as a matter of personal privacy.NEWS, Ashtari, Shadee, Here's The Medieval-Sounding Sodomy Law That Helped Ken Cuccinelli Lose In Virginia,weblink Huffington Post, November 6, 2013,

Foreign policy issues

The foreign policy of the voters of the two major parties has largely overlapped since the 1990s. A Gallup poll in early 2013 showed broad agreement on the top issues, albeit with some divergence regarding human rights and international cooperation through agencies such as the United Nations.WEB,weblink Republicans, Democrats Agree on Top Foreign Policy Goals,, April 16, 2017, In June 2014, the Quinnipiac Poll asked Americans which foreign policy they preferred:Democrats chose A over B by 65% to 32%; Republicans chose A over B by 56% to 39%; and independents chose A over B by 67% to 29%.See "July 3, 2014 - Iraq - Getting In Was Wrong; Getting Out Was Right, U.S. Voters Tell Quinnipiac University National Poll" Quinnipiac University Poll item #51

Iraq War

{{see also|Iraq War}}
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President Barack Obama shaking hands with an American soldier in Basra, Iraq in 2008.
In 2002, Congressional Democrats were divided on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq: 147 voted against it (21 in the Senate and 126 in the House) and 110 voted for it (29 in the Senate and 81 in the House). Since then, many prominent Democrats, such as former senator John Edwards, have expressed regret about this decision and have called it a mistake while others, such as Senator Hillary Clinton, have criticized the conduct of the war yet not repudiated their initial vote for it (though Clinton later went on to repudiate her stance during the 2008 primaries). Referring to Iraq, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid declared in April 2007 the war to be "lost" while other Democrats (especially during the 2004 presidential election cycle) accused the President of lying to the public about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. Among lawmakers, Democrats are the most vocal opponents of Operation Iraqi Freedom and campaigned on a platform of withdrawal ahead of the 2006 midterm elections.A March 2003 CBS News poll taken a few days before the invasion of Iraq found that 34% of Democrats nationwide would support it without United Nations backing, 51% would support it only with its backing and 14% would not support it at all.WEB,weblink Archive page #16 of polls,, June 1, 2003, October 2, 2013, The Los Angeles Times stated in early April 2003 that 70% of Democrats supported the decision to invade while 27% opposed it.WEB,weblink Archive page #15 of polls,, October 2, 2013, The Pew Research Center stated in August 2007 that opposition increased from 37% during the initial invasion to 74%.Pew Research Center: Along the Iraq-Vietnam Parallel {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 16, 2012 }}. Pew Research Center. August 28, 2007. In April 2008, a CBS News poll found that about 90% of Democrats disapprove of the Bush administration's conduct and want to end the war within the next year.Recent polls from Pollingreport.Democrats in the House of Representatives near-unanimously supported a non-binding resolution disapproving of President Bush's decision to send additional troops into Iraq in 2007. Congressional Democrats overwhelmingly supported military funding legislation that included a provision that set "a timeline for the withdrawal of all US combat troops from Iraq" by March 31, 2008, but also would leave combat forces in Iraq for purposes such as targeted counter-terrorism operations.NEWS, Flaherty, Anne, Congress passes Iraq bill, veto awaits,weblink April 26, 2007, Associated Press, April 26, 2007, The Boston Globe, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 29, 2007, NEWS, US Democrats push for 2008 Iraq exit,weblink April 26, 2007, Reuters, April 26, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 11, 2007, After a veto from the President and a failed attempt in Congress to override the veto,NEWS, Democrats fail to override Bush on war funding,weblink May 2, 2007, International Herald Tribune, May 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2007, the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 was passed by Congress and signed by the President after the timetable was dropped. Criticism of the Iraq War subsided after the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 led to a dramatic decrease in Iraqi violence. The Democratic-controlled 110th Congress continued to fund efforts in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Presidential candidate Barack Obama advocated a withdrawal of combat troops within Iraq by late 2010 with a residual force of peacekeeping troops left in place. He stated that both the speed of withdrawal and the number of troops left over would be "entirely conditions-based".Obama says conditions to dictate final Iraq force. Reuters. July 27, 2008.On February 27, 2009, President Obama announced: "As a candidate for president, I made clear my support for a timeline of 16 months to carry out this drawdown, while pledging to consult closely with our military commanders upon taking office to ensure that we preserve the gains we've made and protect our troops [...] Those consultations are now complete, and I have chosen a timeline that will remove our combat brigades over the next 18 months". Around 50,000 non-combat-related forces would remain. Obama's plan drew wide bipartisan support, including that of defeated Republican presidential candidate Senator John McCain.Top Republicans embrace Iraq plan. The Politico. February 27, 2009.{{Update inline|date=April 2017}}

Iran sanctions

{{see also|United States sanctions against Iran}}The Democratic Party has been critical of the Iran's nuclear weapon program and supported economic sanctions against the Iranian government. In 2013, the Democratic-led administration worked to reach a diplomatic agreement with the government of Iran to halt the Iranian nuclear weapon program in exchange for international economic sanction relief.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Michael R., Gordon, Accord Reached With Iran to Halt Nuclear Program, November 23, 2013, {{as of|2014}}, negotiations had been successful and the party called for more cooperation with Iran in the future.NEWS,weblink Jewish Democratic donors urge Congress: Back off Iran sanctions, February 28, 2014,, In 2015, the Obama administration agreed to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, which provides sanction relief in exchange for international oversight of the Iranian nuclear program. In February 2019, the Democratic National Committee passed a resolution calling on the United States to re-enter the JCPOA, which President Trump withdrew from in 2018.WEB,weblink Democratic Party passes resolution calling for US to re-enter Iran nuke deal, Cortellessa, Eric,, en-US, 2019-02-21,

Invasion of Afghanistan

{{see also|Afghanistan – United States relations|International public opinion on the war in Afghanistan}}Democrats in the House of Representatives and in the Senate near-unanimously voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists against "those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States" in Afghanistan in 2001, supporting the NATO coalition invasion of the nation. Most elected Democrats continue to support the Afghanistan conflict and some, such as a Democratic National Committee spokesperson, have voiced concerns that the Iraq War shifted too many resources away from the presence in Afghanistan."Pelosi, Schumer Express Support for Troop Surge in Afghanistan" CNS News. August 1, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2008. {{webarchive |url= |date=September 19, 2008 }}"Democrats say McCain forgot Afghanistan". Boston Globe. July 24, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008. {{webarchive |url= |date=August 20, 2008 }}"John McCain & Barack Obama urge Afghanistan surge". New York Daily News. July 15, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008. Since 2006, Democratic candidate Barack Obama has called for a "surge" of troops into Afghanistan. As president, Obama sent a "surge" force of additional troops to Afghanistan. Troop levels were 94,000 in December 2011 and kept falling, with a target of 68,000 by fall 2012. Obama planned to bring all the troops home by 2014."U.S. plans major shift to advisory role in Afghanistan", Los Angeles Times, December 13, 2011Support for the war among the American people has diminished over time and many Democrats have changed their opinion and now oppose a continuation of the conflict. In July 2008, Gallup found that 41% of Democrats called the invasion a "mistake" while a 55% majority disagreed. In contrast, Republicans were more supportive of the war. The survey described Democrats as evenly divided about whether or not more troops should be sent—56% support it if it would mean removing troops from Iraq and only 47% support it otherwise."Afghan War Edges Out Iraq as Most Important for U.S." by Frank Newport. Gallup. July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 24, 2009. A CNN survey in August 2009 stated that a majority of Democrats now oppose the war. CNN polling director Keating Holland said: "Nearly two thirds of Republicans support the war in Afghanistan. Three quarters of Democrats oppose the war".Most Americans oppose Afghanistan war: poll {{Webarchive|url= |date=August 10, 2009 }}. The Australian. August 7, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009. An August 2009 Washington Post poll found similar results and the paper stated that Obama's policies would anger his closest supporters.Public Opinion in U.S. Turns Against Afghan War. By Jennifer Agiesta and Jon Cohen. Washington Post. August 20, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.


{{see also|Israel–United States relations}}
missing image!
- Jimmy Carter and Menahem Begin - NARA - 181332.tif|thumb|right|President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem BeginMenachem BeginThe Democratic Party has both recently and historically supported Israel. Former House Speaker Nancy Pelosi said in 2009: "When it comes to Israel, Republicans and Democrats speak with one voice".NEWS,weblink FrontPage Magazine, July 24, 2009, Alan Dershowitz vs. Melanie Phillips, Jamie, Glazov,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2012, August 2, 2009, dead, mdy-all, A 2008 Gallup poll found that 64% say that they have a favorable image of Israel while only 16% say that they have a favorable image of the Palestinian Authority.Americans' Most and Least Favored Nations. By Lydia Saad. Gallup. March 3, 2008. Within the party, the majority view is held by the Democratic leadership although some members such as John Conyers Jr., George Miller, Nick Rahall, Dave Obey, Pete Stark, Dennis Kucinich and Jim McDermott as well as former President Jimmy Carter are less or not supportive of Israel.Left could push pro-Israel voters to GOP. By Jennifer Rubin. Politico. July 18, 2007. The party leadership refers to the few Democrats unsympathetic to Israel as a "(wikt:fringe|fringe)".The 2008 Democratic Party platform acknowledges a "special relationship with Israel, grounded in shared interests and shared values, and a clear, strong, fundamental commitment to the security of Israel, our strongest ally in the region and its only established democracy". It also included:It is in the best interests of all parties, including the United States, that we take an active role to help secure a lasting settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict with a democratic, viable Palestinian state dedicated to living in peace and security side by side with the Jewish State of Israel. To do so, we must help Israel identify and strengthen those partners who are truly committed to peace while isolating those who seek conflict and instability, and stand with Israel against those who seek its destruction. The United States and its Quartet partners should continue to isolate Hamas until it renounces terrorism, recognizes Israel's right to exist, and abides by past agreements. Sustained American leadership for peace and security will require patient efforts and the personal commitment of the President of the United States. The creation of a Palestinian state through final status negotiations, together with an international compensation mechanism, should resolve the issue of Palestinian refugees by allowing them to settle there, rather than in Israel. All understand that it is unrealistic to expect the outcome of final status negotiations to be a full and complete return to the armistice lines of 1949. Jerusalem is and will remain the capital of Israel. The parties have agreed that Jerusalem is a matter for final status negotiations. It should remain an undivided city accessible to people of all faiths.WEB,weblink Renewing America's Promise: Democratic Party Platform, 2008,, June 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2010, Shimon Peres observes Binyamin Nitanyahu greeting Barack Obama.jpg -
A January 2009 Pew Research Center study found that when asked "which side do you sympathize with more", 42% of Democrats and 33% of liberals (a plurality in both groups) sympathize most with the Israelis. Around half of all political moderates or independents sided with Israel.WEB,weblink Ideological Gaps Over Israel on Both Sides of Atlantic, January 29, 2009,, April 16, 2017, The years leading up to the 2016 election have brought more discussion of the party's stance on Israel as polls reported declining support for Israel among the party faithful.WEB,weblink Gallup poll: Democrats losing sympathy for Israel, Kendall Breitman, February 23, 2015, POLITICO, Gallup suggested that the decline in support might be due to tensions between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Barack Obama.The rise of the progressive Bernie Sanders-aligned faction of the party, which tends to trend more pro-Palestine, is also likely responsible for the decline in support for Israel. A 2016 Pew Research poll found that while Clinton supporters sympathized more with Israel than Palestinians by a 20-point margin, Sanders supporters sympathized more with Palestinians than with Israel by a 6-point margin.NEWS,weblink Clinton, Sanders supporters differ sharply on U.S. global role, 2016-05-17, Pew Research Center, 2018-08-25, en-US, In June 2016, DNC members voted against an amendment to the party platform proposed by Sanders supporter James Zogby calling for an "end to occupation and illegal settlements".NEWS,weblink Democrats Reject Platform Proposal Calling for 'End to Occupation and Illegal Settlements', 2016-06-25, Haaretz, 2018-08-25, en, In August 2018, Rashida Tlaib, who supports a one-state solution,NEWS,weblink Michigan candidate backs 1-state solution, slashing military aid to Israel, 2018-08-25, en-US, and Ilhan Omar, who has referred to Israel as an "apartheid regime"WEB,weblink Ilhan Omar, who once called Israel an 'apartheid regime,' wins congressional primary in Minnesota {{!, Jewish Telegraphic Agency||language=en-US|access-date=2018-08-25|date=2018-08-15}} won Democratic primaries in Michigan and Minnesota. In November 2018, shortly after being elected to Congress, Omar came out in support of the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) campaign against Israel.NEWS,weblink Muslim Trailblazer Ilhan Omar Admits She Backs BDS — Now That Election Is Over, The Forward, 2018-11-14,

Voter base

{{further|Factions in the Democratic Party (United States)#Voter base}}File:Republican v Democrat Gallup 6-10.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Self-identified Democrats (blue) versus self-identified Republicans (red) (January–June 2010 data)]]


Professionals, those who have a college education and those whose work revolves around the conception of ideas have supported the Democratic Party by a slight majority since 2000. Between 1988 and 2000, professionals favored Democrats by a 12-percentage point margin. While the professional class was once a stronghold of the Republican Party, it has become increasingly split between the two parties, leaning in favor of the Democratic Party. The increasing support for Democratic candidates among professionals may be traced to the prevalence of social liberal values among this group:JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 12, 2007, Judis, J. B., Teixeira, R., June 19, 2007, Back to the Future, The American Prospect, August 19, 2007, A study on the political attitudes of medical students, for example, found that "U.S. medical students are considerably more likely to be liberal than conservative and are more likely to be liberal than are other young U.S. adults. Future U.S. physicians may be more receptive to liberal messages than current ones, and their political orientation may profoundly affect their health system attitudes".JOURNAL,weblink Frank, E., Carrera, J. & Dharamsi, S., February 9, 2007, Political Self-characterization of U.S. Medical Students, Journal of General Internal Medicine, September 26, 2007, 10.1007/s11606-007-0108-5, 17372802, 22, 4, 514–517, 1829428, Similar results are found for professors, who are more strongly inclined towards liberalism and the Democratic Party than other occupational groups. The Democratic Party also has strong support among scientists, with 55% identifying as Democrats, 32% as independents and 6% as Republicans and 52% identifying as liberal, 35% as moderate and 9% as conservative."Public Praises Science; Scientists Fault Public, Media Section 4: Scientists, Politics and Religion".


{{see also|Higher education in the United States}}Academics, intellectuals and the highly educated overall constitute an important part of the Democratic voter base. Academia in particular tends to be progressive. In a 2005 survey, nearly 72% of full-time faculty members identified as liberal while 15% identified as conservative. The social sciences and humanities were the most liberal disciplines while business was the most conservative. Male professors at more advanced stages of their careers as well as those at elite institutions, tend to be the most liberal. Another survey by UCLA conducted in 2001/2002 found 47.6% of scholars identifying as liberal, 34.3% as moderate and 18% as conservative.NEWS,weblink Shea, C. (October 12, 2003). What liberal academia? The Boston Globe, August 19, 2007, The Boston Globe, December 10, 2003, Percentages of professors who identified as liberal ranged from 49% in business to over 80% in political science and the humanities. Social scientists, such as Brett O'Bannon of DePauw University, have claimed that the "liberal" opinions of professors seem to have little if any, effect on the political orientation of students.WEB,weblink O'Bannon, B. R. (August 27, 2003). In Defense of the 'Liberal' Professor. Indianapolis Star, July 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2007, WEB,weblink George, D. L. & Medler, J. F. (1996). College Faculty as an Inconsequential Agent of Political Socialization. Department of Political Science, Cal Poly State University, San Louis Obispo, September 25, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 27, 2007, mdy-all, Those with graduate education have become increasingly Democratic beginning in 1992,NEWS,weblink Exit Polls - Election Results 2008, The New York Times, November 5, 2008, October 2, 2013, 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008NEWS,weblink CNN, Local Exit Polls - Election Center 2008 - Elections & Politics from, May 1, 2010, elections. Intellectualism, the tendency to constantly reexamine issues, or in the words of Edwards Shields, the "penetration beyond the screen of immediate concrete experience", has also been named as an explanation why academia is strongly democratic and liberal.JOURNAL, Shields, E, 1958, The Intellectuals and the Powers: Some Perspectives for Comparative Analysis, Comparative Studies in Society and History, 1, 5, JOURNAL, Lipset, S. M., Ladd, E. C., 1972, The Politics of American Sociologists, American Journal of Sociology, 78, 67, 67–104, In the past, a self-identified Republican was more likely to have a 4-year college degree, but according to some recent surveys similar percentages of Republicans and Democrats are likely to have 4-year college degrees and Democrats are more likely to hold post-graduate degrees.NEWS,weblink The Politics of Going to College, September 18, 2012, The New York Times, Thomas B., Edsall, April 1, 2012, An analysis of 2008 through 2012 survey data from the General Social Survey, the National Election Studies and the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press led to a slightly different assessment of the overall educational status of self-identified Democrats and Republicans:On average, self-identified Republicans have more years of education (4 to 8 months each, depending on the survey) and are probably more likely to hold, at the least, a 4-year college degree. (One major survey indicates that they are more likely, while the results of another survey are statistically insignificant.) It also appears that Republicans continue to out-test Democrats in surveys that assess political knowledge and/or current events. With respect to post-graduate studies, the educational advantage is shifting towards self-identified Democrats. They are now more likely to hold post-graduate college degrees. (One major survey indicates that they are more likely, while the results of another survey are statistically insignificant.)WEB,weblink Educational differences between Democrats and Republicans, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 11, 2013,


File:Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Official Portrait.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Alexandria Ocasio-CortezAlexandria Ocasio-CortezStudies have shown that younger voters tend to vote mostly for Democratic candidates in recent years. Despite supporting Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, the young have voted in favor of the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since Bill Clinton in 1992 and are more likely to identify as liberals than the general population.NEWS,weblink Nagourney, A. (June 27, 2007). Young Americans are leaning left, new poll finds. The New York Times, April 5, 2007, In the 2004 presidential election, Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry received 54% of the vote from voters of the age group 18–29 while Republican George W. Bush received 45% of the vote from the same age group. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats received 60% of the vote from the same age group. Polls suggest that younger voters tend to be more liberal than the general population and have more liberal views than the public on same-sex marriage and universal healthcare, helping Barack Obama carry 66% of their votes in 2008. The Young Democrats of America are an affiliated organization of members of the party younger than 36 that advocates for youth issues and works for youth voter turnout.


Although the gender gap has varied over many years, women of all ages are more likely than men to identify as Democrats. Polls in 2009 indicated that 41% of women identify as Democrats while only 25% of women identify as Republicans and 26% as independents whereas 32% of men identify as Democrats, 28% as Republicans and 34% as independents. Among ethnic minorities, women also are more likely than males to identify as Democrats. Also, American women that identified as single, living with a domestic partner, divorced, separated, or widowed are more likely than men in these categories to vote Democratic, in contrast to married Americans which split about equally between Democrat and Republican. Women in these categories are significantly more likely than males in these categories to vote Democratic.WEB,weblink Women More Likely to Be Democrats, Regardless of Age,, June 17, 2010, The National Federation of Democratic Women is an affiliated organization meant to advocate for women's issues. The Woman's National Democratic Club works to promote the Democratic party. National women's organizations that support Democratic candidates are Emily's List, which aims to help elect pro-choice Democratic female candidates to office and often but not always the National Organization for Women.

Relation to marital status and parenthood

Americans that identify as single, living with a domestic partner, divorced, separated, or widowed are more likely to vote Democratic in contrast to married Americans which split about equally between Democrat and Republican.GSS surveys of more than 11,000 Democrats and Republicans conducted between 1996 and 2006 came to the result that the differences in fertility rates are not statistically significant between these parties, with the average Democrat having 1.94 children and the average Republican having 1.91 children.BOOK, Fried, Joseph., Democrats and Republicans--rhetoric and reality : comparing the voters in statistics and anecdote, 2008, Algora Pub., New York, 16, 978-0-87586-603-1,weblink
However, there is a significant difference in fertility rates between the two related groups liberals and conservatives, with liberals reproducing at a much lower rate than conservatives.

LGBTQ Americans

File:Gay Rights are Human Rights (5823033786).jpg|thumb|left|"Gay Rights are Human Rights", a quote by Democratic Secretary of State and Senator from New York Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton{|class="wikitable sortable" style="float: right; margin-left:10px"|+ LGBT votes for Democratic presidential candidates!YearNEWS,weblink Gay Vote Proved a Boon for Obama, November 15, 2012, The New York Times, December 27, 2012, Micah, Cohen, !! Candidate !! Vote1996 United States presidential election>1996 Bill Clinton 71%2000 United States presidential election>2000 Al Gore 70%2004 United States presidential election>2004 John Kerry 77%2008 United States presidential election>2008 Barack Obama 70%2012 United States presidential election>2012 Barack Obama 76%2016 United States presidential election>2016 Hillary Clinton 78%According to national media exit polling, LGBT Americans typically vote Democratic in national elections within the 70–77% range. In heavily gay precincts in large cities across the nation, the average was higher, ranging from 85–94%. This trend has continued since 1996 when Bill Clinton won 71% of the LGBT vote compared to Bob Dole's 16% and 13% for others. In 2000, Al Gore won 70% to George W. Bush's 25% with 5% for others, in 2004 John Kerry won 77% to George W. Bush's 23%, in 2008 Barack Obama won 70% to John McCain's 27% with 3% to others and in 2012 Barack Obama won 76% to Mitt Romney's 22% with 2% to others. Patrick Egan, a professor of politics at New York University specializing in LGBT voting patterns, calls this a "remarkable continuity", saying that "about three-fourths vote Democratic and one-fourth Republican from year to year".WEB,weblink Gay Support for Obama Similar to Dems in Past Elections,, November 26, 2008, June 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2009, Notable LGBT Democrats include current Senator Tammy Baldwin of Wisconsin, Senator Kyrsten Sinema of Arizona, current Representative David Cicilline of Rhode Island, and current Governor Jared Polis of Colorado. The late activist and San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk was a Democrat as is former Representative Barney Frank of Massachusetts. The National Stonewall Democrats is an LGBT advocacy group associated with the Democratic Party. The Congressional LGBT Equality Caucus is a congressional caucus of 153 Democrats that work and advocate for LGBT rights within the House of Representatives.WEB,weblink Members, Congressional LGBT Equality Caucus, 2 March 2019,


(File:Fig 109 - does someone in house belong to union.JPG|thumb|right|upright=1.7|Higher percentuals of household who belongs to unions are more likely to be Democrats than Republicans)Since the 1930s, a critical component of the Democratic Party coalition has been organized labor. Labor unions supply a great deal of the money, grass roots political organization and voting base of support for the party. Democrats are far more likely to be represented by unions, although union membership has declined, in general, during the last few decades. This trend is depicted in the following graph from the book Democrats and Republicans—Rhetoric and Reality.Fried, Joseph, Democrats and Republicans: Rhetoric and Reality (New York: Algora Publishing, 2008), 126. It is based on surveys conducted by the National Election Studies (NES).The historic decline in union membership over the past half-century has been accompanied by a growing disparity between public sector and private sector union membership percentages. The three most significant labor groupings in the Democratic coalition today are the AFL-CIO and Change to Win labor federations as well as the National Education Association, a large, unaffiliated teachers' union. Both the AFL-CIO and Change to Win have identified their top legislative priority for 2007 as passage of the Employee Free Choice Act. Other important issues for labor unions include supporting industrial policy (including protectionism) that sustains unionized manufacturing jobs, raising the minimum wage and promoting broad social programs such as Social Security and universal health care.

Working class

{{further|Social class in the United States}}While the American working class has lost much of its political strength with the decline of labor unions,BOOK, Zweig, Michael, 2004, What's Class Got To Do With It, American Society in the Twenty-First Century, Cornell University Press, New York, 978-0-8014-8899-3,weblink it remains a stronghold of the Democratic Party and continues as an essential part of the Democratic base. Today, roughly a third of the American public is estimated to be working class with around 52% being either members of the working or lower classes.BOOK, Gilbert, Dennis, 1998, The American Class Structure, Wadsworth Publishing, New York, 978-0-534-50520-2,weblink BOOK, Thompson, William, Joseph Hickey, 2005, Society in Focus, Pearson, Boston, MA, 978-0-205-41365-2,weblink Yet as those with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to vote, the working and lower classes are underrepresented in the electorate. The working class is largely distinguished by highly routinized and closely supervised work. It consists mainly of clerical and blue-collar workers. Even though most in the working class are able to afford an adequate standard of living, high economic insecurity and possible personal benefit from an extended social safety net make the majority of working class person left-of-center on economic issues. However, most working class Democrats differ from most liberals in their more socially conservative views. Working class Democrats tend to be more religious and likely to belong to an ethnic minority. Socially conservative and disadvantaged Democrats are among the least educated and lowest earning ideological demographics. In 2005, only 15% had a college degree, compared to 27% at the national average and 49% of liberals, respectively. Together, socially conservative and the financially disadvantaged comprised roughly 54% of the Democratic base. The continued importance of the working class votes manifests itself in recent CNN exit polls, which shows that the majority of those with low incomes and little education vote for the Democratic Party.However, since at least 1980WEB, Tyson, Alec, Maniam, Shiva, Pew Research Center,weblink Behind Trump's victory: Divisions by race, gender and education, November 9, 2016, July 9, 2017, there has been a noticeable decline in support for the Democratic Party among white working-class voters.NEWS, Cohn, Nate, Obama's Problem With White, Non-College Educated Voters is Getting Worse,weblink The New Republic, June 11, 2012, February 13, 2017, NEWS, Edsall, Thomas B., The Demise of the White Democratic Voter,weblink The New York Times, November 11, 2014, May 5, 2015, NEWS, Drum, Kevin, Can We Talk? Here's Why the White Working Class Hates Democrats,weblink Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, November 13, 2014, May 5, 2015, MAGAZINE, Bouie, Jamelle, Why Democrats Can't Win Over White Working-Class Voters,weblink Slate (magazine), Slate, November 14, 2014, May 5, 2015, INTERVIEW, Teixeira, Ruy, Steve Inskeep, Democrats' Problem: White, Working-Class Voters,weblink NPR, January 2, 2015, May 5, 2015, NEWS, Judis, John B., The Emerging Republican Advantage,weblink National Journal, January 31, 2015, May 5, 2015, In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama carried 40% of white voters without college degrees to John McCain carrying 58%.NEWS, Local Exit Polls 2008 - Election Center 2008 Elections & Politics from,weblink CNN, February 13, 2017, In the 2010 midterms, Democratic candidates for the House of Representatives only carried 33% of the white working class vote compared to 63% for the Republican candidates.NEWS, Senate, House, Governor Races - Election Center 2010 - Elections & Politics from,weblink CNN, February 13, 2017, In the 2012 presidential election, Barack Obama carried 36% of white working class voters to Mitt Romney carrying 61%.WEB, Teixeira, Ruy, Halpin, John, Center for American Progress,weblink The Obama Coalition in the 2012 Election and Beyond, 5, December 2012, May 5, 2015, In the 2014 midterms, Democratic candidates for the House of Representatives carried 34% of the white working class vote compared to 64% for the Republican candidates.NEWS, U.S. House results -- 2014 Election Center -- Elections and Politics from,weblink CNN, February 13, 2017, In the 2016 presidential election, Hillary Clinton only carried 28% of white working class voters to Donald Trump carrying 67%.NEWS, Exit Polls 2016,weblink CNN, November 23, 2016, February 13, 2017, NEWS, Election 2016: Exit Polls,weblink The New York Times, November 8, 2016, February 13, 2017, NEWS, 2016 Election News, Candidates & Polls - NBC News,weblink NBC News, November 13, 2016, February 13, 2017,

Secular Americans

The Democratic Party receives support from secular organizations such as the Secular Coalition for AmericaWEB,weblink Secular Coalition Flunks U.S. House on Religious Freedom Issues,, and many agnostic and atheist Americans. Exit polls from the 2008 election showed that voters with a religious affiliation of "none" accounted for the 12% of the electorate and overwhelmingly voted for Obama by a 75–25% margin.NEWS,weblink CNN, Local Exit Polls - Election Center 2008 - Elections & Politics from, In his inaugural address, Obama acknowledged atheists by saying that the United States is not just "Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus but non-believers as well".NEWS,weblink USA Today, An inaugural first: Obama acknowledges 'non-believers', January 22, 2009, In the 2012 election cycle, Obama has moderate to high rankings with the Secular Coalition for America whereas the majority of the Republican candidates have ratings in the low-to-failing range.WEB,weblink 2012 Presidential Primary Candidate Scorecard,, Although a diverse group themselves, atheists and secular people may include individuals who are fiscally conservative. In this case, fiscally conservative atheists and secularists will come together due to their opposition to the religiously bound social policies of the Christian right.WEB,weblink Atheists & Voting: How Can Atheists Vote to Positively Influence Government?, Austin Cline, Religion & Spirituality, There is still a social stigma relating to atheism in the nation and polls show that a majority of the American people would be more comfortable voting for a Muslim or gay candidate than an atheist.WEB,weblink Polls & Other Surveys on American Attitudes Towards Atheists, Austin Cline, Religion & Spirituality,

African Americans

File:Photograph of President William Jefferson Clinton Greeting People in a Large Crowd at a "Get Out the Vote" Rally in Los Angeles, California, 11 02 2000.jpg|thumb|Bill Clinton at a Democratic "Get out the voteGet out the voteFrom the end of the Civil War, African Americans primarily favored the Republican Party due to its overwhelming political and more tangible efforts in achieving the abolition of slavery, particularly through President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. The South had long been a Democratic stronghold, favoring a state's right to legal slavery. In addition, the ranks of the fledgling Ku Klux Klan were composed almost entirely of white Democrats who were angry over the poor treatment they had received at the hands of northerners and who were also bent on reversing the policies of Reconstruction.WEB, Ku Klux Klan - History,weblink Anti-Defamation League, October 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 12, 2011, mdy-all, However, African Americans began drifting to the Democratic Party when Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected president. Support for the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s by Democratic Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson helped give the Democrats even larger support among the African American community, which consistently vote between 85-95% Democratic.WEB, Jackson, Brooks, Blacks and the Democratic Party,weblink, October 30, 2011, 2008-04-18, Prominent modern-day African American Democratic politicians include Jim Clyburn, Elijah Cummings, Maxine Waters, John Lewis, Barbara Lee, Charles Rangel, John Conyers, Senator Cory Booker and former President Barack Obama, who managed to net over 95% of the African American vote in the 2008 election.WEB, Teixeira, Ruy (November 11, 2008), Digging into the 2008 Exit Polls,weblink Taking Note, October 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2012, mdy-all, Despite being unaffiliated, the NAACP often participates in organizing and voter turnout drives and advocates for progressive causes, especially those that affect people of color.WEB, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,weblink, October 31, 2011, Within the House of Representatives, the Congressional Black Caucus, consisting of 44 black Democrats, serves to represent the interests of African Americans and advocate on issues that affect them.

Hispanic and Latino Americans

File:Julián Castro's Official HUD Portrait.jpg|thumb|left|150px|Julián Castro served as Mayor of San Antonio, Secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and is a candidate for President in 2020.]]The Hispanic population, particularly the large Mexican American population in the Southwest and the large Puerto Rican and Dominican populations in the Northeast, have been strong supporters of the Democratic Party. In the 1996 presidential election, Democratic President Bill Clinton received 72% of the Hispanic vote.NEWS, Cillizza, Chris, With Hispanic support for Obama waning, could Latino vote be up for grabs in 2012?,weblink October 30, 2011, The Washington Post, September 18, 2011, In following years, the Republican Party gained increasing support from the Hispanic community, especially among Hispanic Protestants and Pentecostals. With his much more liberal views on immigration, President Bush was the first Republican president to gain 40% of the Hispanic vote in the 2004 presidential election. Yet the Republican Party's support among Hispanics eroded in the 2006 midterm elections, dropping from 44% to 30%, with the Democrats gaining in the Hispanic vote from 55% in 2004 to 69% in 2006. Democrats increased their share of the Hispanic vote in the 2008 presidential election, with Barack Obama receiving 67%. According to exit polls by Edison Research, Obama increased his support again in 2012, winning 71% of Hispanic voters.NEWS,weblink CNN, Latino vote key to Obama's re-election, November 9, 2012, Cuban Americans still tend to vote Republican, though there has been a noticeable change starting with the 2008 elections. During the 2008 elections, Barack Obama received 47% of the Cuban American vote in Florida.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Damien, Cave, U.S. Overtures Find Support Among Cuban-Americans, April 21, 2009, According to Bendixen's exit polls, 84% of Miami-Dade Cuban American voters 65 or older backed McCain, while 55% of those 29 or younger backed Obama,Woods, Casey (November 6, 2008). "Presidential and Congressional Candidate Cuba Watch: Analysis of Cuban American vote". Retrieved on July 15, 2013. showing that the younger Cuban American generation has become more liberal.Throughout the decade of the 2000s, 60% or more of Hispanic Roman Catholics who were registered to vote identified as either Democratic or leaning towards the Party.Unaffiliated Hispanic advocacy groups that often support progressive candidates and causes include the National Council of La Raza and the League of United Latin American Citizens. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic caucus of Hispanic Americans is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus.

Native Americans

File:CarlVenneANDBarackObama-May19-2008.JPG|thumb|right|Carl Venne, the then Crow Indian Tribal Chairman, shows support for Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama in 2008.]]The Democratic Party also has strong support among the Native American population, particularly in Arizona, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, Alaska, Idaho, Minnesota, Wisconsin, OklahomaWEB, Paying Attention to the Native American Vote,weblink, January 2, 2016, and North Carolina. Although now a small percentage of the population (virtually non-existent in some regions), most Native American precincts vote Democratic in margins exceeded only by African-Americans.Dems woo Native American vote. Politico. May 29, 2008.Modern-day Democratic Native American politicians include Congresswomen Sharice Davids of Kansas and Deb Haaland of New Mexico and former Congressman Brad Carson of Oklahoma as well as Principal Chief Bill John Baker of the Cherokee Nation and Governor Bill Anoatubby of the Chickasaw Nation.

Jewish Americans

{{see also|National Jewish Democratic Council}}File:Obama and Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Democratic President Barack Obama at a Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish OrganizationsConference of Presidents of Major American Jewish OrganizationsJewish American communities tend to be a stronghold for the Democratic Party, with more than 70% of Jewish voters having cast their ballots for the Democrats in the 2004 and 2006 elections. Al Gore received 79% of the Jewish votes in 2000 and Barack Obama won about 77% of the Jewish vote in 2008."Barack Obama wins 77 percent of Jewish vote, exit polls show". Haaretz Daily. November 5, 2008. Support tends to vary among specific sectarian groups. For example, only 13% of Orthodox Jews supported Barack Obama in 2008 while around 60% of Conservative Jews and Reform Jews did so. A 2010 poll by the Pew Research Center found that 60% of self-described Jews identified as Democratic or leaning towards the party, compared to 33% with those feelings towards Republicans.WEB,weblink Growing Number of Americans Say Obama is a Muslim: Religion, Politics and the President (5 Sections), Pew Research Center for the People & the Press,, August 19, 2010,weblink July 8, 2012, August 9, 2011, dead, mdy, Jews as an important Democratic constituency are especially politically active and influential in large cities such as New York City, Los Angeles, Boston and Chicago and play critical roles in large cities within presidential swing states, such as Philadelphia, Miami and Las Vegas. Many prominent national Democrats in recent decades have been Jewish, including Chuck Schumer, Carl Levin, Abraham Ribicoff, Ben Cardin, Henry Waxman, Martin Frost, Joseph Lieberman, Bernie Sanders, Dianne Feinstein, Barney Frank, Barbara Boxer, Paul Wellstone, Rahm Emanuel, Russ Feingold, Herb Kohl and Howard Metzenbaum.weblink" title="">Survey. American Jewish Committee September 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2009.

Arab and Muslim Americans

Arab Americans and Muslim Americans have leaned Democratic since the Iraq War.Arab-American Voters Say Iraq Top Issue in 2008 Campaign. By Mohamed Elshinnawi. Voice of America. July 23, 2007, {{webarchive|url=|date=March 13, 2008 }} Zogby found in June 2007 that 39% of Arab Americans identify as Democrats, 26% as Republicans and 28% as independents.Arab Americans, who are in general socially conservative yet with more diverse economic views, historically voted Republican until recent years, having supported George W. Bush over Al Gore in 2000.Mideast, Civil Liberties Concern Arab-Americans {{webarchive|url=|date=August 7, 2007}}. By James Q. Lynch. The Gazette (Cedar Rapids-Iowa City). Reprinted by the Arab-American Institute. July 19, 2003A 2012 poll found that 68% of Muslim Americans surveyed support Barack Obama."American Muslims supported Obama: poll". Business Standard. October 25, 2012.

Asian Americans

File:Daniel Inouye, official Senate photo portrait, 2008.jpg|thumb|upright|150px|Daniel Inouye was a Medal of Honor recipient who served nearly 60 years in elected office as a Democrat. He was the first Japanese-American elected to the House of Representatives and Senate.]]The Democratic Party also has considerable support in the small yet growing Asian American population. The Asian American population had been a stronghold of the Republican Party until the 1992 presidential election in which George H. W. Bush won 55% of the Asian American vote, compared to Bill Clinton winning 31% and Ross Perot winning 15% of the Asian vote. Originally, the vast majority of Asian Americans consisted of strongly anti-communist, pro-democracy Vietnamese refugees, Chinese Americans, Taiwanese Americans, Korean Americans and socially conservative Filipinos who fled Ferdinand Marcos in the 1960s through the 1980s and the general Republican Party's socially conservative, fervently anti-communist position strongly resonated with this original demographic. The Democratic party made gains among the Asian American population starting in 1996 and in 2006, won 62% of the Asian American vote. Exit polls after the 2008 presidential election indicated that Democratic candidate, Barack Obama won 62% of the Asian American vote nationwide."Dissecting the 2008 Electorate: Most Diverse in U.S. History {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 18, 2012 }}". Pew Research Center. April 30, 2009 In the 2012 presidential election, 73% of the Asian American electorate voted for Obama's re-election.NEWS, Presidential Race - 2012 Election Center - President: Full Results - Exit Polls,weblink CNN, November 18, 2012, November 15, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 17, 2012, Barack Obama has the support of 85% of Indian Americans, 68% of Chinese Americans and 57% of Filipino Americans."85% Indian-Americans support Obama for second term: Survey". The Times Of India. May 6, 2012. The Asian American community's increasing number of young voters has also helped to erode traditionally reliably Republican voting blocs such as Vietnamese and Filipino Americans, leading to an increase in support for Democrats. Prominent Asian American Democrats include Senators Tammy Duckworth, Daniel Inouye, Daniel Akaka and Mazie Hirono, former Governor and Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke and Representatives Mike Honda, Judy Chu, Doris Matsui and Norman Mineta.

Democratic presidents

{{as of|2019}}, there have been a total of 15 Democratic Party Presidents.{|class="sortable wikitable"!#!Name!Portrait!State!style="text-align:center;"|Presidencystart date!style="text-align:center;"|Presidencyend date!style="text-align:center;"|Time in office|7|Andrew Jackson65px)|Tennessee|March 4, 1829|March 4, 1837182943|4}}|8|Martin Van Buren65px)New York (state)>New York|March 4, 1837|March 4, 1841183743|4}}|11|James K. Polk65px)|Tennessee|March 4, 1845|March 4, 1849184543|4}}|14|Franklin Pierce65px)|New Hampshire|March 4, 1853|March 4, 1857185343|4}}|15|James Buchanan65px)|Pennsylvania|March 4, 1857|March 4, 1861185743|4}}|17|Andrew Johnson65px)|Tennessee|April 15, 1865|March 4, 18691865153|4}}|22Grover Cleveland(File:StephenGroverCleveland.png|65px)New York|March 4, 1885|March 4, 1889{{ayd318934}}|24|March 4, 1893|March 4, 1897|28|Woodrow Wilson65px)|New Jersey|March 4, 1913|March 4, 1921191343|4}}|32|Franklin D. Roosevelt65px)New York (state)>New York|March 4, 1933name=died|Died in office.}}193344|12}}|33|Harry S. Truman65px)|Missouri|April 12, 1945|January 20, 19531945121|20}}|35|John F. Kennedy65px)|Massachusetts|January 20, 1961name=died|Died in office.}}19612011|22}}|36|Lyndon B. Johnson65px)|Texas|November 22, 1963|January 20, 19691963221|20}}|39|Jimmy Carter65px)Georgia (U.S. state)>Georgia|January 20, 1977|January 20, 19811977201|20}}|42|Bill Clinton65px)|Arkansas|January 20, 1993|January 20, 20011993201|20}}|44|Barack Obama65px)|Illinois|January 20, 2009|January 20, 20172009201|20}}

Supreme Court justices appointed by Democratic presidents

In the Supreme Court, {{as of|2019|May|lc=y}}, four of the nine seats are filled by justices appointed by Democratic presidents.WEB,weblink Current Members,,

Recent electoral history

In congressional elections: 1950–present

{{see also|Party divisions of United States Congresses}}{|class=wikitable!colspan=3|House of Representatives!rowspan=2|President!rowspan=2|Party!colspan=3|Senate!Electionyear!No. ofseats won!+/–!No. ofseats won!+/–!Electionyear!1950235hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 28|Harry S. TrumanDemocratic49hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5!1950!1952213hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 22Dwight D. EisenhowerRepublican47hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2!1952!1954232hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1949hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!1954!1956234hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 249hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0!1956!1958283hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 4964hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 15!1958!1960262hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 21John F. KennedyDemocratic64hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1!1960!1962258hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 466hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 3!1962!1964295hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 37Lyndon B. Johnson{{Composition bar100|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!1964!1966248hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 4764hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 3!1966!1968243hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5Richard NixonRepublican57hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5!1968!1970255hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1254hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 3!1970!1972242hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1356hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!1972!1974291hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 49|Gerald Ford60hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 4!1974!1976292hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1Jimmy CarterDemocratic61hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0!1976!1978277hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1558hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 3!1978!1980243hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 34Ronald ReaganRepublican46hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 12!1980!1982269hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2646hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1!1982!1984253hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1647hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!1984!1986258hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 555hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 8!1986!1988260hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2George H.W. Bush55hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1!1988!1990267hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 756hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1!1990!1992258hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 9 Bill ClintonDemocratic57hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1!1992!1994204hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5447hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 10!1994!1996206hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 245hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2!1996!1998211hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 545hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0!1998!2000212hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1George W. BushRepublican50hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 5Vice President Dick Cheney provided tie-breaking vote, giving Republicans a majority!2000!2002204hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 749hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2!2002!2004202hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 245hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 4!2004!2006233hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 3151hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 6Includes two independents caucusing with the Democrats.!2006!2008257hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 21Barack ObamaDemocratic59hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 8!2008!2010193hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 6353hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 6!2010!2012201hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 855hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!2012!2014188hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1346hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 9!2014!2016194hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 6Donald TrumpRepublican48hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2!2016!2018235hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 4147hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1!2018

In presidential elections: 1828–present

{{see also|List of United States Democratic Party presidential tickets}}{|class="sortable wikitable"!style="text-align:center;"|Electionyear!Candidates!Votes!Vote %!Electoral votes!+/–!Result1828|Andrew Jackson642,55356.0{{Composition bar261|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}178|{{won}}1832|Andrew Jackson701,78054.2{{Composition bar286|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}41|{{won}}1836|Martin Van Buren764,17650.83{{Composition bar294|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}49|{{won}}1840|Martin Van Buren1,128,85446.8{{Composition bar294|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}110|{{lost}}1844|James K. Polk1,339,49449.5{{Composition bar275|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}110|{{won}}1848|Lewis Cass1,223,46042.5{{Composition bar290|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}43|{{lost}}1852|Franklin Pierce1,607,51050.8{{Composition bar296|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}127|{{won}}1856|James Buchanan1,836,07245.3{{Composition bar296|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}80|{{won}}1860|Stephen A. Douglas1,380,20229.5{{Composition bar303|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}162|{{lost}}1864|George B. McClellan1,812,80745.0{{Composition bar233|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}9|{{lost}}1868|Horatio Seymour2,706,82947.3{{Composition bar294|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}59|{{lost}}1872Horace Greeley (Liberal Republican Party (United States)>Liberal Republican)2,834,76143.8{{Composition bar352|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}11|{{lost}}1876|Samuel J. Tilden4,288,54650.9{{Composition bar369|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}115group=upper-alpha|Although Tilden won a majority of the popular vote, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won a majority of votes in the Electoral College.}}1880|Winfield Scott Hancock4,444,26048.25{{Composition bar369|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}29|{{lost}}1884|Grover Cleveland4,914,48248.9{{Composition bar401|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}64|{{won}}1888|Grover Cleveland5,534,48848.6{{Composition bar401|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}51group=upper-alpha|Although Cleveland won a majority of the popular vote, Republican Benjamin Harrison won a majority of votes in the Electoral College.}}1892|Grover Cleveland5,556,91846.0{{Composition bar444|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}109|{{won}}1896|William Jennings Bryan6,509,05246.70{{Composition bar447|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}101|{{lost}}1900|William Jennings Bryan6,370,93245.5{{Composition bar447|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}21|{{lost}}1904|Alton B. Parker5,083,88037.6{{Composition bar476|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}15|{{lost}}1908|William Jennings Bryan6,408,98443.0{{Composition bar483|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}22|{{lost}}1912|Woodrow Wilson6,296,28441.8{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}273|{{won}}1916|Woodrow Wilson9,126,86849.2{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}158|{{won}}1920|James M. Cox9,139,66134.2{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}150|{{lost}}1924|John W. Davis8,386,24228.8{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}9|{{lost}}1928|Al Smith15,015,46440.8{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}49|{{lost}}1932|Franklin D. Roosevelt22,821,27757.4{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}385|{{won}}1936|Franklin D. Roosevelt27,747,63660.8{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}51|{{won}}1940|Franklin D. Roosevelt27,313,94554.7{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}74|{{won}}1944|Franklin D. Roosevelt25,612,91653.4{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}17|{{won}}1948|Harry S. Truman24,179,34749.6{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}129|{{won}}1952Adlai Stevenson II>Adlai Stevenson27,375,09044.3{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}214|{{lost}}1956Adlai Stevenson II>Adlai Stevenson26,028,02842.0{{Composition bar531|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}16|{{lost}}1960|John F. Kennedy34,220,98449.72{{Composition bar537|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}230|{{won}}1964|Lyndon B. Johnson43,127,04161.1{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}183|{{won}}1968|Hubert Humphrey31,271,83942.7{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}295|{{lost}}1972|George McGovern29,173,22237.5{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}174|{{lost}}1976|Jimmy Carter40,831,88150.1{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}280|{{won}}1980|Jimmy Carter35,480,11541.0{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}248|{{lost}}1984|Walter Mondale37,577,35240.6{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}36|{{lost}}1988|Michael Dukakis41,809,07445.6{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}98|{{lost}}1992|Bill Clinton44,909,80643.0{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}259|{{won}}1996|Bill Clinton47,401,18549.2{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}9|{{won}}2000|Al Gore50,999,89748.4{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}113group=upper-alpha|Although Gore won a majority of the popular vote, Republican George W. Bush won a majority of votes in the Electoral College.}}2004|John Kerry59,028,44448.3{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}15|{{lost}}2008|Barack Obama69,498,51652.9{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{increase}}114|{{won}}2012|Barack Obama65,915,79551.1{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}33|{{won}}2016|Hillary Clinton65,844,61048.0{{Composition bar538|hex={{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}}105group=upper-alpha|Although Clinton won a majority of the popular vote, Republican Donald Trump won a majority of votes in the Electoral College.}}

See also





Further reading

  • Baker, Jean H. Affairs of party: The political culture of northern Democrats in the mid-nineteenth century (Fordham UP, 1998).
  • Bass Jr, Harold F. Historical dictionary of United States political parties (Scarecrow Press, 2009).
  • JOURNAL, Black, Merle, 2004, The transformation of the southern Democratic Party, Journal of Politics, 66, 4, 1001–1017, 10.1111/j.1468-2508.2004.00287.x,
  • Burner, David. The Politics of Provincialism: The Democratic Party in Transition, 1918–1932 (Knopf, 1968).
  • Congressional Quarterly. National Party Conventions, 1831–2000 (2001).
  • Craig, Douglas. "Newton D. Baker and the Democratic Malaise, 1920–1937." Australasian Journal of American Studies (2006): 49-64. in JSTOR
  • Dowe, Pearl K. Ford, et al. Remaking the Democratic Party: Lyndon B. Johnson as a Native-Son Presidential Candidate (University of Michigan Press, 2016).
  • Feller, David. "Politics and Society: Toward a Jacksonian Synthesis" Journal of the Early Republic 102 (1990), pp. 135–161 in JSTOR
  • Frymer, Paul. Black and blue: African Americans, the labor movement, and the decline of the Democratic party (Princeton UP, 2008).
  • Gerring, John. "A chapter in the history of American party ideology: The nineteenth-century Democratic Party (1828–1892)." Polity 26.4 (1994): 729-768. online
  • Landis, Michael Todd. Northern Men with Southern Loyalties: The Democratic Party and the Sectional Crisis. (Cornell University Press, 2014).
  • Lawrence, David G. The collapse of the democratic presidential majority: Realignment, dealignment, and electoral change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. (Westview Press, 1997).
  • JOURNAL, McGuire, John Thomas, 2014, Beginning an 'Extraordinary Opportunity': Eleanor Roosevelt, Molly Dewson, and the expansion of women's boundaries in the Democratic Party, 1924–1934, Women's History Review, 23, 6, 922–937, 10.1080/09612025.2014.906841,
  • Maisel, L. Sandy, and Jeffrey M. Berry, eds. The Oxford handbook of American political parties and interest groups (Oxford UP, 2010).
  • Neal, Steven. Happy Days are Here Again: The 1932 Democratic Convention, the Emergence of FDR--and how America was Changed Forever (Harper Collins, 2010).
  • Remini, Robert V. Martin Van Buren and the making of the Democratic Party (Columbia UP, 1961).
  • Savage, Sean J. Roosevelt: The Party Leader, 1932–1945 (U Press of Kentucky, 2015).
  • Savage, Sean J. JFK, LBJ, and the Democratic Party (SUNY Press, 2012).
  • Savage, Sean J. Truman and the Democratic Party (U Press of Kentucky, 2015).
  • Woods, Randall B. Prisoners of Hope: Lyndon B. Johnson, the Great Society, and the Limits of Liberalism (Basic Books, 2016).

External links

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