Jimmy Carter

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Jimmy Carter
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{{About|the 39th president of the United States|the submarine|USS Jimmy Carter{{!}}USS Jimmy Carter|other people}}{{redirect|James Earl Carter|his father|James Earl Carter Sr.}}{{pp-blp|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|39th president of the United States}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2019}}

| birth_place = Plains, Georgia, U.S.| residence = Plains, Georgia, U.S.Democratic Party (United States)>DemocraticRosalynn Carter>July 7, 1946}} }}Georgia Institute of TechnologyUnited States Naval Academy (Bachelor of Science>BS)James Earl Carter Sr. (father)Lillian Gordy Carter>Lillian Gordy (mother)Nobel Peace Prize (2002 Nobel Peace Prize>2002)See more| signature = Jimmy Carter Signature-2.svg| signature_alt = Cursive signature in inkUnited States|1960}}United States Navy}}| serviceyears = 1943–1953 (Active)1953–1961 (Reserve)25px) LieutenantborderAmerican Campaign Medal(File:World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg>borderWorld War II Victory Medal (United States)>World War II Victory Medal(File:China Service Medal ribbon.svg23px) China Service Medal(File:National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg23px) National Defense Service Medal}}{{Jimmy Carter series}}James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. Since leaving the presidency, Carter has remained active in the private sector; in 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in co-founding the Carter Center.Raised in Plains, Georgia, Carter graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and joined the United States Navy, where he served on submarines. After the death of his father in 1953, Carter left his naval career and returned home to Georgia to take up the reins of his family's peanut-growing business. Carter inherited comparatively little due to his father's forgiveness of debts and the division of the estate among the children. Nevertheless, his ambition to expand and grow the Carters' peanut business was fulfilled. During this period, Carter was motivated to oppose the political climate of racial segregation and support the growing civil rights movement. He became an activist within the Democratic Party. From 1963 to 1967, Carter served in the Georgia State Senate, and in 1970, he was elected as Governor of Georgia, defeating former Governor Carl Sanders in the Democratic primary on an anti-segregation platform advocating affirmative action for ethnic minorities. Carter remained as governor until 1975. Despite being a dark-horse candidate who was little known outside of Georgia at the start of the campaign, Carter won the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination. In the general election, Carter ran as an outsider and narrowly defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford. An evangelical Christian, Carter is credited with significantly moving the faith closer to the American mainstream; him advertising his devout Christian faith as a qualification on the campaign trail was unprecedented at the time and is seen as a significant event in the rise of the Christian right in America, even though they and Carter were political opponents.The Real Orgins of the Religious RightOn his second day in office, Carter pardoned all the Vietnam War draft evaders. During Carter's term as president, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education, were established. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama. On the economic front, he confronted persistent stagflation, a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the invasion, Carter escalated the Cold War when he ended détente, imposed a grain embargo against the Soviets, enunciated the Carter Doctrine, and led an 1980 Summer Olympics boycott in Moscow. In 1980, Carter faced a challenge from Senator Ted Kennedy in the primaries, but he won re-nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Carter lost the general election to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan in an electoral landslide. Polls of historians and political scientists usually rank Carter as an average president; he often receives more positive evaluations for his post-presidential work.In 1982, he established the Carter Center to promote and expand human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, monitor elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is considered a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity charity. He has written over 30 books ranging from political memoirs to poetry while continuing to actively comment on ongoing American and global affairs, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The earliest-serving of the five living U.S. presidents, Carter is the longest-lived president, the longest-retired president, the first to live forty years after their inauguration and the first to reach the age of 95. {{TOC limit|3}}

Early life

(File:Jimmy Carter with his dog Bozo 1937.gif|upright|thumb|Carter (around age 13) with his dog, Bozo, in 1937)James Earl Carter Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, at the Wise Sanitarium (now the Lillian G. Carter Nursing Center) in Plains, Georgia, a hospital where his mother was employed as a registered nurse. Carter was the first U.S. president to be born in a hospital. He was the eldest son of Bessie Lillian ({{nee|Gordy}}) and James Earl Carter Sr. Carter is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in Virginia in 1635. Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Carter is also a descendant of Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Cornell University's founder, and is distantly related to Richard Nixon and Bill Gates.WEB,weblink Ancestry of Sen. John Kerry,, May 19, 2018, File:17 02 111 carter.jpg|thumb|left|The Carter family store (part of Carter's Boyhood Farm) in Plains, Georgia]]Plains was a boomtown of 600 people at the time of Carter's birth. Carter's father was a successful local businessman, who ran a general store, and was an investor in farmland.{{Citation needed|date=October 2019}} He previously served as a reserve second lieutenant in the U.S. Army's Quartermaster Corps during World War I.{{Citation needed|date=October 2019}}The family moved several times during Carter Jr.'s infancy.Bourne, pp. 11–32. The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, which was almost entirely populated by impoverished African American families. They eventually had three more children: Gloria, Ruth, and Billy. Carter got along well with his parents, although his mother worked long hours and was often absent in his childhood. Although Earl was staunchly pro-segregation, he allowed his son to befriend the black farmhands' children. Carter was an enterprising teenager who was given his own acre of Earl's farmland where he grew, packaged, and sold peanuts. He also rented out a section of tenant housing that he had purchased.


Carter attended the Plains High School from 1937 to 1941. By that time, Archery and Plains had been impoverished by the Great Depression, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies, and Earl took a position as a community leader. Young Jimmy was a diligent student with a fondness for reading. A popular anecdote holds that he was passed over for valedictorian after he and his friends skipped school to venture downtown in a hot rod. Carter's truancy was mentioned in a local newspaper, although it is not clear he would have been valedictorian anyway.Bourne, pp. 33–43. Carter's teacher, Julia Coleman, was an especially strong influence. As an adolescent, Carter played on the Plains High School basketball team; he also joined the Future Farmers of America and developed a lifelong interest in woodworking.

Naval career

Carter had long dreamed of attending the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1941, he started undergraduate coursework in engineering at Georgia Southwestern College in nearby Americus. The following year, he transferred to the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, and he achieved admission to the Naval Academy in 1943. He was a good student but was seen as reserved and quiet, in contrast to the academy's culture of aggressive hazing of freshmen. While at the academy, Carter fell in love with his sister Ruth's friend Rosalynn Smith, whom he married shortly after his graduation in 1946.Bourne, pp. 44–55. He was a sprint football player for the Navy Midshipmen.NEWS,weblink Why This Princeton Football Team Won't Be Suiting Up Next Season, Philadelphia, April 24, 2016, November 5, 2016, Hingston, Sandy, Carter graduated 60th out of 820 midshipmen in the class of 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as an ensign.Annual Register of the United States Naval Academy (v. 1946–1947), p. 33 From 1946 to 1953, Carter and Rosalynn lived in Virginia, Hawaii, Connecticut, New York and California, during his deployments in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets.Zelizer, pp. 11–12. In 1948, he began officers' training for submarine duty and served aboard {{USS|Pomfret|SS-391|6}}. He was promoted to lieutenant junior grade in 1949. In 1951 he became attached to the diesel/electric USS K-1, (a.k.a. {{USS|Barracuda|SSK-1|6}}), qualified for command, and served in several duties including Executive Officer.WEB, Jimmy Carter's Naval Service,weblink Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum, November 24, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2015, (File:Rosalynn Carter, Jimmy Carter and Admiral Hyman Rickover aboard the submarine USS Los Angeles. - NARA - 174924.jpg|thumb|left|President Jimmy Carter and Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, USN (far right) aboard the submarine {{USS|Los Angeles|SSN-688|6}} in 1977)In 1952, Carter began an association with the US Navy's fledgling nuclear submarine program, then led by Captain Hyman G. Rickover. Rickover's demands on his men and machines were legendary, and Carter later said that, next to his parents, Rickover was the greatest influence on his life.Bourne, pp. 72–77. He was sent to the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington, D.C. for three month temporary duty, while Rosalynn moved with their children to Schenectady, New York. On December 12, 1952, an accident with the experimental NRX reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada's Chalk River Laboratories caused a partial meltdown resulting in millions of liters of radioactive water flooding the reactor building's basement and leaving the reactor's core ruined.BOOK,weblink Great Events from History II: 1945–1966, Frank, Northen Magill, 1995, 554, 978-0-89356-753-8, Carter was ordered to Chalk River to lead a U.S. maintenance crew that joined other American and Canadian service personnel to assist in the shutdown of the reactor.BOOK,weblink Memoirs of a Hayseed Physicist, Peter, Martel, 2008, 64, 978-1-60693-341-1, The painstaking process required each team member to don protective gear and be lowered individually into the reactor for a few minutes at a time, limiting their exposure to radioactivity while they disassembled the crippled reactor. During and after his presidency, Carter said that his experience at Chalk River had shaped his views on atomic energy and led him to cease development of a neutron bomb.NEWS,weblink Arthur, Milnes, When Jimmy Carter faced radioactivity head-on, The Ottawa Citizen, January 28, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 17, 2011, In March 1953 Carter began nuclear power school, a six-month non-credit course covering nuclear power plant operation at Union College in Schenectady, with the intent to eventually work aboard {{USS|Seawolf|SSN-575|6}}, which was planned to be one of the first two U.S. nuclear submarines. However, Carter's father died two months before construction of Seawolf began, and Carter sought and obtained a release from active duty to enable him to take over the family peanut business. Deciding to leave Schenectady proved difficult. Settling after moving so much, Rosalynn had grown comfortable with their life. Returning to small-town life in Plains seemed "a monumental step backward," she said later. On the other hand, Carter felt restricted by the rigidity of the military and yearned to assume a path more like his father's. Carter left active duty on October 9, 1953.Bourne, pp. 77–81.Hayward, p. 23. He served in the inactive Navy Reserve until 1961, and left the service with the rank of lieutenant.WEB,weblink From Ensign to Commander-in-Chief: A Look at the Presidents Who Served in the U.S. Navy Reserve, Eckstein, Megan, March 9, 2015, USNI News, United States Navy Institute, Annapolis, MD, His awards included the American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, China Service Medal, and National Defense Service Medal.BOOK, 1976, Ocean Science News,weblink Washington, DC, Nautilus Press, 109, The Naval Record of James Earl Carter Jr.: Medals and awards: American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, China Service Medal, and Natl. Defense Service Medal,


Earl Carter died a relatively wealthy man, having recently been elected to the Georgia House of Representatives. However, between his forgiveness of debts and the division of his wealth among heirs, his son Jimmy inherited comparatively little. For a year, Jimmy, Rosalynn, and their three sons lived in public housing in Plains; Carter is the only U.S. president to have lived in subsidized housing before he took office. Carter was knowledgeable in scientific and technological subjects, and he set out to expand the family's peanut-growing business. The transition from Navy to agribusinessman was difficult because his first-year harvest failed due to drought; Carter was compelled to open several bank lines of credit to keep the farm afloat. Meanwhile, he also took classes and read up on agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the business's books. Though they barely broke even the first year, the Carters grew the business and became quite successful.Bourne, pp. 83–91.Morris, p. 115.

Early political career, 1962–1971

Georgia State Senator (1963–1967)

Racial tension was inflamed in Plains by the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court's anti-segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education.BOOK, Gherman, Beverly, 2004, Jimmy Carter,weblink Minneapolis, MN, Lerner Publishers, 40, 978-0-8225-0816-8, Carter was in favor of racial tolerance and integration—at one point, the local White Citizens' Council boycotted his peanut warehouse when he refused to join them—but he often kept those feelings to himself to avoid making enemies. By 1961 he was a prominent member of the community and the Baptist Church as well as chairman of the Sumter County school board, where he began to speak more loudly in favor of school integration.Bourne, pp. 92–108. A state Senate seat was opened by the dissolution of Georgia's County Unit System in 1962; Carter announced his run for the seat 15 days before the election. Rosalynn, who had an instinct for politics and organization, was instrumental to his campaign. The initial results showed Carter losing, but this was the result of fraudulent voting orchestrated by Joe Hurst, the Democratic Party chairman in Quitman County, with the aid of the Quitman County sheriff.BOOK, Carter, Jimmy, 1992, Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age,weblink New York, NY, Three Rivers Press, 83–87, 978-0-8129-2299-8, Carter challenged the results; when fraud was confirmed, a new election was held, which he won.Bourne, pp. 108–132.The civil rights movement was well underway when Carter took office. He and his family had become staunch John F. Kennedy supporters. Beginning in 1962, the town of Americus was the site of mass beatings and incarcerations of black protesters,BOOK, Lyman-Barner, Kirk, Lyman-Barner, Cori, 2014, Roots in the Cotton Patch: The Clarence Jordan Symposium 2012, 1,weblink Eugene, OR, Cascade Books, 136, 978-1-62032-985-6, echoing similar unrest throughout the country. Carter remained relatively quiet on the issue at first, even as it polarized much of the county, to avoid alienating his segregationist colleagues. He did speak up on a few divisive issues, giving speeches against literacy tests and against a change to the Georgia Constitution which, he felt, implied a compulsion to practice religion.Bourne, pp. 132–140. At the time of President Kennedy's assassination, Carter was informed by a customer of his peanut business of the killing, prompting Carter to remove himself from work and sit alone. Carter later called the assassination "the greatest blow that I had suffered since my father died."WEB,weblink A Conversation with Jimmy Carter, November 20, 2014, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Carter was a diligent legislator who took speed-reading courses to keep up with the workload. Within two years, his connections landed him on the state Democratic Executive Committee, where he helped rewrite the state party's rules. He became chairman of the West Central Georgia Planning and Development Commission, which oversaw the disbursement of federal and state grants for projects such as historic site restoration.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}When Bo Callaway was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in November 1964, Carter immediately began planning to unseat him. The two had previously clashed over which two-year college would be expanded to a four-year college program by the state; Carter wanted it to go to his alma mater, Georgia Southwestern College, but Callaway wanted the funding to go to downtown Columbus. Carter saw Callaway, a Republican, as a rival who represented the inherited wealth and selfishness he despised in politics.Bourne, pp. 132–145.Carter was re-elected in 1964 to serve a second two-year term.WEB, Members Of The General Assembly Of Georgia - Term 1965-1966, State of Georgia,weblink February 1965, May 12, 2018, For a time in the State Senate, he chaired its Education Committee; he also sat on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of his second term. Before his term ended he contributed to a bill expanding statewide education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern a four-year program. He leveraged his regional planning work, giving speeches around the district to make himself more visible to potential voters. The last day of the term, he announced his run for Congress.Bourne, pp. 145–149.

1966 and 1970 campaigns for governor

{{See also|1966 Georgia gubernatorial election|1970 Georgia gubernatorial election}}The race for Georgia's 3rd congressional district in 1966 was shaken up in mid-May when the incumbent, Bo Callaway, dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia instead. Callaway had just switched from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party in 1964, and was a very strong candidate, despite being the first Republican to run for Governor of Georgia since 1876. State Democrats panicked over the prospect of losing the governorship they had held since Reconstruction. Carter decided to run for governor himself. In the Democratic primary he ran against the liberal former governor Ellis Arnall and the conservative segregationist Lester Maddox. In a press conference he described his ideology as "Conservative, moderate, liberal and middle-of-the-road. ... I believe I am a more complicated person than that."Bourne, pp. 149–153. He lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough votes as a third-place candidate to force Arnall into a runoff election with Maddox. Maddox narrowly won the runoff ballot over Arnall to the Democratic Party nomination. In the general election, Callaway went on to win a plurality of the vote, but short of a 50 percent majority, state rules empowered the Georgia House of Representatives, which had a Democratic Party majority, to elect Maddox as governor. The result was a sharp blow to Carter, who was left deeply in debt. His attempt to rescue the race from Callaway had resulted in the unlikely election of the segregationist Maddox, which he considered an even worse outcome.Bourne, pp. 153–165.Carter returned to his agriculture business and, during the next four years, carefully planned his next campaign for governor in 1970. This period was a spiritual turning point for Carter; he grew increasingly evangelical, undertaking several religious missions in other states. Inspired by his sister Ruth and liberal theologians such as Reinhold Niebuhr, he declared himself Born again, a growing movement in 1960s America. His last child Amy was born during this time, on October 19, 1967.Bourne, pp. 165–179.Hayward, pp. 39–46.(File:GACountiesGovernor1970.svg|thumb|upright=1.0|Results of the 1970 gubernatorial election in Georgia)Governor Maddox was constitutionally prohibited from seeking a second consecutive term as governor, and thus the liberal former governor, Carl Sanders, became Carter's main opponent in the 1970 Democratic primary. Carter ran a more modern campaign this time around, employing printed graphics and statistical analysis. Responding to poll data, Carter leaned more conservative than before. He positioned himself as a populist, quickly going negative against Sanders for his wealth (labeling him "Cufflinks Carl") and associating him with the national Democratic Party. He accused Sanders of corruption, but when pressed by the media, could come up with no evidence.Bourne, pp. 180–199.Hayward, pp. 46–51. Throughout the campaign, Carter sought both the black vote and the "Wallace vote," after the prominent segregationist George Wallace of Alabama. While he met with black figures such as Martin Luther King Sr. and Andrew Young, and visited many black-owned businesses, he also praised Wallace and promised to invite him to give a speech in Georgia. He implied support or dislike of private schools, depending on the audience. The appeal to racism became more blatant over time; Carter's senior campaign aides handed out a photograph of his opponent Sanders celebrating with black basketball players.That September, Carter came ahead of Sanders in the first ballot by 49 to 38 percent, leading to a runoff. The subsequent campaign grew even more bitter; despite his early support for civil rights, Carter's campaign criticized Sanders for supporting Martin Luther King Jr. Carter won the runoff election with 60 percent of the vote—winning 7 percent of the black vote—and went on to win the general election easily over the Republican Hal Suit, a local news anchor. Once he was elected, Carter changed his tone, and began to speak against Georgia's racist politics. Leroy Johnson, a black state Senator, voiced his support for Carter, saying, "I understand why he ran that kind of ultra-conservative campaign. ... I don't believe you can win this state without being a racist."

Governor of Georgia (1971–1975)

(File:Jimmy Carter official portrait as Governor.jpg|thumb|upright|Carter's official portrait as Governor of Georgia)Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971. He declared in his inaugural speech that "the time of racial discrimination is over. ... No poor, rural, weak, or black person should ever have to bear the additional burden of being deprived of the opportunity for an education, a job or simple justice."WEB,weblink Inaugural Address, November 27, 2016, dead,weblink December 1, 2016, The crowd was reportedly shocked by this message, contrasting starkly with Georgia's political culture and particularly Carter's campaign. The many segregationists who had supported Carter during the race felt betrayed. Time magazine ran a story on the progressive "New South" governors elected that year in a May 1971 issue, featuring a cover illustration of Carter.Bourne, pp. 200–201.Hayward, pp. 49–55.WEB,weblink TIME Magazine Cover: Gov. Jimmy Carter, Time (magazine), Time, May 31, 1971, July 8, 2014, Lester Maddox, Carter's predecessor as governor, became lieutenant governor. Carter had endorsed Maddox, although the two did not campaign as a ticket. The two found little common ground during their four years of service, often publicly feuding.Bourne, p. 204. Richard Russell Jr., then President pro tempore of the United States Senate, died in office during Carter's second week in office; the newly inaugurated governor appointed David H. Gambrell, state Democratic Party chair, to fill Russell's unexpired term in the SenateBourne, pp. 201–202. a week after Russell's death on February 1.NEWS,weblink Carter Picks Gambrell for interim Senate job, Rome News-Tribune, February 1, 1971, Carter was reluctant to engage in back-slapping and political favors, and the legislature found him frustrating to work with.Hayward, pp. 55–56. He looked to aggressively expand the governor's authority while reducing the complexity of the state government. Therefore, he negotiated a bill allowing him to propose executive restructuring and to force a vote on it. He implemented zero-based budgeting within state departments and added a Judicial Selection Commission to verify the credentials of judges appointed by the governor.Bourne, pp. 204–212. The reorganization plan was submitted in January 1972, but had a cool reception in the legislature. But after two weeks of negotiations, it was passed at midnight on the last day of the session.Bourne, pp. 214–220. Ultimately he merged about 300 state agencies into 22—a fact he would emphasize in his presidential run—although it is disputed that there were any overall cost savings from doing so.BOOK, Freeman, Roger A., The Wayward Welfare State,weblink Hoover Press, 978-0-8179-7493-0, 5, 1982, In an April 3, 1971 televised appearance, Carter was asked if he was in favor of a requirement that candidates for Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Georgia would have to run on the same ticket. He replied, "I've never really thought we needed a lieutenant governor in Georgia. The lieutenant governor is part of the executive branch of government and I've always felt – ever since I was in the state Senate – that the executive branches should be separate." Carter later clarified he would not introduce an amendment to put such a restriction in place.NEWS,weblink Maddox dares Carter to try cutting post, Rome News-Tribune, April 5, 1971, On July 8, 1971, during an appearance in Columbus, Georgia, Carter stated his intent to establish a Georgia Human Rights Council that would work toward solving issues within the state ahead of any potential violence.NEWS,weblink Carter aims to create human relations panel, Rome News-Tribune, July 8, 1971, In a July 13, 1971 news conference, Carter announced his ordering of department heads to reduce spending for the aid of preventing a 57 million deficit by the end of the 1972 fiscal year, specifying that each state department would be impacted and estimating that 5% more than revenue being taken in by the government would be lost if state departments continued full using allocated funds.NEWS,weblink Gov. Carter orders cuts in Georgia spending, Rome News-Tribune, July 14, 1971, On January 13, 1972, Carter requested the state legislature provide funding for an Early Childhood Development Program along with prison reform programs and 48 million in pay taxes for nearly all state employees.NEWS,weblink Two budget proposals offered by Gov. Carter to legislature, Rome News-Tribune, January 13, 1972, On March 1, 1972, Carter stated a possible usage of a special session of the General Assembly could take place in the event that the Justice Department opted to turn down any reapportionment plans by either the House or Senate.NEWS,weblink Reappointment rejection could bring session, Rome News-Tribune, March 2, 1972, On April 20, Carter issued the call for a special session for consideration of advisement for the usage of a three person judge federal panel for performance on four judicial reform measures.NEWS,weblink Maddox is opposed to special session, April 21, 1972, Rome News-Tribune, In April 1972, Carter traveled to Latin and South America for a potential trade deal with Georgia. Carter stated that he had met with President of Brazil Emílio Garrastazu Médici and been compared by some to the late President Kennedy.NEWS,weblink Carter given royal treatment on Latin journey, Rome News-Tribune, April 14, 1972, Civil rights were a heartfelt priority for Carter. He expanded the number of black state employees, judges, and board members. He hired Rita Jackson Samuels, a black woman, to advise him on potential appointments. He placed portraits of Martin Luther King Jr. and two other prominent black Georgians in the capitol building, even as the Ku Klux Klan picketed the unveiling ceremony. Still, Carter tried to keep his conservative allies comfortable. During a televised joint appearance with Governor of Florida Reubin Askew on January 31, 1973, Carter stated he favored a constitutional amendment to ban busing for the purpose of expediting integration in schools.NEWS,weblink Governors disagree on school busing, Rome News-Tribune, February 1, 1973, He co-sponsored an anti-busing resolution with George Wallace at the 1971 National Governors Conference,Bourne, pp. 212–213. which Carter also hosted.NEWS,weblink Southern governors meeting in Atlanta, November 7, 1971, -Rome News-Tribune, After the U.S. Supreme Court threw out Georgia's death penalty statute in Furman v. Georgia (1972), Carter signed a revised death-penalty statute which addressed the court's objections, thus re-introducing the practice in the state. Carter later regretted endorsing the death penalty, saying, "I didn't see the injustice of it as I do now."NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter calls for fresh moratorium on death penalty, Pilkington, Ed, The Guardian, November 11, 2013, Carter pushed reforms through the legislature that provided equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased educational programs for convicts. He took pride in his program for the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than political influence.JOURNAL,weblink Carter, Jimmy, World Book Student, Hugh S. Sidey, January 22, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 27, 2012, BOOK, 978-0-7166-0101-2, World Book Encyclopedia (Hardcover) [Jimmy Carter entry], World Book, January 2001, In one of his more controversial decisions,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter battles plan for dams – again, Associated Press, July 28, 2008,, he vetoed a plan to build a dam on Georgia's Flint River. After surveying the river and the literature himself, he argued that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was underestimating both the project's cost and its impact on the region. The veto won the attention of environmentalists nationwide.Bourne, pp. 250–251. When Lieutenant William Calley was convicted in a military trial and sentenced to life for his role in the My Lai Massacre in South Vietnam, a politically polarizing issue, Carter avoided paying direct tribute to Calley. He instead instituted "American Fighting Man's Day" and asked Georgians to drive for a week with their lights on in support of the military.Bourne, pp. 213–214.

National ambition

Under Georgia's constitution, Carter was ineligible to run for re-election. Looking toward a potential presidential run, Carter engaged himself in national politics and public appearances. He was named to several southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention, where the liberal U.S. Senator George McGovern was the likely presidential nominee. Carter tried to ingratiate himself with the conservative, anti-McGovern voters, so that the convention would consider him for McGovern's running mate on a compromise ticket. He endorsed Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson, in part to distance himself from George Wallace. Carter was still fairly obscure at the time, and his attempt at triangulation failed; the 1972 Democratic ticket went to McGovern and Senator Thomas Eagleton.Bourne, pp. 221–230.{{refn|Eagleton was later replaced on the ticket by Sargent Shriver.|group=note}} On August 3, Carter met with Wallace in Birmingham, Alabama to discuss preventing the Democratic Party from losing in a landslide during the November elections.NEWS,weblink Carter, Wallace hold election conference, August 4, 1972, Rome News-Tribune, After McGovern's loss in November 1972, Carter began meeting regularly with his fledgling campaign staff. He had quietly decided to begin putting a presidential bid for 1976 together. He tried unsuccessfully to become chairman of the National Governors Association to boost his visibility. On David Rockefeller's endorsement he was named to the Trilateral Commission in April 1973. The following year he was named chairman of the Democratic National Committee's congressional, as well as gubernatorial, campaigns.Bourne, pp. 237–250. In 1973 he appeared on the game show What's My Line, where a group of celebrity panelists would try to guess his occupation. None recognized him and it took several rounds of question-and-answer before movie critic Gene Shalit correctly guessed he was a governor.Zelizer, p. 15. In May 1973, Carter warned the Democratic Party against politicizing the Watergate scandal,NEWS,weblink Carter cautions Democrats to play it cool on Watergate, Rome News-Tribune, May 13, 1973, the occurrence of which he attributed to President Richard Nixon exercising isolation from Americans and secrecy in his decision making.NEWS,weblink Carter off on European tour, Rome News-Tribune, May 14, 1973,

1976 presidential campaign

Democratic primary

(File:1976 Presidential campaign flyer.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Campaign flyer from Democratic Party presidential primary)On December 12, 1974, Carter announced his candidacy for President of the United States at National Press Club in Washington, D.C. His speech contained themes of domestic inequality, optimism, and change.WEB,weblink Address Announcing Candidacy for the Democratic Presidential Nomination at the National Press Club in Washington, DC | The American Presidency Project,, NEWS,weblink Carter a candidate for the presidency, Lodi News-Sentinel, December 13, 1974, When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries, he was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians; his name recognition was two percent. As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters, according to a Gallup poll.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}} Yet "by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President Ford by a few percentage points," according to Shoup.Shoup (1980), The Carter Presidency and Beyond As the Watergate scandal of President Nixon was still fresh in the voters' minds, Carter's position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C., became an asset. He promoted government reorganization. Carter published Why Not the Best? in June 1976 to help introduce himself to the American public.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Charles, Mohr, Choice of Mondale Helps To Reconcile the Liberals, July 16, 1976, Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary. He used a two-prong strategy: in the South, which most had tacitly conceded to Alabama's George Wallace, Carter ran as a moderate favorite son. When Wallace proved to be a spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters; he had little chance of winning a majority in most states. He won several Northern states by building the largest single bloc. Carter's strategy involved reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence there. He had traveled over 50,000 miles, visited 37 states, and delivered over 200 speeches before any other candidate entered the race.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter, The American Experience, Public Broadcasting System, Initially dismissed as a regional candidate,NEWS, Broder, David, David Broder, Early Evaluation Impossible on Presidential Candidates,weblink January 3, 2016, Toledo Blade, December 18, 1974, 16, Carter proved to be the Democrat with the most effective national strategy, and he clinched the nomination.{{Citation needed|date=December 2018}}File:Carter and Ford in a debate, September 23, 1976.jpg|thumb|Carter and President Gerald Ford debating at the Walnut Street Theatre in PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaThe national news media discovered and promoted Carter, as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:}}During his presidential campaign in April 1976, Carter responded to an interviewer and said, "I have nothing against a community that is ... trying to maintain the ethnic purity of their neighborhoods."NEWS,weblink THE CAMPAIGN: Candidate Carter: I Apologize, Time, April 19, 1976, 107, 16, July 13, 2018, His remark was intended as supportive of open-housing laws, but specifying opposition to government efforts to "inject black families into a white neighborhood just to create some sort of integration."Carter's stated positions during his campaign include public financing of congressional campaigns,NEWS,weblink Carter Officially Enters Demo Presidential Race, Herald-Journal, December 13, 1974, his support for the creation of a federal consumer protection agency,NEWS,weblink Carter Backs Consumer Plans, Toledo Blade, August 10, 1976, creating a separate department for education,WEB,weblink Bardstown, Kentucky Remarks and a Question-and-Answer Session at a Town Meeting. (July 31, 1979), The American Presidency Project, THE PRESIDENT. Could you all hear it? The question was, since it appears that the campaign promise that I made to have a separate department of education might soon be fulfilled, would I consider appointing a classroom teacher as the secretary of education., signing a peace treaty with the Soviet Union against the usage of nuclear weapon,NEWS,weblink Carter Berates Lack Of New A-Arm Pact, Toledo Blade, October 14, 1976, reducing the defense budget,NEWS,weblink Carter Positions on Amnesty, Defense Targets of Dole Jabs, Frank, Kane, Toledo Blade, October 3, 1976, a tax proposal implementing "a substantial increase toward those who have the higher incomes" alongside a levy reduction on taxpayers with lower and middle incomes,NEWS,weblink GOP Raps Carter On Tax Proposal, September 19, 1976, Herald-Journal, making multiple amendments to the Social Security Act,WEB,weblink December 20, 1977, American Presidency Project, Social Security Amendments of 1977 Statement on Signing S. 305 Into Law, and having a balanced budget by the end of his tenure.NEWS,weblink Carter Would Delay Programs If Necessary, September 4, 1976, Herald-Journal,

1976 general election

(File:ElectoralCollege1976.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|The electoral map of the 1976 election)On July 15, 1976, Carter chose Minnesota Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate.NEWS,weblink Carter Nominated, Names Mondale Running Mate, Toledo Blade, July 15, 1976, Frank, Kane, He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation's wounds.American Presidency, Brinkley and Dyer, 2004.Carter and Gerald Ford faced off in three televised debates during the 1976 election. The debates were the first presidential debates since 1960.NEWS, Howard, Adam, 10 Presidential Debates That Actually Made an Impact,weblink December 31, 2016, NBC News, September 26, 2016, BOOK, Kraus, Sidney, The Great Debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976, 1979, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 3,weblink December 31, 2016, Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy for the November 1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election. While discussing his religion's view of pride, Carter said: "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times.""The Playboy Interview: Jimmy Carter." Robert Scheer. Playboy, November 1976, Vol. 23, Iss. 11, pp. 63–86.BOOK,weblink A YEAR IN MY PAJAMAS WITH PRESIDENT OBAMA, The Politics of Strange Bedfellows, Casser-Jayne, Halli, Halli Casser-Jayne, 978-0-9765960-3-5, 216, This and his admission in another interview that he didn't mind if people uttered the word "fuck" led to a media feeding frenzy and critics lamenting the erosion of boundary between politicians and their private intimate lives.WEB,weblink Special Report: Clinton Accused,, Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the gap during the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on November 2, 1976.NEWS,weblink Carter Appears Victor Over Ford, Toledo Blade, November 3, 1976, Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford, and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240. Carter carried fewer states than Ford—23 states to the defeated Ford's 27—yet Carter won with the largest percentage of the popular vote (50.1 percent) of any non-incumbent since Dwight Eisenhower.{{citation needed|date=October 2014}}

Presidency (1977–1981)

Carter's tenure was a time of continuing inflation and recession, as well as an energy crisis. Among his first acts was the fulfillment of a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring unconditional amnesty for Vietnam War-era draft evaders.WEB,weblink Executive Orders, October 25, 2010,, WEB,weblink Online NewsHour: Remembering Vietnam: Carter's Pardon, On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96-185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, bailing out Chrysler Corporation with $3.5 billion (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|3.5|1980|r=2}} billion in {{Inflation-year|US}}) in aid.BOOK, Kaufman, Burton I., Kaufman, Scott, The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr, 2006, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 978-0700614714, 183, 2nd, A Growing Sense of Crisis, Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world, most visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords;WEB, Jimmy Carter Biography and Interview,, American Academy of Achievement,weblink giving back the Panama Canal to Panama; and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. His final year was marred by the Iran hostage crisis, which contributed to his losing the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan.WEB,weblink JIMMY CARTER AND THE IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS, White House Historical Association, December 28, 2014,


(File:President Carter National Portrait Gallery.jpg|thumb|upright|Image of President Carter displayed in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC. Portrait by Robert Templeton.)On November 22, 1976, Carter conducted his first visit to Washington after being elected, meeting with Director of the Office of Management James Lynn and United States Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld at the Blair House, and holding an afternoon meeting with President Ford at the White House.NEWS,weblink Carter in Washington, Meets Lynn, Rumsfield, Toledo Blade, November 22, 1976, The following day, Carter conferred with congressional leaders, expressing that his meetings with cabinet members had been "very helpful" and saying Ford had requested he seek out his assistance if needing anything.NEWS,weblink Ford Promises Carter Transition Cooperation, Toledo Blade, November 23, 1976, On December 3, 1976, during a news conference, Carter announced his choice of Cyrus R. Vance for United States Secretary of State and Bert Lance as his budget director.NEWS,weblink Carter Appoints Vance, Lance To Administration, Toledo Blade, December 4, 1976, On December 9, Carter was presented plans for reform on housing, transportation, and urban development during a meeting with transition advisors at the Blair House.NEWS,weblink Carter hears housing, city plans, Eugene Register-Guard, December 9, 1976, On December 13, Carter's election was confirmed by the Electoral College.NEWS,weblink Electors confirm Carter's victory for presidency, Eugene Register-Guard, December 13, 1976, On December 20, Carter announced his choice of Juanita M. Kreps for United States Secretary of Commerce, Griffin Bell for United States Attorney General, and Robert Bergland for United States Secretary of Agriculture.NEWS,weblink Carter picks three-Kreps, Bell, Bergland, Eugene Register-Guard, December 20, 1976, On January 4, 1977, Carter told reporters that he would free himself from potential conflicts of interest by leaving his peanut business in the hands of trustees.NEWS,weblink Carter to quit peanut business, Eugene Register-Guard, January 4, 1977, On January 6, Carter requested former Governor of Maine Kenneth M. Curtis as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee.NEWS,weblink Curtis, former Maine governor, Carter choice for party chairman, January 6, 1977, Eugene Register-Guard, On January 13, Carter set up an economic summit meeting for non-Communist countries in a call with foreign leaders from Japan, France, Germany, and Great Britain. The conference was set for April.NEWS,weblink Carter, Foreign Chiefs Talk By Phone, Prepare Summit, January 14, 1977, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, On January 18, Carter named John F. O'Leary for Administrator of the Federal Energy Administration, William Nordhaus and Lyle E. Gramley for membership on the Council of Economic Advisors, Anthony M. Solomon for Undersecretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs, C. Fred Bergsten for Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs, and Kenneth S. Axelson for Deputy Secretary of the Treasury.NEWS,weblink Carter Announces Nominees For 6 More Top Posts, Toledo Blade, January 19, 1977,

Domestic policy

U.S. energy crisis

On April 18, 1977, Carter delivered a televised speech declaring that the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war. He encouraged energy conservation by all U.S. citizens and installed solar water heating panels on the White House.WEB,weblink Maine college to auction off former White House solar panels, October 28, 2004, January 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2010, NEWS,weblink Huffington Post, White House Solar Panels: What Ever Happened To Carter's Solar Thermal Water Heater? (VIDEO), January 27, 2009, January 31, 2010, Dave, Burdick, He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House.Craig Shirley, Days of 'Malaise' and Jimmy Carter's Solar Panels. October 8, 2010, Fox News. On August 4, 1977, Carter signed the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, forming the Department of Energy, the first new cabinet position in eleven years.BOOK, Relyea, Harold, The executive branch, creation and reorganization, 2003, Nova Publishers, 29, Thomas P. Carr, During the signing ceremony, Carter cited the "impending crisis of energy shortages" with causing the necessity of the legislation.WEB,weblink Department of Energy Organization Act and Bill Amending the Small Business Administration Act Remarks on Signing S. 826 and H.R. 692 Into Law. | The American Presidency Project,, At the start of a September 29, 1977 news conference, under the impression he had not come across well in addressing energy during his prior press session, Carter stated that the House of Representatives had "adopted almost all" of the energy proposal he had made five months prior and called the compromise "a turning point in establishing a comprehensive energy program."WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, The following month, on October 13, Carter stated he believed in the Senate's ability to pass the energy reform bill and identified energy as "the most important domestic issue that we will face while I am in office."WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, File:Carter DengXiaoping (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|Carter (right) meeting Deng Xiaoping, leader of ChinaChinaOn January 12, 1978, during a press conference, Carter said the continued discussions about his energy reform proposal had "been long and divisive and arduous" as well as hindering to national issues that needed to be addressed with the implementation of the law.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, In an April 11, 1978 news conference, Carter said his biggest surprise "in the nature of a disappointment" since becoming president was the difficulty Congress had in passing legislation, citing the energy reform bill in particular: "I never dreamed a year ago in April when I proposed this matter to the Congress that a year later it still would not be resolved."WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, On March 1, 1979, Carter submitted a standby gasoline rationing plan per the request of Congress.WEB,weblink Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan Message to the Congress Transmitting the Plan. | The American Presidency Project,, On April 5, he delivered an address in which he stressed the urgency of energy conservation.WEB,weblink Energy Address to the Nation. | The American Presidency Project,, During an April 30 news conference, Carter said it was "imperative" that the House commerce committee approve the standby gasoline rationing plan and called on Congress to pass the several other standby energy conservation plans he had proposed.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, On July 15, 1979, Carter delivered a nationally televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "s:The Crisis of Confidence|crisis of confidence]]" among the American people,WEB,weblink "Crisis of Confidence" Speech (July 15, 1979), Miller Center, University of Virginia, text and video, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 21, 2009, mdy-all, October 20, 2016, under the advisement of pollster Pat Caddell who believed Americans faced a crisis in confidence from events of the 1960s and 1970s prior to Carter taking office.WEB,weblink PBS, American Experience, Jimmy Carter, The address would be cited as Carter's "malaise" speech, memorable for mixed reactionsWEB,weblink The Encyclopedia of Earth, Jimmy Carter's "malaise speech", Cutler Cleveland, January 24, 2007, NEWS,weblink Speech Lifts Carter Rating to 37%; Public Agrees on Confidence Crisis; Responsive Chord Struck, The New York Times, July 18, 1979, Adam Clymer, Adam Clymer, A1, and his use of rhetoric.WEB, American Experience,weblink October 22, 2013, The speech's negative reception came from a view that Carter did not state efforts on his own part to address the energy crisis and was too reliant on Americans.BOOK, Weintraub, Walter, Political Psychology 7: Profiles of American Presidents as Revealed in Their Public Statements: The Presidential News Conferences of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan, 1986, International Society of Political Psychology, 285–295,

EPA Love Canal Superfund

In 1978, Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top of a toxic waste landfill. The Superfund law was created in response to the situation.Robert W. Kolb, Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society. SAGE Publications, 2008. Page 1305 Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the approximately 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd Street School, which were built on top of the dump; and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes. This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken. Carter acknowledged that several more "Love Canals" existed across the country, and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was "one of the grimmest discoveries of our modern era".Paul E. Rosenfeld and Lydia Feng, Risks of Hazardous Wastes. William Andrew, 2011.

Relations with Congress

Carter refused to play by Washington's rules.Zelizer, pp. 53-55 He missed and never returned phone calls on his part. He used verbal insults and had an unwillingness to return political favors, which contributed to his lack of ability to pass legislation through Congress.WEB,weblink, The "Georgia Mafia" . Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience | PBS, March 13, 2017, During a press conference on February 23, 1977, Carter stated that it was "inevitable" that he would come into conflict with Congress and added that he had found "a growing sense of cooperation" with Congress and met in the past with congressional members of both parties.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, Carter developed a bitter feeling following an unsuccessful attempt at having Congress enact the scrapping of several water projects,NEWS,weblink CNN, Commentary: New president's 100 days of pressure -, October 28, 2008, May 22, 2010, which he had requested during his first 100 days in office and received opposition from members of his party.BOOK,weblink Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits, Biven, W. Carl, 9780807827383, 2002, University of North Carolina Press, As a rift ensued between the White House and Congress afterward, Carter noted the liberal wing of the Democratic Party was the most ardently against his policies, attributing this to Ted Kennedy wanting the presidency.Carter, Jimmy Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis, p. 8, (2005), Simon & Schuster Carter, thinking he had support from 74 Congressmen, issued a "hit list" of 19 projects that he claimed were "pork barrel" spending that he claimed would result in a veto on his part if included in any legislation.NEWS last=Pincustitle=When a Campaign Vow Crashes into a Pork BarrelThe Washington Post>date=April 1, 1977, He found himself at odds with Congressional Democrats once more, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Tip O'Neill finding it inappropriate for a president to pursue what had traditionally been the role of Congress. Carter was also weakened by a signing of bill that contained many of the "hit list" projects.HTTP://WWW.PRESIDENCY.UCSB.EDU/WS/?PID=6799TITLE=JIMMY CARTER: WATER RESOURCE PROJECTS MESSAGE TO THE CONGRESSDemocratic National Committee, Carter said, "I think it's good to point out tonight, too, that we have evolved a good working relationship with the Congress. For 8 years we had government by partisanship. Now we have government by partnership."HTTPS://WWW.PRESIDENCY.UCSB.EDU/DOCUMENTS/DEMOCRATIC-NATIONAL-COMMITTEE-DINNER-REMARKS-THE-FUNDRAISING-DINNER-NEW-YORK-CITYWEBSITE=WWW.PRESIDENCY.UCSB.EDU, At a July 28 news conference, assessing the first six months of his presidency, Carter spoke of his improved understanding of Congress: "I have learned to respect the Congress more in an individual basis. I've been favorably impressed at the high degree of concentrated experience and knowledge that individual Members of Congress can bring on a specific subject, where they've been the chairman of a subcommittee or committee for many years and have focused their attention on this particular aspect of government life which I will never be able to do."HTTPS://WWW.PRESIDENCY.UCSB.EDU/DOCUMENTS/THE-PRESIDENTS-NEWS-CONFERENCE-104>TITLE=THE PRESIDENT'S NEWS CONFERENCE | THE AMERICAN PRESIDENCY PROJECT,, On May 10, 1979, the House voted against giving Carter authority to produce a standby gas rationing plan. The following day, Carter delivered remarks in the Oval Office describing himself as shocked and embarrassed for the American government due to the vote and concluding "the majority of the House Members are unwilling to take the responsibility, the political responsibility for dealing with a potential, serious threat to our Nation." He furthered that a majority of House members were placing higher importance on "local or parochial interests" and challenged the lower chamber of Congress with composing their own rationing plan in the next 90 days.WEB,weblink Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan Remarks on the House of Representatives Disapproval of the Plan, May 11, 1979, American Presidency Project, Jimmy, Carter, Carter's remarks were met with criticism by House Republicans who accused his comments of not befitting the formality a president should have in their public remarks. Others pointed to 106 Democrats voting against his proposal and the bipartisan criticism potentially coming back to haunt him.NEWS,weblink Carter's Clash With Congress on Gas Plan, May 15, 1979, New York Times, At the start of a July 25, 1979 news conference, Carter called on believers in the future of the US and his proposed energy program to speak with Congress as it bore the responsibility to impose his proposals.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference, July 25, 1979, American Presidency Project, Amid the energy proposal opposition, The New York Times commented that "as the comments flying up and down Pennsylvania Avenue illustrate, there is also a crisis of confidence between Congress and the President, sense of doubt and distrust that threatens to undermine the President's legislative program and become an important issue in next year's campaign."NEWS,weblink Carter and the Congress: Doubt and Distrust Prevail, Steven V., Roberts, August 5, 1979, New York Times,


Carter's presidency had an economic history of two roughly equal periods, the first two years being a time of continuing recovery from the severe 1973–75 recession, which had left fixed investment at its lowest level since the 1970 recession and unemployment at 9%,WEB,weblink 1988 Statistical Abstract of the United States, Department of Commerce, and the last two years marked by double-digit inflation, coupled with very high interest rates,Frum, p. 292 oil shortages, and slow economic growth.NEWS,weblink Is '70s-style stagflation returning?, Jim Jubak,, April 1, 2008, Jubak's Journal, Following a period of growth in 1977 and 1978 that saw the creation of million net new jobsWEB,weblink Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and real median household income growth by 5%,WEB,weblink Households by Median and Mean Income, United States Census Bureau, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} the 1979 energy crisis ended this period of growth, however, and as both inflation and interest rates rose, economic growth, job creation, and consumer confidence declined sharply. The relatively loose monetary policy adopted by Federal Reserve Board Chairman G. William Miller, had already contributed to somewhat higher inflation,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, February 19, 1997, The Inflation of the 1970s: November 21, 1978, March 18, 2012, December 19, 1995, University of California at Berkeley and National Bureau of Economic Research, rising from 5.8% in 1976 to 7.7% in 1978. The sudden doubling of crude oil prices by OPEC, the world's leading oil exporting cartel,WEB,weblink The Outlook for U.S. Oil Dependence, U.S. Department of Energy, October 18, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2017, dead, forced inflation to double-digit levels, averaging 11.3% in 1979 and 13.5% in 1980. The sudden shortage of gasoline as the 1979 summer vacation season began exacerbated the problem, and would come to symbolize the crisis among the public in general; the acute shortage, originating in the shutdown of Amerada Hess refining facilities, led to a lawsuit against the company that year by the Federal Government.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 28, 2012, United States v. Society of Independent Gasoline Marketers of America,


File:AirlineDeregulationAct.png|thumb|Carter signing the Airline Deregulation ActAirline Deregulation ActIn 1977, Carter appointed Alfred E. Kahn to lead the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry, supported by leading economists, leading 'think tanks' in Washington, a civil society coalition advocating the reform (patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail-reform efforts), the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition swiftly gained legislative results in 1978.BOOK, Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America, Vietor, Richard H. K., Harvard University Press, 9780674436794, 897163998, Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act into law on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of new airlines) from commercial aviation. The Civil Aeronautics Board's powers of regulation were to be phased out, eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or diminish the FAA's regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety.BOOK, Practical Applications in Business Aviation Management, 978-1605907703, In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell malt, hops, and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the United States.WEB,weblink Beer Charts of the Day, Tom, Philpott,, August 17, 2011, December 10, 2011, This Carter deregulation led to an increase in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States, with 6,266 micro breweries, brewpubs, and regional craft breweries in the United States by the end of 2017.WEB,weblink Number of Breweries, Brewers Association, February 16, 2019, March 27, 2018,


During his presidential campaign, Carter embraced healthcare reform akin to the Ted Kennedy-sponsored bipartisan universal national health insurance.NEWS, Reinhold, Robert, April 17, 1976, Carter proposes U.S. health plan; says he favors mandatory insurance financed from wage and general taxes, The New York Times, 1,weblink Although Mr. Carter left some details a bit vague today, his proposal seemed almost identical to the so-called Kennedy-Corman health security plan. His position on the issue is now substantially the same as that of his chief rivals, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Senator Henry M. Jackson and Representative Morris K. Udall. All three are co-sponsors of the Kennedy-Corman bill., September 16, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2013, dead, NEWS, Auerbach, Stuart, April 17, 1976, Carter gives broad outline for national health plan; cost unknown, The Washington Post, A1,weblink The outlines of Carter's program are close to one sponsored by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and strongly supported by organized labor., NEWS, UPI, April 17, 1976, Carter urges universal health plan, Chicago Tribune, 4,weblink Although Carter didn't provide an estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features many proposals similar to plans suggested by others, including Sen. Edward Kennedy [D., Mass.] which are estimated to cost at least $40 billion annually., Carter's proposals on healthcare while in office included an April 1977 mandatory health care cost proposal,BOOK, ., 1978, Hospital cost control, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 95th Congress 1st Session....1977, 33, Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 499–507, 0095-6007, 1564784, and a June 1979 proposal that provided private health insurance coverage.BOOK, ., 1980, National health insurance, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979, 35, Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 536–540, 0095-6007, 1564784, Carter saw the June 1979 proposal as a continuation of progress in American health coverage made by President Harry Truman in the latter's proposed access to quality health care being a basic right to Americans and Medicare and Medicaid being introduced under President Lyndon B. Johnson.WEB,weblink National Health Plan Remarks Announcing Proposed Legislation. | The American Presidency Project,, WEB,weblink National Health Plan Message to the Congress on Proposed Legislation. | The American Presidency Project,, The April 1977 mandatory health care cost proposal was passed in the Senate,BOOK, ., 1979, Hospital cost control legislation dies, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 95th Congress 2nd Session....1978, 34, Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 619–625, 0095-6007, 1564784, and later defeated in the House.BOOK, ., 1980, House kills Carter hospital cost control plan, Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979, 35, Washington, D.C., Congressional Quarterly, 512–518, 0095-6007, 1564784, During 1978, Carter also conducted meetings with Kennedy for a compromise healthcare law that proved unsuccessful.BOOK, Zelizer, Julian, Jimmy Carter, 2010, Times Books, 978-0-8050-8957-8, 78,weblink Carter would later cite Kennedy's disagreements as having thwarted Carter's efforts to provide a comprehensive health-care system for the country.BOOK, Jimmy, Carter, Jimmy Carter, Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President, Bantam Books, 1982, 978-0-553-05023-3, 86–87,weblink


Early into his term, Carter collaborated with Congress to assist in fulfilling a campaign promise to create a cabinet level education department. In a February 28, 1978 address at the White House, Carter argued, "Education is far too important a matter to be scattered piecemeal among various Government departments and agencies, which are often busy with sometimes dominant concerns."WEB,weblink Elementary and Secondary Education Remarks Announcing the Administration's Proposals to the Congress. | The American Presidency Project,, On February 8, 1979, the Carter administration released an outline of its plan to establish an education department and asserted enough support for the enactment to occur by June.NEWS, Department of Education Outlined, Associated Press, February 9, 1979,weblink On October 17, 1979, Carter signed the Department of Education Organization Act into law,WEB,weblink Department of Education Organization Act Statement on Signing S. 210 Into Law. | The American Presidency Project,, establishing the United States Department of Education.NEWS, Education Department Created, United Press International, October 18, 1979,weblink Carter expanded the Head Start program with the addition of 43,000 children and families,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 20, 2013,,, March 13, 2017, while the percentage of nondefense dollars spent on education was doubled.BOOK, American Presidents and Education, Berube, M.R., 1991, Greenwood, 9780313278488,weblink 49, March 13, 2017, Carter was complimentary of the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson and the 89th United States Congress for having initiated Head Start.WEB,weblink 15th Anniversary of Project Head Start Remarks at a White House Reception. | The American Presidency Project,, In a November 1, 1980 speech, Carter stated his administration had extended Head Start to migrant children and was "working hard right now with Senator Bentsen and with Kika de la Garza to make as much as $45 million available in Federal money in the border districts to help with the increase in school construction for the number of Mexican school children who reside here legally".WEB,weblink Brownsville, Texas Remarks at a Rally With Area Residents. | The American Presidency Project,,

Foreign policy

File:Videla and James Carter.jpg|right|thumb|Carter with Argentine President Jorge Rafael VidelaJorge Rafael Videla

Israel and Egypt

Historian Jørgen Jensehaugen argues that by the time Carter left office in January 1981, he:
was in an odd position—he had attempted to break with traditional US policy but ended up fulfilling the goals of that tradition, which had been to break up the Arab alliance, side-line the Palestinians, build an alliance with Egypt, weaken the Soviet Union and secure Israel.Jørgen Jensehaugen. Arab-Israeli Diplomacy under Carter: The US, Israel and the Palestinians (2018) p. 178, quoted on H-DIPLO)


File:Rosalynn Carter, President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and Jimmy Carter (1977).jpg|thumb|right|First Lady Rosalynn Carter, Tanzanian leader Julius NyerereJulius NyerereFile:Olusegun Obasanjo and Jimmy Carter-02.jpg|thumb|Carter with Nigerian leader Olusegun ObasanjoOlusegun ObasanjoIn an October 4, 1977 address to African officials at the United Nations, Carter stated the U.S.'s interest to "see a strong, vigorous, free, and prosperous Africa with as much of the control of government as possible in the hands of the residents of your countries" and pointed to their unified efforts on "the problem of how to resolve the Rhodesian, Zimbabwe question."WEB,weblink United Nations Remarks at a Working Luncheon for Officials of African Nations, American Presidency Project, October 4, 1977, At a news conference later that month, Carter outlined the US wanting "to work harmoniously with South Africa in dealing with the threats to peace in Namibia and in Zimbabwe in particular" and to do away with racial issues such as apartheid and for equal opportunities in other facets of society in the region.NEWS,weblink The President's News Conference, October 27, 1977, American Presidency Project, Carter visited Nigeria from March 31 – April 3, 1978, the trip being an attempt by the Carter administration to improve relations with the country.NEWS,weblink Carter Trip to Nigeria Culminates Long Effort to Improve Relations, Michael T., Kaufman, March 31, 1978, New York Times, He was the first U.S. president to visit Nigeria.WEB,weblink Presidents' Travels to Nigeria, U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, Carter reiterated interests in convening a peace conference on the subject of Rhodesia that would involve all parties and reported that the US was moving as it could.NEWS,weblink CARTER SEEKS TALKS INCLUDING ALL SIDES IN RHODESIA CONFLICT, April 3, 1978, New York Times, The elections of Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United KingdomNEWS,weblink CONSERVATIVES WIN BRITISH VOTE; MARGARET THATCHER FIRST WOMAN TO HEAD A EUROPEAN GOVERNMENT, May 4, 1979, New York Times, and Abel Muzorewa for Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia,NEWS,weblink RHODESIAN ELECTION EMDS WITH TURNOUT PUT AT 65 PERCENT, April 25, 1979, New York Times, South Africa turning down a plan for African independence in the southwest, and domestic opposition in Congress were seen as crippling to the Carter administration's policy toward South Africa.NEWS,weblink Fight Over Rhodesia Sanctions Reflects Carter Bid to Save Africa Policy, May 14, 1979, New York Times, On May 16, 1979, the Senate voted in favor of President Carter lifting economic sanctions against Rhodesia, the vote being seen by both Rhodesia and South Africa "as a potentially fatal blow to the joint diplomacy that the United States and Britain have pursued in the region for three years and to the effort to reach a compromise between the Salisbury leaders and the guerrillas."NEWS,weblink Rhodesia, South Africa Hail Move In Senate to End Curb on Salisbury, May 17, 1979, New York Times, On December 3, Secretary of State Vance promised Senator Jesse Helms that when "the British governor arrives in Salisbury to implement an agreed Lancaster House settlement and the electoral process begins, the President will take prompt action to lift sanctions" against Zimbabwe Rhodesia.NEWS,weblink Carter Promises to Stop Sanctions After Rhodesia Political Settlement, December 4, 1979, New York Times,

Indonesia and East Timor

During Carter's presidency, the United States continued to support Indonesia as a cold war ally in spite of mass killings and other human rights violations in East Timor. The violations followed Indonesia's December 1975 invasion and occupation of East Timor that included such specific abuses as forced resettlement, torture, mass arrests, and forced sterilization of women. In mid-June 1977, an Indonesian foreign minister acknowledged that between 50,000 and 80,000 civilians had probably been killed since the invasion. A June 1977 U.S. National Security Council staff memo stated: "The Indonesian decision [to annex East Timor] is irreversible. The US government has accepted it. Continued congressional hearings are regarded as unwarranted and mischievous interference in their internal affairs." And focused on other international issues, apparently this view carried within the Carter administration.JOURNAL, Simpson, Bradley R., Denying the 'First Right': The United States, Indonesia, and the Ranking of Human Rights by the Carter Administration, 1976-1980,weblink International History Review, 31, 4, December 2009, 798–826, August 1, 2019,, 10.1080/07075332.2009.9641173, Though antithetical to Carter's stated policy "of not selling weapons if it would exacerbate a potential conflict in a region of the world,"INTERVIEW, Carter, Jimmy, Jimmy Carter, Amy Goodman, Fmr. President Jimmy Carter on "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid," Iraq, Greeting the Shah of Iran at the White House, Selling Weapons to Indonesia During the Occupation of East Timor, and More,weblink September 10, 2007, Democracy Now!, July 30, 2019, the administration continued weapon transfers to Indonesia. For example, the American A-4 bomber, as well as the British Hawk, were central to saturation bombing campaigns in East Timor in 1978-79. U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary for East Asian Affairs Robert Oakley regularly "informed" Congress that reports of genocide had been exaggerated.BOOK, Dumbrell, John, The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation, 1995, 2nd, Manchester University Press, Manchester, England, UK,weblink 187, 9780719046933,


File:Jimmy Carter with King Hussein of Jordan the Shah of Iran and Shahbanou of Iran - NARA - 177332 04.jpg|thumb|Carter with King Hussein of Jordan and Shah of Iran in 1977]]On November 15, 1977, Carter pledged that his administration would continue positive relations between the US and Iran, calling its contemporary status "strong, stable and progressive".NEWS,weblink CARTER LAUDS SHAH ON HIS LEADERSHIP, November 16, 1977, New York Times,

Iran hostage crisis

{{see also|Jimmy Carter's engagement with Khomeini|Presidency of Jimmy Carter#Iran–Iraq War}}On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. The students belonged to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line and were in support of the Iranian Revolution.WEB,weblink The History Guy,, Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444 days until they were finally freed immediately after Ronald Reagan succeeded Carter as President on January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in isolation in the White House for more than 100 days, until he left to participate in the lighting of the National Menorah on the Ellipse.Jonathan D. Sarna, How Hanukkah Came To The White House. Forward, December 2, 2009. A month into the affair, Carter stated his commitment to resolving the dispute without "any military action that would cause bloodshed or arouse the unstable captors of our hostages to attack them or to punish them".WEB,weblink American Hostages in Iran Remarks to State Department Employees. | The American Presidency Project,, On April 7, 1980, Carter issued Executive Order 12205, imposing economic sanctions against IranWEB,weblink Executive Order 12205—Economic Sanctions Against Iran | The American Presidency Project,, and announced further measures being taken by members of his cabinet and the American government that he deemed necessary to ensure a safe release.WEB,weblink Sanctions Against Iran Remarks Announcing U.S. Actions. | The American Presidency Project,, NEWS,weblink Carter Cuts Ties With Iran, April 8, 1980, The Harvard Crimson, On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered Operation Eagle Claw to try to free the hostages. The mission failed, leaving eight American servicemen dead and causing the destruction of two aircraft.WEB,weblink Address to the Nation on the Rescue Attempt for American Hostages in Iran | The American Presidency Project,, WEB,weblink Rescue Attempt for American Hostages in Iran White House Statement. | The American Presidency Project,, The ill-fated rescue attempt led to the self-imposed resignation of U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who had been opposed to the mission from the beginning.

Soviet Union

(File:Carter Brezhnev sign SALT II.jpg|thumb|Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing the SALT II treaty at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, June 18, 1979)On February 8, 1977, Carter stated he had urged the Soviet Union to align with the US in forming "a comprehensive test ban to stop all nuclear testing for at least an extended period of time" and that he was in favor of the Soviet Union ceasing deployment of the RSD-10 Pioneer.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, During a June 13 conference, Carter reported that the US would "beginning this week to work closely with the Soviet Union on a comprehensive test ban treaty to prohibit all testing of nuclear devices underground or in the atmosphere" and Paul Warnke would negotiate demilitarization of the Indian Ocean with the Soviet Union beginning the following week.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, At a news conference on December 30, Carter said throughout the period of "the last few months, the United States and the Soviet Union have made great progress in dealing with a long list of important issues, the most important of which is to control the deployment of strategic nuclear weapons" and that the two countries sought to conclude SALT II talks by the spring of the following year.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, The talk of a comprehensive test ban treaty materialized with the signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II by Carter and Leonid Brezhnev on June 18, 1979.NEWS,weblink U.S. AND SOVIET SIGN STRATEGIC ARMS TREATY; CARTER URGES CONGRESS TO SUPPORT ACCOR, June 19, 1979, New York Times, NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, June 18, 1979, Andrew, Glass, Politico, June 18, 2015, In the 1980 State of the Union Address, Carter emphasized the significance of relations between the two regions: "Now, as during the last 3 1/2 decades, the relationship between our country, the United States of America, and the Soviet Union is the most critical factor in determining whether the world will live at peace or be engulfed in global conflict."WEB,weblink The State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress. (January 23, 1980),

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Communists under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978.BOOK, Kaplan, Robert D., Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Knopf Doubleday, 2008, 9780307546982, 115–117, The new regime—which was divided between Taraki's extremist Khalq faction and the more moderate Parcham—signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in December of that year.BOOK, Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, I.B. Tauris, 2006, 9781845112578, 138–139, 142–144, Taraki's efforts to improve secular education and redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions (including of many conservative religious leaders) and political oppression unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by mujahideen rebels. Following a general uprising in April 1979, Taraki was deposed by Khalq rival Hafizullah Amin in September. Amin was considered a "brutal psychopath" by foreign observers; even the Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of the Afghan communists, and suspected Amin of being an agent of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), although that was not the case.BOOK, Blight, James G., Becoming Enemies: U.S.-Iran Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979-1988, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, 978-1-4422-0830-8, 69–70, By December, Amin's government had lost control of much of the country, prompting the Soviet Union to invade Afghanistan, execute Amin, and install Parcham leader Babrak Karmal as president.File:Carter and Begin, September 5, 1978 (10729514294).jpg|thumb|Carter, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Zbigniew BrzezinskiZbigniew BrzezinskiFile:King Khaled (10168117694).jpg|thumb|King Khalid of Saudi ArabiaKhalid of Saudi ArabiaCarter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the U.S. intelligence community during 1978 and 1979—reiterated as late as September 29, 1979—was that "Moscow would not intervene in force even if it appeared likely that the Khalq government was about to collapse." Indeed, Carter's diary entries from November 1979 until the Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to Afghanistan, and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran.BOOK, Bruce Riedel, Riedel, Bruce, What We Won: America's Secret War in Afghanistan, 1979–1989, Brookings Institution Press, 2014, 978-0815725954, ix–xi, 21–22, 93, 98–99, 105, In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf. Moreover, the failure to accurately predict Soviet intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat to both Iran and Pakistan, although it is now known that those fears were overblown. For example, U.S. intelligence closely followed Soviet exercises for an invasion of Iran throughout 1980, while an earlier warning from Carter's national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski that "if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan, they could promote a separate Baluchistan ... [thus] dismembering Pakistan and Iran" took on new urgency. These concerns were a major factor in the unrequited efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations to improve relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to Pakistan's Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Zia's ties with the U.S. had been strained during Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program and the execution of Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter told Brzezinski and secretary of state Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the unrest in Iran. One initiative Carter authorized to achieve this goal was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); through the ISI, the CIA began providing some $500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3, 1979—several months prior to the Soviet invasion. The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the understanding, later recounted by CIA official Robert Gates, "that a substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have "raise[d] the stakes" thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended."BOOK, Gates, Bob, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War, Simon and Schuster, 2007, 9781416543367, 145–147, When asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir (combined with an apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski) would inspire "a mind-bending number of conspiracy theories which adamantly—and wrongly—accuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into Afghanistan," Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John Bernell White Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in WEB, White, John Bernell,weblink The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland, May 2012, September 11, 2016, 45–46, 82, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2016, cf. BOOK, Steve Coll, Coll, Steve, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, Penguin, 2004, 9781594200076, 581, Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism., In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was determined to respond vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised renewed aid to Pakistan, initiated renewed registration for the Selective Service System, and committed the U.S. to the Persian Gulf's defense.WEB, Carter, James, Jimmy Carter State of the Union Address 1980,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 15, 2004, Selected Speeches of Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and Museum, May 30, 2017, WEB, Jimmy Carter: The State of the Union Address Delivered Before a Joint Session of the Congress,weblink, The American Presidency Project, January 7, 2018, He imposed an embargo on grain shipments to the USSR, tabled consideration of SALT II, and requested a 5% annual increase in defense spending.BOOK, Zelizer, Julian E., Jimmy Carter, 2010, Times Books/Henry Holt and Co., New York, 9780805089578, 103,weblink BOOK, Leuchtenburg, William E., The American President, 2015, Oxford University Press, New York, 9780195176162, 577, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, Carter also called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow.BOOK, Toohey, Kristine, The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective,weblink November 8, 2007, CABI, 978-1-84593-355-5, 100, British prime minister Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter's tough stance, although British intelligence believed "the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan." The thrust of U.S. policy for the duration of the war was determined by Carter in early 1980: Carter initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match U.S. funding for this purpose. U.S. support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carter's successor, Ronald Reagan, at a final cost to U.S. taxpayers of some $3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself. However, the decision to route U.S. aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons sent to Karachi were frequently sold on the local market rather than delivered to the Afghan rebels; Karachi soon "became one of the most violent cities in the world." Pakistan also controlled which rebels received assistance: Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia's government, four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs—and these fundamentalists received most of the funding. Despite this, Carter has expressed no regrets over his decision to support what he still considers the "freedom fighters" in Afghanistan.

South Korea

During a March 9, 1977 news conference, Carter reaffirmed his interest in having a gradual withdrawal of American troops from South Korea and stated he wanted South Korea to eventually have "adequate ground forces owned by and controlled by the South Korean Government to protect themselves against any intrusion from North Korea."WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, On May 19, The Washington Post quoted Chief of Staff of U.S. forces in South Korea John K. Singlaub as criticizing Carter's withdrawal of troops from the Korean peninsula. Later that day, Press Secretary Rex Granum announced Singlaub had been summoned to the White House by Carter, whom he also confirmed had seen the article in The Washington Post.NEWS,weblink Carter Summons General in Korea Over Criticism of Withdrawal Plan, May 20, 1977, New York Times, Carter relieved Singlaub of his duties two days later on May 21 following a meeting between the two.NEWS,weblink Carter Disciplines Gen. Singlaub, Who Attacked His Policy on Korea, Bernard, Weinraub, May 22, 1977, WEB,weblink ARMED FORCES: General on the Carpet, May 30, 1977,, On May 26, during a news conference, Carter said he believed South Korea would be able to defend themselves despite reduced American troops in the event of conflict.NEWS,weblink Carter Defends Plan to Reduce Forces in Korea, May 27, 1977, New York Times, From June 30 to July 1, 1979, Carter held meetings with President of South Korea Park Chung-hee at the Blue House for a discussion on relations between the US and Korea as well as Carter's interest in preserving his policy of worldwide tension reduction.WEB,weblink Seoul, Republic of Korea Joint Communiqué Issued at the Conclusion of Meetings With President Park. | The American Presidency Project,, On April 21, 1978, Carter announced a reduction in American troops in South Korea scheduled to be released by the end of the year by two-thirds, citing a lack of action by Congress in regards to a compensatory aid package for the Seoul Government.NEWS,weblink Carter Cuts Total of U.S. Troops To Leave South Korea This Year, Terence, Smith, New York Times, April 22, 1978,

International trips

{{further|List of international trips made by the President of the United States#Jimmy Carter}}(File:US President Jimmy Carter Presidential Trips.PNG|thumb|upright=1.35|Countries visited by Carter during his presidency)Carter made twelve international trips to twenty-five countries during his presidency.WEB,weblink Travels of President Jimmy Carter, U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, Carter was the first president to make a state visit to Sub-Saharan Africa when he went to Nigeria in 1978. His travel also included trips to Europe, Asia, and Latin America. He made several trips to the Middle East to broker peace negotiations. His visit to Iran from December 31, 1977, to January 1, 1978, took place less than a year before the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.WEB,weblink Most Important Presidential Visits: No. 7 Jimmy Carter - Iran, realclearworld,, May 24, 2016,

Allegations and investigations

The September 21, 1977 resignation of Bert Lance, who served as Director of the Office of Management and Budget in the Carter administration, came amid allegations of improper banking activities prior to his tenure and was an embarrassment to Carter.Bert Lance, Carter Adviser, Dies at 82 New York Times August 15, 2013 weblinkCarter became the first sitting president to testify under oath as part of an investigation into that president,NEWS, Paul Curran, 75, Corruption Foe, Dies, Robert D., McFadden, Robert D. McFadden,weblink The New York Times, September 6, 2008, A30, September 6, 2008, He also investigated President Jimmy Carter's family peanut business for the Justice Department in 1979, and thus became the first lawyer to examine a sitting president under oath., weblink" title="">Special Counsel, Litigation, Kaye Scholer. Accessed September 6, 2008. as a result of United States Attorney General Griffin Bell appointing Paul J. Curran as a special counsel to investigate loans made to the peanut business owned by Carter by a bank controlled by Bert Lance and Curran's position as special counsel not allowing him to file charges on his own.Staff. "I Have a Job to Do", Time, April 2, 1979. Accessed September 7, 2008. Curran announced in October 1979 that no evidence had been found to support allegations that funds loaned from the National Bank of Georgia had been diverted to Carter's 1976 presidential campaign, ending the investigation.NEWS, Carter's Business Cleared in Inquiry on Campaign Funds; Indictments Are Ruled Out: Investigator Finds No Evidence of Diversion of Warehouse Profit to '76 Presidential Race Insufficient Loan Collateral Loan Diversion Alleged Carter Business Cleared in Inquiry on Bank Loans and Campaign Funds Errors in the Records History of Loans Traced, Pound, Edward T.,weblink The New York Times, A1, October 17, 1979, September 7, 2008,

1980 presidential campaign

(File:ElectoralCollege1980.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Electoral map of the 1980 election)Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which he attributed to Ted Kennedy's ambition to replace him as president.BOOK, Jimmy Carter, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis,weblink 2005, Simon and Schuster, 8, 978-0-7432-8457-8, After Kennedy announced his candidacy in November 1979,NEWS,weblink Chapter 4: Sailing into the Wind: Losing a quest for the top, finding a new freedom, Allis, Sam, The Boston Globe, February 18, 2009, October 24, 2017, questions regarding his activities during his presidential bid were a frequent subject of Carter's press conferences held during the Democratic presidential primary.WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, WEB,weblink The President's News Conference | The American Presidency Project,, Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination. However, Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter weak support in the fall election.BOOK, Steven F. Hayward, The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order: 1964–1980,weblink 2009, Random House Digital, Inc., 497, 978-0-307-45370-9, Carter and Vice President Mondale were formally nominated at the Democratic National Convention in New York City.WEB,weblink Remarks Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention in New York | The American Presidency Project,, Carter delivered a speech notable for its tribute to the late Hubert Humphrey, whom he initially called "Hubert Horatio Hornblower."NEWS, Carter Blows the Horn Of the Wrong Horatio, The New York Times, August 15, 1980,weblink Carter's campaign for re-election in 1980 was one of the most difficult and least successful in history. He faced strong challenges from the right (Republican Ronald Reagan), the center (independent John B. Anderson), and the left (Democrat Ted Kennedy). He had to run against his own "stagflation"-ridden economy, while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week. He alienated liberal college students, who were expected to be his base, by re-instating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager and former appointments secretary, Timothy Kraft, stepped down some five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have been an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use.NEWS,weblink "Nation: Kraft Drops Out", September 29, 1980, Time (magazine), Time, June 29, 2013, September 29, 1980, On October 28, Carter and Reagan participated in the sole presidential debate of the election cycle.WEB,weblink Presidential Debate in Cleveland | The American Presidency Project,, Though initially trailing Carter by several points,NEWS, John, Harwood, History Suggests McCain Faces an Uphill Battle, October 12, 2008,weblink The New York Times, October 24, 2017, Reagan experienced a surge in polling following the debate.NEWS, John F., Stacks, Where the Polls Went Wrong, December 1, 1980,weblink Time magazine, October 24, 2017, Carter was defeated by Ronald Reagan in a landslide, and the Senate went Republican for the first time since 1952.BOOK, Kazin, Michael, Edwards, Rebecca, Rothman, Adam, The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. (Two volume set),weblink November 9, 2009, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-3356-6, 311, In his concession speech, Carter admitted that he was hurt by the outcome of the election but pledged "a very fine transition period" with President-elect Reagan.WEB,weblink 1980 Presidential Election Remarks on the Outcome of the Election | The American Presidency Project,,

Post-presidency (1981–present)

Shortly after losing his re-election bid, Carter told the White House press corps of his intent to emulate the retirement of Harry S. Truman and not use his subsequent public life to enrich himself.BOOK, Beyond the White House: Waging Peace, Fighting Disease, Building Hope, 3, 978-1416558811, Simon & Schuster, October 14, 2008, Jimmy, Carter,

Carter Center

File:President Jimmy Carter Interview September 2019.webm|thumb|Carter discussing his legacy and the work of the Carter CenterCarter CenterIn 1982, Carter founded the Carter Center,WEB, Timeline and History of The Carter Center [1981-1989],weblink The Carter Center, October 27, 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2009, a non-governmental and non-profit organization with the purpose of advancing human rights and alleviating human suffering,WEB,weblink The Carter Center At 30 Years, GeorgiaTrend, March 11, 2013, including helping improve the quality of life for people in more than 80 countries.WEB,weblink The Carter Center – Waging Peace. Fighting Disease, The Carter Center,


In 1994, President Bill Clinton sought Carter's assistance in a North Korea peace mission,Marion V. Creekmore, A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, The Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions (2006).WEB, Washington Monthly,weblink Rolling Blunder, Fred Kaplan, Fred Kaplan (journalist), June 8, 2010, May 2004, during which Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, with whom he went on to outline a treaty that he announced to CNN without the consent of the Clinton administration to spur American action.JOURNAL,weblink The New York Times, September 5, 2003, James Brooke, Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2010, Carter traveled to North Korea to secure the release of Aijalon Gomes in August 2010, successfully negotiating his release.CNN Wire Staff (August 27, 2010). "Freed American Arrives Home from North Korea" CNN. Retrieved September 28, 2010.NEWS, Justin McCurry,weblink North Korea releases US prisoner after talks with Jimmy Carter, The Guardian, August 27, 2010, September 6, 2010, London, Throughout the latter part of 2017, as tensions between the US and North Korea persisted, Carter recommended a peace treaty between the two nations,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter presses U.S., North Korea to tone down escalating rhetoric, Tamar, Hallerman,, August 10, 2017, January 15, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2017, dead, and confirmed he had offered himself to the Trump administration as a willing candidate to serve as diplomatic envoy to North Korea.NEWS,weblink Carter volunteers to help solve tensions with North Korea, October 21, 2017, The Hill, John, Bowden, In October 1984, Carter was named an honorary citizen of Peru by Mayor of Cusco Daniel Estrada after traveling to Machu Picchu,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter touring Peru, October 3, 1984, UPI, Carter endorsing the country's elections in 2001,NEWS,weblink Carter predicts fair presidential election in Peru, April 7, 2001, CNN, and offering support to the Peruvian government following a meeting with President of Peru Alan García at Government Palace in Lima in April 2009.NEWS,weblink Peru's President has earned US leaders' admiration, Jimmy Carter says, Isabel, Guerra, Living in Peru, April 30, 2009, In his February 1986 talks with Tomás Borge, Carter secured the release of journalist Luis Mora and labor leader Jose Altamirano,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter, ending a three day tour of..., February 9, 1986, Tracy, Wilkinson, UPI, while touring Nicaragua for three days.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter Thursday Arrived in Nicaragua and..., Tracy, Wilkinson, February 7, 1986, UPI, Carter conducted a tour of Cuba in May 2002 that included meeting with Fidel CastroCarter Center News, July–December 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008. and meeting political dissidents such as the AIDS sanitarium, a medical school, a biotech facility, an agricultural production cooperative, and a school for disabled children.BBC News, Lift Cuba embargo, Carter tells US, May 15, 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008. Carter toured Cuba again for three days in March 2011.MAGAZINE,weblink Jimmy Carter: Lift Trade Embargo Against Cuba, Peter, Kornbluh, March 30, 2011, The Nation, Carter's diplomatic efforts in the Middle East included a September 1981 meeting with Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin,NEWS,weblink Carter: Begin set to compromise, October 15, 1981, Chicago Tribune, a March 1983 tour of Egypt that included meeting with members of the Palestine Liberation Organization,NEWS,weblink Carter Meets P.L.O. Officials in Egypt, March 8, 1983, New York Times, William E., Farrell, a December 2008 meeting with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad,WEB,weblink,, November 1, 2007, June 8, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2011, Jimmy Carter speaks to Forward Magazine. {{webarchive |url= |date=July 25, 2015 }} and a June 2012 call with Jeffery Brown in which Carter stressed Egyptian military generals could be granted full power executively and legislatively in addition to being able to form a new constitution in favor of themselves in the event their announced intentions went through.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: If Egypt's Ruling Military Goes Through With Plan, Same as Coup, June 20, 2012, Larisa, Epatko, PBS, In 2006, Carter stated his disagreements with the domestic and foreign policies of Israel while saying he was in favor of the country,NEWS,weblink BBC News, Israel 'has 150 nuclear weapons', May 26, 2008, NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: Israel's 'Apartheid' Policies Worse Than South Africa's, December 11, 2006,, extending his criticisms to Israel's policies in Lebanon, the West Bank, and Gaza.Douglas G. Brinkley. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey to the Nobel Peace Prize (1999), pp. 99–123. Carter traveled to Syria in April 2008,"Jimmy Carter Planning to meet Mashaal {{webarchive|url= |date=April 29, 2011 }}", The Jerusalem Post, April 9, 2008. laying a wreath at the grave of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah"PA to Carter: Don't meet with Mashaal {{webarchive|url= |date=April 29, 2011 }}." Associated Press. April 15, 2008. and denying he had been contacted by the Bush administration in relation to meeting with Hamas leaders."Carter: Rice did not advise against Hamas meeting." CNN. April 23, 2008.(File:The Elders (9358747992).jpg|thumb|Carter (third from left) with William Hague, Martti Ahtisaari, and Lakhdar Brahimi from The Elders group in London, July 24, 2013.)In July 2007, Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa, to announce his participation in The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues.WEB,weblink What is The Elders?, The Elders, March 8, 2013, WEB,weblink Our Work, The Elders, March 7, 2013, Following the announcement, Carter participated in visits to Darfur,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter blocked from meeting Darfur chief, October 3, 2007, Reuters, June 12, 2012, Sudan,WEB,weblink Sudan ready to withdraw troops from Abyei: Jimmy Carter, Ian Timberlake, AFP, May 27, 2012, March 7, 2013, WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter and Lakhdar Brahimi in Sudan to support peace efforts, The Elders, May 27, 2012, March 7, 2013, Cyprus, the Korean Peninsula, and the Middle East, among others.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter, The Elders, March 7, 2013, Carter attempted traveling to Zimbabwe in November 2008, but was stopped by President Robert Mugabe's government.NEWS,weblink Annan, Carter say barred from Zimbabwe, Reuters, November 22, 2008, March 7, 2013, Carter held summits in Egypt and Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa,Press Release, African Leaders Gather to Address Great Lakes Crisis {{webarchive|url= |date=July 19, 2008 }}, May 2, 1996. Retrieved August 4, 2008. and played a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in 1999 between Sudan and Uganda.The Nairobi Agreement {{webarchive|url= |date=May 18, 2008 }}, December 8, 1999. Retrieved August 4, 2008.

Criticism of American policy

Carter began his first year out of office with a pledge not to critique the new Reagan administration.NEWS,weblink Too early to criticize Reagan, says Carter, Helen, Thomas, UPI, March 16, 1981, He spoke out after the assassination attempt on Reagan,NEWS,weblink Carter Declares Danger To Presidents Is Routine, March 31, 1981, New York Times, and voiced his agreement with Reagan on building neutron arms in the wake of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.NEWS,weblink Carter backs Reagan on neutron weapon, September 3, 1981, UPI, He later disagreed with Reagan's handling of the Middle East.NEWS,weblink CARTER TO LOBBY SENATE ON AWACS, October 12, 1981, New York Times, The following year, Carter called for bipartisanship to fix American economic issues,NEWS,weblink CARTER ASKS BIPARTISAN EFFORT IN BUDGET CRISIS, May 2, 1982, New York Times, and criticized the Reagan administration's handling of the Sabra and Shatila massacre.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter says the massacre of some..., September 21, 1982, UPI, Carter responded favorably to Reagan choosing to remain within the Camp David agreement,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter today urged the Reagan administration..., October 26, 1982, UPI, with distaste toward what he felt was Reagan blaming his tenure for continued difficulties in policy.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter rebuked President Reagan Saturday at..., Steve, Holland, October 9, 1982, UPI, NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter criticized President Reagan Wednesday for making 'radical'..., Wesley G., Pippert, November 10, 1982, In 1983, Carter judged the Reagan campaign with having falsified simplicity in solving issues,NEWS,weblink Carter says Americans disillusioned by Reagan, January 28, 1983, UPI, and criticized Reagan for a lack of attention to human rights violations.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter blasted the Reagan administration's record..., William, Cotterell, June 10, 1983, UPI, In 1984, Carter stated he had been wrongly presented as weak by Reagan due to a commitment to human rights during the previous presidential election,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter says President Reagan wrongly accused..., October 10, 1984, UPI, and condemned Reagan for not making rescue efforts to retrieve four American businessmen from West Beirut.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter criticized the Reagan administration Sunday..., UPI, In 1985, Carter rebuked Reagan over his handling of peace within the Middle East,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter criticized President Reagan's 'lack of..., March 24, 1985, UPI, his support of the Strategic Defense Initiative,NEWS,weblink 'Star Wars' May Hurt Talks, Carter Warns, Thom, Shanker, April 12, 1985, Chicago Tribune, and Reagan's claim of an international conspiracy on terrorism.NEWS,weblink Carter: Avoid force against terrorism, UPI, July 14, 1985, Carter's insistence that Reagan was not preserving peace in the Middle East continued in 1987,NEWS,weblink Carter: Reagan Not Tending To Mideast, Uli, Schmetzer, March 22, 1987, Chicago Tribune, Carter during the year also criticizing Reagan for adhering to terrorist demands,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter told students Monday that President..., February 9, 1987, UPI, nomination of Robert Bork for the Supreme Court,NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter declared Wednesday he is strongly..., John, Hanrahan, UPI, and handling of the Persian Gulf.NEWS,weblink Carter criticizes Reagan's gulf policy, Matthew C., Quinn, UPI, October 17, 1987, During the presidency of George W. Bush, Carter stated his opposition to the Iraq War,Jimmy Carter, "Just War – or a Just War?", The New York Times, March 9, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2008. and what he considered an attempt on the part of Bush and Tony Blair to oust Saddam Hussein through the usage of "lies and misinterpretations".NEWS,weblink July 5, 2008, Jimmy Carter: Blair Subservient to Bush, August 27, 2006, Associated Press, The Washington Post, In May 2007, Carter stated the Bush administration "has been the worst in history" in terms of its impact in foreign affairs,Frank Lockwood, "Carter calls Bush administration worst ever", Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 19, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2008. and later stated he was just comparing Bush's tenure to that of Richard Nixon.NEWS, Carter: Anti-Bush remarks 'careless or misinterpreted',weblink May 21, 2007, June 22, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2007, dead, CNN, Associated Press, Carter's comments received a response from the Bush administration in the form of Tony Fratto saying Carter was increasing his irrelevance with his commentary.NEWS, 'Carter is irrelevant,' Bush administration shoots back,weblink May 20, 2007, June 22, 2015, Associated Press,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2007, dead, CNN, By the end of Bush's second term, Carter considered Bush's tenure disappointing, which he disclosed in comments to Forward Magazine of Syria.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter Speaks to Forward Magazine, January 2009, April 12, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 9, 2012, Though he praised President Obama in the early part of his tenure,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter Says Obama Will Be 'Outstanding', January 28, 2009, The Hill, Walter, Alarkon, Carter stated his disagreements with the use of drone strikes against suspected terrorists, Obama's choice to keep Guantanamo Bay detention camp open,NEWS, Bingham, Amy, Jimmy Carter Accuses U.S. of 'Widespread Abuse of Human Rights',weblink ABC News, June 26, 2012, June 25, 2012, ABC quotes came from a NY Times June 25, 2012 op-ed written by Carter and the current federal surveillance programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden indicating that "America has no functioning democracy at this moment."WEB,weblink Greg Bluestein, Jim Galloway, Your daily jolt: 'America has no functioning democracy,' says Jimmy Carter, Atlanta Journal Constitution, July 18, 2013, July 20, 2013, MAGAZINE,weblink Peter Schmitz, NSA-Affäre: Ex-Präsident Carter verdammt US-Schnüffelei, Der Spiegel, July 17, 2013, July 20, 2013, During the Trump presidency, Carter spoke favorably of the chance for immigration reform through Congress,NEWS,weblink Ex-President Carter: Give Trump credit on forcing immigration debate, September 14, 2017, Fox News, and criticized Trump for his handling of the U.S. national anthem protests.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: 'I would rather see all the players stand during' anthem, Jacqueline, Thomsen, October 21, 2017, The Hill,

Presidential politics

(File:Jimmy Carter (1988).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Carter in 1988)Carter was considered a potential candidate in the 1984 presidential election,NEWS,weblink Mondale in '84: he may run if Jimmy Carter doesn't, Godfrey, Sperling Jr.,, NEWS,weblink Rosalynn Carter: Bitter at 1980 loss: Wishes her husband would run again, April 25, 1984, Helen, Thomas, UPI, but did not run and instead endorsed Walter Mondale for the Democratic nomination.NEWS,weblink Carter Backs Mondale For Presidency in 1984, May 11, 1982, Chicago Tribune, NEWS,weblink Mondale wins Carter hometown, March 14, 1984, UPI, After Mondale secured the nomination, Carter critiqued the Reagan campaign,NEWS,weblink Carter Predicts That Reagan Will Avoid Debating Mondale, June 14, 1984, New York Times, spoke at the 1984 Democratic National Convention, and advised Mondale.NEWS,weblink Campaign Notes; Carter Vows to Shun Convention Spotlight, June 28, 1984, New York Times, Following the election, in which President Reagan defeated Mondale, Carter stated the loss was predictable due to the latter's platform that included raising taxes.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter said Wednesday Walter Mondale's defeat..., Carol, Rosenberg, November 7, 1984, UPI, In the 1988 presidential election cycle, Carter ruled himself out as a candidate once more and predicted Vice President George H. W. Bush as the Republican nominee in the general election.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter said today Vice President George..., March 19, 1987, UPI, Carter foresaw unity at the 1988 Democratic National Convention,NEWS,weblink Carter predicts unified convention, Robert, Mackay, July 16, 1988, UPI, where he delivered an address.NEWS,weblink The Carter Constituency, July 21, 1988, Washington Post, Following the election, a failed attempt by the Democrats in regaining the White House, Carter said Bush would have a more difficult presidency than Reagan due to not having the same level of popularity.NEWS,weblink Carter predicts tough times for Bush, November 10, 1988, UPI, During the 1992 presidential election, Carter met with Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas who sought out his advice.NEWS,weblink THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Georgia; Carter Welcomes Tsongas to Plains, Karen, De Witt, February 23, 1992, New York Times, Carter spoke favorably of former Governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton,NEWS,weblink Carter says Clinton election would be good for Japan-U.S. relations, April 13, 1992, UPI, and criticized Ross Perot.NEWS,weblink THE 1992 CAMPAIGN; Carter, With Clinton at His Side, Praises the Candidate's Qualities, May 21, 1992, New York Times, Gwen, Ifill, As the primary concluded, Carter spoke of the need for the 1992 Democratic National Convention to address certain issues not focused on in the past,NEWS,weblink Clinton and Gore help Carter build house, Steve, Glasser, August 19, 1992, UPI, and campaigned for Clinton after he became the Democratic nominee in the general election,NEWS,weblink THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Assails G.O.P. Attacks Aimed at Wife, Gwen, Ifill, August 20, 1992, New York Times, publicly stating his expectation to be consulted during the latter's presidency.NEWS,weblink Carter ready to consult with Clinton, November 6, 1992, UPI, Carter endorsed Vice President Al Gore days before the 2000 presidential election,NEWS,weblink Former President Carter endorses Gore, November 1, 2000, UPI, and in the years following voiced his opinion that the election was won by Gore,BOOK, Born to Cheat: How Bush, Cheney, Rove & Co. Broke the Rules – From the Sandlot to the White House, 126, Do Something Press, Jackson, Thoreau, 978-1881365532, 2007, despite the Supreme Court handing the election to Bush in the controversial Bush v. Gore ruling.NEWS,weblink Poll: Majority of Americans accept Bush as legitimate president, April 27, 2011, Turner Broadcasting System, Inc, December 13, 2000, {{dead link|date=January 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In the 2004 election cycle, Carter endorsed John Kerry and spoke at the 2004 Democratic National Convention.NEWS,weblink Carter: Kerry 'the president we need now', July 26, 2004, CNN, Carter also voiced concerns of another voting mishap in the state of Florida.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter fears repeat of election fiasco in Florida, The Guardian, September 28, 2004, Amid the Democratic presidential primary in 2008, Carter was speculated to endorse Senator Barack Obama over his main primary rival Hillary Clinton amid his speaking favorably of the candidate, as well as remarks from the Carter family that showed their support for Obama.NEWS,weblink Carter praises Obama, January 30, 2008, CNN, NEWS,weblink Carter hints at supporting Obama, April 3, 2008, CNN, Carter also commented on Clinton ending her bid when superdelegates voted after the June 3 primary.NEWS,weblink Carter: After June 3, it will be time for Clinton to 'give it up', May 26, 2008, CNN, Leading up to the general election, Carter criticized John McCain,NEWS,weblink Carter: McCain 'milking' POW status, August 28, 2008, UPI, NEWS,weblink Carter: McCain 'milking' POW time, ABC News, who responded to Carter's comments,NEWS,weblink John McCain rejects Jimmy Carter jibe that he is 'milking' Vietnam service, August 31, 2008, Alex, Spillius, Telegraph, and warned Obama against selecting Clinton as his running mate.WEB,weblink US elections: Jimmy Carter tells Barack Obama not to pick Hillary Clinton as running mate, Jonathan, Freedland, June 4, 2008,, Carter endorsed Republican Mitt Romney for the Republican nomination during the primary season of the 2012 election cycle,WEB,weblink Could Jimmy Carter's Comments Doom Mitt Romney?, September 22, 2011, The International Business Times Inc., though he clarified his backing of Romney was due to him considering the former Massachusetts governor the candidate that could best assure a victory for President Obama.Yahoo News, Jimmy Carter wants Mitt Romney to be the Republican nominee, September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011. Carter delivered a videotape address at the 2012 Democratic National Convention.NEWS, Camia, Catalina, Jimmy Carter to speak by video at Dem convention,weblink August 7, 2012, USA TODAY, August 7, 2012, Carter was critical of Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump shortly after the latter entered the primary and predicted he would lose,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: Trump's comments are 'very stupid', July 8, 2015, CNN, Theodore, Schleifer, noting the differing circumstances of the political climate from when he was still an active politician.NEWS,weblink Carter: Dems, GOP 'hardly speak' now, Mark, Hensch, November 2, 2015, The Hill, As the primary continued, Carter stated he would prefer Trump over his main rival Ted Cruz,NEWS,weblink February 3, 2016, Jimmy Carter: I would choose Donald Trump over Ted Cruz, Stephanie, Condon, CBS News, though rebuked the Trump campaign in remarks during the primary,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter, Seeing Resurgence of Racism, Plans Baptist Conference for Unity, May 24, 2016, Laurie, Goodstein, New York Times, and in his address to the 2016 Democratic National Convention.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter blasts Trump for lack of 'moral and ethical principles', July 26, 2016, Nick, Gass, Politico, In the Democratic primary, Carter voted for Senator Bernie Sanders,WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter Reveals He Voted for Bernie Sanders In Democratic Primary, May 8, 2017, The Daily Beast, May 9, 2017, and in the general election, voted for Hillary Clinton.NEWS, Sommerfeldt, Chris, Jimmy Carter will vote for Hillary Clinton but calls both her and Donald Trump 'quite unpopular', New York Daily News, New York City, August 23, 2016,weblink May 9, 2017, File:The Funeral of President George H.W. Bush (46204190411).jpg|thumb|The state funeral of George H. W. Bush in December 2018. Carter and his wife Rosalynn can be seen on the far right of the photograph.]]In October 2017, however, Carter defended President Trump in an interview with The New York Times, criticizing the media's coverage of him. "I think the media have been harder on Trump than any other president certainly that I've known about," Carter stated. "I think they feel free to claim that Trump is mentally deranged and everything else without hesitation."NEWS,weblink Opinion {{!, Jimmy Carter Lusts for a Trump Posting|last=Dowd|first=Maureen|date=October 21, 2017|work=The New York Times|access-date=January 17, 2018|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter wants to partner with Trump, CNN, Nicole Chavez, CNN, January 17, 2018, He further stated that he did not believe that Russia was involved in changing votes during the presidential election or primaries. "I don't think there's any evidence that what the Russians did changed enough votes, or any votes," he told the Times. He also praised Trump for reaching out to Saudi Arabia and stated that the President has been under a stricter spotlight than his predecessors. After the interview, Trump himself praised Carter's comments and thanked him over Twitter, writing "Just read the nice remarks by President Jimmy Carter about me and how badly I am treated by the press (Fake News). Thank you Mr. President!"NEWS,weblink Trump: Jimmy Carter made 'nice remarks' about me, Cohn, Alicia, October 28, 2017, TheHill, January 17, 2018, However, in June 2019, Carter stated his belief that Trump wouldn't have gotten elected without Russia's interference in the 2016 election, while also sharply criticizing the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement department under Trump and the administration's response to the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter says Trump wouldn't be president without help from Russia, Wagner, John, June 28, 2019, Washington Post, June 29, 2019,

Hurricane relief

Carter criticized the Bush administration's handling of Hurricane Katrina,NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter criticizes FEMA's role in Katrina relief, September 21, 2005,, built homes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy,NEWS,weblink Former President Carter joins effort to rebuild Sandy-ravaged Union Beach, October 12, 2013, Christopher, Robbins, and partnered with former presidents to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities,NEWS,weblink Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief, Shelbourne, Mallory, September 10, 2017, The Hill, September 11, 2017, in addition to writing op-eds about the goodness seen in Americans who assist each other during natural disasters.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: When the waters rise, so do our better angels, September 2, 2017, CNN,

Other activities

Carter attended the dedication of his presidential libraryNEWS,weblink You Gave of Yourself': Reagan Praises Carter at Library Dedication, October 2, 1986, Los Angeles Times, and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan,NEWS,weblink 4 Presidents Join Reagan in Dedicating His Library, New York Times, Robert, Reinhold, George H. W. Bush,NEWS,weblink Dedication of Bush Library Is Set for Today, November 6, 1997, New York Times, Bill Clinton,NEWS,weblink Thousands Attend Dedication of Clinton's Presidential Library, November 18, 2004, Newman, Maria, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, December 18, 2009, NEWS,weblink Clinton library open for business, November 18, 2004, BBC News, BBC, December 18, 2009, and George W. Bush.NEWS,weblink At George W. Bush library, five presidents meet in harmony, April 25, 2013, Los Angeles Times, He delivered eulogies at the funerals of Coretta Scott KingNEWS,weblink At Mrs. King's Funeral, a Mix of Elegy and Politics, February 8, 2006, New York Times, and Gerald Ford,WEB,weblink Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum,, NEWS,weblink Carter praises 'distinguished opponent' Ford at funeral, CBC News, CBC, January 3, 2007, November 11, 2015, and Theodore Hesburgh.WEB, theodore hesburgh jimmy carter - Google Search,weblink, {{As of|2019|August|df=US}}, Carter serves as an Honorary Chair for the World Justice ProjectWEB,weblink Honorary Chairs, World Justice Project, en, 6 August 2019, and formerly served as one for the Continuity of Government Commission.REPORT,weblink Preserving Our Institutions, June 2009, Continuity of Government Commission, en, 6 August 2019,, He continues to occasionally teach Sunday school at Maranatha Baptist Church.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter's Sunday School Class, Maranatha Baptist Church,weblink 19 May 2019, dead, 6 August 2019, Carter also teaches at Emory University in Atlanta, and in June 2019 was awarded tenure for 37 years of service.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter granted tenure at Emory University, Watkins, Eli, June 3, 2019, CNN, 2019-06-04, en,

Political views


Although Carter was "personally opposed" to abortion, he supported legalized abortionWEB,weblink Jimmy Carter Using Abortion to Split Support for Republicans?,, Westen, John-Henry, November 7, 2005, August 25, 2019,weblink March 23, 2019, dead, after the landmark US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113 (1973). As president, he did not support increased federal funding for abortion services. He was criticized by the American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find alternatives.BOOK, The Strategy of Campaigning, Skinner, Kiron, Kudelia, Serhiy, Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Rice, Condoleezza, University of Michigan Press, 2007,weblink October 20, 2008, 978-0-472-11627-0, In a March 29, 2012 interview with Laura Ingraham, Carter expressed his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party becoming more pro-life:WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter: Democratic Party Should Be More Pro-Life, March 29, 2012, RealClearPolitics, August 25, 2019,
are in danger or who are pregnant as a result of rape or incest. I think if the Democratic Party would adopt that policy that would be acceptable to a lot of people who are now estranged from our party because of the abortion issue.}}

Death penalty

Carter is known for his strong opposition to the death penalty, which he expressed during his presidential campaigns. In his Nobel Prize lecture, Carter urged "prohibition of the death penalty"."Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech" {{webarchive|url= |date=November 16, 2007 }}, CNN, December 10, 2002 He has continued to speak out against the death penalty in the US and abroad.BOOK, Hill, Elias C., The Mirage of Human Rights,weblink October 9, 2012, iUniverse, 978-1-4759-4888-2, 200, In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson, Carter urged the governor to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and institute life in prison without parole instead. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 2009. Carter wrote: "As you know, the United States is one of the few countries, along with nations such as Saudi Arabia, China, and Cuba, which still carry out the death penalty despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial and class-based disparities that make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment."WEB,weblink NEW VOICES: Jimmy Carter Urges New Mexico Governor to Support Death Penalty Repeal | Death Penalty Information Center,, June 8, 2010, In 2012, Carter wrote an op-ed in the LA Times supporting passage of a state referendum which would have ended the death penalty. He opened the article: "The process for administering the death penalty in the United States is broken beyond repair, and it is time to choose a more effective and moral alternative. California voters will have the opportunity to do this on election day."Carter, Jimmy, "Jimmy Carter to California: Yes on Prop. 34" (op-ed), LA Times, October 28, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many death-row inmates, including Brian K. Baldwin (executed in 1999 in Alabama),WEB,weblink Brian Baldwin, Center on Wrongful Convictions,, June 8, 2010, Kenneth Foster (sentence in Texas commuted in 2007)WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter, Desmond Tutu Urge Texas to Stay Execution of Kenneth Foster,, June 8, 2010, WEB,weblink Clemency | Death Penalty Information Center,, June 8, 2010, and Troy Davis (executed in Georgia in 2011).WEB, The Carter Center,weblink Carter Center Press Releases – President Carter Calls for Clemency for Troy Davis, The Carter Center, September 19, 2008, June 8, 2010,

Equality for women

In October 2000, Carter, a third-generation Southern Baptist, severed connections to the Southern Baptist Convention over its opposition to women as pastors. What led Carter to take this action was a doctrinal statement by the Convention, adopted in June 2000, advocating a literal interpretation of the Bible. This statement followed a position of the Convention two years previously advocating the submission of wives to their husbands. Carter described the reason for his decision as due to: "an increasing inclination on the part of Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary of accommodating those who differ from them." The New York Times called Carter's action "the highest-profile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention."NEWS, Sengupta, Somini, October 21, 2000, Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body,weblink The New York Times, December 17, 2014, On July 15, 2009, Carter wrote an opinion piece about equality for women in which he stated that he chooses equality for women over the dictates of the leadership of what has been a lifetime religious commitment. He said that the view that women are inferior is not confined to one faith, "nor, tragically does its influence stop at the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple." Carter stated:In 2014, he published A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power.BOOK, A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power, Simon & Schuster, 2014, 978-1-4767-7395-7, 868276576,

Gun control

Carter has publicly expressed support for a ban on assault weapons and background checks of gun buyers.NEWS, Carter, Jimmy, April 26, 2009, What Happened to the Ban on Assault Weapons?,weblink Op-ed, New York Times, July 4, 2014, In May 1994, Carter and former presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan wrote to the U.S. House of Representatives in support of banning "semi-automatic assault guns."NEWS, Eaton, William J., May 5, 1994, Ford, Carter, Reagan Push for Gun Ban,weblink Los Angeles Times, July 4, 2014, In a February 2013 appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight, Carter agreed that if the assault weapons ban did not pass it would be mainly due to lobbying by the National Rifle Association and its pressure on "weak-kneed" politicians.NEWS, Kurtz, Jason, February 22, 2013, Clips From Last Night: Jimmy Carter on firearm legislation, the NRA, and the conflict in the Middle East,weblink Cable News Network, July 4, 2014,

Same-sex marriage

Carter has stated that he supports same-sex marriage in civil ceremonies.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter Says Jesus Would Approve Of Gay Marriage, July 7, 2015, HuffPost Canada, September 24, 2018, en-CA, He has also stated that he believes Jesus would also support it, saying "I believe Jesus would. I don't have any verse in scripture. ... I believe Jesus would approve gay marriage, but that's just my own personal belief. I think Jesus would encourage any love affair if it was honest and sincere and was not damaging to anyone else, and I don't see that gay marriage damages anyone else."Buxton, Ryan, July 7, 2015, "Jimmy Carter Says Jesus Would Approve Of Gay Marriage". Huffpost Politics. Accessed May 30, 2016. Evangelist Franklin Graham criticized the assertion as "absolutely wrong."NEWS,weblink Franklin Graham: Carter 'Absolutely Wrong' That Jesus Would Approve of Same-Sex Marriage, News, Abigail Robertson/CBN, Charisma News, September 24, 2018, en-US, WEB,weblink Veoh Watch Movie Online For Free,, 2019-08-29, In October 2014, Carter argued ahead of a Supreme Court ruling that legalization of same-sex marriage should be left up to the states and not mandated by federal law.NEWS, Jimmy Carter: Gay marriage should be up to states,weblink January 21, 2017, USA TODAY, October 27, 2014,

Race in politics

Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated, "I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man, that he is African-American."WEB,weblink NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast, MSNBC, June 8, 2010, WEB,weblink White House disputes Carter's analysis – Capitol Hill, MSNBC, September 16, 2009, June 8, 2010, Obama disagreed with Carter's assessment. On CNN Obama stated, "Are there people out there who don't like me because of race? I'm sure there are ... that's not the overriding issue here."WEB, O'Brien, Michael,weblink Obama plays down role of race in criticism – The Hill's Blog Briefing Room,, September 19, 2009, June 8, 2010,


In a 2008 interview with Amnesty International, Carter criticized the use of torture at Guantánamo Bay, saying that it "contravenes the basic principles on which this nation was founded."{{YouTube|tkz_FLxaKnI|Torture can never be justified}} He stated that the next president should make the promise that the United States will "never again torture a prisoner."NEWS,weblink I have moral authority, The Guardian, June 6, 2008, December 28, 2014, Freedland, Jonathan,


In an October 2013 interview, Carter labeled the Affordable Care Act President Obama's major accomplishment and said "the implementation of it now is questionable at best".NEWS,weblink Carter: ACA rollout 'questionable', October 31, 2013, Jose, Delreal, Politico, In July 2017, Carter concluded the US would eventually see the implementation of a single-payer healthcare system.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter Believes U.S. Will Eventually Go to Single-Payer Health System, Louise, Radnofsky, Wall Street Journal, July 23, 2017, NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter predicts US will eventually have single-payer healthcare system, Robin, Eberhardt, The Hill, July 24, 2017,

Campaign finance laws

Carter vigorously opposed the Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC that struck down limits on campaign spending by corporations and unions, going so far as to saying that the U.S. is "no longer a functioning democracy" and now has a system of "unlimited political bribery".NEWS, Lavender, Paige, July 31, 2015, Jimmy Carter Blasts U.S. 'Political Bribery',weblink The Huffington Post,

Personal life

File:Former US President Jimmy Carter Builds Homes Despite Black Eye From Fall.webm|thumb|right|'Former US President Jimmy Carter Builds Homes Despite Black Eye From Fall' - October 8, 2019 video from Voice of AmericaVoice of America(File:JimmyCarteronBicycle.jpg|thumb|upright|Carter in Plains, 2008)Carter and his wife Rosalynn are well known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people around the world to build and buy their own homes and access clean water.WEB,weblink Greif, Inc. helps support Habitat for Humanity's 29th Annual Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project, Habitat for Humanity, December 28, 2014, Carter's hobbies include painting,Carter, Jimmy, Letter to Artist Mia LaBerge, February 14, 2008. fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter – Biographical, The Nobel Foundation, December 28, 2014, He also has an interest in poetry, particularly the works of Dylan Thomas.WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter to welcome visitors to Dylan Thomas house, BBC News, BBC, November 9, 2011, November 11, 2015, During a state visit to the UK in 1977, Carter suggested that Thomas should have a memorial in Poets' Corner at Westminster Abbey; this was an idea that came to fruition in 1982.WEB,weblink Dylan Thomas, Westminster Abbey, The Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 2015, November 11, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, dead, WEB,weblink Jimmy Carter's Crusade for Dylan Thomas Wins a Supporter—his Grateful Widow, Caitlin, People, M.J., Wilson, June 27, 1977, November 11, 2015, Carter was also a personal friend of Elvis Presley. Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, met him on June 30, 1973, before Presley was to perform onstage in Atlanta.WEB, Elvis Presley and Politics,weblink Neatorama, February 20, 2018, They remained in contact by telephone two months before Presley's sudden death in August 1977. Carter later recalled an abrupt phone call received by Presley in June 1977, who sought a presidential pardon from Carter, in order to help George Klein's criminal case; Klein had only been indicted at the time for fraud.BOOK, Elvis Presley, Reluctant Rebel: His Life and Our Times, 2011, David Luhrssen and Glen Jeansonne, 195,weblink February 20, 2018, 9780313359040, BOOK, Nash, Alanna, Elvis and the Memphis Mafia,weblink February 20, 2018, 9781845137595, February 1, 2012, According to Carter, he was almost incoherent and cited barbiturate abuse as the cause of this; although Presley phoned the White House several times again, this would be the last time Carter would speak to Elvis Presley.WEB, Takes: Elvis Presley on the Line,weblink The New Yorker, Erin Overbey, February 20, 2018, The day after Presley's death, Carter issued a statement and explained how he had "changed the face of American popular culture."WEB, Statement by the President on the Death of Elvis Presley,weblink The American Presidency Project, February 20, 2018,


From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity. He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon at the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains.Somini Sengupta, "Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body", The New York Times, October 21, 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2008.weblink" title="">Maranatha Baptist Church. Retrieved August 4, 2008. At a private inauguration worship service, the preacher was Nelson Price, the subject's "prayer partner" and pastor of Roswell Street Baptist Church of Marietta, Georgia.Hobbs, Herschel H. and Mullins, Edgar Young. (1978). The Axioms of Religion. Nashville, Tennessee: Broadman Press. Revised edition. p. 22. {{ISBN|0-8054-1707-9}}. As president, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus was the driving force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man. It asked, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?"BOOK, Conversations with Carter, 978-1-55587-801-6, 1998, 14, Jimmy, Carter, Don, Richardson, Lynne Rienner Publishers, The New York Times noted that Carter had been instrumental in moving evangelical Christianity closer to the American mainstream during and after his presidency.Sengupta, S. (October 21, 2000). Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body. The New York Times. Retrieved on: March 31, 2013.In 2000, Carter severed his membership with the Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs. In April 2006, Carter, former President Bill Clinton, and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.weblink" title="">New Baptist Covenant. Retrieved August 4, 2008.


Carter had three younger siblings, all of whom died of pancreatic cancer: sisters Gloria Spann (1926–1990) and Ruth Stapleton (1929–1983), and brother Billy Carter (1937–1988).NEWS, Robert D. Hershey Jr, Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51; Troubled Brother of a President,weblink The New York Times, September 26, 1988, July 27, 2011, He was first cousin to politician Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the Carter family of musicians.Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr (1997). Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins.File:Farah Pahlavi and Rosalynn Carter (cropped and retouched).jpg|thumb|Farah Pahlavi, Empress of IranIranCarter and Rosalynn Smith were married on July 7, 1946 in the Plains Methodist Church, the church of Rosalynn's family.NEWS, Vejnoska, Jill, Happy 71st wedding anniversary Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter!,weblink March 31, 2019, ajc, July 7, 2017, English, They have three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and two great-grandsons. Mary Prince (an African American woman wrongly convicted of murder, and later pardoned) was their daughter Amy's nanny for most of the period from 1971 until Jimmy Carter's presidency ended.BOOK, Jimmy Carter, Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis,weblink 2005, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-7432-8457-8, 84–, My last book, Sharing Good Times, is dedicated "to Mary Prince, whom we love and cherish." Mary is a wonderful black woman who, as a teenager visiting a small town, was falsely accused of murder and defended by an assigned lawyer whom she first met on the day of the trial, when he advised her to plead guilty, promising a light sentence. She got life imprisonment instead ... A reexamination of the evidence and trial proceedings by the original judge revealed that she was completely innocent, and she was granted a pardon., WEB, Chabbott, Sophia,weblink The Residence: Meet the Women Behind Presidential Families Kennedy, Johnson, Carter,, March 19, 2015, May 2, 2015, Rosalynn Carter, who believed Prince was wrongly convicted, secured a reprieve so Prince could join them in Washington. Prince was later granted a full pardon; to this day she occasionally babysits the Carters' grandkids., Carter had asked to be designated as her parole officer, thus helping to enable her to work in the White House.{{refn|name=Prince01|group=note|After working in the Georgia governor's mansion as a trustee prisoner, she had been returned to prison in 1975 when Carter's term as governor ended, but intervention on her behalf by both Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter, with Jimmy Carter asking to be designated as her parole officer, enabled her to be reprieved and to work in the White House.MAGAZINE, Crawford, Clare,weblink A Story of Love and Rehabilitation: the Ex-Con in the White House,, March 14, 1977, May 3, 2015, }} The Carters celebrated their 70th wedding anniversary in July 2016, making them the second-longest wed presidential couple after George and Barbara Bush. Their eldest son Jack Carter was the 2006 Democratic candidate for U.S. Senate in Nevada before losing to the Republican incumbent, John Ensign. Carter's grandson Jason Carter is a former Georgia State SenatorNEWS, Hulse, Carl, Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary,, New York Times, May 11, 2010,weblink August 12, 2015, and in 2014 was the Democratic candidate for governor of Georgia, losing to the Republican incumbent, Nathan Deal. On December 20, 2015, while teaching a Sunday school class, Carter announced that his 28-year-old grandson Jeremy Carter had died from an unspecified illness.NEWS,weblink Hours after death of grandson, Jimmy Carter reveals the news to his church, Ashley, Fantz, Carma, Hassan, CNN, December 20, 2015, December 21, 2015,

Cancer diagnosis

On August 3, 2015, Carter underwent elective surgery to remove "a small mass" on his liver, and his prognosis for a full recovery was initially said to be "excellent". On August 12, however, Carter announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had metastasized, without specifying where the cancer had originated.NEWS,weblink Former President Jimmy Carter reveals he has cancer, CNBC, August 12, 2015, August 12, 2015, Pramuk, Jacob, New York City, New York, On August 20, he disclosed that melanoma had been found in his brain and liver, and that he had begun treatment with the immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab and was about to start radiation therapy. His healthcare is being managed by Emory Healthcare of Atlanta. The former president has an extensive family history of cancer, including both of his parents and all three of his siblings.NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter Says He's Being Treated for Cancer in Brain, Toluse, Olorunnipa, Bloomberg News, August 20, 2015, August 20, 2015, On December 6, 2015, Carter issued a statement that his medical scans no longer showed any cancer.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Statement from Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, December 6, 2015, Carter Center,


(File:President Carter visits Georgia Tech (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|Carter in 2017)Carter, the earliest-serving living former president since the death of Gerald Ford in 2006, became the oldest to ever attend a presidential inauguration in 2017, at age 92, and the first to live to the 40th anniversary of their own.MAGAZINE,weblink How Jimmy Carter Beat Cancer and Became the Oldest President to Attend an Inauguration, Katie, Reilly, January 20, 2017, January 20, 2017, Time (magazine), Time, NEWS, Jimmy Carter is poised to be the president who has lived the longest in US history, Jacobo, Julia, March 21, 2019,weblink ABC News, October 8, 2019, Two years later, on March 22, 2019, he gained the distinction of being the nation's longest-lived president, when he surpassed the lifespan of George H. W. Bush, who was {{age in years and days|1924|6|12|2018|11|30}} of age when he died in November 2018; both men were born in 1924.NEWS, Barrow, Bill, Jimmy Carter's new milestone: Longest-lived U.S. president, The Detroit News,weblink March 22, 2019, March 22, 2019, On October 1, 2019, Carter became the first U.S. president to live to the age of 95.NEWS, Jimmy Carter once thought he was nearing death. The longest-living former U.S. president just turned 95, Paul, Deanna, Wagner, John, October 1, 2019,weblink The Washington Post, October 2, 2019,

Funeral and burial plans

Carter has made arrangements to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. Carter noted in 2006 that a funeral in Washington, D.C., with visitation at the Carter Center was planned as well.Associated Press, "President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans", December 4, 2006. Retrieved February 11, 2017.

Public image and legacy

Public opinion

Carter and Gerald Ford were compared in exit polls from the 1976 presidential election, which Carter won. Many voters still held Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon against him.NEWS,weblink CBS News, Polls: Ford's Image Improved Over Time, December 27, 2006, By comparison, Carter was viewed as a sincere, honest, and well-meaning Southerner. Carter began his term with a 66 percent approval rating,WEB,weblink What History Foretells for Obama's First Job Approval Rating,, December 10, 2011, which had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving.WEB,weblink Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval,, December 10, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2009, In the 1980 campaign, former California Governor Ronald Reagan projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter's serious and introspective temperament. What many people believed to be Carter's personal attention to detail, his pessimistic attitude, his seeming indecisiveness and weakness with people were accentuated in contrast to what many saw as Reagan's charismatic charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates.WEB,weblink Disaffection of the public – Jimmy Carter – election,, December 10, 2011, NEWS,weblink Washington Talk; Carter Begins to Shed Negative Public Image, The New York Times, January 28, 2009, E. J. Jr., Dionne, May 18, 1989, Reagan used the economic problems, Iran hostage crisis, and lack of Washington cooperation to portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Like his immediate predecessor, Gerald Ford, Carter did not serve a second term as president. Among those who were elected as president, Carter was the first since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid.NEWS,weblink The Unfinished Presidency - Jimmy Carter's Journey Beyond the White House, The New York Times, 1998, November 27, 2015, Carter's post-presidency activities have been favorably received. The Independent wrote, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president."NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter:39th president – 1977–1981, The Independent, January 28, 2009, London, January 22, 2009, His presidential approval rating was just 31 percent immediately before the 1980 election, but 64 percent approved of his performance as president in a 2009 poll.NEWS,weblink CNN, Time kind to former presidents, CNN poll finds, January 7, 2009,


File:Carter by Hart.jpg|thumb|right|upright|James Earl Carter Presidential Statue by Frederick Hart (sculptor)Frederick Hart (sculptor) Carter's presidency was initially viewed by some as a failure.WEB, Jimmy Carter's Legacy of Failure,weblink June 22, 2015, December 12, 2006, Cinnamon, Stillwell, SFGate, WEB, Jimmy Carter: Why He Failed,weblink June 22, 2015, January 21, 2000,, NEWS, In Carter's Shadow,weblink Time, May 28, 2008, June 22, 2015, Ramesh, Ponnuru, In historical rankings of U.S. presidents, the Carter presidency has ranged from No. 19 to No. 34. Although his presidency received mixed reception, his peacekeeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful ex-presidents in American history.WEB, Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidency,weblink American Experience, June 22, 2015, PBS, WGBH-TV, WGBH, JOURNAL, Brinkley, Douglas, Douglas Brinkley, Fall 1996, The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The 'hands on' legacy of our thirty-ninth President, Diplomatic History, 20, 4, 505–530, 10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00285.x, The documentary (Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace) (2009) credits Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between Israel and Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The film opened the 2009 Monte-Carlo Television Festival in an invitation-only royal screeningWEB, Gibb, Lindsay,weblink Monte-Carlo TV fest opens with doc for first time, June 4, 2009, June 12, 2012, on June 7, 2009, at the Grimaldi Forum in the presence of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.WEB, – Archives,weblink, June 22, 2015, subscription, Over 50 songs have been released about or referencing Jimmy Carter, some in relation to the 1970s Energy Crisis and the 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis.WEB, Brummer, Justin, Jimmy Carter Songs,weblink RYM, 9 August 2019,

Honors and awards

Carter has received numerous awards and accolades since his presidency, and several institutions and locations have been named in his honor. His presidential library, Jimmy Carter Library and Museum was opened in 1986.NEWS, Carter Center: More Than the Past,weblink The New York Times, May 30, 1993, June 22, 2015, 0362-4331, Peter, Applebome, In 1998, the U.S. Navy named the third and last Seawolf-class submarine honoring former President Carter and his service as a submariner officer. It became one of the few Navy vessels to be named for a person living at the time of naming.WEB, Navy to name submarine after former president Jimmy Carter,weblink CNN, June 22, 2015, McIntyre, Jamie, April 8, 1998, That year he also received the United Nations Human Rights Prize, given in honor of human rights achievements,WEB, HR Prize – List of previous recipients,weblink Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, June 22, 2015, and the Hoover Medal, recognizing engineers who have contributed to global causes.WEB,weblink James Earl Carter Jr 1998 – ASME, July 13, 2014,weblink July 14, 2014, dead, He won the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize,PRESS RELEASE, The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Jimmy Carter,weblink, June 22, 2015, October 11, 2002, which was partially a response to President George W. Bush's threats of war against Iraq and Carter's criticism of the Bush administration.WEB, Jimmy Carter wins Nobel Peace Prize,weblink June 22, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink November 21, 2009, live, CNN, October 11, 2002, Carter has been nominated nine times for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for audio recordings of his books, and has won three times—for (Our Endangered Values|Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis) (2007), (A Full Life: Reflections at 90) (2016) and Faith: A Journey For All (2019).NEWS, Gregory Krieg, Former President Jimmy Carter wins Grammy Award, CNN,weblink February 15, 2016, NEWS, Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys,weblink The New York Times, February 12, 2007, June 22, 2015, 0362-4331, Jeff, Leeds, Lorne, Manly, Judy Kurtz, Jimmy Carter up for another Grammy, The Hill (December 7, 2015).WEB, Karanth, Sanjana, Jimmy Carter Wins 2019 Grammy Award For Spoken Word Album,weblink Huffington Post, February 11, 2019, The Souther Field Airport in Americus, Georgia was renamed Jimmy Carter Regional Airport in 2009.NEWS, Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality,weblink June 22, 2015, October 11, 2009, Associated Press, Fox News,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2015, dead, Carter received the American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award in 1984.In 1991, he was made an honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa at Kansas State Universityweblink|Carter (right), walks with, from left, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18, 2004File:DIG13605-028.jpg|Carter during a Google Hangout session held during the LBJ Presidential Library Civil Rights Summit in 2014File:Presidents Obama, Clinton, and Carter.jpg|Carter (right) with President Barack Obama (center) and Bill Clinton (left) on August 28, 2013, the 50th anniversary of the March on WashingtonFile:Jimmy Carter with model of SSN-23.jpg|Carter (left) with a replica of the {{USS|Jimmy Carter|SSN-23|6}} with Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton (right) at a naming ceremony, April 28, 1998File:Carter lib1.JPG|Jimmy Carter Library and Museum located in Atlanta, Georgia

See also





Further reading

{{Further|Jimmy Carter bibliography}}
  • BOOK, Gary Allen, Allen, Gary, Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter, '76 Press, 1976, 978-0-89245-006-0,
  • BOOK, Annual register of the United States Naval Academy, 1946–1947, United States Naval Academy, June 6, 1946, Annapolis, Maryland,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Berggren, D. Jason, Rae, Nicol C., Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 2006, 36, 4, 606–632, 0360-4918, 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2006.02570.x,
  • BOOK, Bourne, Peter G., Peter Bourne, Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to Post-Presidency, 1997, Scribner, New York, 978-0-684-19543-8,weblink
  • BOOK, Busch, Andrew E., Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right, 2005, University Press of Kansas,
  • JOURNAL, Clymer, Kenton, Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and Cambodia, Diplomatic History, 2003, 27, 2, 245–278, 0145-2096, 10.1111/1467-7709.00349,
  • BOOK, Dumbrell, John, The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation, 1995, 2nd, Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK, 978-0-7190-4693-3,
  • BOOK, Fink, Gary M., Hugh Davis, Graham, The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era, 1998, University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 978-0-7006-0895-9,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Flint, Andrew R., Joy, Porter, March 2005, Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 1, 28–51, 10.1111/j.1741-5705.2004.00234.x,
  • JOURNAL, Freedman, Robert, The Religious Right and the Carter Administration, The Historical Journal, 2005, 48, 1, 231–260, 0018-246X, 10.1017/S0018246X04004285,
  • BOOK, Gillon, Steven M., The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy, 1992, Columbia University Press, New York, 978-0-231-07630-2,
  • BOOK, Glad, Betty, Jimmy Carter: In Search of the Great White House, 1980, W. W. Norton, New York, 978-0-393-07527-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Godbold, E. Stanly Jr., Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter: The Georgia Years, 1924–1974, Oxford University Press, 2010,weblink 978-0-19-977962-8,
  • BOOK, Hahn, Dan F., The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976–1980, Theodore, Windt, Beth, Ingold, Essays in Presidential Rhetoric, 1992, 3rd, Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa, 331–365, 978-0-8403-7568-1,
  • BOOK, Hargrove, Erwin C., Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good, 1988, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 978-0-8071-1499-5,weblink
  • BOOK, David Harris (protestor), Harris, David, The Crisis: the President, the Prophet, and the Shah – 1979 and the Coming of Militant Islam, Little, Brown, 2004,weblink 978-0-316-32394-9,
  • BOOK, Jones, Charles O., The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress, 1988, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 978-0-8071-1426-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Jorden, William J., Panama Odyssey, 1984, University of Texas Press, Austin, 978-0-292-76469-9,weblink
  • BOOK, Kaufman, Burton I., Kaufman, Scott, The Presidency of James Earl Carter, 2006, University Press of Kansas, 2nd, 978-0700614714,
  • BOOK, Keys, Barbara J., 2014, Reclaiming American Virtue: The Human Rights Revolution of the 1970s, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press,weblink 978-0-674-72603-1,
  • BOOK, Kucharsky, David, The Man From Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter, 1976, Harper & Row, New York, 978-0-06-064891-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Mattson, Kevin, What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President?, Bloomsbury, 2010,weblink 978-1-60819-206-9,
  • JOURNAL, Morgan, Iwan, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the New Democratic Economics, The Historical Journal, 2004, 47, 4, 1015–1039, 0018-246X, 10.1017/S0018246X0400408X,
  • BOOK, Jimmy Carter, American Moralist, Kenneth Earl, Morris, University of Georgia Press, 1996,
  • Reichard, Gary W. "Early Returns: Assessing Jimmy Carter" Presidential Studies Quarterly 203 (Summer 1990) 603-620. online
  • BOOK, Ribuffo, Leo P., God and Jimmy Carter, M. L. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert, Transforming Faith: The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History, 1989, Greenwood Press, New York, 141–159, 978-0-313-25707-0,weblink
  • BOOK, Ribuffo, Leo P., 'Malaise' revisited: Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence, John Patrick Diggins, The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger Jr. and the Challenge of the American Past, 1997, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 164–185, 978-0-691-04829-1,weblink
  • BOOK, Rosenbaum, Herbert D., Ugrinsky, Alexej, The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter, 1994, Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 83–116, 978-0-313-28845-6,
  • BOOK, Schram, Martin, Running for President, 1976: The Carter Campaign, 1977, Stein and Day, New York, 978-0-8128-2245-8,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Schmitz, David F., Walker, Vanessa, Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights: the Development of a Post-cold War Foreign Policy, Diplomatic History, 2004, 28, 1, 113–143, 0145-2096, 10.1111/j.1467-7709.2004.00400.x,
  • JOURNAL, Strong, Robert A., Fall 1986, Recapturing leadership: The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 16, 3, 636–650,
  • BOOK, Strong, Robert A., Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 2000, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 978-0-8071-2445-1,
  • NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Topics; Thermostatic Legacy, January 1, 1981, Section 1, Page 18, Column 1,
  • NEWS, Steve, Vogel, Remembering Failed Iranian Mission,weblink Washington Post,, May 4, 2000,
  • BOOK, White, Theodore H., Theodore H. White, America in Search of Itself: The Making of the President, 1956–1980, 1982, Harper & Row, New York, 978-0-06-039007-5,
  • BOOK, Witcover, Jules, Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976, 1977, Viking Press, New York, 978-0-670-45461-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Zelizer, Julian, Jimmy Carter, 2010, Times Books, 978-0-8050-8957-8,weblink
  • NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: Life Before the Presidency, October 4, 2016, Miller Center, September 22, 2018, en-US,
  • NEWS,weblink Jimmy Carter: Life After the Presidency, October 4, 2016, Miller Center, September 22, 2018, en-US,

Primary sources

  • BOOK, Califano, Joseph A. Jr., Governing America: An insider's report from the White House and the Cabinet, 2007, 1981, Simon and Schuster, 978-1-4165-5211-6,
  • BOOK, Jordan, Hamilton, Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency, 1982, Putnam, 978-0-399-12738-0,
  • BOOK, Lance, Bert, The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics, 1991, Summit, 978-0-671-69027-4,

External links

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