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Bill Clinton
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{{Redirect|William Clinton}}{{Pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Good article}}{{Pp-semi-blp|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2019}}{{short description| 42nd president of the United States }}







factoids
| term_start2 = January 11, 1983| term_end2 = December 12, 1992| predecessor2 = Frank D. White| successor2 = Jim Guy Tucker| lieutenant3 = Joe Purcell| term_start3 = January 9, 1979| term_end3 = January 19, 1981| predecessor3 = Joe Purcell (acting)| successor3 = Frank D. White| office4 = Chair of the National Governors Association| deputy4 = John H. Sununu| term_start4 = August 26, 1986| term_end4 = July 28, 1987| predecessor4 = Lamar Alexander| successor4 = John H. Sununu| office5 = 50th Attorney General of ArkansasDavid Pryor|Joe Purcell (acting)}}| term_start5 = January 3, 1977| term_end5 = January 9, 1979| predecessor5 = Jim Guy TuckerSteve Clark (Arkansas politician)>Steve Clark| birth_name = William Jefferson Blythe IIImf=yes8|19}}| birth_place = Hope, Arkansas, U.S.| residence = Chappaqua, New York, U.S.Washington, D.C., U.S.| death_date =| death_place =Democratic Party (United States)>DemocraticHillary Clinton>October 11, 1975}}Chelsea Clinton>ChelseaWilliam Jefferson Blythe Jr.|Virginia Cassidy}}Georgetown University (Bachelor of Science>BS)University College, OxfordYale University (JD)| signature = Signature of Bill Clinton.svg| signature_alt = Cursive signature of Bill Clinton in ink| awards = Presidential Medal of Freedom}}{{Bill Clinton series}}{{New Democrats |expanded=People}}William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to his presidency, he served as governor of Arkansas (1979–1981 and 1983–1992) and as attorney general of Arkansas (1977–1979). A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was known as a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. He is the husband of former Secretary of State and former U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives. The impeachment was based on accusations that Clinton committed perjury and obstruction of justice for the purpose of concealing his affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year-old White House intern. He was acquitted by the Senate and completed his term in office. Clinton is notable as one of only two U.S. presidents (following Andrew Johnson 130 years earlier) to have been impeached.Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University,WEB, William J. Clinton Biography and Interview, American Academy of Achievement,weblink University College, Oxford, and Yale Law School. He met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating from law school, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979. He later served as governor of Arkansas. As governor, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992, defeating incumbent Republican opponent George H. W. Bush. At age 46, he became the third-youngest president in history.Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement, but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term. He passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus—the first such surplus since 1969. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, and assisted the Northern Ireland peace process.Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U.S. president since World War II, and has continually received high scores in the historical rankings of U.S. presidents. Since leaving office, he has been involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. He created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming. In 2004, Clinton published his autobiography, My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund. In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang in 2009 and negotiating their release with then-North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

Early life and career

{{Further|Early life and career of Bill Clinton}}File:Bill Clinton Birthplace.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton's birthplace in Hope, ArkansasHope, ArkansasClinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas.WEB,weblink Directory of Irish Genealogy: American Presidents with Irish Ancestors, Homepage.eircom.net, March 23, 2004, August 30, 2011, He is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr., a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy (later Virginia Kelley).WEB, Biography of William J. Clinton, The White House,weblink August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722104326weblink">weblink July 22, 2011, live, His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union later proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, June 21, 1993, Edmund L., Andrews, Clinton Reported to Have A Brother He Never Met, Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races.BOOK, Chafe, William H., 2012, Bill and Hillary: The Politics of the Personal,weblink New York, NY, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 11, 978-0-8090-9465-3, BOOK, Landres, J. Shawn, 1992, Bill Clinton: The Inside Story,weblink New York, NY, S.P.I. Books, 5–6, 978-1-5617-1177-2, BOOK, Takiff, Michael, 2010, A Complicated Man: The Life of Bill Clinton as Told by Those who Know Him,weblink New Haven, CT, Yale University Press, 4, 978-0-3001-2130-8, MAGAZINE, Flanagan, Sylvia P., September 8, 1997, First Black Food Stamp Chief has Ties to President Clinton,weblink Jet, Chicago, IL, John N. Johnson, 10, In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr., who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas, with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.BOOK, Clinton, Bill, My Life, Random House, 2004, 1-4000-3003-X, The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950.BOOK, Ken, Gormley, Ken Gormley (academic), The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, Crown Publishers, New York, 2010, 978-0-307-40944-7, 16–17,weblink Although he immediately assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15WEB,weblink Oprah Talks to Bill Clinton, O, The Oprah Magazine, August 2004, December 18, 2011, that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton has described his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who regularly abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr.; Clinton threatened his stepfather with violence multiple times to protect them.BOOK, Maraniss, David, First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton, Touchstone, 1996, 0-684-81890-6,weblink In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section. He briefly considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life:{{block indent|Sometime in my sixteenth year, I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I could be very good, but I knew I would never be John Coltrane or Stan Getz. I was interested in medicine and thought I could be a fine doctor, but I knew I would never be Michael DeBakey. But I knew I could be great in public service.}}Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.NEWS,weblink 10 Things You Definitely Didn't Know About Bill Clinton, HuffPost, The Huffington Post, June 25, 2013, Jimmy, Soni, After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck it "made him realize that someday he would study law".BOOK, First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton, David, Maraniss, 1996, Touchstone, 43, Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to the White House to meet President John F. Kennedy. The other was watching Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech on TV, which impressed him enough that he later memorized it.WEB, It All Began in a Place Called Hope (Archived whitehouse.gov Article), The White House,weblink August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719152125weblink">weblink July 19, 2011, dead, mdy-all,

College and law school years

Georgetown University

File:Clinton at Georgetown 1967.jpg|thumb|Clinton ran for president of the Student Council while attending the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown UniversityGeorgetown UniversityWith the aid of scholarships, Clinton attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., receiving a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degree in 1968.In 1964 and 1965, Clinton won elections for class president.BOOK, Robert E. Levin, Bill Clinton: The Inside Story,weblink 1992, SP Books, 978-1-56171-177-2, xxiv–xxv, From 1964 to 1967, he was an intern and then a clerk in the office of Arkansas Senator J. William Fulbright. While in college, he became a brother of co-ed service fraternity Alpha Phi OmegaWEB,weblink About Leadership, April 7, 2013, APO.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130101064634weblink">weblink January 1, 2013, mdy-all, and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. Clinton was also a member of the Order of DeMolay,DeMolay – Hall Of Fame » William Clinton{{Dead link|date=November 2016|bot=InternetArchiveBot|fix-attempted=yes}}, quote: "Clinton was initiated into Hot Springs Chapter in Hot Springs, Arkansas, in 1961, where he served as Master Councilor. He received the Chevalier in 1964, and the Legion of Honor in 1979. Clinton was inducted into the DeMolay Hall of Fame on May 1, 1988."{{unreliable source?|date=April 2019}} a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a Freemason. He is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band fraternity.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20110716182330weblink">weblink dead, July 16, 2011, Prominent Members, Kappa Kappa Psi, August 30, 2011,

Oxford

Upon graduating from Georgetown in 1968, Clinton won a Rhodes Scholarship to University College, Oxford, where he initially read for a B.Phil. in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics but transferred to a B.Litt. in politics and, ultimately, a B.Phil. in politics.NEWS,weblink The Bill Clinton we knew at Oxford: Apart from smoking dope (and not inhaling), what else did he learn over here? College friends share their memories with Matthew Hoffman, Matthew, Hoffman, October 11, 1992, The Independent, Clinton did not expect to return for the second year because of the draft and he switched programs; this type of activity was common among other Rhodes Scholars from his cohort. He had received an offer to study at Yale Law School, Yale University, but he left early to return to the United States and did not receive a degree from Oxford.NEWS,weblink Oxford Journal; Whereas, He Is an Old Boy, If a Young Chief, Honor Him, Dowd, Maureen, Maureen Dowd, The New York Times, July 17, 2009, June 9, 1994, BOOK, Hitch-22: A Memoir, Christopher, Hitchens, Chris or Christopher?, 106–107, Atlantic books, London, England, 978-1-84354-922-2, December 4, 2010, During his time at Oxford, Clinton befriended fellow American Rhodes Scholar Frank Aller. In 1969, Aller received a draft letter that mandated deployment to the Vietnam War. Aller's 1971 suicide had an influential impact on Clinton.NEWS,weblink Most Likely to Succeed, Alessandra, Stanley, November 22, 1992, The New York Times, British writer and feminist Sara Maitland said of Clinton, "I remember Bill and Frank Aller taking me to a pub in Walton Street in the summer term of 1969 and talking to me about the Vietnam War. I knew nothing about it, and when Frank began to describe the napalming of civilians I began to cry. Bill said that feeling bad wasn't good enough. That was the first time I encountered the idea that liberal sensitivities weren't enough and you had to do something about such things". He also developed an interest in rugby union, which he played at Oxford.BOOK, Rugby Union for Dummies, Nick, Cain, Greg, Growden, yes, 21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby, 297, 2, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England, 978-0-470-03537-5, 2006, While Clinton was president in 1994, he received an honorary degree and a fellowship from the University of Oxford, specifically for being "a doughty and tireless champion of the cause of world peace", having "a powerful collaborator in his wife," and for winning "general applause for his achievement of resolving the gridlock that prevented an agreed budget".NEWS,weblink Doctor without a thesis: Bill Clinton gets an Oxford degree today, but Jonathan Eyal's verdict on his term's work is: a disaster, Jonathan, Eyal, June 8, 1994, The Independent,

Vietnam War opposition and draft controversy

During the Vietnam War, Clinton received educational draft deferments while he was in England in 1968 and 1969.BOOK, Neil A. Hamilton, Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary,weblink 2005, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-0816-2, 366, While at Oxford, he participated in Vietnam War protests and organized a Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam event in October 1969. He was planning to attend law school in the U.S. and knew he might lose his deferment. Clinton tried unsuccessfully to obtain positions in the National Guard or Air Force, and he then made arrangements to join the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) program at the University of Arkansas.BOOK, Steven M. Gillon, The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry that Defined a Generation,weblink 2008, Oxford University Press, USA, 978-0-19-532278-1, 21, He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer in charge of the program that he opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to avoid serving in Vietnam. He further stated that because he opposed the war, he would not volunteer to serve in uniform, but would subject himself to the draft, and would serve if selected only as a way "to maintain my political viability within the system".NEWS, Bill, Clinton, The Associated Press, The 1992 Campaign; A Letter By Clinton On His Draft Deferment: 'A War I Opposed And Despised', The New York Times, February 13, 1992,weblink July 30, 2019, Clinton registered for the draft and received a high number (311), meaning that those whose birthdays had been drawn as numbers{{nbsp}}1 to 310 would be drafted before him, making it unlikely he would be called up. (In fact, the highest number drafted was 195.)NEWS, Lauter, David, February 13, 1992, Clinton Releases '69 Letter on ROTC and Draft Status,weblink Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles, CA, Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had been involved with Clinton's ROTC application, suspected that Clinton attempted to manipulate the situation to avoid the draft and avoid serving in uniform. He issued a notarized statement during the 1992 presidential campaign:{{block indent|I was informed by the draft board that it was of interest to Senator Fulbright's office that Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar, should be admitted to the ROTC program ... I believe that he purposely deceived me, using the possibility of joining the ROTC as a ploy to work with the draft board to delay his induction and get a new draft classification.BOOK, Morris, Roger, Partners in Power: The Clintons and Their America,weblink April 25, 1999, Regnery Publishing, 978-0-89526-302-5, 100, }}During the 1992 campaign, it was revealed that Clinton's uncle had attempted to secure him a position in the Navy Reserve, which would have prevented him from being deployed to Vietnam. This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton said in 1992 that he had been unaware of it until then.NEWS, CNN, All Politics,weblink Clinton's Draft Deferrment, June 19, 2014, CNN, 1997, Although legal, Clinton's actions with respect to the draft and deciding whether to serve in the military were criticized during his first presidential campaign by conservatives and some Vietnam veterans, some of whom charged that he had used Fulbright's influence to avoid military service.WEB,weblink Bill Clinton's Draft Letter, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Frontline, PBS, November 23, 1991, August 30, 2011, NEWS, Frammolino, Ralph,weblink ROTC Officer Unaware of Draft Notice: Clinton: The man whose action kept the future governor in school says he was not told of 1969 induction letter. Draft board insists none was sent, January 6, 2013, Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1992, Clinton's 1992 campaign manager, James Carville, successfully argued that Clinton's letter in which he declined to join the ROTC should be made public, insisting that voters, many of whom had also opposed the Vietnam War, would understand and appreciate his position.Public Broadcasting System, Frontline: Interview with James Carville, 2000.

Law school

After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School and earned a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree in 1973. In 1971, he met his future wife, Hillary Rodham, in the Yale Law Library; she was a class year ahead of him.WEB,weblink Hillary Rodham Clinton, The White House, August 26, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724141126weblink">weblink July 24, 2011, live, They began dating and were soon inseparable. After only about a month, Clinton postponed his summer plans to be a coordinator for the George McGovern campaign for the 1972 United States presidential election in order to move in with her in California.NEWS,weblink The Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love, Josh, Gerstein, The New York Sun, November 26, 2007, May 9, 2009, The couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school.NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton's Radical Summer, Josh, Gerstein, The New York Sun, November 26, 2007, Clinton eventually moved to Texas with Rodham in 1972 to take a job leading McGovern's effort there. He spent considerable time in Dallas, at the campaign's local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas Ron Kirk,WEB, Medley, Jasmine, William Jefferson Clinton Presidential Center and the Clinton School of Public Service,weblink National Association of State Judicial Educators, National Association of State Judicial Educators, November 22, 2016, future governor of Texas Ann Richards,NEWS, Slater, Wayne, Texas stumping in '72 helped shape Clinton's campaign,weblink November 22, 2016, Dallas Morning News, December 16, 2007, Dallas Morning News, December 16, 2007, and then unknown television director (and future filmmaker) Steven Spielberg.NEWS, Felsenthal, Carol, George McGovern and Bill Clinton: the State of the Friendship,weblink November 22, 2016, Huffington Post, May 7, 2008, The Huffington Post, May 7, 2008, Bill married Hillary on October 11, 1975, and their only child, Chelsea, was born on February 27, 1980.

Early political career

{{Further|Electoral history of Bill Clinton}}

Governor of Arkansas (1979–1981, 1983–1992)

{{Further|1978 Arkansas gubernatorial election|1980 Arkansas gubernatorial election|1982 Arkansas gubernatorial election|1986 Arkansas gubernatorial election|1990 Arkansas gubernatorial election}}After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton returned to Arkansas and became a law professor at the University of Arkansas. In 1974, he ran for the House of Representatives. Running in a conservative district against incumbent Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt, Clinton's campaign was bolstered by the anti-Republican and anti-incumbent mood resulting from the Watergate scandal. Hammerschmidt, who had received 77 percent of the vote in 1972, defeated Clinton by only a 52 percent to 48 percent margin. In 1976, Clinton ran for Arkansas Attorney General. With only minor opposition in the primary and no opposition at all in the general election,NEWS,weblink CNN, Bill Clinton Political Career, 1997, August 30, 2011,weblink September 20, 2002, dead, Clinton was elected.File:Bill Clinton 1978.jpg|thumb|Newly elected Governor of Arkansas Bill Clinton meets with President Jimmy CarterJimmy Carter(File:Arkansas Governor Election Results by County, 1978.svg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Results of the 1978 gubernatorial election in Arkansas)In 1978, Clinton entered the Arkansas gubernatorial primary. At just 31 years old, he was one of the youngest gubernatorial candidates in the state's history. Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas in 1978, having defeated the Republican candidate Lynn Lowe, a farmer from Texarkana. Clinton was only 32 years old when he took office, the youngest governor in the country at the time and the second youngest governor in the history of Arkansas.WEB,weblink Bill Clinton (1946–)—Encyclopedia of Arkansas, www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net, September 15, 2018, Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was often called the "Boy Governor".NEWS,weblink Bill and Hillary Clinton's Pitch in Iowa: 'I Love the '90s', The New York Times, Adam, Cohen, December 12, 2007, August 30, 2011, BOOK, Boy Clinton: The Political Biography, R. Emmett Tyrrell Jr., Eagle Publishing,weblink 978-0-89526-439-8, 1996, 236, NEWS,weblink Little Rock Hopes Clinton Presidency Will Put Its Dogpatch Image to Rest, Michael, Kelly, The New York Times, November 27, 1992, August 30, 2011, He worked on educational reform and directed the maintenance of Arkansas's roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. However, his term included an unpopular motor vehicle tax and citizens' anger over the escape of Cuban refugees (from the Mariel boatlift) detained in Fort Chaffee in 1980. Monroe Schwarzlose, of Kingsland in Cleveland County, polled 31 percent of the vote against Clinton in the Democratic gubernatorial primary of 1980. Some suggested Schwarzlose's unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton's defeat by Republican challenger Frank D. White in the general election that year. As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation's history.Clinton joined friend Bruce Lindsey's Little Rock law firm of Wright, Lindsey and Jennings.WEB, Bill Clinton Timeline, Jonathan W. Nicholsen,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20111013012755weblink">weblink dead, October 13, 2011, Timeline Help, August 30, 2011, In 1982, he was elected governor a second time and kept the office for ten years. Effective with the 1986 election, Arkansas had changed its gubernatorial term of office from two to four years. During his term, he helped transform Arkansas's economy and improved the state's educational system. For senior citizens, he removed the sales tax from medications and increased the home property-tax exemption. He became a leading figure among the New Democrats, a group of Democrats who advocated welfare reform, smaller government, and other policies not supported by liberals. Formally organized as the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), the New Democrats argued that in light of President Ronald Reagan's landslide victory in 1984, the Democratic Party needed to adopt a more centrist political stance in order to succeed at the national level.BOOK, Klein, Joe, The Natural: The Misunderstood Presidency of Bill Clinton,weblink Doubleday, 2002, 0-7679-1412-0, WEB,weblink Bill Clinton, New Democrat, DLC, July 25, 2004, August 30, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120309143615weblink">weblink March 9, 2012, Clinton delivered the Democratic response to Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address and served as chair of the National Governors Association from 1986 to 1987, bringing him to an audience beyond Arkansas.File:Reagans with the Clintons.jpg|thumb|Governor and Mrs. Clinton attend the Dinner Honoring the Nation's Governors in the White House with President Ronald Reagan and first lady Nancy ReaganNancy ReaganIn the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas education system a top priority of his gubernatorial administration. The Arkansas Education Standards Committee was chaired by Clinton's wife Hillary, who was also an attorney as well as the chair of the Legal Services Corporation. The committee transformed Arkansas's education system. Proposed reforms included more spending for schools (supported by a sales-tax increase), better opportunities for gifted children, vocational education, higher teachers' salaries, more course variety, and compulsory teacher competency exams. The reforms passed in September 1983 after Clinton called a special legislative session—the longest in Arkansas history.NEWS, Pendleton, Scott, Governor Gets High Marks for Public Education Reforms,weblink The Christian Science Monitor, July 21, 1992, Many have considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship. He defeated four Republican candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), Jonesboro businessmen Woody Freeman (1984), and Sheffield Nelson of Little Rock (1990).Also in the 1980s, The Clintons' personal and business affairs included transactions that became the basis of the Whitewater controversy investigation, which later dogged his presidential administration.BOOK, Blumenthal, Sidney, The Clinton Wars, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1st, 2003, 0-374-12502-3, After extensive investigation over several years, no indictments were made against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas.BOOK, Harris, John F., The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House, Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2006, 1st, 0-375-76084-9, According to some sources, Clinton was a death penalty opponent in his early years, but he eventually switched positions.WEB,weblink Bill Clinton's Death Penalty Waffle—and Why It's Good News for Execution's Foes, Alexander, Nguyen, July 14, 2000, August 30, 2010, The American Prospect, In his early days, Clinton opposed the death penalty. And while he and his wife Hillary Rodham Clinton were both teaching at the University of Arkansas Law School, she wrote an appellate brief that helped save a mentally retarded man from execution. "Clinton was against the death penalty," says Arkansas attorney Jeff Rosenzweig, who, like Clinton, grew up in Hot Springs, Arkansas. "He told me so.",weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101205011359weblink">weblink December 5, 2010, dead, During Clinton's term, Arkansas performed its first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had been reinstated in 1976).WEB,weblink Reinstatement of the Death Penalty, As Governor, he oversaw four executions: one by electric chair and three by lethal injection. Later, Clinton was the first president to pardon a death-row inmate since the federal death penalty was reinstated in 1988.WEB,weblink Clemency, Death Penalty Information Center, February 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100221212625weblink">weblink February 21, 2010, live,

1988 Democratic presidential primaries

In 1987, the media speculated that Clinton would enter the Presidential race after incumbent New York Governor Mario Cuomo declined to run and Democratic front-runner Gary Hart withdrew owing to revelations of multiple marital infidelities.WEB,weblink How Gary Hart's Sex Scandal Betrayed His Character, Clinton decided to remain as Arkansas governor (following consideration for the potential candidacy of Hillary Rodham Clinton for governor, initially favored—but ultimately vetoed—by the First Lady).David Maraniss, First in His Class: A Biography of Bill Clinton (New York: Random House, 1996; {{ISBN|978-0-684-81890-0}}). For the nomination, Clinton endorsed Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. He gave the nationally televised opening night address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention, but his speech, which was 33 minutes long and twice the length it was expected to be, was criticized for being too longNEWS, Church, George J., Cover: Is Bill Clinton For Real?,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 27, 1992, August 30, 2011, and poorly delivered.NEWS, Kornacki, Steve, When Bill Clinton died onstage,weblink Salon (website), Salon, July 30, 2012, August 6, 2012, Clinton presented himself both as a moderate and as a member of the New Democrat wing of the Democratic Party, and he headed the moderate Democratic Leadership Council in 1990 and 1991.BOOK, Woodward, Bob, Bob Woodward, The Choice: How Bill Clinton Won, Simon & Schuster, 2005, 0-7432-8514-X,

Presidency (1993–2001)

During his presidency, Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs, most of which were enacted into law or implemented by the executive branch. His policies, particularly the North American Free Trade Agreement and welfare reform, have been attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance.NEWS, Safire, William, William Safire, Essay; Looking Beyond Peace, The New York Times, December 6, 1993,weblink October 29, 2008, NEWS, Duffy, Michael, Barrett, Laurence I., Blackman, Ann, Carney, James, Secrets Of Success, Time (magazine), Time, November 29, 1993,weblink October 29, 2008, His policy of fiscal conservatism helped to reduce deficits on budgetary matters.NEWS,weblink Greenspan Is Critical Of Bush in Memoir, Bob, Woodward, Bob Woodward, The Washington Post, September 15, 2007, January 9, 2014, NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton's economic legacy, BBC News, January 15, 2001, January 9, 2014, Steve Schifferes, Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton's Legacy, Peter, Baker, The Washington Post, February 3, 2008, July 13, 2010, WEB,weblink Bill Clinton, History.com, July 13, 2010, NEWS, The Battle of the Decades; Reaganomics vs. Clintonomics Is a Central Issue in 2000,weblink Stevenson, Richard, The New York Times, February 8, 2000, March 15, 2011, The Congressional Budget Office reported budget surpluses of $69 billion in 1998, $126 billion in 1999, and $236 billion in 2000,WEB,weblink Revenues, Outlays, Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt Held by the Public, 1968 to 2007, in Billions of Dollars, Congressional Budget Office, September 2008, PDF, July 13, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130208082112weblink">weblink February 8, 2013, during the last three years of Clinton's presidency.WEB,weblink The Budget and Deficit Under Clinton, FactCheck.org, August 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728091132weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, live, February 3, 2008, Over the years of the recorded surplus, the gross national debt rose each year. At the end of the fiscal year (September 30) for each of the years a surplus was recorded, The U.S. treasury reported a gross debt of $5.413 trillion in 1997, $5.526 trillion in 1998, $5.656 trillion in 1999, and $5.674 trillion in 2000.WEB, Historical Debt Outstanding—Annual 1950–1999,weblink TreasuryDirect, WEB, Historical Debt Outstanding—Annual 2000–2015,weblink TreasuryDirect, Over the same period, the Office of Management and Budget reported an end of year (December 31) gross debt of $5.369 trillion in 1997, $5.478 trillion in 1998, $5.606 in 1999, and $5.629 trillion in 2000.WEB, Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables,weblink United States Government Publishing Office, At the end of his presidency, the Clintons moved to Chappaqua, New York, in order to satisfy a residency requirement for his wife to win election as a U.S. Senator from New York.

1992 presidential campaign

{{Further|1992 Democratic Party presidential primaries|1992 United States presidential election|Bill Clinton 1992 presidential campaign}}In the first primary contest, the Iowa Caucus, Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa Senator Tom Harkin. During the campaign for the New Hampshire primary, reports surfaced that Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Clinton fell far behind former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas in the New Hampshire polls. Following Super Bowl XXVI, Clinton and his wife Hillary went on 60 Minutes to rebuff the charges. Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained several delegates. He finished second to Tsongas in the New Hampshire primary, but after trailing badly in the polls and coming within single digits of winning, the media viewed it as a victory. News outlets labeled him "The Comeback Kid" for earning a firm second-place finish.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130407231355weblink">weblink dead, April 7, 2013, Clinton thanks New Hampshire for making him the 'Comeback Kid', January 11, 2001, August 30, 2011, CNN, Amy, Herste, Winning the big prizes of Florida and Texas and many of the Southern primaries on Super Tuesday gave Clinton a sizable delegate lead. However, former California Governor Jerry Brown was scoring victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South. With no major Southern state remaining, Clinton targeted New York, which had many delegates. He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate. Having been transformed into the consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in Jerry Brown's home state of California.File:Clinton family.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Clintons in a White HouseWhite HouseDuring the campaign, questions of conflict of interest regarding state business and the politically powerful Rose Law Firm, at which Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner, arose. Clinton argued the questions were moot because all transactions with the state had been deducted before determining Hillary's firm pay.NEWS, Ifill, Gwen, Hillary Clinton Defends Her Conduct in Law Firm, The New York Times,weblink March 17, 1992, March 28, 2008, Further concern arose when Bill Clinton announced that, with Hillary, voters would be getting two presidents "for the price of one".NEWS, MacGillis, Alec, Kornblut, Anne E., Hillary Clinton Embraces Her Husband's Legacy, The Washington Post,weblink A1, December 21, 2007, March 28, 2008, Clinton was still the Governor of Arkansas while campaigning for U.S. president, and he returned to his home state to see that Ricky Ray Rector would be executed. After killing a police officer and a civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers said was a state where he could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. According to both Arkansas state law and Federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate cannot be executed. The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Clinton's return to Arkansas for the execution was framed in an article for The New York Times as a possible political move to counter "soft on crime" accusations.George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political Education, 1999, {{ISBN|978-0-316-92919-6}}NEWS, Applebome, Peter, Arkansas Execution Raises Questions on Governor's Politics,weblink The New York Times, January 25, 1992, March 28, 2008, Bush's approval ratings were around 80 percent during the Gulf War, and he was described as unbeatable. When Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower Federal deficits, he reneged on his (Read my lips: no new taxes|promise not to raise taxes), which hurt his approval rating. Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep. By election time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40 percent.NEWS, How the Presidents Stack Up: A look at U.S. presidents' job-approval ratings, The Wall Street Journal, 2006,weblink October 30, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081025015927weblink">weblink October 25, 2008, live, Finally, conservatives were previously united by anti-communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. When Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson addressed Christian themes at the Republican National Convention—with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from their platform—many moderates were alienated.WEB, Le Beau, Bryan, The Political Mobilization of the New Christian Right, Creighton University,weblink December 1, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061206022453weblink">weblink December 6, 2006, dead, mdy-all, Clinton then pointed to his moderate, "New Democrat" record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious.NEWS, Walker, Martin, Tough love child of Kennedy,weblink October 12, 2007, London, The Guardian, January 6, 1992, Many Democrats who had supported Ronald Reagan and Bush in previous elections switched their support to Clinton.NEWS, On this day (November 4) in 1992: Clinton beats Bush to the White House, BBC News,weblink October 31, 2008, November 4, 1992,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081218141055weblink">weblink December 18, 2008, live, Clinton and his running mate, Al Gore, toured the country during the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a "new beginning".(File:ElectoralCollege1992.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.3|1992 electoral vote results)Clinton won the 1992 presidential election (370 electoral votes) against Republican incumbent George H. W. Bush (168 electoral votes) and billionaire populist Ross Perot (zero electoral votes), who ran as an independent on a platform that focused on domestic issues. Bush's steep decline in public approval was a significant part of Clinton's success. Clinton's victory in the election ended twelve years of Republican rule of the White House and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. The election gave Democrats full control of the United States Congress, the first time one party controlled both the executive and legislative branches since Democrats held the 96th United States Congress during the presidency of Jimmy Carter.WEB,weblink Party Division in the Senate, 1789–present, United States Senate, August 30, 2011,weblink July 18, 2011, live, WEB,weblink House History, United States House of Representatives, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111026183800weblink">weblink October 26, 2011,

First term (1993–1997)

{{Listen| title=First inauguration of Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993)| filename=First Inaugural (January 20, 1993) Bill Clinton.ogv| description =Video of the First inauguration of Bill Clinton| title2=First inauguration of Bill Clinton (January 20, 1993)| filename2=First Inaugural (January 20, 1993) Bill Clinton.ogg| description2=audio only version| pos=right}}}}Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States on January 20, 1993. Less than a month after taking office, he signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, which required large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. This action had bipartisan support,WEB,weblink U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 103rd Congress—1st Session, United States Senate, August 30, 2011, and was popular with the public.WEB,weblink New Nationwide Poll Shows Strong Support for Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Protect Family Leave, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111227065806weblink">weblink December 27, 2011, Two days after taking office, on January 22, 1993—the 20th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade—Clinton reversed restrictions on domestic and international family planning programs that had been imposed by Reagan and Bush.Sharon L. Camp, The Politics of U.S. Population Assistance, in Beyond the Numbers: A Reader on Population, Consumption and the Environment (ed. Laurie Ann Mazur), p. 130. Clinton said abortion should be kept "safe, legal, and rare"—a slogan that had been suggested by University of California, San Diego political scientist Samuel L. Popkin and first used by Clinton in December 1991, while campaigning.Amy Sullivan, The Party Faithful: How and Why Democrats Are Closing the God Gap (Simon & Schuster: 2008), pp. 91–92. During the eight years of the Clinton administration, the U.S. abortion rate declined by about 18.4 percent.Sullivan, The Party Faithful, pp. 236–237.On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, announcing his plan to raise taxes to close a budget deficit.NEWS,weblink White House Hones All-Out Campaign to Sell Sacrifice, The New York Times, February 15, 1993, Richard L. Burke, August 30, 2011, Two days later, in a nationally televised address to a joint session of Congress, Clinton unveiled his economic plan. The plan focused on reducing the deficit rather than on cutting taxes for the middle class, which had been high on his campaign agenda.WEB,weblink The Clinton Years: Chronology, Frontline (American TV program), Frontline, June 13, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100502012813weblink">weblink May 2, 2010, live, Clinton's advisers pressured him to raise taxes, based on the theory that a smaller federal budget deficit would reduce bond interest rates.BOOK, Woodward, Bob, Bob Woodward, Maestro,weblink registration, Simon & Schuster, New York, 2000, 116, On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office. This caused the White House travel office controversy even though the travel office staff served at the pleasure of the president and could be dismissed without cause. The White House responded to the controversy by claiming that the firings were done in response to financial improprieties that had been revealed by a brief FBI investigation.BOOK, Hillary, Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Living History, Simon & Schuster, 2003, 0-7432-2224-5, 172, Living History (book), Critics contended that the firings had been done to allow friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and the involvement of the FBI was unwarranted.BOOK, Ken, Gormley, Ken Gormley (academic), The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, Crown Publishers, New York, 2010, 978-0-307-40944-7, 70–71,weblink In August, Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, which passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for 15{{nbsp}}million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927022455weblink">weblink September 27, 2007, Presidential Press Conference in Nevada, August 3, 1993, Bill, Clinton, and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2 percent of taxpayers. Additionally, it mandated that the budget be balanced over a number of years through the implementation of spending restraints.WEB,weblink William J. Clinton: Address Before a Joint Session of the Congress on the State of the Union, Presidency.ucsb.edu, January 25, 1994, August 17, 2011, Bill, Clinton, File:Bill Clinton Al Gore.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton and Vice President Al GoreAl GoreOn September 22, 1993, Clinton made a major speech to Congress regarding a health care reform plan; the program aimed at achieving universal coverage through a national health care plan. This was one of the most prominent items on Clinton's legislative agenda and resulted from a task force headed by Hillary Clinton. The plan was well received in political circles, but it was eventually doomed by well-organized lobby opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry. However, Clinton biographer John F. Harris said the program failed because of a lack of coordination within the White House. Despite the Democratic majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately died when compromise legislation by George J. Mitchell failed to gain a majority of support in August 1994. The failure of the bill was the first major legislative defeat of the Clinton administration.In November 1993, David Hale—the source of criminal allegations against Bill Clinton in the Whitewater controversy—alleged that while he was governor of Arkansas, Clinton pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the Clintons' partner in the Whitewater land deal.NEWS, Jonathan, Broder, Murray Waas, Murray, Waas,weblink The Road To Hale, Salon (website), Salon, March 17, 1998, August 25, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060616194202weblink">weblink June 16, 2006, A U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission investigation resulted in convictions against the McDougals for their role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves were never charged, and Clinton maintains his and his wife's innocence in the affair.On November 30, 1993, Clinton signed into law the Brady Bill, which mandated federal background checks on people who purchase firearms in the United States. The law also imposed a five-day waiting period on purchases, until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. He also expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit, a subsidy for low-income workers.In December of the same year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers Larry Patterson and Roger Perry were first reported by David Brock in The American Spectator. In the affair later known as "Troopergate", the officers alleged that they had arranged sexual liaisons for Clinton back when he was governor of Arkansas. The story mentioned a woman named Paula, a reference to Paula Jones. Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically motivated "bad journalism", and that "the troopers were greedy and had slimy motives".NEWS,weblink Reporter Apologizes For Clinton Sex Article, CNN, March 10, 1998, Jonathan, Karl,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080614124146weblink">weblink June 14, 2008, File:Bill Clinton, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat at the White House 1993-09-13.jpg|thumb|Yitzhak Rabin, Clinton and Yasser ArafatYasser ArafatThat month, Clinton implemented a Department of Defense directive known as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell", which allowed gay men and women to serve in the armed services provided they kept their sexual preferences a secret. The Act forbade the military from inquiring about an individual's sexual orientation.BOOK, Feder, Jody, "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis, DIANE Publishing, 2010, 978-1-4379-2208-0, The policy was developed as a compromise after Clinton's proposal to allow gays to serve openly in the military met staunch opposition from prominent Congressional Republicans and Democrats, including Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Sam Nunn (D-GA). According to David Mixner, Clinton's support for the compromise led to a heated dispute with Vice President Al Gore, who felt that "the President should lift the ban ... even though [his executive order] was sure to be overridden by the Congress".BOOK, Mixner, David, Stranger Among Friends,weblink November 25, 2009, Random House Publishing Group, 978-0-307-42958-2, 495–497, Some gay-rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and accused him of making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions.NEWS, Stranger Among Friends—book reviews,weblink Washington Monthly, John, Cloud, November 1996, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110826114431weblink">weblink August 26, 2011, Their position was that Clinton should have integrated the military by executive order, noting that President Harry S. Truman used executive order to racially desegregate the armed forces. Clinton's defenders argued that an executive order might have prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays into law, potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future. Later in his presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was implemented, saying he did not think any serious person could say it was not "out of whack".NEWS,weblink President seeks better implementation of 'don't ask, don't tell', December 11, 1999, CNN, August 30, 2011, The policy remained controversial, and was finally repealed in 2011, removing open sexual orientation as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces.NEWS, Obama certifies end of military's gay ban, Reuters, NBC News, July 22, 2011,weblink September 7, 2011, {{listen|title=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993)|filename=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993) Bill Clinton.ogv|description=Clinton's December 8, 1993 remarks on the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement|title2=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (December 8, 1993)|filename2=Remarks on the Signing of NAFTA (12-8-93, WJC).ogg|description2=audio only version|image=none}}On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement into law.JOURNAL, Don C. Livingston, Kenneth A. Wink, The Passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in the U.S. House of Representatives: Presidential Leadership or Presidential Luck?, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27, 1997, Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the U.S. Senate. Clinton and most of his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade measures; there remained, however, strong disagreement within the party. Opposition came chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot. The bill passed the house with 234 votes against 200 opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats voting in favor; 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and one independent against). The treaty was then ratified by the Senate and signed into law by the president.The Omnibus Crime Bill, which Clinton signed into law in September 1994,WEB, HR 3355—Omnibus Crime Bill,weblink votesmart.org, September 12, 2015, made many changes to U.S. crime and law enforcement legislation including the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, such as running a large-scale drug enterprise. During Clinton's re-election campaign he said, "My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, murderers of federal law enforcement officers, and nearly 60 additional categories of violent felons."WEB, Bill Clinton,weblink 4to40.com, November 4, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100826051401weblink">weblink August 26, 2010, It also included a subsection of assault weapons ban for a ten-year period.{{citation needed|date=September 2019}}On October 21, 1994, the Clinton administration launched the first official White House website, whitehouse.gov.NEWS,weblink Welcome to the White House, August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070606203244weblink">weblink June 6, 2007, dead, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink The Clinton White House Web Site, August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722064216weblink">weblink July 22, 2011, live, The site was followed with three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in 2000.NEWS,weblink Welcome to the White House, August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723135626weblink">weblink July 23, 2011, dead, mdy-all, NEWS, Robert, Longley,weblink The Clinton White House Web Site: Part 2: Preserving the Clinton White House Web Site, August 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722064216weblink">weblink July 22, 2011, live, The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. According to Robert Longley, "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On July 17, 1996, Clinton issued Executive Order 13011—Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology fully to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public."WEB, Robert, Longley,weblink The Clinton White House Web Site: Part 1: Perhaps the most important Web site in American history, About.com, June 6, 2007, After two years of Democratic Party control, the Democrats lost control of Congress to the Republicans in the mid-term elections in 1994, for the first time in forty years.WEB, Hulsey, Byron, The Altered Terrain of American Politics (Review of Do Elections Matter?),weblink October 29, 2008, November 27, 1997, File:Coat of Arms of Bill Clinton.svg|thumb|upright=0.6|left|Clinton's coat of arms, granted by the Chief Herald of IrelandChief Herald of IrelandThe White House FBI files controversy of June 1996 arose concerning improper access by the White House to FBI security-clearance documents. Craig Livingstone, head of the White House Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and received from the FBI, background report files without asking permission of the subject individuals; many of these were employees of former Republican administrations.WEB, Robert, Ray, Robert Ray (prosecutor),weblink Final Report of the Independent Counsel ... of the Investigation In Re: Anthony Marceca, United States Government Printing Office, March 16, 2000, August 30, 2011, {{dead link|date=April 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} In March 2000, Independent Counsel Robert Ray determined there was no credible evidence of any crime. Ray's report further stated, "there was no substantial and credible evidence that any senior White House official was involved" in seeking the files.NEWS,weblink Independent counsel: No evidence to warrant prosecution against first lady in 'filegate', CNN, July 28, 2000, April 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100529015957weblink">weblink May 29, 2010, dead, On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed into law the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which defined marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman; the legislation allowed individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages that were performed in other states.WEB,weblink United States Government Printing Office, PUBLIC LAW 104–199—DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT, Paul Yandura, speaking for the White House gay and lesbian liaison office, said Clinton's signing DOMA "was a political decision that they made at the time of a re-election". In defense of his actions, Clinton has said that DOMA was intended to "head off an attempt to send a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage to the states", a possibility he described as highly likely in the context of a "very reactionary Congress".NEWS,weblink New York (magazine), New York, Frank, Rich, Bill Clinton's shifting justifications for signing the Defense of Marriage Act, February 26, 2012, Administration spokesman Richard Socarides said, "the alternatives we knew were going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected."NEWS,weblink Metro Weekly, Chris, Geidner, Becoming Law, September 29, 2011, Clinton himself said DOMA was something "which the Republicans put on the ballot to try to get the base vote for Bush up, I think it's obvious that something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from presenting that".WEB,weblink Bill Clinton's Justifications for Signing DOMA—New York Magazine, New York, March 28, 2015, Others were more critical. The veteran gay rights and gay marriage activist Evan Wolfson has called these claims "historic revisionism". In a July 2, 2011, editorial The New York Times opined, "The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted in 1996 as an election-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one of his worst policy moments."NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Unfinished Business: The Defense of Marriage Act, July 2, 2011, Editorial, Ultimately, in United States v. Windsor, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down DOMA in June 2013.WEB,weblink How The Court Ruled on DOMA and Prop. 8, Richard, Socarides, June 26, 2013, The New Yorker, March 28, 2015, Despite DOMA, Clinton was the first president to select openly gay persons for administrative positions,WEB,weblink ClintonGore Accomplishments: Gay and Lesbian Americans, Clinton2.nara.gov, September 12, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130319132707weblink">weblink March 19, 2013, dead, mdy-all, and he is generally credited as being the first president to publicly champion gay rights.WEB, Socarides, Richard,weblink Why Bill Clinton Signed the Defense of Marriage Act, The New Yorker, September 12, 2013, During his presidency, Clinton issued two substantially controversial executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security clearances for LGBT federal employeesVolsky, Igor. (August 5, 1995) Clinton Issued Order Letting Gays Get Security Clearances 16 Years Ago Today {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140326175219weblink |date=March 26, 2014 }} and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal civilian workforce.NEWS,weblink Clinton Grants Gay Workers Job Protection, The New York Times, May 29, 1998, September 12, 2013, Under Clinton's leadership, federal funding for HIV/AIDS research, prevention and treatment more than doubled.WEB,weblink 2000.12.01: (Fact Sheet) Clinton Administration Record on HIV/AIDS, Archive.hhs.gov, September 12, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130930185839weblink">weblink September 30, 2013, mdy-all, Clinton also pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gays and for the private sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act, which, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a single vote in 1996.WEB,weblink S. 2056 (104th): Employment Nondiscrimination Act of 1996 (On Passage of the Bill), Govtrack.us, September 12, 2013, Advocacy for these issues, paired with the politically unpopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton's election and reelection by the Human Rights Campaign. Clinton came out for gay marriage in July 2009WEB,weblink Bill Clinton Backs Same-Sex Marriage, The Nation, July 14, 2009, September 12, 2013, and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013.NEWS, Clinton, Bill,weblink It's time to overturn DOMA, The Washington Post, March 7, 2013, September 12, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130903061849weblink">weblink September 3, 2013, mdy-all, He was later honored by GLAAD for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA.NEWS,weblink 3 News NZ, GLAAD honours Bill Clinton, April 22, 2013, }}The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy was an alleged effort by the People's Republic of China (PRC) to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and during the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration itself.NEWS, China Was Bill Clinton's Russia,weblink The Wall Street Journal, March 3, 2017, NEWS, Not All Foreign-Influence Scandals Are Created Equal,weblink National Review, July 16, 2017, Despite the evidence,NEWS, Findings Link Clinton Allies to Chinese Intelligence,weblink The Washington Post, February 10, 1998, the Chinese government denied all accusations.NEWS, Bob, Woodward, Brian, Duffy, Bob Woodward,weblink Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed, The Washington Post, February 13, 1997, August 30, 2011, As part of a 1996 initiative to curb illegal immigration, Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Appointed by Clinton,NEWS,weblink New Limits In Works on Immigration / Powerful commission focusing on families of legal entrants, San Francisco Chronicle, June 2, 1995, August 30, 2011, Louis Freedberg, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform recommended reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000.BOOK, Jones Jr., Plummer Alston, 2004,weblink Still Struggling for Equality: American public library services with minorities, Libraries Unlimited, 154, 1-59158-243-1, NEWS,weblink Clinton Embraces a Proposal To Cut Immigration by a Third, Robert, Pear, The New York Times, June 8, 1995, August 30, 2011, Ken Gormley, author of The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, reveals in his book that Clinton narrowly escaped possible assassination in the Philippines in November 1996. During his visit to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Manila, while he was on his way to meet with a senior member of the Philippine government, Clinton was saved from danger minutes before his motorcade was scheduled to drive over a bridge charged with a timed improvised explosive device (IED).WEB, Discovery TV, Clinton Assassination Attempt—Secret Service Secrets,weblink YouTube, March 29, 2015, According to officials, the IED was large enough to "blow up the entire presidential motorcade".BOOK, Gormley, Ken, The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr, February 1, 2011, Crown Publishing Group, 978-0-307-40945-4, 800, Details of the plot were revealed to Gormley by Lewis C. Merletti, former member of the presidential protection detail and Director of the Secret Service. Intelligence officers intercepted a radio transmission indicating there was a wedding cake under a bridge. This alerted Merletti and others as Clinton's motorcade was scheduled to drive over a major bridge in downtown Manila. Once more, the word "wedding" was the code name used by a terrorist group for a past assassination attempt. Merletti wanted to reroute the motorcade, but the alternate route would add forty-five minutes to the drive time. Clinton was very angry, as he was already late for the meeting, but following the advice of the secret service possibly saved his life. Two other bombs had been discovered in Manila earlier in the week so the threat level that day was high.NEWS, N.A., Bombs Found As Manila Readies For APEC Summit, The Seattle Times, Security personnel at the Manila International Airport uncovered several grenades and a timing device in a travel bag.NEWS, N.A., Explosives Found Near Summit Site, Associated Press, Los Angeles Times, Officials also discovered a bomb near a major U.S. naval base. The president was scheduled to visit both these locations later in the week. An intense investigation took place into the events in Manila and it was discovered that the group behind the bridge bomb was a Saudi terrorist group in Afghanistan known as al-Qaeda and the plot was masterminded by Osama bin Laden. Until recently, this thwarted assassination attempt was never made public and remained top secret. Only top members of the U.S. intelligence community were aware of these events.

1996 presidential election

{{See also|1996 United States campaign finance controversy}}(File:ElectoralCollege1996.svg|right|thumb|upright=1.3|1996 electoral vote results)In the 1996 presidential election, Clinton was re-elected, receiving 49.2 percent of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7 percent of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4 percent of the popular vote), becoming the first Democratic incumbent since Lyndon B. Johnson to be elected to a second term and the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected president more than once.BOOK, Jones, Charles O., The Presidency in a Separated System, The Brookings Institution, 2005, 318, The Republicans lost three seats in the House and gained two in the Senate, but retained control of both houses of the 105th United States Congress. Clinton received 379, or over 70 percent of the Electoral College votes, with Dole receiving 159 electoral votes.

Second term (1997–2001)

In the January 1997, State of the Union address, Clinton proposed a new initiative to provide health coverage to up to five million children. Senators Ted Kennedy—a Democrat—and Orrin Hatch—a Republican—teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and her staff in 1997, and succeeded in passing legislation forming the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), the largest (successful) health care reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she succeeded in helping pass the Foster Care Independence Act. Bill Clinton negotiated the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 by the Republican Congress. In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth.NEWS, Shogren, Elizabeth, Clinton to Get Hearing Aids for Both Ears,weblink November 1, 2012, Los Angeles Times, October 4, 1997, In 1999 he signed into law the Financial Services Modernization Act also known as the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the part of the Glass–Steagall Act that had prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment, commercial banking, and insurance services since its enactment in 1933.NEWS, Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999,weblink September 12, 2015, Federal Reserve History,

Impeachment and acquittal

(File:Senate in session.jpg|thumb|Clinton's impeachment trial in 1999)Clinton was impeached on December 19, 1998 by the House of Representatives. The House voted 228-206 to impeach him for perjury to a grand juryWEB, Miller, Lorraine C., Final vote results for roll call 543, Office of the Clerk, December 19, 1998,weblink April 20, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100106230404weblink">weblink January 6, 2010, live, and voted 221-212 to impeach him for obstruction of justice.WEB, Miller, Lorraine C., Final vote results for roll call 545, Office of the Clerk, December 19, 1998,weblink April 20, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100302015416weblink">weblink March 2, 2010, live, Clinton was only the second U.S. president (after Andrew Johnson) to be impeachedweblink Impeachment proceedings were based on allegations that Clinton had illegally lied about and covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House (and later Department of Defense) employee Monica Lewinsky.NEWS, Time Line, September 13, 1998, A32,weblink The Washington Post, January 20, 2007, After the Starr Report was submitted to the House providing what it termed "substantial and credible information that President Clinton Committed Acts that May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment",BOOK, The Starr Report: The Findings of Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr on President Clinton and the Lewinsky Affair, 1998, 1-891620-24-X,weblink the House began impeachment hearings against Clinton before the mid-term elections. To hold impeachment proceedings, the Republican leadership called a lame-duck session in December 1998.File:Donald Trump and Bill Clinton.jpg|thumb|Future president Donald Trump and Clinton shaking hands at Trump Tower, June 2000]]While the House Judiciary Committee hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. The two charges passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) were for perjury and obstruction of justice. The perjury charge arose from Clinton's testimony before a grand jury that had been convened to investigate perjury he may have committed in his sworn deposition during Jones v. Clinton, Paula Jones's sexual harassment lawsuit.NEWS,weblink Case Closed, Dan, Froomkin, The Washington Post, August 26, 1999, August 30, 2011, The obstruction charge was based on his actions to conceal his relationship with Lewinsky before and after that deposition.The Senate later acquitted Clinton of both charges.WEB, Senate LIS, U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 106th Congress—1st Session: vote number 17—Guilty or Not Guilty (Art I, Articles of Impeachment v. President W. J. Clinton), United States Senate, February 12, 1999,weblink August 30, 2011, The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the next Congress. Clinton was represented by Washington law firm Williams & Connolly.NEWS, Clinton impeached, BBC News, December 19, 1998,weblink October 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081211142909weblink">weblink December 11, 2008, live, The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 Not Guilty/45 Guilty on the perjury charge and 50 Not Guilty/50 Guilty on the obstruction of justice charge.NEWS,weblink The Senate Acquits President Clinton, The Washington Post, February 13, 1999, January 4, 2012, Both votes fell short of the Constitutional two-thirds majority requirement to convict and remove an officeholder. The final vote was generally along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty.On January 19, 2001, Clinton's law license was suspended for five years after he acknowledged to an Arkansas circuit court that he had engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice in the Jones case.COURT, Neal v. Clinton, Civ. No. 2000-5677, Agreed Order of Discipline, Ark. Cir. Ct., 2001,weblink Mr. Clinton admits and acknowledges ... that his discovery responses interfered with the conduct of the Jones case by causing the court and counsel for the parties to expend unnecessary time, effort, and resources, NEWS,weblink Bill cops a plea, January 22, 2001, The Wall Street Journal, subscription,

Pardons and commutations

Clinton controversially issued 141 pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001.NEWS,weblink Clinton Pardon's List, Associated Press, The Washington Post, January 20, 2001, August 30, 2011, Most of the controversy surrounded Marc Rich and allegations that Hillary Clinton's brother, Hugh Rodham, accepted payments in return for influencing the president's decision-making regarding the pardons.NEWS, Clinton pardons: Cast of characters, BBC News, February 22, 2001,weblink September 11, 2011, Federal prosecutor Mary Jo White was appointed to investigate the pardon of Rich. She was later replaced by then-Republican James Comey, who found no wrongdoing on Clinton's part. Some of Clinton's pardons remain a point of controversy.NEWS, Curl, Joseph,weblink Clintons hit over Libby criticism, The Washington Times, August 30, 2011,

Military and foreign affairs

{{Further|Foreign policy of the Bill Clinton administration}}File:President Clinton talks with Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF.jpeg|thumb|left|Col. Paul Fletcher, USAF and Clinton speak before boarding Air Force OneAir Force OneDuring his presidency, Clinton and the U.S. military and diplomatic forces were involved in conflicts in several areas of the world. Clinton played a key role in peace talks in Northern Ireland and in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and U.S. troops were involved in conflicts in Somalia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Iraq and other regions.

Somalia

The Battle of Mogadishu occurred in Somalia in 1993. During the operation, two U.S. helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenade attacks to their tail rotors, trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle that killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was taken prisoner. There were many more Somali casualties. Some of the American bodies were dragged through the streets—a spectacle broadcast on television news programs.NEWS, The people killed them. Chopped them up. I consider myself lucky,weblink The Guardian, October 9, 1993, In response, U.S. forces were withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts were approached with fewer soldiers on the ground.

Rwanda

In April 1994, genocide broke out in Rwanda. Intelligence reports indicate that Clinton was aware a "final solution to eliminate all Tutsis" was planned.NEWS, Carrol, Rory, US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide,weblink theguardian, London, 1 April 2004, 13 February 2018,weblink 28 December 2017, live, dmy-all, Fearing a reprisal of the events in Somolia the previous year, Clinton chose not to intervene.WEB, Ambush in Mogadishu: Transcript, Public Broadcasting Service, PBS, 27 October 2009,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090506142008weblink">weblink 6 May 2009, live, dmy-all, President Clinton has referred to the failure of the U.S. government to intervene in the genocide as one of his main foreign policy failings, saying "I don't think we could have ended the violence, but I think we could have cut it down. And I regret it."NEWS, Chozick, Amy, In Africa, Bill Clinton Toils for a Charitable Legacy,weblink 18 October 2012, The New York Times, 4 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121022022004weblink">weblink 22 October 2012, live, dmy-all,

Bosnia and Herzegovinia

In 1995, U.S. and NATO aircraft bombed Bosnian Serb targets to halt attacks on U.N. safe zones and pressure them into a peace accord that would end the Bosnian war. Clinton deployed U.S. peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent Dayton Agreement.

Irish peace talks

In 1992, before his presidency, Clinton proposed sending a peace envoy to Northern Ireland, but this was dropped to avoid tensions with the UK government. In 1994 Clinton angered London by granting a visa to Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin, the IRA's political arm. In November 1995, Clinton became the first U.S. President to visit Northern Ireland, seeing both the divided communities of Belfast and later famously handshaking Adams, 14 months into an IRA ceasefire during the Troublesweblink Despite unionist criticism, Clinton used this as a way to negotiate an end to the violent conflict with London, Dublin, the paramilitaries and the other groups. Clinton went on to play a key role in the peace talks, which eventually led to the Good Friday Agreement in 1998weblinkFile:Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin 1994.jpg|thumb|right|Clinton plays the saxophone presented to him by Russian President Boris YeltsinBoris Yeltsin

Iran

In February 1996, the Clinton administration agreed to pay Iran US$131.8{{nbsp}}million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|131.8|1996|r=2}} million in {{Inflation-year|US}}) in settlement to discontinue a case brought by Iran in 1989 against the U.S. in the International Court of Justice after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser.NEWS,weblink America's Flight 17, Slate (magazine), Slate, July 23, 2014,

Osama bin Laden

Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the U.S. government during the presidency of Bill Clinton (and continued to be until bin Laden's death in 2011).NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton: I got closer to killing bin Laden, CNN, September 24, 2006, September 11, 2011, Despite claims by Mansoor Ijaz and Sudanese officials that the Sudanese government had offered to arrest and extradite bin Laden, and that U.S. authorities rejected each offer,NEWS,weblink Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize, Los Angeles Times, December 5, 2001, June 13, 2010, Mansoor, Ijaz, the 9/11 Commission Report stated that "we have not found any reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim".WEB,weblink Staff Statement No. 5, 9/11 Commission, August 6, 2009, In response to a 1996 State Department warning about bin LadenNEWS, Lichtblau, Eric, State Dept. Says It Warned About bin Laden in 1996,weblink The New York Times, November 4, 2010, August 17, 2005, and the 1998 bombings of U.S. embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda (which killed 224 people, including 12 Americans), Clinton ordered several military missions to capture or kill bin Laden, all of which were unsuccessful. In August 1998, Clinton ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan, targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan, which was suspected of assisting bin Laden in making chemical weapons, and bin Laden's terrorist training camps in Afghanistan.WEB, John, Pike,weblink BGM-109 Tomahawk—Smart Weapons, Globalsecurity.org, August 17, 2011,

Kosovo

File:President Clinton greets the crowd at Spangdahlem Air Base.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton greets Air Force personnel at Spangdahlem Air BaseSpangdahlem Air BaseTo stop the ethnic cleansing (and what the Clinton administration labeled genocide)WEB, Cohen, William, April 7, 1999,weblink Secretary Cohen's Press Conference at NATO Headquarters, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110529025020weblink">weblink May 29, 2011, WEB, Clinton, Bill, August 30, 2011,weblink Press Conference by the President, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061006054609weblink">weblink October 6, 2006, of Albanians by anti-guerilla military units in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's province of Kosovo, Clinton authorized the use of U.S. Armed Forces in a NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia in 1999, named Operation Allied Force. General Wesley Clark was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO and oversaw the mission. With United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. The resolution placed Kosovo under UN administration and authorized a peacekeeping force to be deployed to the region.WEB,weblink Resolution 1244 (1999), June 10, 1999, NATO, August 17, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629135857weblink">weblink June 29, 2011, live, NATO announced its soldiers all survived combat,WEB, Adam, Roberts,weblink The Impact of the Laws of War in Contemporary Conflicts (PDF), April 10, 2003, Princeton University, January 25, 2007, though two died in an Apache helicopter crash.NEWS,weblink Two die in Apache crash, BBC News, May 5, 1999, August 17, 2011, Opinions in the popular press criticized genocide statements by the Clinton administration as greatly exaggerated.WEB, Pilger, John, September 4, 2000,weblink US and British officials told us that at least 100,000 were murdered in Kosovo. A year later, fewer than 3,000 bodies have been found, New Statesman, NEWS, Daniel, Pearl, Robert, Block, December 31, 1999,weblink Despite Tales, the War in Kosovo Was Savage, but Wasn't Genocide, The Wall Street Journal, A1, Prior to the bombing campaign on March 24, 1999, common estimates showed that the number of civilians killed in the over year long conflict in Kosovo had approximately been 1,800, of which were primarily Albanians but also Serbs and that there was no evidence of genocide or ethnic cleansing.NEWS, Layne, Christopher, Schwarz, Benjamin, Was It A Mistake?,weblink The Washington Post, March 26, 2000, NEWS, Cockburn, Alexander, Where's the Evidence of Genocide of Kosovar Albanians?,weblink The Los Angeles Times, October 29, 1999, In a post-war inquiry, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe noted "the patterns of the expulsions and the vast increase in lootings, killings, rape, kidnappings and pillage once the NATO air war began on March 24".NEWS, Erlanger, Steven, Monitors' Reports Provide Chronicle of Kosovo Terror,weblink The New York Times, December 5, 1999, In 2001, the U.N.-supervised Supreme Court of Kosovo ruled that genocide (the intent to destroy a people) did not take place, but recognized "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments".NEWS,weblink Kosovo assault 'was not genocide', BBC News, September 7, 2001, August 17, 2011, The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also displacement, though critics charge there is little difference.WEB, George J. Andreopoulos,weblink Ethnic Cleansing, Encyclopædia Britannica, September 11, 2011, Slobodan Milošević, the president of Yugoslavia at the time of the atrocities, was eventually brought to trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague on charges including crimes against humanity and war crimes for his role in the Kosovo war.NEWS,weblink The charges against Milosevic, BBC News, March 11, 2006, August 17, 2011, Milošević died in 2006, before the completion of the trial.NEWS, Milosevic's war crimes trial a 4-year marathon, CNN, March 11, 2006,weblink July 30, 2019,

Iraq

In Clinton's 1998 State of the Union Address, he warned Congress that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was building an arsenal of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons:}}File:Video Recording of Photo Opportunity at Camp David - NARA - 6037428.ogv|thumb|upright=1.1|Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak, President Clinton and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat at Camp DavidCamp DavidSeeking to weaken Hussein's grip on power, Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 into law on October 31, 1998, which instituted a policy of "regime change" against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not provide for direct intervention on the part of American military forces.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070218092435weblink">weblink February 18, 2007, Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, H.R.4655, One Hundred Fifth Congress of United States of America at Second Session, Library of Congress, February 18, 2007, WEB,weblink H.R.4655—Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, The administration then launched a four-day bombing campaign named Operation Desert Fox, lasting from December 16 to 19, 1998. At the end of this operation Clinton announced that "So long as Saddam remains in power, he will remain a threat to his people, his region, and the world. With our allies, we must pursue a strategy to contain him and to constrain his weapons of mass destruction program, while working toward the day Iraq has a government willing to live at peace with its people and with its neighbors."WEB,weblink Address to the Nation on Completion of Military Strikes in Iraq, Presidency.ucsb.edu, December 19, 1998, July 22, 2013, American and British aircraft in the Iraq no-fly zones attacked hostile Iraqi air defenses 166 times in 1999 and 78 times in 2000.WEB, John, Pike,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071009174722weblink">weblink October 9, 2007, Operation Southern Watch, July 22, 2013, WEB, John, Pike,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071009174419weblink">weblink October 9, 2007, Operation Northern Watch, July 22, 2013,

Vietnam

Clinton's November 2000 visit to Vietnam was the first by a U.S. president since the end of the Vietnam War.NEWS,weblink Clinton's Vietnam visit, BBC News, November 16, 2000, September 11, 2011, On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed into law the U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000, which granted permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) trade status to People's Republic of China.NEWS, Smith, Matt,weblink Clinton signs China trade bill, CNN, October 10, 2000, July 3, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714142523weblink">weblink July 14, 2014, The president asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform.BOOK, Peter B. Levy, 2002,weblink Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency, 57, Greenwood Publishing Group, 0-313-31294-X, Clinton also oversaw a boom of the U.S. economy. Under Clinton, the United States had a projected federal budget surplus for the first time since 1969.WEB, Historical Budget Data,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070101033553weblink">weblink January 1, 2007, Congressional Budget Office, January 26, 2006, January 20, 2007,

China

{{See also|Chinagate}}File:Clinton and jiang.jpg|thumb|Clinton and Chinese President Jiang ZeminJiang ZeminRelations were damaged for a time by the U.S. bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade in May 1999. President Clinton later apologized for the bombing, stating it was accidental.WEB,weblink Chinese Embassy Bombing In Belgrade: Compensation Issues, Congressionalresearch.com, The U.S.–China Relations Act of 2000 granted China permanent normal trade relations (NTR) status (previously called most favoured nation (MFN)) when China becomes a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), ending annual review and approval of NTR. The Act was signed into law on October 10, 2000 by Clinton.NEWS, Waking the Sleeping Dragon,weblink Slate, September 28, 2016, NEWS, Was Letting China Into the WTO a Mistake?,weblink Foreign Affairs, April 2, 2018, NEWS, Normalizing Trade Relations With China Was a Mistake,weblink The Atlantic, June 8, 2018, President Clinton in 2000 pushed Congress to approve the U.S.-China trade agreement and China's accession to the WTO, saying that more trade with China would advance America's economic interests: "Economically, this agreement is the equivalent of a one-way street. It requires China to open its markets—with a fifth of the world's population, potentially the biggest markets in the world—to both our products and services in unprecedented new ways," said Clinton."Text of Clinton's Speech on China Trade Bill", Federal News Service, March 9, 2000U.S. manufacturing jobs have decreased by almost five million since 2000.NEWS, Gwynn, Guiltford, The epic mistake about manufacturing that's cost Americans millions of jobs,weblink Quartz (publication), Quartz, May 3, 2018, Since the entry of China into the WTO in 2001, the decline in manufacturing jobs has accelerated.JOURNAL, David H., Autor, David, Dorn, Gordon H., Hanson, 2016, The China Shock: Learning from Labor Market Adjustment to Large Changes in Trade, Annual Review of Economics, 8, 1, 205–240, 10.1146/annurev-economics-080315-015041,weblink NEWS, Jeffry, Bartash, China really is to blame for millions of lost U.S. manufacturing jobs, new study finds,weblink Market Watch, May 14, 2018,

Israeli-Palestinian conflict

After initial successes such as the Oslo Accords of the early 1990s, which also led to the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998, Clinton attempted an effort to end the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. He brought Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat together at Camp David for the Camp David Summit in July 2000, which lasted 14 days. Following the failures of the peace talks, Clinton said Arafat had "missed the opportunity" to facilitate a "just and lasting peace". In his autobiography, Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Shyovitz, David, Jewish Virtual Library,weblink Camp David 2000, August 30, 2011,weblink July 19, 2011, live, Following another attempt in December 2000 at Bolling Air Force Base, in which the president offered the Clinton Parameters, the situation broke down completely after the end of the Taba Summit and with the start of the Second Intifada.

Judicial appointments

File:Ginsburgandclinton.jpg|thumb|Ruth Bader GinsburgRuth Bader GinsburgClinton appointed two justices to the Supreme Court: Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1993WEB,weblink Biographies of Current Justices of the Supreme Court, Supremecourt.gov, August 30, 2011,weblink July 21, 2011, live, and Stephen Breyer in 1994.WEB,weblink Appointment and swearing in of Justice Breyer, 1994, Law.onecle.com, September 30, 1994, August 30, 2011, Along with his two Supreme Court appointments, Clinton appointed 66 judges to the United States courts of appeals and 305 judges to the United States district courts. His 373 judicial appointments are the second most in American history behind those of Ronald Reagan. Clinton also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 69 nominees to federal judgeships did not receive a vote in the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee. In all, 84 percent of his nominees were confirmed.WEB,weblink Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, Federal Judicial Center, August 29, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160730115701weblink">weblink July 30, 2016, Sonia Sotomayor was one of the judges who Clinton appointed to the Court of Appeals. She was nominated by Clinton in 1997, to the Second Circuit. Sotomayor was confirmed in 1998, following a delay of more than a year that was caused by Republican opposition.Meg Greene, Sonia Sotomayor: A Biography (ABC-CLIO, 2012), pp. 121–129.NEWS, Sonia Sotomayor Fast Facts, CNN, March 8, 2013,weblink June 22, 2015, Clinton was the first president in history to appoint more women and minority judges than white male judges to the federal courts.Nancy Scherer, Scoring Points: Politicians, Activists, and the Lower Federal Court Appointment Process (Stanford University Press, 2005), p. 85. In his eight years in office, 11.6% of Clinton's court of appeals nominees and 17.4% of his district court nominees were black; 32.8% of his court of appeals nominees and 28.5% of his district court nominees were women.Scherer, p. 85. Clinton appointed the first African American judges to the Fourth Circuit (Roger Gregory) and the Seventh Circuit (Ann Claire Williams). Clinton also appointed the nation's first openly gay or lesbian federal judge when he named Deborah Batts to the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York. Batts was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote in 1994.Henry J. Reske, Appointment Breaks Barrier: First Openly Gay Federal Judge Assumes Duties, ABA Journal (December 1994), p. 27.

Public opinion

File:Clinton approval rating.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Clinton's approval ratings throughout his presidential career (Roper Center)]]Throughout Clinton's first term, his job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s. In his second term, his rating consistently ranged from the high-50s to the high-60s.WEB,weblink Bill Clinton: Job Ratings, Pollingreport.com, August 17, 2011, After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton's rating reached its highest point.NEWS,weblink Clinton's approval rating up in wake of impeachment, CNN, December 20, 1998, September 11, 2011, According to a CBS News/New York Times poll, Clinton left office with an approval rating of 68 percent, which matched those of Ronald Reagan and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era.NEWS,weblink A Look Back at the Polls, CBS News, Bootie, Cosgrove-Mather, June 7, 2004, August 30, 2011, Clinton's average Gallup poll approval rating for his last quarter in office was 61%, the highest final quarter rating any president has received for fifty years.David W. Moore, Clinton Leaves Office With Mixed Public Reaction, Gallup Organization (January 12, 2001). Forty-seven percent of the respondents identified themselves as being Clinton supporters.As he was leaving office, a CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll revealed that 45 percent of Americans said they would miss him; 55 percent thought he "would have something worthwhile to contribute and should remain active in public life"; 68 percent thought he would be remembered more for his "involvement in personal scandal" than for "his accomplishments"; and 58 percent answered "No" to the question "Do you generally think Bill Clinton is honest and trustworthy?" The same percentage said he would be remembered as either "outstanding" or "above average" as a president, while 22 percent said he would be remembered as "below average" or "poor". ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton as, "You can't trust him, he's got weak morals and ethics—and he's done a heck of a good job."WEB,weblink Poll: Clinton Legacy Mixed, ABC News, January 17, 2001, Gary, Langer, January 19, 2013, In May 2006, a CNN poll comparing Clinton's job performance with that of his successor, George W. Bush, found that a strong majority of respondents said Clinton outperformed Bush in six different areas questioned.NEWS,weblink Poll: Clinton outperformed Bush, CNN, May 15, 2006, August 30, 2011, Gallup polls in 2007 and 2011 showed that Clinton was regarded by 13 percent of Americans as the greatest president in U.S. history.Lydia Saad, Lincoln Resumes Position as Americans' Top-Rated President: Reagan and Clinton lead among members of their respective parties, Gallup (February 19, 2007).Frank Newport, [Americans Say Reagan Is the Greatest U.S. President: Lincoln and Clinton next on the list; Washington fifth], Gallup (February 18, 2011).In 2014, 18 percent of respondents in a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll of American voters regarded Clinton as the best president since World War II, making him the third most popular among postwar presidents, behind John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan.Obama Is First As Worst President Since WWII, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; More Voters Say Romney Would Have Been Better, Quinnipiac University (July 2, 2014). The same poll showed that just 3% of American voters regarded Clinton as the worst president since World War II.A 2015 poll by The Washington Post asked 162 scholars of the American Political Science Association to rank all the U.S. presidents in order of greatness. According to their findings, Clinton ranked eighth overall, with a rating of 70 percent.NEWS, New ranking of U.S. presidents puts Lincoln at No. 1, Obama at 18; Kennedy judged most overrated, The Washington Post, February 16, 2015,weblink March 24, 2015, Brandon, Rottinghaus, Justin, Vaughn, {{Image frame|align=center|width=440|caption=Public opinion of Bill Clinton (Gallup)WEB, Favorability: People in the News,weblink Gallup.com, Gallup, Inc., August 27, 2018, en-us, |content={{Graph:Chart|width=440|height=120||xAxisTitle=Yearlegend=Legend|type=line|yAxisMin=0|yAxisMax=100|xAxisMin = 694674000000 |x= 1992-01-06,1992-02-02,1992-03-01,1992-03-29,1992-04-12,1992-04-22,1992-05-10,1992-05-20,1992-06-14,1992-07-01,1992-07-08,1992-07-18,1992-08-12,1992-08-20,1992-08-23,1992-09-02,1992-09-15,1992-09-30,1992-10-06,1992-10-15,1992-10-18,1992-10-24,1992-11-02,1992-11-11,1993-01-19,1993-01-31,1993-04-24,1993-06-06,1993-07-21,1993-08-10,1993-09-26,1993-11-04,1993-11-16,1993-11-21,1994-01-08,1994-01-17,1994-03-08,1994-03-27,1994-04-24,1994-07-17,1994-09-07,1994-11-29,1994-12-30,1995-01-18,1995-03-19,1995-04-19,1995-07-09,1995-08-07,1995-09-24,1995-11-08,1996-01-15,1996-02-25,1996-03-17,1996-05-12,1996-05-29,1996-06-19,1996-07-21,1996-08-07,1996-08-15,1996-08-18,1996-08-29,1996-09-01,1996-09-04,1996-10-12,1996-11-04,1997-01-05,1997-01-13,1997-02-02,1997-02-26,1997-03-26,1997-04-20,1997-06-29,1997-07-27,1997-09-07,1997-09-28,1997-10-05,1997-10-29,1997-12-21,1998-01-24,1998-01-25,1998-01-26,1998-02-01,1998-02-15,1998-02-22,1998-03-22,1998-06-07,1998-08-08,1998-08-12,1998-08-23,1998-09-15,1998-10-12,1998-11-22,1998-12-06,1998-12-29,1999-01-10,1999-02-08,1999-02-21,1999-03-08,1999-04-14,1999-05-02,1999-06-27,1999-07-25,1999-08-04,1999-09-26,1999-12-12,2000-04-30,2000-08-05,2000-08-19,2000-09-17,2000-10-28,2000-11-15,2000-12-04,2001-02-04,2001-02-21,2001-03-07,2001-04-22,2001-08-05,2001-11-27,2002-09-26,2003-03-15,2003-06-10,2004-06-23,2004-07-21,2005-02-06,2005-10-23,2006-06-25,2007-02-11,2007-03-25,2007-10-07,2008-02-02,2008-04-20,2008-06-01,2008-08-23,2010-07-11,2012-07-12,2012-08-22,2014-06-08,2015-05-10,2016-07-17,2016-08-07,2016-11-12,2017-12-11|xType=date|y1Title= Favorable|y2Title= Unfavorable|y3Title= Never heard of|y4Title= No opinion|y1=21,38,36,38,34,42,50,42,41,45,41,62,57,57,57,57,53,53,53,54,55,49,51,58,66,65,63,48,51,53,63,54,56,55,62,60,59,56,56,49,47,50,48,56,51,56,57,51,55,59,54,60,58,60,59,60,62,60,58,57,60,61,62,62,56,60,65,64,61,63,60,59,62,63,61,56,62,58,57,58,53,65,58,64,60,61,58,60,55,51,57,57,56,56,58,55,55,54,51,53,48,57,52,54,45,47,42,48,46,54,57,57,51,42,39,48,49,48,47,46,54,53,54,56,60,59,63,60,56,50,52,50,52,61,66,69,64,59,49,49,50,45|y2=10,32,39,39,46,49,36,48,47,43,49,25,34,36,37,37,39,38,40,40,38,42,43,35,26,27,32,44,45,42,32,42,38,41,35,37,38,40,41,48,50,47,49,42,45,42,40,44,41,38,44,37,38,39,38,36,35,37,37,41,34,35,33,34,39,36,31,32,34,34,38,37,35,32,35,40,35,37,40,39,43,34,39,34,35,36,40,38,43,47,43,40,40,42,40,44,43,43,47,45,50,41,46,45,53,51,54,48,48,44,41,41,48,55,59,50,48,47,49,51,45,44,43,41,38,37,35,38,40,47,45,45,44,34,28,27,34,38,45,46,47,52|y3=54,14,10,2,1,0,2,1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1|y4=15,16,14,21,19,9,12,9,12,11,10,12,9,7,6,6,7,8,7,6,7,9,6,7,8,8,5,8,4,5,5,4,6,4,3,3,3,4,3,3,3,3,3,2,4,1,3,5,4,3,2,3,4,1,3,4,3,3,5,2,6,4,5,4,5,4,4,4,5,3,2,4,3,5,4,4,3,5,3,3,4,1,3,2,5,3,2,2,2,2,3,3,4,2,2,1,1,3,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,2,4,4,5,2,2,2,2,3,2,2,3,5,4,3,1,3,3,3,2,4,2,2,4,3,3,5,3,5,6,4,1,1,4,3,2,3|colors=green,orange,darkgrey,lightgrey}}}}

Public image

(File:Bill Clinton 1995 im Parlament in London.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton addressing the British parliament on November 29, 1995)As the first baby boomer president, Clinton was the first chief executive since Calvin Coolidge who was not alive during World War II.NEWS, Sandalow, Marc, Clinton Era Marked by Scandal, Prosperity: 1st Baby Boomer in White House Changed Notions of Presidency, San Francisco Chronicle, January 14, 2001,weblink October 29, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080611162047weblink">weblink June 11, 2008, Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward stated that Clinton's innovative use of sound bite-ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning were a major factor in his high public approval ratings.Martin Walker, Clinton: the President they deserve, Fourth Estate 1999Bob Woodward, The choice: how Clinton won, Touchstone 1996, {{ISBN|0-684-81308-4}} When Clinton played the saxophone on The Arsenio Hall Show, he was described by some religious conservatives as "the MTV president".NEWS, Bresler, Robert J., The Muddled Meaning of the 2000 Election, USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), January 2001,weblink January 2, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080206194943weblink">weblink February 6, 2008, Opponents sometimes referred to him as "Slick Willie", a nickname which was first applied to him in 1980 by Pine Bluff Commercial journalist Paul Greenberg;American Frontline:Stories of Bill. Retrieved May 4, 2015 Greenberg believed that Clinton was abandoning the progressive policies of previous Arkansas Governors such as Winthrop Rockefeller, Dale Bumpers and David Pryor. The claim "Slick Willie" would last throughout his presidency.NEWS, It's Come To This: A Nickname That's Proven Hard to Slip, Mérida, Kevin, December 20, 1998, The Washington Post,weblink Standing at a height of {{nowrap|6 ft 2 in}} (1.88 m), Clinton is tied with five others as the fifth-tallest president in the nation's history.NEWS, Baker, Peter, Head and Shoulders Above the Rest,weblink October 11, 2007, August 30, 2011, The Washington Post, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728022712weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, NEWS, Carnahan, Ira, Presidential Timber Tends To Be Tall,weblink May 19, 2004, September 11, 2011, Forbes, His folksy manner led him to be nicknamed Bubba, especially in the South.NEWS,weblink Rudy Bops Bubba, New York Post, June 27, 2007, August 23, 2012, Charles, Hurt, Carl, Campanile, Since 2000, he has frequently been referred to as "The Big Dog" or "Big Dog".NEWS,weblink Liberties; Dare Speak His Name, The New York Times, October 22, 2000, August 23, 2012, Dowd, Maureen, Maureen Dowd, "They're going to have to let the big dog run.", NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton Stumps for Obama, The New York Times, September 20, 2010, August 23, 2012, Jim, Rutenberg, Kate, Zernike, The Big Dog, as he is known among those in the tight world of Clinton associates ..., His prominent role in campaigning for President Obama during the 2012 presidential election and his widely publicized speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention, where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee Mitt Romney and Republican policies in detail, earned him the nickname "Explainer-in-Chief".NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton's DNC speech as 'explainer in chief,' 'it takes some brass,' and more [AM Briefing], The Washington Post, September 6, 2012, January 25, 2013, McDuffee, Allen, NEWS,weblink The Morning After: Obama Turns to Bill Clinton, Explainer-in-Chief, Time (magazine), Time, September 6, 2012, January 25, 2013, Poniewozik, James, File:Photograph of President William Jefferson Clinton Greeting People in a Large Crowd at a "Get Out the Vote" Rally in Los Angeles, California, 11 02 2000.jpg|thumb|Clinton at a Democratic "Get out the voteGet out the voteClinton drew strong support from the African American community and insisted that the improvement of race relations would be a major theme of his presidency.WEB,weblink A Conversation With President Bill Clinton on Race in America Today, Center for American Progress, July 16, 2004, August 30, 2011, In 1998, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison called Clinton "the first Black president", saying, "Clinton displays almost every trope of blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald's-and-junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas".WEB, Morrison, Toni, Toni Morrison, Clinton as the first black president, The New Yorker, October 1998,weblink December 1, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061021020246weblink">weblink October 21, 2006, live, Morrison noted that Clinton's sex life was scrutinized more than his career accomplishments, and she compared this to the stereotyping and double standards that, she said, blacks typically endure. Many viewed this comparison as unfair and disparaging both to Clinton and to the African-American community at large.NEWS, Coates, Ta-Nehisi, It Was No Compliment to Call Bill Clinton 'The First Black President',weblink October 21, 2016, The Atlantic, August 27, 2015, Clinton, a Baptist,Sullivan, The Party Faithful, p. 101. has been open about his faith.Sullivan, The Party Faithful, p. 9.Shortly after Clinton took office, Richard Mellon Scaife, a conservative newspaper owner, began to underwrite investigations into Clinton's past, reportedly with the hope of discovering a scandal which would cost him his presidency.NEWS,weblink Scaife: Funding Father of the Right, Robert G. Kaiser, Ira, Chinoy, The Washington Post, May 2, 1999, August 19, 2013, Leading the Arkansas Project, Scaife and other associates sought to find sources in Clinton's home state of Arkansas who would be able to reveal hidden misconduct of the president. Clinton was a friend of billionaire financier Jeffrey Epstein.NEWS, Jeffrey Epstein, the convicted sex offender who was friends with Donald Trump and Bill Clinton, explained,weblink Vox (website), Vox, September 4, 2019,

Sexual misconduct allegations

{{update|section|date=August 2019}}File:Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky on February 28, 1997 A3e06420664168d9466c84c3e31ccc2f.jpg|thumb|Clinton and Monica LewinskyMonica LewinskySeveral women have publicly accused Bill Clinton of sexual misconduct, including rape, harassment, and sexual assault. Additionally, some commentators have characterized Clinton's sexual relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky as predatory or non-consensual, despite the fact that Lewinsky called the relationship consensual at the time, because of the vast power differential between a 22-year old intern and the president of the United States. These allegations have been revisited and lent more credence in 2018, in light of the #MeToo movement, with many commentators and Democratic leaders now saying Clinton should have been compelled to resign after the Lewinsky affair.NEWS,weblink Abuse allegations have revived scrutiny of Bill Clinton—and divided Democrats, Karen, Tumulty, Katie, Mettler, November 17, 2017, November 19, 2017, The Washington Post, live,weblink November 19, 2017, WEB,weblink Bill Clinton: A Reckoning, Caitlin, Flanagan, The Atlantic, November 19, 2017, live,weblink November 18, 2017, NEWS,weblink Should Democrats turn their backs on Bill Clinton?, Z. Byron, Wolf, CNN, November 17, 2017, November 19, 2017, live,weblink November 19, 2017, In 1994, Paula Jones initiated a sexual harassment lawsuit against Clinton, claiming he had made unwanted advances towards her in 1991; Clinton denied the allegations. In April 1998, the case was initially dismissed by Judge Susan Webber Wright on the grounds that it lacked legal merit.NEWS,weblink Clinton Welcomes Jones Decision; Appeal Likely, April 2, 1998, CNN, September 11, 2011, Jones appealed Webber Wright's ruling, and her suit gained traction following Clinton's admission to having an affair with Monica Lewinsky in August 1998.NEWS,weblink Text of Jones's Appeal, July 31, 1998, The Washington Post, August 25, 2010, In 1998, lawyers for Paula Jones released court documents that alleged a pattern of sexual harassment by Clinton when he was Governor of Arkansas. Robert S. Bennett, Clinton's main lawyer for the case, called the filing "a pack of lies" and "an organized campaign to smear the President of the United States" funded by Clinton's political enemies.NEWS,weblink Testing of a President: The Accuser; Jones Lawyers Issue Files Alleging Clinton Pattern of Harassment of Women, The New York Times, March 14, 1998, August 30, 2011, Francis X., Clines, Clinton later agreed to an out-of-court settlement and paid Jones $850,000.NEWS,weblink Appeals court ponders Paula Jones settlement, November 18, 1998, CNN, September 11, 2011, Bennett said the president made the settlement only so he could end the lawsuit for good and move on with his life.NEWS, Peter, Baker, Clinton Settles Paula Jones Lawsuit for $850,000, November 14, 1998,weblink The Washington Post, October 27, 2011, During the deposition for the Jones lawsuit, which was held at the White House,NEWS,weblink Deposition of William Jefferson Clinton, January 17, 1998, CNN, March 13, 1998, September 11, 2011, Clinton denied having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky—a denial that became the basis for an impeachment charge of perjury.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lewinsky scandal, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, 2008,weblink February 9, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090618062707weblink">weblink June 18, 2009, mdy-all, File:Bill Clinton DNC July 2016.jpg|thumb|left|Clinton speaking at the 2016 Democratic National Convention2016 Democratic National ConventionIn 1998, Kathleen Willey alleged that Clinton had groped her in a hallway in 1993. An independent counsel determined Willey gave "false information" to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation.NEWS,weblink The Lives Of Kathleen Willey, CNN, March 30, 1998, September 11, 2011, On March 19, 1998, Julie Hiatt Steele, a friend of Willey, released an affidavit, accusing the former White House aide of asking her to lie to corroborate Ms. Willey's account of being sexually groped by Clinton in the Oval Office.NEWS,weblink Friend Accuses Willey for Plea to her to Lie, John M. Broder, The New York Times, March 19, 1998, February 15, 2014, An attempt by Kenneth Starr to prosecute Steele for making false statements and obstructing justice ended in a mistrial and Starr declined to seek a retrial after Steele sought an investigation against the former Independent Counsel for prosecutorial misconduct.BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of the Clinton Presidency, Peter, Levy, 328–329, November 30, 2001, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-31294-6, Linda Tripp's grand jury testimony also differed from Willey's claims regarding inappropriate sexual advances.NEWS,weblink Stalking the president, Salon (website), Salon, January 1999, February 15, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110129133049weblink">weblink January 29, 2011, Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged that Clinton had raped her in the spring of 1978, although she said she did not remember the exact date.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060216043650weblink">weblink February 16, 2006, Full Transcript of NBC Dateline report on Juanita Broaddrick, February 1999, To support her charge, Broaddrick notes that she told multiple witnesses in 1978 she had been raped by Clinton, something these witnesses also state in interviews to the press.WEB,weblink The rape allegation against Bill Clinton, explained, Dylan, Matthews, January 6, 2016, Broaddrick had earlier filed an affidavit denying any "unwelcome sexual advances" and later repeated the denial in a sworn deposition. In a 1998 NBC interview wherein she detailed the alleged rape, Broaddrick said she had denied (under oath) being raped only to avoid testifying about the ordeal publicly.The Lewinsky scandal has had an enduring impact on Clinton's legacy, beyond his impeachment in 1998.NEWS,weblink No One Wants to Campaign With Bill Clinton Anymore, November 2, 2018, The New York Times, Lerer, Lisa, In the wake of the #MeToo movement (which shed light on the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment, especially in the workplace), various commentators and Democratic political leaders, as well as Lewinsky herself, have revisited their view that the Lewinsky affair was consensual, and instead characterized it as an abuse of power or harassment, in light of the power differential between a president and a 22-year old intern. In 2018, Clinton was asked in several interviews about whether he should have resigned, and he said he had made the right decision in not resigning.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton: I wouldn't have done anything differently with Lewinsky affair, NBC News, June 4, 2018, en-US, During the 2018 Congressional elections, no Democratic candidate for office asked Clinton to campaign with him or her, a change that The New York Times attributed to the revised understanding of the Lewinsky scandal.Clinton boarded the Lolita Express, a private plane of registered sex offender Jeffrey Epstein, at least 26 times.NEWS, McDonald, Scott, Bill Clinton says he didn't know about Jeffrey Epstein's alleged sex trafficking crimes,weblink 16 September 2019, Newsweek, 8 July 2019, en, NEWS, Gold, Michael, Bill Clinton and Jeffrey Epstein: How Are They Connected?,weblink 16 September 2019, New York Times, 9 July 2019, Flight records indicate that underage girls and young women, such as Chauntae Davies, who were told to do whatever Epstein asks, were present on the plane the majority of the times Clinton boarded the plane.NEWS, Bryant, Nick, Flight Logs Put Clinton, Dershowitz on Pedophile Billionaire's Sex Jet,weblink Gawker, 22 January 2015, NEWS, Mikelionis, Lukas, Bill Clinton 'not telling the truth' about Jeffrey Epstein, says investigative journalist who first revealed allegations in 2010,weblink 16 September 2019, Fox News, 9 July 2019, NEWS, Chauntae Davies Describes Coming Forward As Epstein Accuser,weblink NPR, 2 September 2019, Epstein has claimed he co-founded the Clinton Foundation.WEB, Zimmerman, Malia, Billionaire sex offender Epstein once claimed he co-founded Clinton Foundation,weblink Fox News, 16 September 2019, 6 July 2016, Clinton has denied knowing anything about the Lolita Express or about Jeffrey Epstein's sexual abuse, despite it being public record.NEWS, Moye, David, Bill Clinton Denies Knowing Anything About Jeffrey Epstein's 'Terrible Crimes',weblink 16 September 2019, HuffPost, 8 July 2019, en, NEWS, Arciga, Julia, Bill Clinton: I Flew With Jeffrey Epstein but Knew 'Nothing' About 'Terrible Crimes', The Daily Beast, 9 July 2019,

Post-presidency (2001–present)

File:FEMA - 14697 - Photograph by Ed Edahl taken on 09-05-2005 in Texas.jpg|thumb|Clinton greets a Hurricane Katrina evacuee, September 5, 2005. In the background, second from the right, is then-Senator Barack ObamaBarack ObamaBill Clinton has continued to be active in public life since leaving office in 2001, giving speeches, fundraising, and founding charitable organizations,NEWS, Josh, Gerstein, Clinton Eligible, Once Again, To Practice Law, New York Sun, January 17, 2006,weblink August 30, 2011, and has spoken in prime time at every Democratic National Convention.NEWS, Corasaniti, Nick, Williams, Josh, Bill Clinton's Democratic Convention Speeches, The New York Times, September 5, 2012,weblink July 30, 2019,

Activities until 2008 campaign

In 2002, Clinton warned that pre-emptive military action against Iraq would have unwelcome consequences,NEWS,weblink House Passes Resolution Authorizing Use of Force in Iraq; New Jerssy Supreme Court Hears Argument For, Against New Democrat on Ballot, CNN, October 2, 2002, August 30, 2010, NEWS,weblink The Independent, London, Andrew, Grice, October 3, 2002, August 30, 2011, Clinton urges caution over Iraq as Bush is granted war powers, As a preemptive action today, however well-justified, may come back with unwelcome consequences in the future. And because I don't care—and I've done this. I've ordered these kinds of actions. I don't care how precise your bombs and your weapons are, when you set them off, innocent people will die., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110821084326weblink">weblink August 21, 2011, and later claimed to have opposed the Iraq War from the start (though some dispute this).WEB,weblink Bill Clinton Says He Opposed Iraq War from Start (UPDATED), Outsidethebeltway.com, November 28, 2007, September 12, 2013, In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for its handling of emissions control, while speaking at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Montreal.NEWS,weblink Last-minute climate deals reached, BBC News, December 10, 2005, August 30, 2011, The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas, was dedicated in 2004.NEWS,weblink Clinton Library open for business, BBC News, November 18, 2004, September 11, 2011, Clinton released a best-selling autobiography, My Life, in 2004.NEWS, Glaister, Dan, Oprah Winfrey book deal tops Clinton's $12 m, May 22, 2006, The Guardian, London,weblink August 30, 2011, In 2007, he released (Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World), which also became a New York Times Best Seller and garnered positive reviews.NEWS,weblink Best Sellers, September 23, 2007, September 18, 2007, The New York Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130510044404weblink">weblink May 10, 2013, live, (File:Bush and Clinton.jpg|thumb|Former president George H. W. Bush and Clinton in the White House Library, January 2005)In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian tsunami, U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Clinton to head a relief effort.NEWS,weblink Clinton to be U.N.'s envoy on tsunami relief, February 1, 2005, Associated Press, NBC News, August 30, 2011, After Hurricane Katrina, Clinton joined with fellow former president George H. W. Bush to establish the Bush-Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year.WEB,weblink 2006 Philadelphia Liberty Medal Award, Constitutioncenter.org, August 26, 2011, As part of the tsunami effort, these two ex-presidents appeared in a Super Bowl XXXIX pre-game show,NEWS,weblink Senior Bush, Clinton to Appear at Super Bowl, The Washington Post, Mark, Maske, January 27, 2005, April 26, 2010, and traveled to the affected areas.NEWS,weblink Bush, Clinton end tsunami visit, BBC News, February 21, 2005, September 11, 2011, They also spoke together at the funeral of Boris Yeltsin in April 2007.NEWS,weblink Former Presidents Bush, Clinton Represent U.S. at Boris Yeltsin's Funeral, Fox News Channel, April 24, 2007, May 10, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071208142544weblink">weblink December 8, 2007, dead, mdy-all, Based on his philanthropic worldview,WEB, Jon, Meacham,weblink Planetary Problem Solver, Newsweek, December 20, 2009, September 11, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110816140119weblink">weblink August 16, 2011, Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address issues of global importance. This foundation includes the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), which strives to combat that disease, and has worked with the Australian government toward that end. The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation in 2005, attempts to address world problems such as global public health, poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict.WEB,weblink Clinton Global Initiative, Clinton Foundation, Clinton Global Initiative, June 19, 2011, August 17, 2011,weblink August 7, 2011, dead, In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugared drinks in schools.WEB,weblink William J. Clinton Foundation announces agreement to reduce junk food in schools, Comcast.net, August 25, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080501105724weblink">weblink May 1, 2008, dead, Clinton's foundation joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group in 2006 to improve cooperation among those cities, and he met with foreign leaders to promote this initiative.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927022059weblink">weblink September 27, 2007, Clinton Foundation and Climate Partnership, Press Release, August 1, 2006, The foundation has received donations from a number of governments all over the world, including Asia and the Middle East.NEWS,weblink Obama team turns scrutiny on Bill Clinton, The Age, Melbourne, August 31, 2011, Peter, Baker, Anne, Davies, November 18, 2008, In 2008, Foundation director Inder Singh announced deals to reduce the price of anti-malaria drugs by 30 percent in developing nations.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100131140152weblink">weblink dead, January 31, 2010, Young man combines expertise in economics and social issues at Clinton Foundation, Pohla, Smith, August 20, 2008, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 30, 2011, Clinton also spoke in favor of California Proposition 87 on alternative energy, which was voted down.NEWS, Peach, Indravudh, Clinton backs Prop. 87, October 15, 2006, Daily Bruin, UCLA,weblink August 31, 2011,

2008 presidential election

File:Bill Clinton 2008 DNC (01) (cropped1).jpg|thumb|Clinton speaking at the 2008 Democratic National Convention2008 Democratic National ConventionDuring the 2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign, Clinton vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, Hillary. Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was able to raise $10 million toward her campaign.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton 2007 speech haul tops $10 million, Robert, Yoon, July 30, 2008, CNN, August 30, 2011, Some worried that as an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and abroad.NEWS,weblink Analysis: Bill Clinton's Lost Legacy, CBS News, January 26, 2008, August 30, 2011, Vaughn Ververs, Many were especially critical of him following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, which Obama won. Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting between Bill and Hillary's staffs, especially in Pennsylvania.NEWS,weblink The Long Road to a Clinton Exit, The New York Times, Peter Baker And Jim Rutenberg, June 8, 2008, August 30, 2011, Considering Bill's remarks, many thought he could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary.WEB,weblink August 6, 2008, Newsweek, Jonathan, Alter, September 11, 2011, A Catharsis in Denver?, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111110110248weblink">weblink November 10, 2011, Such remarks lead to apprehension that the party would be split to the detriment of Obama's election. Fears were allayed August 27, 2008, when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, saying all his experience as president assures him that Obama is "ready to lead".NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton vouches for Obama: now 'ready to lead'., August 28, 2008, Chicago Sun-Times, Lynn, Sweet, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111017063638weblink">weblink October 17, 2011, After Hillary Clinton's presidential campaign was over, Bill Clinton continued to raise funds to help pay off her campaign debt.NEWS,weblink Clinton Turns to Husband's Charity to Retire Campaign Debt, Fox News Channel, December 24, 2008, August 31, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120216041228weblink">weblink February 16, 2012, dead, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton Raffles Himself to Pay Hillary's Campaign Debt, CBS News, May 13, 2010, Stephanie, Condon, August 31, 2011,

After the 2008 election

File:Obama and Bill Clinton.jpg|thumb|Clinton with then-President Barack Obama and Senior Advisor Valerie JarrettValerie JarrettIn 2009, Clinton travelled to North Korea on behalf of two American journalists imprisoned there. Euna Lee and Laura Ling had been imprisoned for illegally entering the country from China.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton meets N Korea leader, BBC News, August 4, 2009, August 31, 2011, Jimmy Carter had made a similar visit in 1994. After Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il, Kim issued a pardon.NEWS,weblink North Korea pardons US reporters, BBC News, August 4, 2009, August 31, 2011, NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton and Journalists in Emotional Return to U.S., The New York Times, August 5, 2009, August 30, 2011, Mark, Landler, Peter, Baker, File:Prime Minister Modi meets Bill and Hillary Clinton.jpg|thumb|Clinton and Indian Prime Minister Narendra ModiNarendra ModiSince then, Clinton has been assigned a number of other diplomatic missions. He was named United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti in 2009 following a series of hurricanes which caused $1 billion in damages.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton to be UN Haiti envoy, BBC News, May 19, 2009, September 11, 2011, Clinton organized a conference with the Inter-American Development Bank, where a new industrial park was discussed in an effort to "build back better".NEWS, Earthquake Relief Where Haiti Wasn't Broken,weblink August 24, 2019, The New York Times, July 5, 2012, Deborah Sontag, In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Clinton and George W. Bush would coordinate efforts to raise funds for Haiti's recovery.NEWS,weblink Presidents Clinton, Bush lead effort to raise funds for Haiti, CNN, January 16, 2010, August 31, 2011, Funds began pouring into Haiti, which led to funding becoming available for Caracol Industrial Park in a part of the country unaffected by the earthquake. While Hillary Clinton was in South Korea, she and Cheryl Mills worked to convince SAE-A, a large apparel subcontractor, to invest in Haiti despite the company's deep concerns about plans to raise the minimum wage. In the summer of 2010, the South Korean company signed a contract at the US State Department, ensuring that the new industrial park would have a key tenant. In 2010, Clinton announced support of, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of NTR, Ireland's first environmental foundation.NEWS, Clinton backs NTR's environment foundation, Irish Independent,weblink Emmet, Oliver, March 5, 2010, August 31, 2011, WEB, President Bill Clinton Delivers Keynote Address, NTR Foundation, March 4, 2010,weblink August 31, 2011, At the 2012 Democratic National Convention, Clinton gave a widely praised speech nominating Barack Obama.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton brings it for Obama, CNN, September 6, 2012,

2016 presidential election

(File:Bill Clinton (25881799091).jpg|thumb|Clinton campaigning at an election rally for his wife Hillary who was running for President of the United States, 2016)During the 2016 presidential election, Clinton again encouraged voters to support Hillary, including a campaign stop in Wilmington, North Carolina.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton Rallies for Hillary in Wilmington, WWAY News, October 26, 2016, February 2, 2017, In a series of tweets, then-President-elect Donald Trump criticized his ability to get people out to vote.NEWS,weblink Trump goes after Bill Clinton over post-election comments, CBS News, December 20, 2016, February 2, 2017, Rebecca Shabad,

After the 2016 election

File:The Funeral of President George H.W. Bush (31265099837).jpg|thumb|The state funeral of George H. W. Bush in December 2018]]On September 7, 2017, Clinton partnered with former presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama to work with One America Appeal to help the victims of Hurricane Harvey and Hurricane Irma in the Gulf Coast and Texas communities.NEWS,weblink Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief, Shelbourne, Mallory, September 10, 2017, The Hill, September 11, 2017,

Post-presidential health concerns

In September 2004, Clinton underwent quadruple bypass surgery.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Bill Clinton 'in good spirits' after heart procedure, February 12, 2010, August 31, 2011, In March 2005, he again underwent surgery, this time for a partially collapsed lung.NEWS,weblink Clinton surgery called successful, Associated Press, NBC News, March 10, 2005, August 31, 2011, On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital in Manhattan after complaining of chest pains, and he had two coronary stents implanted in his heart.NEWS, Mark, Egan,weblink Bill Clinton in good spirits after heart procedure, Reuters, February 11, 2010, September 11, 2011, After this procedure, Clinton adopted the plant-based whole foods (vegan) diet, which had been recommended by doctors Dean Ornish and Caldwell Esselstyn.NEWS,weblink From omnivore to vegan: The dietary education of Bill Clinton, David S. Martin, August 18, 2011, CNN, September 17, 2012,

Wealth

The Clintons incurred several million dollars in legal bills during his presidency, which were paid off four years after he left office.WEB,weblink Clintons Pay Off Legal Bills, June 14, 2005, March 28, 2015, Bill and Hillary Clinton have each received millions of dollars in book authorship fees.NEWS, McIntire, Mike, Clintons made $109 Million in Last 8 Years, April 5, 2008, The New York Times,weblink In 2016, Forbes reported Bill and Hillary Clinton made about $240{{nbsp}}million in the 15{{nbsp}}years from January 2001, to December 2015, (mostly from paid speeches, business consulting and book-writing).NEWS, Alexander, Dan, How Bill And Hillary Clinton Made $240 Million In The Last 15 Years, Forbes, November 8, 2016,weblink July 30, 2019, Also in 2016, CNN reported the Clintons combined to receive more than $153{{nbsp}}million in paid speeches from 2001 until spring 2015.WEB,weblink $153 million in Bill and Hillary Clinton speaking fees, documented, Robert, Yoon, CNN, February 6, 2016, February 7, 2016, In May 2015, The Hill reported that Bill and Hillary Clinton have made more than $25{{nbsp}}million in speaking fees since the start of 2014, and that Hillary Clinton also made $5{{nbsp}}million or more from her book, Hard Choices, during the same time period.Ben Kamisar, Clintons earned more than $25 million for speeches since 2014 (May 15, 2015), The Hill In July 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that at the end of 2012, the Clintons were worth between $5{{nbsp}}million and $25.5{{nbsp}}million, and that in 2012 (the last year they were required to disclose the information) the Clintons made between $16 and $17{{nbsp}}million, mostly from speaking fees earned by the former president.NEWS, Mullins, Brody, Nicholas, Peter, Ballhaus, Rebecca, The Bill and Hillary Clinton Money Machine Taps Corporate Cash, The Wall Street Journal, July 1, 2014,weblink July 30, 2019, subscription, Clinton earned more than $104{{nbsp}}million from paid speeches between 2001 and 2012.WEB, Epstein, Jennifer, Clinton Family Speeches Netted as Much as $26 Million for Foundation,weblink Bloomberg News, May 23, 2015, In June 2014, ABC News and The Washington Post reported that Bill Clinton has made more than $100{{nbsp}}million giving paid speeches since leaving public office, and in 2008, The New York Times reported that the Clintons' income tax returns(linked in the NYT article) show they made $109{{nbsp}}million in the eight years from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, including almost $92{{nbsp}}million from his speaking and book-writing.NEWS, How the Clintons went from 'dead broke' to rich, with $104.9 million for ex-president's speaking fees, The Washington Post, June 26, 2014,weblink July 30, 2019, Philip, Rucker, Tom, Hamburger, Alexander, Becker, Hillary Clinton Defends High-Dollar Speaking Fees (June 9, 2014), ABC News and Good Morning AmericaBill's $500,000 Kuwait Lecture (November 17, 2008), The Daily BeastBill Clinton has given dozens of paid speeches each year since leaving office in 2001, mostly to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe; he often earned $100,000 to $300,000 per speech.Josh Gerstein, Clinton Eligible, Once Again, To Practice Law, New York Sun, January 17, 2006, downloaded from N.Y. Sun article.NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton Ponders a Role as First Gentleman, The New York Times, Patrick, Healy, May 10, 2007, May 22, 2010, NEWS,weblink Forty Million Dollar Bill, Independent, 2007, The Independent, London, February 24, 2007, May 22, 2010, Daniel, Bentley, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071015064614weblink">weblink October 15, 2007, Russian investment bank with ties to the Kremlin paid Bill Clinton $500,000 for a speech in Moscow.NEWS,weblink Cash Flowed to Clinton Foundation Amid Russian Uranium Deal, Jo, Becker, Mike, McIntire, The New York Times, April 23, 2015, WEB,weblink Colin, Campbell, Pamela, Engel, The Clinton Foundation received millions from investors as Putin took over 20% of US uranium deposits, April 23, 2015, Yahoo! Finance, Hillary Clinton said she and Bill came out of the White House financially "broke" and in debt, especially due to large legal fees incurred during their years in the White House. "We had no money when we got there, and we struggled to, you know, piece together the resources for mortgages, for houses, for Chelsea's education." She added, "Bill has worked really hard ... we had to pay off all our debts ... he had to make double the money because of, obviously, taxes; and then pay off the debts, and get us houses, and take care of family members."

Honors and recognition

File:William S. Cohen presents President Clinton the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service.jpg|thumb|Secretary of Defense Cohen presents President Clinton the DoD Medal for Distinguished Public Service.]]File:Bill Clinton statue.jpg|thumb|Bill Clinton statue in PristinaPristinaVarious colleges and universities have awarded Clinton honorary degrees, including Doctorate of Law degreesWEB,weblink Honorary Degrees, 1993, August 31, 2011, UNC-Chapel Hill Office of Faculty Governance, WEB,weblink President Bill Clinton with an honorary doctorate of law, Tulane University, May 19, 2006, August 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110808192350weblink">weblink August 8, 2011, and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees.WEB,weblink Clinton to address graduates, Honorary doctorate will be bestowed, RIT News, Rochester Institute of Technology, May 18, 2007, August 31, 2011, He is an Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford, which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar, although he did not complete his studies there.NEWS, Matthew, Hoffman,weblink The Bill Clinton we knew at Oxford: Apart from smoking dope (and not inhaling), what else did he learn over here? College friends share their memories with Matthew Hoffman, The Independent, October 27, 2016, WEB,weblink www.univ.ox.ac.uk, University of Oxford, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160313140432weblink">weblink March 13, 2016, Schools have been named for Clinton,WEB,weblink Clinton Elementary, Compton Unified School District, August 31, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927162333weblink">weblink September 27, 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110719002854weblink">weblink dead, July 19, 2011, William Jefferson Clinton Middle School, Los Angeles Unified School District, August 31, 2011, WEB,weblink Clinton School of Public service, University of Arkansas, August 31, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720063224weblink">weblink July 20, 2011, dead, and statues have been built to pay him homage.NEWS,weblink Kosovo unveils Clinton's statue, BBC News, November 2, 2009, November 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091102101327weblink">weblink November 2, 2009, live, NEWS,weblink Kosovo to honor Bill Clinton with statue, Reuters, May 23, 2007, September 11, 2011, U.S. states where he has been honored include Missouri,WEB, DeMolay International,weblink DeMolay Hall of Fame, Demolay.org, August 25, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100905133239weblink">weblink September 5, 2010, dead, Arkansas,NEWS, Purdum, Todd S.,weblink Campaign Season; Another First for Clinton, The New York Times, October 17, 2002, August 6, 2009, Kentucky,WEB,weblink Colonels website, December 21, 2009, Honorable Order of Kentucky Colonels, Kentucky Colonels, Honorable Order of, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090625033818weblink">weblink June 25, 2009, and New York.NEWS, Dunlap, David,weblink Pataki Offers Peek at 9/11 Memorial Progress, The New York Times, November 23, 2004, August 31, 2011, He was presented with the Medal for Distinguished Public Service by Secretary of Defense William Cohen in 2001.WEB,weblink Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen presents the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Public Service to President Bill Clinton in a ceremonial farewell at Fort Myer, Va., on Jan. 5, 2001., U.S. Department of Defense, September 1, 2011, The Clinton Presidential Center was opened in Little Rock, Arkansas, in his honor on December 5, 2001.NEWS,weblink Dinner for a Presidential Library, Contributions Welcome, June 28, 1999, Van Natta Jr., Don, The New York Times, December 17, 2009, He has been honored in various other ways, in countries that include the Czech Republic,WEB,weblink List of Individuals Awarded the Order of the White Lion, Old.hrad.cz, October 13, 2005, August 6, 2009, Papua New Guinea,NEWS, It's now 'Chief'' Bill Clinton, United Press International, December 3, 2006,weblink August 31, 2011, Germany,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080206203817weblink">weblink February 6, 2008, International Prize of the city of Aachen (German), and Kosovo. The Republic of Kosovo, in gratitude for his help during the Kosovo War, renamed a major street in the capital city of Pristina as Bill Clinton Boulevard and added a monumental Clinton statue.NEWS,weblink Statue Watch: Bill Clinton Edition, Mike, Nizza, May 23, 2007, October 8, 2012, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Kosovo Struggles to Forge an Identity, Dan, Bilefsky, December 17, 2007, October 8, 2012, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Kosovo: Forging an identity on eve of new era, Dan, Bilefsky, December 9, 2007, October 8, 2012, The New York Times, Clinton was selected as Time{{'s}} "Man of the Year" in 1992,NEWS,weblink Bill Clinton, Man of the Year, Time (magazine), Time, Elizabeth P. Valk, January 4, 1993, August 31, 2011, and again in 1998, along with Ken Starr.NEWS,weblink Kenneth Starr & Bill Clinton, Men of the Year, Time (magazine), Time, Nancy, Gibbs, December 28, 1998, August 31, 2011, From a poll conducted of the American people in December 1999, Clinton was among eighteen included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century.BOOK, The Gallup Poll 1999,weblink registration, Scholarly Resources Inc, 1999, Wilmington, DE, 248–249, He was honored with a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children, a J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding,NEWS,weblink President Bill Clinton Biography, AmericaLive, CNN, October 22, 2010, a TED Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design),WEB,weblink 2007 TED Prize winner Bill Clinton on TEDTalks, TED Blog, April 4, 2007, August 31, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728122424weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, and was named as an Honorary GLAAD Media Award recipient for his work as an advocate for the LGBT community.WEB,weblink 24th Annual GLAAD Media Awards—Los Angeles, April 7, 2013, GLAAD, In 2011, President Michel Martelly of Haiti awarded Clinton with the National Order of Honour and Merit to the rank of Grand Cross "for his various initiatives in Haiti and especially his high contribution to the reconstruction of the country after the earthquake of January 12, 2010". Clinton declared at the ceremony that "in the United States of America, I really don't believe former American presidents need awards anymore, but I am very honored by this one, I love Haiti, and I believe in its promise".WEB,weblink Haiti—Social: Bill Clinton receives the National Order of Honor and Merit to the rank Grand Cross gold plated, Press, July 22, 2011, Haiti Libre, March 14, 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama awarded Clinton the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 20, 2013.NEWS, Obama awards Medal of Freedom to Clinton, Oprah, others,weblink USA Today, November 20, 2013, David, Jackson, November 20, 2013,

Electoral history

{| class="wikitable" style="width: 100%;"! Year! Office! District! colspan=2 style="width: 18%;" | Democratic! colspan=2 style="width: 15%;" | Republican! colspan=2 style="width: 18%;" | Other 1974 Arkansas 3rd congressional district Arkansas Bill Clinton 48.17% John Paul Hammerschmidt 51.83% 1976 Arkansas Attorney General Arkansas Bill Clinton Unopposed 1978 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Lynn Lowe 37% 1980 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 48% Frank White 52% 1982 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 55% Frank White 45% 1984 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Woody Freeman 37% 1986 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 64% Frank White 36% 1990 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 57% Sheffield Nelson 42% 1992 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 43% George H. W. Bush 37% Ross Perot (I) 19% 1996 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 49% Bob Dole 41% Ross Perot (Reform) 8%

Authored books

  • BOOK, Three Rivers Press, 978-0-8129-2193-9, Putting People First: How We Can All Change America, New York, 1992-09-12,weblink
  • BOOK, Between Hope and History, 1996, Times Books, New York, 978-0-8129-2913-3, Between Hope and History,
  • BOOK, My Life, 2004, Vintage Books, New York, 978-1-4000-3003-3, 1st, My Life (Bill Clinton autobiography),
  • BOOK, Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World, 2007, Knopf, New York, 978-0-307-26674-3, 1st, Giving: How Each of Us Can Change the World,
  • BOOK, Back to Work (book), 2011, Knopf, New York, 978-0-307-95975-1, 1st, Back to Work (book),
  • BOOK, The President Is Missing, 2018, Knopf, 978-0-316-41269-8, 1st, The President Is Missing (novel),

Recordings

Bill Clinton is one of the narrators on a 2003 recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf, on Pentatone, together with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren.

See also

References

{{Reflist|25em}}

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Clinton, Bill. (with Al Gore). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070621005829weblink">Science in the National Interest. Washington, D.C.: The White House, August 1994.
  • --- (with Al Gore). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080316091133weblink">The Climate Change Action Plan. Washington, D.C.: The White House, October 1993.
  • Taylor Branch The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President. (2009) Simon & Schuster. {{ISBN|978-1-4165-4333-6}}
  • Official Congressional Record Impeachment Set: ... Containing the Procedures for Implementing the Articles of Impeachment and the Proceedings of the Impeachment Trial of President William Jefferson Clinton. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1999.
  • Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1994–2002.
  • S. Daniel Abraham Peace Is Possible, foreword by Bill Clinton

Popular books

  • Peter Baker The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton (2000) {{ISBN|0-684-86813-X}}
  • James Bovard Feeling Your Pain: The Explosion and Abuse of Government Power in the Clinton-Gore Years (2000) {{ISBN|0-312-23082-6}}
  • Joe Conason and Gene Lyons The Hunting of the President: The Ten-Year Campaign to Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton (2003) {{ISBN|0-312-27319-3}}
  • Elizabeth Drew On the Edge: The Clinton Presidency (1994) {{ISBN|0-671-87147-1}}
  • David Gergen Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership. (2000) {{ISBN|0-684-82663-1}}
  • Nigel Hamilton Bill Clinton: An American Journey (2003) {{ISBN|0-375-50610-1}}
  • Christopher Hitchens No One Left to Lie to: The Triangulations of William Jefferson Clinton (1999) {{ISBN|1-85984-736-6}}
  • Michael Isikoff Uncovering Clinton: A Reporter's Story (1999) {{ISBN|0-609-60393-0}}
  • Mark Katz Clinton and Me: A Real-Life Political Comedy (2004) {{ISBN|978-0-7868-6949-7}}
  • David Maraniss The Clinton Enigma: A Four and a Half Minute Speech Reveals This President's Entire Life (1998) {{ISBN|0-684-86296-4}}
  • Dick Morris with Eileen McGann Because He Could (2004) {{ISBN|0-06-078415-6}}
  • Richard A. Posner An Affair of State: The Investigation, Impeachment, and Trial of President Clinton (1999) {{ISBN|0-674-00080-3}}
  • Mark J. Rozell The Clinton Scandal and the Future of American Government (2000) {{ISBN|0-87840-777-4}}
  • Timperlake, Edward, and William C. Triplett II Year of the Rat: How Bill Clinton Compromised U.S. Security for Chinese Cash. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 1998. {{ISBN|0-89526-333-5}}
  • Michael Waldman POTUS Speaks: Finding the Words That Defined the Clinton Presidency (2000) {{ISBN|0-7432-0020-9}}
  • Ivory Tower Publishing Company. Achievements of the Clinton Administration: the Complete Legislative and Executive. (1995) {{ISBN|0-88032-748-0}}

Scholarly studies

  • Campbell, Colin, and Bert A. Rockman, eds. The Clinton Legacy (Chatham House Pub, 2000)
  • Cohen; Jeffrey E. "The Polls: Change and Stability in Public Assessments of Personal Traits, Bill Clinton, 1993–99" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2001
  • Cronin, Thomas E. and Michael A. Genovese; "President Clinton and Character Questions" Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 28, 1998
  • Davis; John. "The Evolution of American Grand Strategy and the War on Terrorism: Clinton and Bush Perspectives" White House Studies, Vol. 3, 2003
  • Dumbrell, John. "Was there a Clinton doctrine? President Clinton's foreign policy reconsidered". Diplomacy and Statecraft 13.2 (2002): 43–56.
  • Edwards; George C. "Bill Clinton and His Crisis of Governance" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998
  • Fisher; Patrick. "Clinton's Greatest Legislative Achievement? the Success of the 1993 Budget Reconciliation Bill" White House Studies, Vol. 1, 2001
  • Glad; Betty. "Evaluating Presidential Character" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998
  • Harris, John F. ''The Survivor: Bill Clinton in the White House (2006).
  • Head, Simon. The Clinton System (January 30, 2016), The New York Review of Books
  • Hyland, William G. Clinton's World: Remaking American Foreign Policy (1999) {{ISBN|0-275-96396-9}}
  • Jewett, Aubrey W. and Marc D. Turetzky; "Stability and Change in President Clinton's Foreign Policy Beliefs, 1993–96" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28, 1998
  • {{citation|last=Kim|first=Claire Jean|title=Managing the Racial Breach: Clinton, Black-White Polarization, and the Race Initiative|journal=Political Science Quarterly|volume=117|issue=1|pages=55–79|doi=10.2307/798094|jstor=798094|year=2002}}
  • Laham, Nicholas, A Lost Cause: Bill Clinton's Campaign for National Health Insurance (1996)
  • Lanoue, David J. and Craig F. Emmert; "Voting in the Glare of the Spotlight: Representatives' Votes on the Impeachment of President Clinton" Polity, Vol. 32, 1999
  • Levy, Peter B. Encyclopedia of the Clinton presidency (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Maurer; Paul J. "Media Feeding Frenzies: Press Behavior during Two Clinton Scandals" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999
  • Nie; Martin A. "'It's the Environment, Stupid!': Clinton and the Environment" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997 in JSTOR
  • O'Connor; Brendon. "Policies, Principles, and Polls: Bill Clinton's Third Way Welfare Politics 1992–1996" The Australian Journal of Politics and History, Vol. 48, 2002
  • Poveda; Tony G. "Clinton, Crime, and the Justice Department" Social Justice, Vol. 21, 1994
  • Renshon; Stanley A. The Clinton Presidency: Campaigning, Governing, and the Psychology of Leadership Westview Press, 1995
  • Romano, Flavio. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way (Routledge, 2007)
  • Renshon; Stanley A. "The Polls: The Public's Response to the Clinton Scandals, Part 1: Inconsistent Theories, Contradictory Evidence" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, 2002
  • Rushefsky, Mark E. and Kant Patel. Politics, Power & Policy Making: The Case of Health Care Reform in the 1990s (1998) {{ISBN|1-56324-956-1}}
  • Schantz, Harvey L. Politics in an Era of Divided Government: Elections and Governance in the Second Clinton Administration (2001) {{ISBN|0-8153-3583-0}}
  • Troy, Gill. The Age of Clinton: America in the 1990s (2015)
  • Warshaw, Shirley Anne. The Clinton Years (Infobase Publishing, 2009)
  • Wattenberg; Martin P. "The Democrats' Decline in the House during the Clinton Presidency: An Analysis of Partisan Swings" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 29, 1999
  • Wattier; Mark J. "The Clinton Factor: The Effects of Clinton's Personal Image in 2000 Presidential Primaries and in the General Election" White House Studies, Vol. 4, 2004

External links

{{Sister project links|wikt=Clinton|b=no|s=Author:William Jefferson Clinton|v=no}}

Official

Organizations

Interviews, speeches, and statements

Media coverage

  • {{Guardian topic}}
  • {{New York Times topic|people/c/bill_clinton}}

Other

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