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Noam Chomsky
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{{Redirect|Chomsky}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|American linguist, philosopher and activist}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2012}}{{pp-semi-blp|small=yes}}







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|birth_place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.|thesis_title = Transformational Analysis|thesis_url =weblink|thesis_year = 1955|doctoral_advisor = title = {{nbsp}} Mark Baker (linguist)>Mark Baker, Ray C. Dougherty, C.-T. James Huang, Ray Jackendoff, George Lakoff, Howard Lasnik, Robert Lees, James McCawley, Barbara Partee, John R. Ross, and many others }}|known_for = title = {{nbsp}} J. L. Austin, Mikhail Bakunin,NOAM CHOMSKY: CRITICAL ASSESSMENTS, VOLUMES 2–3PUBLISHER=TAYLOR & FRANCISPAGE=487Alex Carey (writer)>Alex Carey,CHOMSKY>FIRST=NOAMYEAR=1996LOCATION=LONDONQUOTE=THE REAL IMPORTANCE OF CAREY'S WORK IS THAT IT'S THE FIRST EFFORT AND UNTIL NOW THE MAJOR EFFORT TO BRING SOME OF THIS TO PUBLIC ATTENTION. IT'S HAD A TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE ON THE WORK I'VE DONE., C. West Churchman, William Chomsky, René Descartes,NOAM CHOMSKY: A LIFE OF DISSENT>YEAR=1998ISBN=978-0-262-52255-7AUTHOR=BARSKY, ROBERT F., John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Morris Halle, Zellig Harris, Hebrew literature, Wilhelm von Humboldt, David Hume,NOAM CHOMSKY>YEAR=2006ISBN=978-1-86189-269-0AUTHOR=SPERLICH, WOLFGANG B., Roman Jakobson, Immanuel Kant,TIME AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION: THE SPECTACLE OF SPAIN'S TOURIST BOOM AND THE REINVENTION OF DIFFERENCE>YEAR=1993ISBN=978-0-7914-1469-9AUTHOR=SLIFE, BRENT D., Martin Luther King, Jr.,HTTP://WWW.TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/CULTURE/BOOKS/7865508/NOAM-CHOMSKY-INTERVIEW.HTML>TITLE=NOAM CHOMSKY INTERVIEWFIRST=NIGELACCESS-DATE=MAY 15, 2016, Karl Korsch, Peter Kropotkin,NOAM CHOMSKY READING LIST>URL=HTTP://LEFTREFERENCEGUIDE.WORDPRESS.COM/NOAM-CHOMSKY-READING-LIST/ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 8, 2014, Karl Liebknecht, John Locke, Rosa Luxemburg, Dwight Macdonald,CHOMSKY, NOAM >DATE=SEPTEMBER 22, 2011 URL=HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PK9W5DE7ZTQ LANGUAGE= PUBLISHER=IDEAS MATTER ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130826012857/HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PK9W5DE7ZTQACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 16, 2011 ID= OCLC= DEAD-URL=YES Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, George Armitage Miller, George Orwell, W. V. O. Quine, Pāṇini, Anton Pannekoek, Jean Piaget, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Hilary Putnam,{{sfn>Barskyp=58}} David Ricardo, Rudolf Rocker, Bertrand Russell, Russian literature,CHOMSKY, NOAM >URL=HTTPS://CHOMSKY.INFO/READER01/ PUBLISHER=CHOMSKY.INFO ACCESSDATE=MAY 29, 2013, Diego Abad de Santillán, Ferdinand de Saussure, Marcel-Paul Schützenberger, Adam Smith, Leon Trotsky, Alan Turing, Ludwig Wittgenstein }} title = {{nbsp}} Michael Albert, Julian Assange, John Backus,JOHN W. BACKUS (1924–2007)PUBLISHER=BETANEWS, INC.Derek Bickerton, Bono,HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/BOOKS/2003/NOV/30/HIGHEREDUCATION.INTERNATIONALEDUCATIONNEWSLAST=ADAMSDATE=2003-11-30ACCESS-DATE=MAY 8, 2016, Julian C. Boyd, Jean Bricmont, Hugo Chávez, Daniel Dennett,CHOMSKY AMID THE PHILOSOPHERS>URL=HTTP://WWW.UEA.AC.UK/~J108/CHOMSKY.HTMACCESSDATE=8 JANUARY 2014, Daniel Everett, Clinton Fernandes, Norman Finkelstein, Robert Fisk, Jerry Fodor, Amy Goodman, Stephen Jay Gould,Gould, S. J. (1981). "Official Transcript for Gould's deposition in McLean v. Arkansas" (November 27). Glenn Greenwald, Gilbert Harman, Marc Hauser, Christopher Hitchens, Norbert Hornstein, Niels Kaj Jerne, Naomi Klein, Donald Knuth,KNUTH>FIRST1=DONALD E.TITLE=SELECTED PAPERS ON COMPUTER LANGUAGESLOCATION=PAGE=1ISBN=1-57586-382-0Peter Ludlow, Colin McGinn,THE BLACKWELL GUIDE TO ETHICAL THEORYPUBLISHER=JOHN WILEY & SONSEDITION=2Michael Moore, John Nichols (journalist)>John Nichols, Ann Nocenti,Keller, Katherine (November 2, 2007). "Writer, Creator, Journalist, and Uppity Woman: Ann Nocenti". Sequential Tart. John Pilger, Steven Pinker,NARRATIVE, RELIGION AND SCIENCE: FUNDAMENTALISM VERSUS IRONY, 1700–1999>YEAR=2002ISBN=978-0-521-00983-6AUTHOR=STEPHEN PRICKETT, Harold Pinter, Tanya Reinhart, Arundhati Roy, Edward Said,EDWARD SAID AND THE RELIGIOUS EFFECTS OF CULTURE>PUBLISHER=CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSPAGE=116John Searle,A SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT: CHOMSKY'S REVOLUTION IN LINGUISTICSPUBLISHER=NYREV, INC.DATE=JUNE 29, 1972, Neil Smith (linguist), Aaron Swartz,THE BOOK THAT CHANGED MY LIFEPUBLISHER=RAW THOUGHTAUTHOR=AARON SWARTZ, May 15, 2006, Crispin Wright, and many others}}|signature = Noam Chomsky signature.svg|website =weblink
  • {{marriage|Carol Doris Schatz|1949|December 19, 2008|end=died{edih}
  • {{marriage|Valeria Wasserman|2014}}


}}
Aviva Chomsky>Aviva|discipline = Linguistics, analytic philosophy, cognitive science, political criticismUniversity of Arizona {{small>(2017–present)}}Massachusetts Institute of Technology {{smallInstitute for Advanced Study {{small>(1958–1959)}}University of Pennsylvania {{small>(Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts>MA, Doctor of Philosophy)}}Harvard Society of Fellows {{small>(1951–1955)}} title = {{nbsp}} }}{{American socialism|Theorists}}Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, political activist, and social critic. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona,WEB,weblink MIT Linguistics, Facebook, 2017-09-11, NEWS,weblink World-Renowned Linguist Noam Chomsky Joins UA Faculty, UANews, 2017-09-11, en, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. He began studying at the University of Pennsylvania at age 16, taking courses in linguistics, mathematics, and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955, he was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows, where he developed the theory of transformational grammar, for which he was awarded his doctorate in 1955. Chomsky began teaching at MIT in 1957 and emerged as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which remodeled the scientific study of language. From 1958 to 1959, he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. He also played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being particularly critical of the work of B. F. Skinner.Chomsky first rose to public prominence for his vocal opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, which he saw as an act of American imperialism. In 1967, he attracted widespread public attention for his antiwar essay "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Becoming associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and U.S. President Richard Nixon placed him on his Enemies List. While expanding his work in linguistics over the coming decades, he also became involved in the linguistics wars. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky later co-wrote (Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media), which articulated the propaganda model of media criticism, and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Additionally, his defense of freedom of speech—including Holocaust denial—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. Since retiring from active teaching, Chomsky has continued his vocal political activism, including opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy movement.One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberalism and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and mainstream news media. His ideas have proved highly significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements, and have also drawn criticism, with some accusing him of anti-Americanism.{{TOC limit|4}}

Early life

Childhood: 1928–45

Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=9|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=3}} His mother Elsie (nÄ—e Simonofsky) emigrated from Belarus to the United States in 1906, while his father William Chomsky left Ukraine for the United States in 1913.WEB, Feinberg, Harriet,weblink Elsie Chomsky: A Life in Jewish Education, Cambridge, Mass., Brandeis University, February 1999, 3, January 10, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080511163046weblink">weblink May 11, 2008, yes, mdy-all, William was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia in 1924.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=9–10|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}} Elsie also taught at Gratz. Much later William Chomsky was appointed professor of Hebrew at Dropsie College from 1955–77.NEWS,weblink Dr. William Chomsky, 81, Hebrew Grammarian, Dies, The New York Times, Associated Press, July 22, 1977, January 10, 2019, }}{{external media| float = left|width = 270px| video1 = Presentation by Robert F. Barsky on Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent, July 19, 1997, C-SPAN}}Noam was the Chomsky family's first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years later in 1934.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=11–13|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}} The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=11–13}} Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and regularly discussing the political theories of Zionism; the family was particularly influenced by the Left Zionist writings of Ahad Ha'am.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=11–13|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}} As a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=15}}Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum; he was exposed to far-left politics through other members of the family, a number of whom were socialists involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=14|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=11, 14–15}} He was substantially influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=23|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=12, 14–15, 67|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=4}} Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=23}} He later described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident",{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=17–19}} because it allowed him to become critical of Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=17–19|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=16, 18}}Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=12|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=3}} It was there, at age 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=13|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=3}} At age 12, Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented teaching methods.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=21–22|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=14|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=4}} During the same time period, Chomsky attended the Hebrew High School at Gratz College. From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17}}

University: 1945–55

{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
| footer = Chomsky's almae matres, the University of Pennsylvania and the Harvard Society of Fellows
| image1 = UPenn shield with banner.svg
| image2 = Harvard University logo.PNG
}}In 1945, Chomsky, aged 16, embarked on a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=47|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=16}} Living at home, he funded his undergraduate degree by teaching Hebrew.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=47}} Frustrated with his experiences at the university, he considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Mandatory Palestine,{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=17}} but his intellectual curiosity was reawakened by conversations with the Russian-born linguist Zellig Harris, whom he first met in a political circle in 1947. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=48–51|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=18–19, 31}} Chomsky's B.A. honors thesis was titled "Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew", and involved applying Harris's methods to the language.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=32}} Chomsky revised this thesis for his M.A., which he received at Penn in 1951; it was subsequently published as a book.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=33}} He also developed his interest in philosophy while at university, in particular under the tutelage of Nelson Goodman.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=33}}From 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was named to the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, where he undertook research on what would become his doctoral dissertation.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=79|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=20}} Having been encouraged by Goodman to apply,{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=34}} Chomsky was attracted to Harvard in part because the philosopher Willard Van Orman Quine was based there. Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. L. Austin of the University of Oxford, strongly influenced Chomsky.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=33–34}} In 1952, Chomsky published his first academic article, "Systems of Syntactic Analysis", which appeared not in a journal of linguistics but in The Journal of Symbolic Logic.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=34}} Highly critical of the established behaviorist currents in linguistics, in 1954 he presented his ideas at lectures at the University of Chicago and Yale University.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=81}} He had not been registered as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, but in 1955 he submitted a thesis setting out his ideas on transformational grammar; he was awarded a Ph.D. for it, and it was privately distributed among specialists on microfilm before being published in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=83–85|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=36|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3pp=4–5}} Possession of this Ph.D. nullified his requirement to enter national service in the armed forces, which was otherwise due to begin in 1955.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=36}} George Armitage Miller, a professor at Harvard, read Chomsky's Ph.D. thesis and was impressed; together he and Chomsky published a number of technical papers in mathematical linguistics.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=38}}{{double image|left|Rudolf Rocker.PNG|120|George Orwell press photo.jpg|100|The work of anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker (left) and democratic socialist George Orwell (right) significantly influenced the young Chomsky.}}In 1947 Chomsky entered into a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since they were toddlers, and they married in 1949.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=13, 48, 51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=18–19}} After Chomsky was made a Fellow at Harvard, the couple moved to an apartment in the Allston area of Boston, remaining there until 1965, when they relocated to the suburb of Lexington.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=20}} In 1953 the couple took a Harvard travel grant to visit Europe, traveling from the United Kingdom through France and Switzerland and into Italy.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=20–21}} On that trip they also spent six weeks in Israel at Hashomer Hatzair's HaZore'a Kibbutz. Although enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism he encountered in Israel, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend he found pervading the kibbutz's leftist community.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=82|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=20–21}}On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of the Yiddish anarchist journal Freie Arbeiter Stimme, becoming enamored with the ideas of contributor Rudolf Rocker, whose work introduced him to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=24|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=13}} Other political thinkers whose work Chomsky read included the anarchist Diego Abad de Santillán, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight Macdonald, and works by Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Korsch, and Rosa Luxemburg.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=24–25}} His readings convinced him of the desirability of an anarcho-syndicalist society, and he became fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes set up during the Spanish Civil War, which were documented in Orwell's Homage to Catalonia (1938).{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=26}} He avidly read the leftist journal politics, remarking that it "answered to and developed" his interest in anarchism,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=34–35}} as well as the periodical Living Marxism, published by council communist Paul Mattick. Although rejecting its Marxist basis, Chomsky was heavily influenced by council communism, voraciously reading articles in Living Marxism by Antonie Pannekoek.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=36–40}} He was also greatly interested in the Marlenite ideas of the Leninist League, an anti-Stalinist Marxist–Leninist group, sharing their views that the Second World War was orchestrated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union's "state capitalists" to crush Europe's proletariat.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=43–44}}

Early career: 1955–66

Chomsky befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson, the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position there in 1955. At MIT Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project and half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=86–87|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3pp=38–40}} He had been recruited to MIT by Jerome Wiesner, an influential scientist who was also involved in getting the US's nuclear missile program established Chris Knight (2018). Decoding Chomsky; Science and revolutionary politics. Yale University Press., pp. x-xii, 16, 30, 246. Having brought such missile research to MIT, Wiesner then became a nuclear strategy adviser to both Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy before returning to MIT to oversee research programmes at the Institute.Knight 2018, pp. xi-xii; Snead, D. L. 1999. The Gaither Committee, Eisenhower, and the Cold War. Despite its military involvement, Chomsky has described MIT as "a pretty free and open place, open to experimentation and without rigid requirements. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work."{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=87}} In 1957 MIT promoted him to the position of associate professor, and from 1957 to 1958 he was also employed by Columbia University as a visiting professor.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=91}} That same year, Chomsky's first child, a daughter named Aviva, was born,{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=91|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=22}} and he published his first book on linguistics, Syntactic Structures, a work that radically opposed the dominant Harris–Bloomfield trend in the field.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=88–91|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=40|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=5}} The response to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, and his work proved divisive and caused "significant upheaval" in the discipline.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=88–91}} Linguist John Lyons later asserted that it "revolutionized the scientific study of language".{{sfn|Lyons|1978|p=1}} From 1958 to 1959 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=84}}In 1959 Chomsky published a review of B. F. Skinner's 1957 book Verbal Behavior in the academic journal Language, in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=6|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=96–99|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=41|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=5}} Kenneth MacCorquodale

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