Noam Chomsky

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Noam Chomsky
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|birth_place = Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.|thesis_title = Transformational Analysis|thesis_url =weblink|thesis_year = 1955|doctoral_advisor = title = {{nbsp}} Mark Baker (linguist)>Mark Baker, Ray C. Dougherty, C.-T. James Huang, Ray Jackendoff, George Lakoff, Howard Lasnik, Robert Lees, James McCawley, Barbara Partee, John R. Ross, and many others }}|institutions = Harvard UniversityMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyUniversity of Arizona|school_tradition = Analytic philosophy title = {{nbsp}}

{edih} }}
title = {{nbsp}} J. L. Austin, Mikhail Bakunin,NOAM CHOMSKY: CRITICAL ASSESSMENTS, VOLUMES 2–3 PUBLISHER=TAYLOR & FRANCIS PAGE=487 Alex Carey (writer)>Alex Carey,CHOMSKY >FIRST=NOAM YEAR=1996 LOCATION=LONDON QUOTE=THE REAL IMPORTANCE OF CAREY'S WORK IS THAT IT'S THE FIRST EFFORT AND UNTIL NOW THE MAJOR EFFORT TO BRING SOME OF THIS TO PUBLIC ATTENTION. IT'S HAD A TREMENDOUS INFLUENCE ON THE WORK I'VE DONE., C. West Churchman, William Chomsky, René Descartes,NOAM CHOMSKY: A LIFE OF DISSENT >YEAR=1998 ISBN=978-0-262-52255-7 AUTHOR=BARSKY, ROBERT F., John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Morris Halle, Zellig Harris, Hebrew literature, Wilhelm von Humboldt, David Hume,NOAM CHOMSKY >YEAR=2006 ISBN=978-1-86189-269-0 AUTHOR=SPERLICH, WOLFGANG B., Roman Jakobson, Immanuel Kant,TIME AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATION: THE SPECTACLE OF SPAIN'S TOURIST BOOM AND THE REINVENTION OF DIFFERENCE >YEAR=1993 ISBN=978-0-7914-1469-9 AUTHOR=SLIFE, BRENT D., Martin Luther King, Jr.,HTTPS://WWW.TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/CULTURE/BOOKS/7865508/NOAM-CHOMSKY-INTERVIEW.HTML >TITLE=NOAM CHOMSKY INTERVIEW FIRST=NIGEL ACCESS-DATE=MAY 15, 2016, Karl Korsch, Peter Kropotkin,NOAM CHOMSKY READING LIST >URL=HTTP://LEFTREFERENCEGUIDE.WORDPRESS.COM/NOAM-CHOMSKY-READING-LIST/ ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 8, 2014, Karl Liebknecht, John Locke, Rosa Luxemburg, Dwight Macdonald,CHOMSKY, NOAM >DATE=SEPTEMBER 22, 2011 URL=HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PK9W5DE7ZTQ LANGUAGE=PUBLISHER=IDEAS MATTER ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130826012857/HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=PK9W5DE7ZTQ ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 16, 2011 ID= OCLC= DEAD-URL=YES Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, George Armitage Miller, George Orwell, W. V. O. Quine, Pāṇini, Anton Pannekoek, Jean Piaget, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Hilary Putnam,{{sfn>Barskyp=58}} David Ricardo, Rudolf Rocker, Bertrand Russell, Russian literature,CHOMSKY, NOAM >URL=HTTPS://CHOMSKY.INFO/READER01/ PUBLISHER=CHOMSKY.INFO ACCESSDATE=MAY 29, 2013, Diego Abad de Santillán, Ferdinand de Saussure, Marcel-Paul Schützenberger, Adam Smith, Alan Turing, Ludwig Wittgenstein }} title = {{nbsp}} Michael Albert, Julian Assange, John Backus,JOHN W. BACKUS (1924–2007) PUBLISHER=BETANEWS, INC. Derek Bickerton, Bono,HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/BOOKS/2003/NOV/30/HIGHEREDUCATION.INTERNATIONALEDUCATIONNEWS LAST=ADAMS DATE=2003-11-30 ACCESS-DATE=MAY 8, 2016, Julian C. Boyd, Jean Bricmont, Hugo Chávez, Daniel Dennett,CHOMSKY AMID THE PHILOSOPHERS >URL=HTTP://WWW.UEA.AC.UK/~J108/CHOMSKY.HTM ACCESSDATE=8 JANUARY 2014, Daniel Everett, Clinton Fernandes, Norman Finkelstein, Robert Fisk, Jerry Fodor, Amy Goodman, Stephen Jay Gould,Gould, S. J. (1981). "Official Transcript for Gould's deposition in McLean v. Arkansas" (November 27). Glenn Greenwald, Gilbert Harman, Marc Hauser, Christopher Hitchens, Norbert Hornstein, Niels Kaj Jerne, Naomi Klein, Donald Knuth,KNUTH >FIRST1=DONALD E. TITLE=SELECTED PAPERS ON COMPUTER LANGUAGES LOCATION= PAGE=1 ISBN=1-57586-382-0 Peter Ludlow, Colin McGinn,THE BLACKWELL GUIDE TO ETHICAL THEORY PUBLISHER=JOHN WILEY & SONS EDITION=2 Michael Moore, John Nichols (journalist)>John Nichols, Ann Nocenti,Keller, Katherine (November 2, 2007). "Writer, Creator, Journalist, and Uppity Woman: Ann Nocenti". Sequential Tart. John Pilger, Steven Pinker,NARRATIVE, RELIGION AND SCIENCE: FUNDAMENTALISM VERSUS IRONY, 1700–1999 >YEAR=2002 ISBN=978-0-521-00983-6 AUTHOR=STEPHEN PRICKETT, Harold Pinter, Tanya Reinhart, Arundhati Roy, Edward Said,EDWARD SAID AND THE RELIGIOUS EFFECTS OF CULTURE >PUBLISHER=CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS PAGE=116 John Searle,A SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT: CHOMSKY'S REVOLUTION IN LINGUISTICS PUBLISHER=NYREV, INC. DATE=JUNE 29, 1972, Neil Smith (linguist), Aaron Swartz,THE BOOK THAT CHANGED MY LIFE PUBLISHER=RAW THOUGHT AUTHOR=AARON SWARTZ, May 15, 2006, Crispin Wright, and many others}}|signature = Noam Chomsky signature.svg|publisher =
  • {{marriage|Carol Doris Schatz|1949|December 19, 2008|end=died{edih}
  • {{marriage|Valeria Wasserman|2014}}

Aviva Chomsky>Aviva|main_interests = Linguistics, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, cognitive science, political criticism title = {{nbsp}} }}Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, and social critic. Sometimes described as "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He holds a joint appointment as Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona,WEB,weblink MIT Linguistics, Facebook, 2017-09-11, NEWS,weblink World-Renowned Linguist Noam Chomsky Joins UA Faculty, UANews, 2017-09-11, en, and is the author of over 100 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.Born to middle-class Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants in Philadelphia, Chomsky developed an early interest in anarchism from alternative bookstores in New York City. He began studying at the University of Pennsylvania at age 16, taking courses in linguistics, mathematics, and philosophy. From 1951 to 1955, he was appointed to Harvard University's Society of Fellows. While at Harvard, he developed the theory of transformational grammar; for this, he was awarded his doctorate in 1955. Chomsky began teaching at MIT in 1957 and emerged as a significant figure in the field of linguistics for his landmark work Syntactic Structures, which remodeled the scientific study of language. From 1958 to 1959, he was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study. Chomsky is credited as the creator or co-creator of the universal grammar theory, the generative grammar theory, the Chomsky hierarchy, and the minimalist program. Chomsky also played a pivotal role in the decline of behaviorism, being particularly critical of the work of B. F. Skinner.Chomsky vocally opposed U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, believing the war to be an act of American imperialism. In 1967, Chomsky attracted widespread public attention for his anti-war essay entitled "The Responsibility of Intellectuals". Associated with the New Left, he was arrested multiple times for his activism and was placed on Nixon's "Enemies List". While expanding his work in linguistics over subsequent decades, he also became involved in the Linguistics Wars. In collaboration with Edward S. Herman, Chomsky later co-wrote (Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media|an analysis), which articulated the propaganda model of media criticism, and worked to expose the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. Additionally, his defense of freedom of speech—including free speech for Holocaust deniers—generated significant controversy in the Faurisson affair of the early 1980s. Following his retirement from active teaching, Chomsky has continued his vocal political activism by opposing the War on Terror and supporting the Occupy Movement.One of the most cited scholars in history, Chomsky has influenced a broad array of academic fields. He is widely recognized as a paradigm shifter who helped spark a major revolution in the human sciences, contributing to the development of a new cognitivistic framework for the study of language and the mind. In addition to his continued scholarly research, he remains a leading critic of U.S. foreign policy, neoliberalism and contemporary state capitalism, the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, and mainstream news media. His ideas have proved highly significant within the anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist movements. Some of his critics have accused him of anti-Americanism.{{TOC limit|4}}

Early life

Childhood: 1928–45

Avram Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in the East Oak Lane neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=9|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=3}} His father was William "Zev" Chomsky, an Ashkenazi Jew originally from Ukraine who had fled to the United States in 1913. Having studied at Johns Hopkins University, William went on to become school principal of the Congregation Mikveh Israel religious school, and in 1924 was appointed to the faculty at Gratz College in Philadelphia. Chomsky's mother was the Belarusian-born Elsie Simonofsky (1904–1972), a teacher and activist whom William had met while working at Mikveh Israel.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=9–10|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}}}}{{external media| float = left|width = 270px| video1 = Presentation by Robert F. Barsky on Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent, July 19, 1997, C-SPAN}}Noam was the Chomsky family's first child. His younger brother, David Eli Chomsky, was born five years later.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=11–13|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}} The brothers were close, although David was more easygoing while Noam could be very competitive.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=11–13}} Chomsky and his brother were raised Jewish, being taught Hebrew and regularly discussing the political theories of Zionism; the family was particularly influenced by the Left Zionist writings of Ahad Ha'am.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=11–13|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=11}} As a Jew, Chomsky faced anti-semitism as a child, particularly from the Irish and German communities living in Philadelphia.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=15}}Chomsky described his parents as "normal Roosevelt Democrats" who had a center-left position on the political spectrum; however, he was exposed to far-left politics through other members of the family, a number of whom were socialists involved in the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=14|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=11, 14–15}} He was substantially influenced by his uncle who owned a newspaper stand in New York City, where Jewish leftists came to debate the issues of the day.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=23|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=12, 14–15, 67|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=4}} Whenever visiting his uncle, Chomsky frequented left-wing and anarchist bookstores in the city, voraciously reading political literature.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=23}} He later described his discovery of anarchism as "a lucky accident",{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=17–19}} because it allowed him to become critical of other far-left ideologies, namely Stalinism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=17–19|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=16, 18}}Chomsky's primary education was at Oak Lane Country Day School, an independent Deweyite institution that focused on allowing its pupils to pursue their own interests in a non-competitive atmosphere.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=12|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=3}} It was here, at the age of 10, that he wrote his first article, on the spread of fascism, following the fall of Barcelona to Francisco Franco's fascist army in the Spanish Civil War.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=13|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=3}} At the age of 12, Chomsky moved on to secondary education at Central High School, where he joined various clubs and societies and excelled academically, but was troubled by the hierarchical and regimented method of teaching used there.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=21–22|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=14|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=4}} During the same time period, Chomsky attended the Hebrew High School at Gratz College. From the age of 12 or 13, he identified more fully with anarchist politics.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=15–17}}

University: 1945–55

{{multiple image
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| footer = Chomsky's almae matres, the University of Pennsylvania and the Harvard Society of Fellows
| image1 = UPenn shield with banner.svg
| image2 = Harvard University logo.PNG
}}In 1945, Chomsky, aged 16, embarked on a general program of study at the University of Pennsylvania, where he explored philosophy, logic, and languages and developed a primary interest in learning Arabic.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=47|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=16}} Living at home, he funded his undergraduate degree by teaching Hebrew.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=47}} However, he was frustrated with his experiences at the university, and considered dropping out and moving to a kibbutz in Mandatory Palestine.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=17}} His intellectual curiosity was reawakened through conversations with the Russian-born linguist Zellig Harris, whom he first met in a political circle in 1947. Harris introduced Chomsky to the field of theoretical linguistics and convinced him to major in the subject.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=48–51|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=18–19, 31}} Chomsky's B.A. honors thesis was titled "Morphophonemics of Modern Hebrew", and involved his applying Harris's methods to the language.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=32}} Chomsky revised this thesis for his M.A., which he received at Penn in 1951; it would subsequently be published as a book.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=33}} He also developed his interest in philosophy while at university, in particular under the tutelage of his teacher Nelson Goodman.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=33}}From 1951 to 1955, Chomsky was named to the Society of Fellows at Harvard University, where he undertook research on what would become his doctoral dissertation.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=79|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=20}} Having been encouraged by Goodman to apply,{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=34}} a significant factor in his decision to move to Harvard was that the philosopher W. V. Quine was based there. Both Quine and a visiting philosopher, J. L. Austin of the University of Oxford, would strongly influence Chomsky.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=33–34}} In 1952, Chomsky published his first academic article, "Systems of Syntactic Analysis", which appeared not in a journal of linguistics, but in The Journal of Symbolic Logic.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=34}} Being highly critical of the established behaviorist currents in linguistics, in 1954 he presented his ideas at lectures given at the University of Chicago and Yale University.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=81}} Although he had not been registered as a student at Pennsylvania for four years, in 1955 he submitted a thesis to them setting out his ideas on transformational grammar; he was awarded his Ph.D. on the basis of it, and it would be privately distributed among specialists on microfilm before being published in 1975 as part of The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=83–85|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=36|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3pp=4–5}} Possession of this Ph.D. nullified his requirement to enter national service in the armed forces, which was otherwise due to begin in 1955.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=36}} George Armitage Miller, a Professor at Harvard, read the Ph.D. and was impressed; together he and Chomsky published a number of technical papers in mathematical linguistics.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=38}}{{double image|left|Rudolf Rocker.jpg|155|George Orwell press photo.jpg|152|The work of anarcho-syndicalist Rudolf Rocker (left) and democratic socialist George Orwell (right) significantly influenced the young Chomsky.}}In 1947, Chomsky entered into a romantic relationship with Carol Doris Schatz, whom he had known since they were toddlers, and they married in 1949.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=13, 48, 51–52|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=18–19}} After Chomsky was made a Fellow at Harvard, the couple moved to an apartment in the Allston area of Boston, remaining there until 1965, when they relocated to the suburb of Lexington.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=20}} In 1953 the couple took up a Harvard travel grant in order to visit Europe, traveling from the United Kingdom through France and Switzerland and into Italy.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=20–21}} On that same trip they also spent six weeks in Israel at Hashomer Hatzair's HaZore'a Kibbutz. Although enjoying himself, Chomsky was appalled by the Jewish nationalism and anti-Arab racism that he encountered in the country, as well as the pro-Stalinist trend that he thought pervaded the kibbutz's leftist community.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=82|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=20–21}}On visits to New York City, Chomsky continued to frequent the office of Yiddish anarchist journal Freie Arbeiter Stimme, becoming enamored with the ideas of contributor Rudolf Rocker, whose work introduced him to the link between anarchism and classical liberalism.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=24|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=13}} Other political thinkers whose work Chomsky read included the anarchist Diego Abad de Santillán, democratic socialists George Orwell, Bertrand Russell, and Dwight Macdonald, and works by Marxists Karl Liebknecht, Karl Korsch, and Rosa Luxemburg.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=24–25}} His readings convinced him of the desirability of an anarcho-syndicalist society, and he became fascinated by the anarcho-syndicalist communes set up during the Spanish Civil War, which were documented in Orwell's Homage to Catalonia (1938).{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=26}} He avidly read leftist journal politics, remarking that it "answered to and developed" his interest in anarchism,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=34–35}} as well as the periodical Living Marxism, published by council communist Paul Mattick. Although rejecting its Marxist basis, Chomsky was heavily influenced by council communism, voraciously reading articles in Living Marxism written by Antonie Pannekoek.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=36–40}} He was also greatly interested in the Marlenite ideas of the Leninist League, an anti-Stalinist Marxist–Leninist group, sharing their views that the Second World War was orchestrated by Western capitalists and the Soviet Union's "state capitalists" to crush Europe's proletariat.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=43–44}}

Early career: 1955–66

Chomsky had befriended two linguists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Morris Halle and Roman Jakobson, the latter of whom secured him an assistant professor position at MIT in 1955. There Chomsky spent half his time on a mechanical translation project, and the other half teaching a course on linguistics and philosophy.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xv|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=86–87|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3pp=38–40}} Chomsky had been recruited to MIT by Jerome Wiesner, an influential scientist who, at this time, was also involved in getting the US's nuclear missile program established Chris Knight (2018). Decoding Chomsky; Science and revolutionary politics. Yale University Press., pp. x-xii, 16, 30, 246. Having brought such missile research to MIT, Wiesner then became a nuclear strategy adviser to both Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, before returning to MIT to oversee research programmes at the Institute.Knight 2018, pp. xi-xii; Snead, D. L. 1999. The Gaither Committee, Eisenhower, and the Cold War. However, despite its military involvement, Chomsky has described MIT as "a pretty free and open place, open to experimentation and without rigid requirements. It was just perfect for someone of my idiosyncratic interests and work."{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=87}} In 1957 MIT promoted him to the position of associate professor, and from 1957 to 1958 he was also employed by Columbia University as a visiting professor.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=91}} That same year, Chomsky's first child, a daughter named Aviva, was born,{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=91|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=22}} and he published his first book on linguistics, Syntactic Structures, a work that radically opposed the dominant Harris–Bloomfield trend in the field.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=88–91|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=40|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=5}} The response to Chomsky's ideas ranged from indifference to hostility, and his work proved divisive and caused "significant upheaval" in the discipline.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=88–91}} Linguist John Lyons later asserted that it "revolutionized the scientific study of language".{{sfn|Lyons|1978|p=1}} From 1958 to 1959 Chomsky was a National Science Foundation fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=84}}In 1959 he published a review of B. F. Skinner's 1957 book Verbal Behavior in the journal Language, in which he argued against Skinner's view of language as learned behavior.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=6|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=96–99|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=41|4a1=McGilvray|4y=2014|4p=5}} Opining that Skinner ignored the role of human creativity in linguistics, his review helped him to become an "established intellectual",{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=119}} and he proceeded to found MIT's Graduate Program in linguistics with Halle. In 1961 he was awarded academic tenure, being made a full professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=101–102, 119|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=23}} He went on to be appointed plenary speaker at the Ninth International Congress of Linguists, held in 1962 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which established him as the de facto spokesperson of American linguistics.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=102}} He continued to publish his linguistic ideas throughout the decade, including in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1966), Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (1966), and (Cartesian linguistics|Cartesian Linguistics: A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought) (1966).{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=103}} Along with Halle, he also edited the Studies in Language series of books for Harper and Row,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=104}} and extended the theory of generative grammar to phonology in The Sound Pattern of English (1968).WEB,weblink Slideshow {{!, unBox the Chomsky Archive |publisher= MIT |access-date=May 10, 2016}}He continued to receive academic recognition and honors for his work, in 1966 visiting a variety of Californian institutions, first as the Linguistics Society of America Professor at the University of California, and then as the Beckman Professor at the University of California, Berkeley.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=120}} His Beckman lectures would be assembled and published as Language and Mind in 1968.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=122}} In this period, military scientists were also interested in Chomsky’s linguistics. As former Air Force Colonel, Anthony Debons, said: "much of the research conducted at MIT by Chomsky and his colleagues [has] direct application to the efforts undertaken by military scientists to develop … languages for computer operations in military command and control systems."A. Debons, 'Command and Control: Technology and Social Impact', in F. Alt and M. Rubinoff, Advances in Computers, Vol.11, 1971. New York/London 1971, p354; A. Newell in G. Bugliarello (ed.), Bioengineering: An Engineering View, San Francisco 1968, p271. Indeed, between 1963 and 1965, Chomsky was a consultant for a military sponsored project "to establish natural language as an operational language for command and control." One of Chomsky's students who also worked on this project, Barbara Partee, says that this research was justified to the military on the basis that "in the event of a nuclear war, the generals would be underground with some computers trying to manage things, and that it would probably be easier to teach computers to understand English than to teach the generals to program."C. Knight, 'When the Pentagon Looked to Chomsky’s Linguistics for their Weapons Systems', 3 Quarks Daily, 12 March 2018 (citing Arnold Zwicky, ‘Grammars of Number Theory: Some Examples’, Working Paper W-6671, MITRE Corp., 1963, Foreword, last page).However, these scientists eventually found Chomsky’s theories unworkable for their computer systems. Other subsequent difficulties with the theories led to various debates between Chomsky and his critics that came to be known as the "Linguistics Wars", although they revolved largely around debating philosophical issues rather than linguistics proper.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=60–61}}

Later life

Anti-Vietnam War activism and rise to prominence: 1967–75

}}Chomsky first involved himself in active political protest against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War in 1962, speaking on the subject at small gatherings in churches and homes.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=78}} However, it was not until 1967 that he publicly entered the debate on United States foreign policy.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=120}} In February he published a widely read essay in The New York Review of Books entitled "The Responsibility of Intellectuals", in which he criticized the country's involvement in the conflict; the essay was based on an earlier talk that he had given to Harvard's Foundation for Jewish Campus Life.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=122|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=83}} He expanded on his argument to produce his first political book, American Power and the New Mandarins, which was published in 1969 and soon established him at the forefront of American dissent.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=xvii|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=122–123|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=83}} His other political books of the time included At War with Asia (1971), The Backroom Boys (1973), For Reasons of State (1973), and Peace in the Middle East? (1975), published by Pantheon Books.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1pp=xvi–xvii|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=163|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3p=87}} Coming to be associated with the American New Left movement,{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=5|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=123}} he nevertheless thought little of prominent New Left intellectuals Herbert Marcuse and Erich Fromm, and preferred the company of activists to intellectuals.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=134–135}} Although The New York Review of Books did publish contributions from Chomsky and other leftists from 1967 to 1973, when an editorial change put a stop to it,{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=162–163|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=87}} he was virtually ignored by the rest of the mainstream press throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=162–163}}Along with his writings, Chomsky also became actively involved in left-wing activism. Refusing to pay half his taxes, he publicly supported students who refused the draft, and was arrested for being part of an anti-war teach-in outside the Pentagon.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=5|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=127–129}} During this time, Chomsky, along with Mitchell Goodman, Denise Levertov, William Sloane Coffin, and Dwight Macdonald, also founded the anti-war collective RESIST.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1p=5|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2pp=127–129|3a1=Sperlich|3y=2006|3pp=80–81}} Although he questioned the objectives of the 1968 student protests,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=121–122, 131}} Chomsky gave many lectures to student activist groups; furthermore, he and his colleague Louis Kampf began running undergraduate courses on politics at MIT, independently of the conservative-dominated political science department.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=121|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=78}}During this period, MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam and, as Chomsky says, "a good deal of [nuclear] missile guidance technology was developed right on the MIT campus".Albert, Michael (2006). Remembering Tomorrow: From the politics of opposition to what we are for, Seven Stories Press, pp. 97–99; C. P. Otero (1988). Noam Chomsky: Language and politics, Black Rose, p. 247. As Chomsky elaborates, "[MIT was] about 90% Pentagon funded at that time. And I personally was right in the middle of it. I was in a military lab ... the Research Laboratory for Electronics."White, G. D. (2000). Campus Inc.: Corporate power in the ivory tower. Prometheus Books, pp. 445–446. By 1969, student activists were actively campaigning "to stop the war research" at MIT.Stephen Shalom, "Review of Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent, by Robert F. Barsky", New Politics, NS6(3), Issue 23. Retrieved October 7, 2016. Chomsky was sympathetic to the students but he also thought it best to keep such research on campus and he proposed that it should be restricted to what he called "systems of a purely defensive and deterrent character".Barsky 1997, pp. 121–122, 140-141; Albert 2006, p. 98; Knight 2016, p. 34. MIT had six of its anti-war student activists sentenced to prison terms. Chomsky says MIT's students suffered things that "should not have happened." However, Chomsky has also claimed that MIT has "quite a good record on civil liberties".Albert 2006, pp. 107–108; Knight 2016, pp. 36–38, 249. In 1970 Chomsky visited the Vietnamese city of Hanoi to give a lecture at the Hanoi University of Science and Technology; on this trip he also toured Laos to visit the refugee camps created by the war, and in 1973 he was among those leading a committee to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the War Resisters League.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=153|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=24–25, 84–85}}File:Nixon 30-0316a.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|President Richard NixonRichard NixonAs a result of his anti-war activism, Chomsky was ultimately arrested on multiple occasions, and U.S. President Richard Nixon included him on the master version of his "Enemies List".{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=124|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=80}} He was aware of the potential repercussions of his civil disobedience, and his wife began studying for her own Ph.D. in linguistics in order to support the family in the event of Chomsky's imprisonment or loss of employment.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=123–124|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=22}} However, MIT – despite being under some pressure to do so – refused to fire him due to his influential standing in the field of linguistics.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=143}} His work in this area continued to gain international recognition; in 1967 he received honorary doctorates from both the University of London and the University of Chicago .{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1pp=xv–xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=120}} In 1970, Loyola University and Swarthmore College also awarded him honorary D.H.L.'s, as did Bard College in 1971, Delhi University in 1972, and the University of Massachusetts in 1973.{{sfnm|1a1=Lyons|1y=1978|1pp=xv–xvi|2a1=Barsky|2y=1997|2p=143}}In 1971 Chomsky gave the Bertrand Russell Memorial Lectures at the University of Cambridge, which were published as Problems of Knowledge and Freedom later that year. He also delivered the Whidden Lectures at McMaster University, the Huizinga Lecture at Leiden University in the Netherlands, the Woodbridge Lectures at Columbia University, and the Kant Lectures at Stanford University.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=156}} In 1971 he partook in a televised debate with French philosopher Michel Foucault on Dutch television, entitled Human Nature: Justice versus Power.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=192–195|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=52|3a1=McGilvray|3y=2014|3p=222}} Although largely agreeing with Foucault's ideas, he was critical of post-modernism and French philosophy generally, believing that post-modern leftist philosophers used obfuscating language which did little to aid the cause of the working-classes{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=192–195|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=53}} and lambasting France as having "a highly parochial and remarkably illiterate culture".{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=192–195}} Chomsky also continued to publish prolifically in linguistics, publishing Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972),{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=143}} an enlarged edition of Language and Mind (1972),{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=51}} and Reflections on Language (1975).{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=51}} In 1974 he became a corresponding fellow of the British Academy.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=156}}

Edward Herman and the Faurisson affair: 1976–80

{{See also|Cambodian genocide denial#Chomsky and Herman|Faurisson affair}}(File:Noam Chomsky (1977).jpg|thumb|left|Noam Chomsky (1977))Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, Chomsky's publications expanded and clarified his earlier work, addressing his critics and updating his grammatical theory.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=175}} His public talks often generated considerable controversy, particularly when he criticized actions of the Israeli government and military,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=167, 170}} and his political views came under attack from right-wing and centrist figures, the most prominent of whom was Alan Dershowitz. Chomsky considered Dershowitz "a complete liar" and accused him of actively misrepresenting his position on issues.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=170–171}} During the early 1970s Chomsky began collaborating with Edward S. Herman, who had also published critiques of the U.S. war in Vietnam.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=157}} Together they authored (Counter-Revolutionary Violence: Bloodbaths in Fact & Propaganda), a book which criticized U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia and highlighted how mainstream media neglected to cover stories about these activities; the publisher Warner Modular initially accepted it, and it was published in 1973. However, Warner Modular's parent company, Warner Communications, disapproved of the book's contents and ordered all copies to be destroyed.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=160–162|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=86}}While mainstream publishing options proved elusive, Chomsky found support from Michael Albert's South End Press, an activist-oriented publishing company.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=85}}In 1979, Chomsky and Herman revised Counter-Revolutionary Violence and published it with South End Press as the two-volume The Political Economy of Human Rights.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=187|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=86}} In this they compared U.S. media reactions to the Cambodian genocide and the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. They argued that because Indonesia was a U.S. ally, U.S. media ignored the East Timorese situation while focusing on that in Cambodia, a U.S. enemy.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=187}}This Chomsky-Herman thesis has been challenged by Sophal Ear, who "argues that concurrent [media] coverage of human rights violations in right-wing regimes in Chile and South Korea exceeded the coverage given to Cambodia" during the genocide: See WEB, Sharp, Bruce,weblink Averaging Wrong Answers: Noam Chomsky and the Cambodia Controversy,, April 27, 2017, Taking a particular interest in the situation in East Timor, Chomsky testified on the subject in front of the United Nations' Special Committee on Decolonization in both 1978 and 1979, and attended a conference on the occupation held in Lisbon in 1979.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=103}} The following year, the Marxist academic, Steven Lukes authored an article for the Times Higher Education Supplement accusing Chomsky of betraying his anarchist ideals and acting as an apologist for Cambodian leader Pol Potweblink Laura J. Summers and Robin Woodsworth Carlsen replied to the article, arguing that Lukes completely misunderstood Chomsky and Herman's work. The controversy damaged his reputation,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|pp=187–189}} and Chomsky maintains that his critics deliberately printed lies about him in order to defame him.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=190}}Although Chomsky had long publicly criticized Nazism and totalitarianism more generally, his commitment to freedom of speech led him to defend the right of French historian Robert Faurisson to advocate a position widely characterized as Holocaust denial. Without Chomsky's knowledge, his plea for the historian's freedom of speech was published as the preface to Faurisson's 1980 book Mémoire en défense contre ceux qui m'accusent de falsifier l'histoire.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=179–180|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=61}} Chomsky was widely condemned for defending Faurisson,{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1p=185|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2p=61}} and France's mainstream press accused Chomsky of being a Holocaust denier himself, refusing to publish his rebuttals to their accusations.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=184}} Critiquing Chomsky's position, sociologist Werner Cohn later published an analysis of the affair titled Partners in Hate: Noam Chomsky and the Holocaust Deniers.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=78}} The Faurisson affair had a lasting, damaging effect on Chomsky's career,{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=185}} and Chomsky did not visit France, where the translation of his political writings was delayed until the 2000s,NEWS, Birnbaum, Jean, Chomsky à Paris: chronique d'un malentendu,weblink Le Monde des Livres, June 3, 2010, 8 June 2010, for almost thirty years following the debacle.NEWS, Aeschimann, Eric, Chomsky s'est exposé, il est donc une cible désignée,weblink Liberátion, 31 May 2010, 8 June 2010,

Reaganite era and work on the media: 1980–89

The election of Republican Party candidate Ronald Reagan to the U.S. Presidency in 1980 marked a period of increased military intervention in Central America.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=90–91}} In 1985, during Nicaragua's Contra War – in which the U.S. supported the Contra militia against the Sandinista government – Chomsky travelled to Managua to meet with workers' organizations and refugees of the conflict, giving public lectures on politics and linguistics.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=91, 92}} Many of these lectures would be published in 1987 as On Power and Ideology: The Managua Lectures.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=91}} In 1983 he published The Fateful Triangle, an examination of the Israel-Palestine conflict and the place of the U.S. within it, arguing that the U.S. had continually used the conflict for its own ends.{{sfnm|1a1=Sperlich|1y=2006|1p=99|2a1=McGilvray|2y=2014|2p=13}} In 1988, Chomsky then visited the Palestinian territories to witness the impact of Israeli military occupation.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=98}}In 1988, Chomsky and Herman published (Manufacturing Consent|Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media), in which they outlined their propaganda model for understanding the mainstream media; there they argued that even in countries without official censorship, the news provided was censored through four filters which had a great impact on what stories are reported and how they are presented.{{sfnm|1a1=Barsky|1y=1997|1pp=160, 202|2a1=Sperlich|2y=2006|2pp=127–134}} The book was adapted into a 1992 film, (Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media), which was directed by Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=136}} In 1989, Chomsky published (Necessary Illusions|Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies), in which he critiqued what he sees as the pseudo-democratic nature of Western capitalist states.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=138–139}}By the 1980s, a number of Chomsky's students had become leading linguistic specialists in their own right, expanding, revising, and expanding on Chomsky's ideas of generative grammar.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=53}} By the end of the 1980s, Chomsky had established himself as a globally recognized figure.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=59}}

Increased political activism: 1990–present

In the 1990s, Chomsky embraced political activism to a greater degree than before.{{sfn|Barsky|1997|p=214}} Retaining his commitment to the cause of East Timorese independence, in 1995 he visited Australia to talk on the issue at the behest of the East Timorese Relief Association and the National Council for East Timorese Resistance.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=104}} The lectures that he gave on the subject would be published as Powers and Prospects in 1996.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=104}} As a result of the international publicity generated by Chomsky, his biographer Wolfgang Sperlich opined that he did more to aid the cause of East Timorese independence than anyone but the investigative journalist John Pilger.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=107}} After East Timor's independence from Indonesia was achieved in 1999, the Australian-led International Force for East Timor arrived as a peacekeeping force; Chomsky was critical of this, believing that it was designed to secure Australian access to East Timor's oil and gas reserves under the Timor Gap Treaty. {{Sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=109–110}} Chomsky's book Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order was a Boston Globe and Voice Literary Supplement bestseller in 1999.File:Noam Chomsky WSF - 2003.jpg|thumb|left|Chomsky at the World Social Forum (Porto AlegrePorto AlegreChomsky retired from full-time teaching,{{sfn|McGilvray|2014|p=6}} although as an Emeritus he nevertheless continued to conduct research and seminars at MIT.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=10}}After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Chomsky was widely interviewed, with these interviews being collated and published by Seven Stories Press in October.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=110–111}}Chomsky argued that the ensuing War on Terror was not a new development, but rather a continuation of the same U.S. foreign policy and its concomitant rhetoric that had been pursued since at least the Reagan era of the 1980s.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=143}} In 2003 he published Hegemony or Survival, in which he articulated what he called the United States' "imperial grand strategy" and critiqued the Iraq War and other aspects of the 'War on Terror.'{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=114–118}}Chomsky toured the world with increasing regularity during this period, giving talks on various subjects.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=120}} In 2001 he gave the D.T. Lakdawala Memorial LectureU.S., Britain ignored 'culture of terrorism': Chomsky, The Hindu November 4, 2001. Retrieved 21 March 2016. in New Delhi, India, and in 2003 visited Cuba at the invitation of the Latin American Association of Social Scientists.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=120}} In 2002 Chomsky visited Turkey in order to attend the trial of a publisher who had been accused of treason for printing one of Chomsky's books; Chomsky insisted on being a co-defendant and amid international media attention the Security Courts dropped the prosecution on the first day.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=25}} During that trip, Chomsky visited Kurdish areas of Turkey and spoke out in favour of the Kurds' human rights.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|p=25}} A supporter of the World Social Forum, he attended their conferences in Brazil in both 2002 and 2003, also attending the Forum event in India.{{sfn|Sperlich|2006|pp=112–113, 120}}His wife, Carol, died in December 2008.{{sfn|McGilvray|2014|p=6}}File:Noam Chomsky Toronto 2011.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|right|Chomsky speaking in support of the Occupy movementOccupy movementChomsky was drawn to the energy and activism of the Occupy movement, delivering talks at encampments and producing two works that chronicled its influence, first Occupy a pamphlet, in 2012, then, in 2013, Occupy: Reflections on Class War, Rebellion and Solidarity. Both were published by Zuccotti Park Press. His analysis included a critique that attributed Occupy's growth as a response to a perceived abandonment of the interests of the white working class by the Democratic Party.NEWS,weblink Noam Chomsky: 'The Occupy movement just lit a spark' – video, Younge, Gary, July 6, 2012, Hogue, Kat Keene, The Guardian, en-GB, 0261-3077,, April 22, 2016, In March 2014, Chomsky joined the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation advisory councilWEB, Noam Chomsky Joins NAPF Advisory Council,weblink Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 27 July 2018, 1 March 2014, and is a senior fellow there.WEB, Ferguson, Joe, Tickets on sale for Tucson talk on nuclear war with Noam Chomsky, Daniel Ellsberg,weblink Arizona Daily Star, 27 July 2018, en, In late 2015, Chomsky announced his support for Vermont U.S. senator Bernie Sanders in the upcoming 2016 United States presidential election.NEWS,weblink Inside the mind of Bernie Sanders: unbowed, unchanged, and unafraid of a good fight, The Guardian, June 19, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 17, 2016, no, Paul, Lewis, London, 0261-3077, In early 2016, Chomsky was publicly rebuked by President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey after he signed an open letter condemning the Turkish leader for his anti-Kurdish repression and for holding double standards on terrorism.NEWS, Chomsky hits back at Erdoğan, accusing him of double standards on terrorism,weblink The Guardian, January 14, 2016, January 14, 2016, Matthew, Weaver, Chomsky accused Erdoğan of hypocrisy and added that the Turkish president supports al-Qaeda's Syrian affiliate,NEWS,weblink Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria, Sengupta, Kim, The Independent, May 12, 2015, the al-Nusra Front. Chomsky also criticized the U.S.'s close ties with Saudi Arabia and U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, highlighting that Saudi has "one of the most grotesque human rights records in the world".NEWS,weblink Chomsky: Saudi Arabia is the "Center of Radical Islamic Extremism" Now Spreading Among Sunni Muslims, May 17, 2016, Democracy Now!, In 2016, the documentary Requiem for the American Dream was released, summarizing his views on capitalism and economic inequality through a "75-minute teach-in".NEWS,weblink Review: Noam Chomsky Focuses on Financial Inequality in 'Requiem for the American Dream', Gold, Daniel M., January 28, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, June 1, 2016, Requiem for the American Dream was published as a book in 2017, and is a furthering of the ideas put forward in the 2016 documentary (Seven Stories Press).WEB,weblink Books | Seven Stories Press,, March 29, 2017, In an interview with Al Jazeera, Chomsky called Donald Trump an "ignorant, thin-skinned megalomaniac" and a "greater evil" than Hillary Clinton. Asked about claims that Russia interfered in the U.S. presidential election through hacking, Chomsky said: "It’s possible, but it’s a kind of strange complaint in the United States. The U.S. has been interfering with, and undermining, elections all over the world for decades and is proud of it.""Noam Chomsky speaks with ‘Upfront’ – slams media coverage, criticises third party voters". Al Jazeera. November 24, 2016.In August 2017, at age 88 and retired since 2002, Chomsky left MIT to join the linguistics department of University of Arizona in Tucson as part-time faculty,Noam Chomsky leaves MIT to join University of Arizona facultyWEB, Weidenfeld, Lisa, Noam Chomsky Is Leaving MIT,weblink Boston Magazine, 27 July 2018, 29 August 2017, officially starting a few weeks later, and teaching in spring 2018.WEB, World-Renowned Linguist Noam Chomsky Joins UA Faculty,weblink University of Arizona News, 27 July 2018, en, His salary is covered by philanthropy funds.WEB, Mace, Mikayla, Linguist Noam Chomsky joins University of Arizona faculty,weblink Arizona Daily Star, 27 July 2018, en, Chomsky will maintain an office in Cambridge.In July 2018, Chomsky said in an interview with Democracy Now! that "it's hard to think of a more brutal and sadistic policy" about the Trump administration family separation policy.WEB,weblink “Brutal and Sadistic”: Noam Chomsky on Family Separation & the U.S. Roots of Today’s Refugee Crisis | Democracy Now!, 2018-07-28, In the same interview Chomsky also said that Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez's victory of the 2018 New York primary election "was a quite spectacular and significant event".

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