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{{Use British English|date=July 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2018}}

and DevelopmentOECD}}Flag of Europe>European Flag| logo = OECD logo new.svg| logo_size = 200px| logo_caption = | map = OECD member states map.svg| msize = #1a4066border=1px #000 solid;}}{{legend0Other member countries|border=1px #000 solid;}}Intergovernmental organization>Intergovernmental organisation| motto = | headquarters = Paris, France| membership = {hide}Collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
|title = 36 states
|{{flaglist|Czech Republic}}
|{{flaglist|New Zealand}}
|{{flaglist|South Korea}}
|{{flaglist|United Kingdom}}
|{{flaglist|United States}}
Euro>€374 million (2017)HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/ABOUT/BUDGET/MEMBER-COUNTRIES-BUDGET-CONTRIBUTIONS.HTM >TITLE=MEMBER COUNTRIES' BUDGET CONTRIBUTIONS FOR 2017 ACCESS-DATE=5 JULY 2018, English|French}}#Secretaries-General>Secretary-General| leader_name = José Ángel Gurría| leader_title2 = Deputy Secretary-General| leader_name2 = Ludger Schuknecht| leader_title3 = Deputy Secretary-General| leader_name3 = Ulrik Vestergaard Knudsen| leader_title4 = Deputy Secretary-General| leader_name4 = Masamichi}}a. Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.}}}}{{Economics sidebar |collapsed}}The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; , ) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most OECD members are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as developed countries. As of 2017, the OECD member countries collectively comprised 62.2% of global nominal GDP (US$49.6 trillion)WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, 17 April 2018, International Monetary Fund, and 42.8% of global GDP (Int$54.2 trillion) at purchasing power parity.WEB,weblink Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP), IMF, 9 May 2018, The OECD is an official United Nations observer.WEB,weblink Intergovernmental Organizations,, In 1948, the OECD originated as the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), led by Robert Marjolin of France, to help administer the Marshall Plan (which was rejected by the Soviet Union and its satellite states).WEB,weblink Soviet Union rejects Marshall Plan assistance This Day in History — 7/2/1947,, 30 May 2013, This would be achieved by allocating United States financial aid and implementing economic programs for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. (Similar reconstruction aid was sent to the war-torn Republic of China and post-war Korea, but not under the name "Marshall Plan".)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 17 February 2007, The Economic Cooperation Authority,, 30 May 2013, In 1961, the OEEC was reformed into the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development by the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and membership was extended to non-European states.WEB,weblink What is the OECD? Definition and Meaning,, 6 December 2017, WEB,weblink Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, OECD, 6 December 2017, The OECD's headquarters are at the Château de la Muette in Paris, France.WEB, Getting to the OECD,weblink OECD, 28 April 2016, The OECD is funded by contributions from member countries at varying rates and had a total budget of €374 million in 2017.


Organisation for European Economic Co-operation

The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) was formed in 1948 to administer American and Canadian aid in the framework of the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.BOOK, Christopher, Warren,weblink In the stream of history: shaping foreign policy for a new era, 165, 1998, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-3468-4, It started its operations on 16 April 1948, and originated from the work done by the Committee of European Economic Co-operation in 1947 in preparation for the Marshall Plan. Since 1949, it has been headquartered in the Château de la Muette in Paris, France. After the Marshall Plan ended, the OEEC focused on economic issues.In the 1950s, the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area, to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis. In 1958, a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC.By the end of the 1950s, with the job of rebuilding Europe effectively done, some leading countries felt that the OEEC had outlived its purpose, but could be adapted to fulfill a more global mission. It would be a hard-fought task, and after several sometimes fractious meetings at the Hotel Majestic in Paris starting in January 1960, a resolution was reached to create a body that would deal not only with European and Atlantic economic issues, but devise policies to assist less developed countries. This reconstituted organisation would bring the US and Canada, who were already OEEC observers, on board as full members. It would also set to work straight away on bringing in Japan.NEWS,weblink A majestic start: How the OECD was won, in OECD Yearbook 2011, OECD Observer, 30 May 2013,


Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community, the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada (three countries, Netherlands, Luxembourg and Italy, all OEEC members, ratified the OECD Convention after September 1961 but are nevertheless considered founding members). The official founding members are:{{Col-begin|width=72%}}{{Col-break}}
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • West Germany
  • Greece
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
{{col-end}} During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country.WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Slovenia), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia, History of relations between Slovenia and the OECD,weblink 31 October 2010, {{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering.Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize).

Enlargement to Central Europe

In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. This programme also included a membership option for these countries.WEB, Permanent Delegation of the Czech Republic to the OECD, The Czech Republic in the OECD,weblink As a result of this, Poland,WEB,weblink A vision for Poland: Joining the world's most advanced, OECD, 23 November 2006, 3 August 2013, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South KoreaWEB,weblink South Korea joins OECD, Chicago Tribune, 25 October 1996, 3 August 2013, became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.

Reform and further enlargement

In the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey.WEB,weblink International Organisations – Turkey's attempts to exclude Cyprus' membership, Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs, September 2010, 4 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 September 2011, In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD.WEB,weblink Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: Co-operation between the OECD and Latvia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 19 December 2006, 4 November 2011, Slovenia also applied for membership that same year.WEB,weblink Slovenia and the OECD, OECD, 31 March 2012, In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation.NEWS,weblink Malta applies to join OECD as full member, Maltamedia, 24 September 2005, 4 November 2011, The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states.NEWS, Beatty, Andrew,weblink EU gives ground in OECD membership battle, European Voice, 30 May 2013, Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Romania's candidacy for OECD membership, Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 30 May 2013, In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat.NEWS,weblink Bulgarian Govt to Confirm OECD Membership Bid, Novinite, 25 September 2012, 25 September 2012, The OECD established a working group headed by ambassador Seiichiro Noboru, to work out a plan for the enlargement with non-members. The working group defined four criteria which fullfilment is required: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 May 2004. On 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement.PRESS RELEASE, Chair's summary of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level, Paris, 15–16 May 2007 â€“ Innovation: Advancing the OECD Agenda for Growth and Equity, 16 May 2007, OECD,weblink 26 July 2008, Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010.WEB,weblink OECD, Chile's accession to the OECD, 7 May 2010, 7 May 2010, In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Statement by the OECD regarding the status of the accession process with Russia & co-operation with Ukraine, 13 March 2014, OECD, 5 July 2018, WEB,weblink 13 March 2014, Ledger-Enquirer, 5 July 2018,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 13 March 2014, OECD halts membership talks with Russia, In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania.PRESS RELEASE,weblink OECD, Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow, 30 May 2013, 12 July 2013, Latvia became a full member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania on 5 July 2018.NEWS, Latvia becomes full-fledged OECD member,weblink 4 July 2016, LETA, 1 July 2016, NEWS, Lietuva tapo 36-Ä…ja EBPO nare, Lithuania became the 36th member of the OECD,weblink 5 July 2018, Verslo Žinios, 5 July 2018, Colombia signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and will become full member after the ratification of the accession agreement and the deposition of the ratification document.Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Argentina, Peru,WEB,weblink Peru eager to become an OECD member,, 15 November 2012, 30 May 2013, Malaysia,WEB,weblink Malaysia has applied to become a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Daily Express, 24 April 2011, 30 May 2013, BrazilWEB,weblink Brazil Is Seeking to Join the OECD Despite Its Political Crisis, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, 31 May 2017, 22 January 2018, and Croatia.WEB, Twitter,weblink PLENKOVIĆ U DAVOSU Sastao se s Federicom Mogherini, gruzijskim premijerom, Å¡vicarskom predsjednicom i Å¡efom OECD-a -Jutarnji List,, 20 January 2017,

Objectives and activities


File:Payroll and income tax by country.png|thumb|350px|right|Payroll and income taxincome taxThe OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings). Additionally, the OECD has published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of intercompany transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20.


The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.


The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship{{Vague|date=September 2013}} titles include:
  • The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries.
  • The Main Economic Indicators, published monthly. It contains a large selection of timely statistical indicators.
  • The OECD Factbook, published yearly and available online, as an iPhone app and in print. The Factbook contains more than 100 economic, environmental and social indicators, each presented with a clear definition, tables and graphs. The Factbook mainly focuses on the statistics of its member countries and sometimes other major additional countries. It is freely accessible online and delivers all the data in Excel format via StatLinks.
  • The OECD Communications Outlook and the OECD Internet Economy Outlook (formerly the Information Technology Outlook), which rotate every year. They contain forecasts and analysis of the communications and information technology industries in OECD member countries and non-member economies.
  • In 2007 the OECD published Human Capital: How what you know shapes your life, the first book in the OECD Insights series. This series uses OECD analysis and data to introduce important social and economic issues to non-specialist readers. Other books in the series cover sustainable development, international trade and international migration.
All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives.WEB,weblink OECD Archives - OECD,,


OECD Observer, an award-winning magazineHighly Commended certificate in the annual ALPSP/Charlesworth awards from the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers 2002; see article weblink. launched in 1962.WEB,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,, 28 November 1962, 13 January 2014, The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook,The yearbook's website is launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.WEB,weblink OECD Yearbook 2011, OECD Observer, 13 January 2014, The online and mobileWEB,weblink OECD Observer,, 13 January 2014, editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information.WEB,weblink Subscribe to OECD Observer, An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.WEB,weblink Crossword No.2 2013, OECD Observer, 13 January 2014,


The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators.NEWS,weblink Find, compare and share OECD data, 2015-01-26, OECD Insights Blog, 2018-10-02, en-US, NEWS,weblink New data visualization project: OECD Data Portal · molily, 2018-10-02, en, OECD statistics are available in several forms:
  • as interactive charts on the OECD Data Portal,
  • as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables,
  • as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal,
  • as StatLinks (in most OECD books, there is a URL that links to the underlying data).

Working papers

There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.

Reference works

The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.


The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:
  • The OECD member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisation.
  • The OECD Substantive Committees, one for each work area of the OECD, plus their variety of subsidiary bodies. Committee members are typically subject-matter experts from member and non-member governments. The Committees oversee all the work on each theme (publications, task forces, conferences, and so on). Committee members then relay the conclusions to their capitals.
  • The OECD Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), provides support to Standing and Substantive Committees. It is organised into Directorates, which include about 2,500 staff.


(File:Entrance to the OECD Conference Centre April 2014.jpg|thumb|The main entrance to the OECD Conference Centre in Paris)Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General {{Interlanguage link multi|Pierre Vinde|sv}} estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat.WEB,weblink 2007, The Power of Peer-Learning, chapter 3: OECD's Basic Rules of Conduct â€“ A Sociology of its Institutional Culture, IRDC, 31 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2 June 2008, This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.{{Citation needed|date=September 2013}} In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, member countries, and non-member countries.WEB, OECD Global Forums,weblink OECD, 29 October 2017, Noteworthy meetings include:
  • The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries.
  • The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM.
  • Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.).
  • The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies.
  • OECD Eurasia Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.WEB, OECD Eurasia Week,weblink OEC, 29 October 2017,


Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.The secretariat is organised in Directorates:
  • Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities
  • Centre for Tax Policy and Administration
  • Development Co-operation Directorate
  • Directorate for Education and Skills
  • Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs
  • Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
  • Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation
  • Economics Department
  • Environment Directorate
  • Public Governance Directorate
  • Statistics Directorate
  • Trade and Agriculture Directorate
  • General Secretariat
  • Executive Directorate
  • Public Affairs and Communication Directorate
{|class="wikitable" style="clear:right; text-align:center"|+ Secretary-General of the OEEC! No.! Secretary-General! Time served! Country of origin| 1| Robert Marjolin| 1948 – 1955France}} France| 2René Sergent (OEEC Secretary General)>René Sergent| 1955 – 1960France}} France| 3| Thorkil Kristensen| 1960 – September 1961Denmark}} Denmark{|class="wikitable" style="clear:right; text-align:center"|+ Secretary-General of the OECD! No.! Secretary-General! Time served! Country of origin| 1| Thorkil Kristensen| 30 September 1961 – 30 September 1969Denmark}} Denmark| 2| Emiel van Lennep| 1 October 1969 – September 1984Netherlands}} Netherlands|3Jean-Claude Paye (OECD)>Jean-Claude Paye|1 October 1984 – 30 September 1994France}} France| —Staffan Sohlman (interim)HTTP://WWW.JOC.COM/AFTER-BATTLE-OECD-SETTLES-SWEDE-BE-INTERIM-LEADER_19941002.HTML WORK=JOC.COM ACCESSDATE=27 AUGUST 2018, FRIEDMAN >FIRST=ALAN TITLE=U.S. REJECTS EXTENDING PAYE'S TERM : RIFT OVER OECD LEADER DATE=29 OCTOBER 1994, 27 August 2018, | 1 October 1994 – November 1994Sweden}} Sweden|3Jean-Claude Paye (OECD)>Jean-Claude Paye; Richard Woodward, The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2009, Routledge) |November 1994 – 30 May 1996France}} France| 4Don Johnston>Donald Johnston| 1 June 1996 – 30 May 2006Canada}} Canada| 5| José Ángel Gurría| 1 June 2006 – presentMexico}} MexicoSee source.


Representatives of member and observer countries meet in specialised committees on specific policy areas, such as economics, trade, science, employment, education or financial markets. There are about 200 committees, working groups and expert groups. Committees discuss policies and review progress in the given policy area.WEB,weblink On-Line Guide to OECD Intergovernmental Activity,, 4 November 2011, weblink titleOECD Organisational Chart,, date, accessdate11 January 2018, ">

Special bodies and entitiesWEB, urweblink titleOECD Organisational Chart,, date, accessdate11 January 2018,

Member countries

Current members

There are currently 36 members of the OECD with one more country (Colombia) invited to join.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 0.95em;"! style="width:115px;"| Country !! Application !! Negotiations !! Invitation !! MembershipWEB,weblink List of OECD Member countries – Ratification of the Convention on the OECD, OECD, 9 June 2018, !! Geographic location !! Notes {{flag {{dts| {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER= OECD ACCESSDATE=29 NOVEMBER 2011, {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER=EL MERCURIO ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2013PUBLISHER=EL MERCURIO ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2013 {{dtsPUBLISHER=OECD.ORG ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2013, align=right 15 December 2009}}HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/GENERAL/CHILEINVITEDTOBECOMEAMEMBEROFTHEOECD.HTM >TITLE=CHILE INVITED TO BECOME A MEMBER OF THE OECD DATE=15 DECEMBER 2009 {{dts| {{flag {{dtsACCESS-DATE=31 MAY 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=10 OCTOBER 2017 DF=DMY-ALL, align=right 8 June 1994}}HTTP://WWW.APNEWSARCHIVE.COM/1994/CHRISTOPHER-PITCHES-FOR-NEW-ROLE-FOR-FORMER-COMMUNIST-COUNTRIES-WITH-PM-FRANCE-OECD/ID-5480338D652A397F6CB0CE2F73D96549 >TITLE=CHRISTOPHER PITCHES FOR NEW ROLE FOR FORMER COMMUNIST COUNTRIES WITH PM-FRANCE-OECD DATE=8 JUNE 1994 {{dts {{dtsComecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic>Czechoslovakia. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts {{dtsPUBLISHER=OECD.ORG ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2013, align=right 9 December 2010}} Europe {{flag {{dts| {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| Joined OEEC in 1949 (West Germany).Adenauer und die Hohen Kommissare, Munich 1989, p. 465. Available here. Previously represented by the Trizone. East Germany was a member of the rival Comecon from 1950 until German reunification in 1990. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUNDWORK=IMF WORKING PAPER {{dts {{dts| Was a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER=ISRAEL MINISTRY OF FINANCE {{dts {{dts {{dts| {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsAUTHOR=F. C. LANGDONDATE=1 NOVEMBER 2011, align=right July 1963}} align=right 28 April 1964}} Asia {{flag {{dtsAUTHOR=WOONG SHIK SHIN, align=right 25 October 1996}}HTTP://ARTICLES.CHICAGOTRIBUNE.COM/1996-10-25/NEWS/9610260175_1_SOUTH-KOREA-OECD-FOREIGN-MINISTER-GONG-RO-MYUNG>TITLE=SOUTH KOREA JOINS OECD: SOUTH KOREA WAS FORMALLY INVITED...DATE=25 OCTOBER 1996, align=right 12 December 1996}} Asia Officially Republic of Korea {{flag align=right 29 May 2013}}HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/LATVIA/REMARKS-AT-SIGNING-OF-ACCESSION-AGREEMENT-WITH-LATVIA.HTM>TITLE=REMARKS AT THE SIGNING OF THE ACCESSION AGREEMENT WITH THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA - OECDACCESS-DATE=14 APRIL 2018, style="text-align:right;"11 May 2016}}HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/LATVIA/ACCESSION-LATVIA-INVITED-TO-JOIN-OECD.HTM>TITLE="ACCESSION: LATVIA INVITED TO JOIN OECD - OECD" {{dtsTITLE=LATVIA'S ACCESSION TO THE OECDACCESSDATE=6 JULY 2018, Europe {{flag align=right 9 April 2015}}HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/COUNTRIES/LITHUANIA/LITHUANIA-ACCESSION-TO-THE-OECD.HTM>TITLE=ROADMAP TO MEMBERSHIP AT THE OECD FOR LITHUANIA - OECDACCESS-DATE=5 JULY 2018, style="text-align:right;"31 May 2018}} align=right 5 July 2018}}HTTP://WWW.OECD.ORG/COUNTRIES/LITHUANIA/LITHUANIA-ACCESSION-TO-THE-OECD.HTM >PUBLISHER=OECDDATE=5 JULY 2018| {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsAGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESS {{dts| {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsLANGUAGE=POLISH, align=right 8 June 1994}} align=right 11 July 1996}}HTTP://WWW.APNEWSARCHIVE.COM/1996/POLAND-JOINS-THINK-TANK-OF-RICHEST-NATIONS/ID-6B4DD9E85B08D4D60DB62478CB3A494A>TITLE=POLAND JOINS THINK TANK OF RICHEST NATIONSDATE=11 JULY 1996, align=right 22 November 1996}} Europe Was a member of the rival Comecon from 1949 to 1991. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER=BBC MONITORING {{dts {{dts {{dtsComecon from 1949 to 1991 as part of Czechoslovak Socialist Republic>Czechoslovakia. {{flag {{dtsPUBLISHER=MZZ.GOV.SI ACCESSDATE=31 MAY 2013, align=right 16 May 2007}} align=right 10 May 2010}} align=right 21 July 2010}} Europe {{flag {{dts| Joined OEEC in 1958.Julio Crespo MacLennan: Spain and the process of European integration, 1957–85, Basingstoke 2000, p. 31. Available here. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts| OEEC member. {{flag {{dts|The European Commission participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU member states.WEB,weblink Member Countries,, 1 January 1970, 23 October 2010,

Former members

  • Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) (member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity).

Countries signed accession agreement but not members yet

  • Colombia: officially invited on 25 May 2018, signed accession agreement on 30 May 2018NEWS,weblink OECD Accepts Colombia as 37th Member, Latin American Herald Tribune, 25 May 2018, 1 June 2018, PRESS RELEASE,weblink OECD countries agree to invite Colombia as 37th member, OECD, 25 May 2018, 3 June 2018,

Countries currently in accession talks

  • Costa Rica: In May 2013, the OECD declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica in 2015.WEB,weblink Colombia:- Global OECD boosted by decision to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia with more to follow - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,, 31 May 2013, On 9 April 2015, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica.WEB,weblink Costa Rica,

Countries whose accession talks are suspended

  • Russia: In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia. In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean Crisis.

Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council

  • ArgentinaPRESS RELEASE,weblink OECD strengthens engagement with partner countries during annual Ministerial Meeting, OECD, 1 June 2018, 3 June 2018,
  • Brazil
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Peru
  • Romania


Member states

The following table shows various data for OECD member countries, including area, population, economic output, and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press, and democratic level.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;font-size:90%;" style="line-height:1.25em;"! Country !! AreaWEB,weblink World Development Indicators, World Bank, 18 October 2018, (km2)2017 !! Population 2017 !! GDP (PPP) (Intl. $)2017 !! GDP (PPP)per capita(Intl. $)2017 !! Incomeinequality 2008-2016(latest available) !! HDIWEB,weblink Human Development Report 2018, United Nations Development Programme, 14 September 2018, 2017 !!FSIWEB,weblink Global Data {{!, Fragile States Index|last=|first=|date=23 April 2018|website=|publisher=The Fund for Peace|access-date=}}2019 !!RLIWEB,weblink Rule of Law Index 2017-2018, World Justice Project, 31 January 2018, 2019 !!CPIWEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2017, 21 February 2018, Transparency International, 2018 !!IEFWEB,weblink Country Rankings: World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation, 2 February 2018, 2019 !!GPIWEB,weblink Global Peace Index 2018, Vision of Humanity, 6 June 2018, 2019 !!WPFIWEB,weblink 2018 World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders, 25 April 2018, 2019 !!DIWEB,weblink Democracy Index 2017, Economist Intelligence Unit, PDF, 31 January 2018, 2018 {{flagu 7,741,220 style="background:#CBFECB" 1,192,065,505,301 style="background:#CBFECB" 34.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 19.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 77 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.419 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.09 {{flagu 83,879 style="background:#FEFD65" 461,582,926,400 style="background:#CBFECB" 30.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 25.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 76 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.291 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.29 {{flagu 30,530 style="background:#FEFD65" 544,041,974,958 style="background:#CBFECB" 27.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 28.6 style="background:#CBFECB" 75 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.533 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.78 {{flagu 9,984,670 style="background:#CBFECB" 1,714,447,151,944 style="background:#CBFECB" 34.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 20.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 81 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.327 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.15 {{flagu 756,096 style="background:#FEFD65" 444,777,637,169 style="background:#FEFD65" 47.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 38.9 style="background:#CBFECB" 67 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.634 style="background:#FEFD65" 7.97 {{flagu 78,870 style="background:#FEFD65" 384,753,663,283 style="background:#CBFECB" 25.9 style="background:#CBFECB" 37.6 style="background:#CBFECB" 59 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.383 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.69 {{flagu 42,922 style="background:#FECB98" 296,350,723,354 style="background:#CBFECB" 28.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 19.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 88 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.316 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.22 {{flagu 45,230 style="background:#FECB98" 41,756,008,089 style="background:#CBFECB" 32.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 40.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 73 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.727 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.97 {{flagu 338,420 style="background:#FECB98" 247,269,243,619 style="background:#CBFECB" 27.1 style="background:#CBFECB" 16.9 style="background:#CBFECB" 85 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.488 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.14 {{flagu 549,087 style="background:#CBFECB" 2,876,059,993,399 style="background:#CBFECB" 32.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 32.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 72 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.892 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.80 {{flagu 357,380 style="background:#CBFECB" 4,187,583,088,239 style="background:#CBFECB" 31.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 24.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 80 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.547 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.68 {{flagu 131,960 style="background:#FEFD65" 297,008,117,389 style="background:#FEFD65" 36.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 53.9 style="background:#FEFD65" 45 style="background:#FECB98" 1.933 style="background:#FEFD65" 7.29 {{flagu 93,030 style="background:#FEFD65" 274,926,859,412 style="background:#FEFD65" 30.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 49.6 style="background:#FEFD65" 46 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.540 style="background:#FEFD65" 6.63 {{flagu 103,000 style="background:#FF9865" 18,140,165,689 style="background:#CBFECB" 27.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 19.8 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 77.1 style="background:#CBFECB" 14.71 style="background:#CBFECB" | 9.58 {{flagu 70,280 style="background:#FECB98" 364,140,938,830 style="background:#CBFECB" 31.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 20.6 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 80.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 15.00 style="background:#CBFECB" | 9.15 {{flagu 22,070 style="background:#FEFD65" 333,351,018,354 style="background:#CBFECB" 41.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 61 style="background:#CBFECB" 2.735 style="background:#FEFD65" 7.79 {{flagu 301,340 style="background:#CBFECB" 2,387,357,093,793 style="background:#CBFECB" 35.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 43.8 style="background:#FEFD65" 52 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.754 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.71 {{flagu 377,962 style="background:#CBFECB" 5,487,161,155,332 style="background:#CBFECB" 32.1 style="background:#CBFECB" 34.3 style="background:#CBFECB" 73 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.369 style="background:#FEFD65" 7.99 {{flagu 100,280 style="background:#CBFECB" 1,972,970,735,842 style="background:#CBFECB" 31.6 style="background:#CBFECB" 33.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 57 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.867 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.00 {{flagu 64,490 style="background:#FECB98" 53,561,181,206 style="background:#FEFD65" 34.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 43.9 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 70.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 19.53 style="background:#CBFECB" | 7.38 {{flagu 65,286 style="background:#FECB98" 90,748,628,812 style="background:#CBFECB" 37.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 38.1 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 74.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 22.06 style="background:#CBFECB" | 7.50 {{flagu 2,590 style="background:#FF9865" 62,189,692,542 style="background:#CBFECB" 33.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 20.4 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 75.9 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 8.81 {{flagu 1,964,380 style="background:#CBFECB" 2,358,275,520,126 style="background:#FEFD65" 43.4 style="background:#FEFD65" 69.7 style="background:#FF9865" 28 style="background:#FEFD65" 2.600 style="background:#FF9865" 6.19 {{flagu 41,540 style="background:#FEFD65" 899,530,829,783 style="background:#CBFECB" 28.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 24.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 82 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.530 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.89 {{flagu 267,710 style="background:#FECB98" 197,072,471,931 style="background:#CBFECB" 0.917 style="background:#CBFECB" 0.82 style="background:#CBFECB" 84.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 10.75 style="background:#CBFECB" | 9.26 {{flagu 385,178 style="background:#FECB98" 324,403,929,579 style="background:#CBFECB" 27.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 18.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 84 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.536 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.87 {{flagu 312,680 style="background:#CBFECB" 1,102,293,080,831 style="background:#FEFD65" 0.865 style="background:#CBFECB" 0.66 style="background:#CBFECB" 67.8 style="background:#CBFECB" 28.89 style="background:#FEFD65" | 6.67 {{flagu 92,225 style="background:#FEFD65" 326,029,976,815 style="background:#CBFECB" 35.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 25.3 style="background:#CBFECB" 64 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.274 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.84 {{flagu 49,035 style="background:#FECB98" 171,990,237,347 style="background:#CBFECB" 26.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 40.5 {{N/A}} style="background:#FEFD65" 65.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 23.58 style="background:#FEFD65" | 7.10 {{flagu 20,270 style="background:#FECB98" 72,063,812,126 style="background:#CBFECB" 25.4 style="background:#CBFECB" 28.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 60 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.355 style="background:#CBFECB" 7.50 {{flagu 505,940 style="background:#CBFECB" 1,769,637,042,996 style="background:#CBFECB" 36.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 40.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 58 style="background:#FEFD65" 1.699 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.08 {{flagu 447,420 style="background:#FEFD65" 505,482,949,469 style="background:#CBFECB" 29.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 20.3 style="background:#CBFECB" 85 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.533 style="background:#CBFECB" 9.39 {{flagu 41,290 style="background:#FEFD65" 547,853,971,543 style="background:#CBFECB" 32.3 style="background:#CBFECB" 18.7 {{N/A}} style="background:#CBFECB" 81.9 style="background:#CBFECB" 10.52 style="background:#CBFECB" | 9.03 {{flagu 785,350 style="background:#CBFECB" 2,140,141,581,685 style="background:#FEFD65" 41.9 style="background:#FEFD65" 80.3 style="background:#FF9865" 41 style="background:#FEFD65" 3.015 style="background:#FF9865" 4.37 {{flagu 243,610 style="background:#CBFECB" 2,856,703,440,289 style="background:#CBFECB" 33.2 style="background:#CBFECB" 36.7 style="background:#CBFECB" 80 style="background:#CBFECB" 1.801 style="background:#CBFECB" 8.53 {{flagu 9,831,510 style="background:#CBFECB" 19,390,604,000,000 style="background:#CBFECB" 41.5 style="background:#CBFECB" 38.0 style="background:#CBFECB" 71 style="background:#CBFECB" 2.401 style="background:#FEFD65" 7.96 style="background:#f2f2f2;" {{hsOECDb >36,328,730 >1,300,865,255 >56,394,326,347,476 >43,351 >33.1 >0.895 >33.3 >0.74 >68 >72.2 >1.665 >20.46 >| 8.09! Country !! Area(km2)2017 !! Population2017 !! GDP (PPP)(Intl. $)2017 !! GDP (PPP)per capita(Intl. $)2017 !! Incomeinequality2008-2016(latest available) !! HDI2017 !! FSI2019 !!RLI2019 !!CPI2018 !!IEF2019 !!GPI2019 !!WPFI2019 !!DI2018{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right;font-size:90%;"{{unbulleted list
| a The FSI index supplies no figure for Israel per se, but rather provides an average (76.5) for "Israel and West Bank".
| b OECD total used for indicators 1 through 3; OECD weighted average used for indicator 4; OECD unweighted average used for indicators 5 through 13.
}} Note: The colours indicate the country's global position in the respective indicator. For example, a green cell indicates that the country is ranked in the upper 25% of the list (including all countries with available data).{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:85%;" Highest quartile Upper-mid (3rd quartile) Lower-mid (2nd quartile) Lowest quartile style"line-height:1.25em;"">

Potential member states {| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:right;font-size:90%;" style"line-height:1.25em;"

! Country !!Area(km2)2017 !!Population 2017 !!GDP (PPP) (Intl. $)2017 !!GDP (PPP)per capita(Intl. $)2017 !!Incomeinequality 2008-2016(latest available)!!HDI2017 !!FSI2019 !!RLI2019 !!CPI2018 !!IEF2019 !!GPI2019 !!WPFI2019 !!DI2018{{flagu 1,141,748 style="background:#CBFECB;" 709,420,539,907 style="background:#FEFD65;" 49,7 style="background:#FEFD65;" 75.7 style="background:#FECB98;" 36 style="background:#FEFD65;" 67.3>2.661 style="background:#FECB98;" 42.82>6.96{{flagu 51,100 style="background:#FECB98;" 84,031,346,801 style="background:#FEFD65;" 48,3 style="background:#FEFD65;" 42.0 style="background:#CBFECB;" 56 style="background:#FEFD65;" 65.3>1.706 style="background:#CBFECB;" 12.24>8.07{{flagu 17,098,250 style="background:#CBFECB;" 3,783,634,636,966 style="background:#FEFD65;" 37,7 style="background:#FEFD65;" 74.7 style="background:#FECB98;" 28 style="background:#FECB98;" 58.9>3.093 style="background:#FF9865;" 50.31>2.94{{flagu 2,780,400 style="background:#CBFECB;" 918,032,825,601 style="background:#FEFD65;" 40,6 style="background:#CBFECB;" 46.0 style="background:#FEFD65;" 40 style="background:#FF9865;" 52.2>1.989 style="background:#FEFD65;" 28.30>7.02{{flagu 8,515,770 style="background:#CBFECB;" 3,255,144,799,735 style="background:#FEFD65;" 53,3 style="background:#FEFD65;" 71.8 style="background:#FEFD65;" 35 style="background:#FF9865;" 51.9>2.271 style="background:#FECB98;" 32.79>6.97{{flagu 111,000 style="background:#FECB98;" 148,227,624,522 style="background:#FEFD65;" 37,4 style="background:#FEFD65;" 50.6 style="background:#FEFD65;" 42 style="background:#CBFECB;" 69.0>1.607 style="background:#FECB98;" 35.11>7.03{{flagu 56,590 style="background:#FECB98;" 108,456,655,618 style="background:#FEFD65;" 31,1 style="background:#CBFECB;" 47.5 style="background:#FEFD65;" 48 style="background:#FEFD65;" 61.4>1.645 style="background:#FEFD65;" 29.03>6.57{{flagu 1,285,220 style="background:#CBFECB;" 433,059,982,554 style="background:#FEFD65;" 43,3 style="background:#FEFD65;" 68.2 style="background:#FECB98;" 35 style="background:#CBFECB;" 67.8>2.016 style="background:#FEFD65;" 30.22>6.60{{flagu 238,400 style="background:#FEFD65;" 520,937,675,792 style="background:#FEFD65;" 35,9 style="background:#FEFD65;" 47.8 style="background:#CBFECB;" 47 style="background:#CBFECB;" 68.6>1.606 style="background:#FEFD65;" 25.67>6.38 style="background:#f2f2f2;"{{hsOECDb>36,328,730>1,300,865,255>56,394,326,347,476>43,351>33.1>0.895>33.3>0.74>68>72.2>1.665>20.46>|8.09! Country !!Area(km2)2017 !!Population2017 !!GDP (PPP)(Intl. $)2017 !!GDP (PPP)per capita(Intl. $)2017 !!Incomeinequality2008-2016(latest available)!!HDI2017 !!FSI2019 !!RLI2019 !!CPI2018 !!IEF2019 !!GPI2019 !!WPFI2019 !!DI2018{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:85%;" Highest quartile Upper-mid (3rd quartile) Lower-mid (2nd quartile) Lowest quartile

OECD Composite Leading Indicators and Turning Points

OECD Composite Leading Indicators: Reference Turning Points and Component SeriesThe components of the Composite Leading Indicators are time series which exhibit leading relationship to the GDP at turning points. Country Composite Leading Indicators are compiled by combining de-trended smoothed and normalized components. The component series for each country are selected based on various criteria such as economic significance; cyclical behaviour; data quality; timeliness and availability.The turning point detection algorithm is a simplified version of the original Bry and Boschan routine.

See also




External links

{{commons|OECD}} {{Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development}}{{Member states of the OECD}}{{International power}}{{Economics}}{{Authority control}}

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