Persian language

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Persian language
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{{short description|Western Iranian language}}{{Redirect|Farsi}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2010}}

), ({{transl>tg|forsī}})fɒːɾˈsiːFarsi.ogg}}style=line-height:1.3em;
| IranBOOK, Samadi, Habibeh, Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars, 2012, Multilingual Matters, 978-1-84769-637-3, Nick Perkins, Martin Ball, David Crystal, Paul Fletcher, 169,
| Afghanistan (as Dari)
| Tajikistan (as Tajik)
| Uzbekistan (as Tajik)
| IraqENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Encyclopædia Iranica, IRAQ, 7 November 2014,
| RussiaBOOK, harv, Pilkington, Hilary, Yemelianova, Galina, Islam in Post-Soviet Russia,weblink 2004, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-203-21769-6, 27, Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds., BOOK, harv, Mastyugina, Tatiana, Perepelkin, Lev, An Ethnic History of Russia: Pre-revolutionary Times to the Present,weblink 1996, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-29315-3, 80, The Iranian Peoples (Ossetians, Tajiks, Tats, Mountain Judaists),
|AzerbaijanWindfuhr, Gernot: The Iranian Languages, Routledge 2009, p. 418.}}
language=en-US quote=There are numerous reasons to study Persian: for one thing, Persian is an important language of the Middle East and Central Asia, spoken by approximately 70 million native speakers and roughly 110 million people worldwide.}}| speakers2 = (110 million total speakers)| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanIndo-Iranian languages>Indo-IranianIranian languages>IranianWestern Iranian languages>Western IranianSouthwestern Iranian languages>Southwestern Iranian| ancestor = Old Persian| ancestor2 = Middle PersianWestern Persian>Iranian PersianDari language>DariTajik language>TajikBukhori dialect>BukhoriPahlavani dialect>PahlavaniHazaragi dialect>HazaragiAimaq dialect>Aimaq| dia8 = Judeo-PersianDehwari dialect>Dehwari| dia10 = Judeo-TatTat language (Caucasus)>Caucasian Tat| dia12 = Armeno-TatWestern Persian>Iranian PersianDari language>DariTajik language>TajikPersian alphabet (Iran and Afghanistan)
  • {{IRN{edih} (as Persian)Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran: Chapter II, Article 15: "The official language and script of Iran, the lingua franca of its people, is Persian. Official documents, correspondence, and texts, as well as text-books, must be in this language and script. However, the use of regional and tribal languages in the press and mass media, as well as for teaching of their literature in schools, is allowed in addition to Persian."
  • {{AFG}} (as Dari)
  • {{TJK}} (as Tajik)}}| agency = {{longlink|Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Iran)}}
| iso1 = fa| iso2b = per| iso2t = fas| iso3 = fas| lc1 = pesWestern Persian>Iranian Persian| lc2 = prsDari language>Dari| lc3 = tgkTajik language>Tajik| lc4 = aiq| ld4 = Aimaq dialect| lc5 = bhh| ld5 = Bukhori dialect| lc7 = haz| ld7 = Hazaragi dialect| lc8 = jpr| ld8 = Judeo-Persian| lc9 = phvPahlavani language>Pahlavani| lc10 = dehDehwari language>Dehwari| lc11 = jdt| ld11 = Judeo-Tat| lc12 = tttTat language (Caucasus)>Caucasian Tat58-AAC (Wider Persian){{nowrap| > 58-AAC-c (Central Persian)}}}}| image = Farsi.svg| imagesize = 100px| imagecaption = Fārsi written in Persian calligraphy (Nastaʿlīq)| map = Persian Language Location Map1.png{{!}}border| mapcaption = Areas with significant numbers of Persian speakers (including dialects)| map2 = Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan.svg{{!}}borderred|Countries where Persian is an official language}}| notice = IPA| listclass = hlist| glotto = fars1254| glottorefname = Farsic – Caucasian Tat}}{{Contains Perso-Arabic text}}Persian ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|p|ɜr|ʒ|ən|,_|-|ʃ|ən}}), also known by its endonym Farsi (, {{transl|fa|ALA|fārsi}}, {{IPA-fa|fɒːɾˈsiː||Farsi.ogg}}), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian (officially named Dari since 1958)BOOK, Asta, Olesen, Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, 3, Psychology Press, 1995, 205, There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Farsi — previously dominant in the educational and administrative system (...) — and the term 'Dari' for the Afghan version of Farsi came into common use, being officially adopted in 1958., and Tajiki Persian (officially named Tajik since the Soviet era).BOOK, harv, Baker, Mona, Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies,weblink 2001, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-25517-2, 518, All this affected translation activities in Persian, seriously undermining the international character of the language. The problem was compounded in modern times by several factors, among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union, with Uzbek and Russian languages, as well as the emergence of a language reform movement in Iran which paid no attention to the consequences of its pronouncements and actions for the language as a whole., It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan,JOURNAL, Richard, Foltz, The Tajiks of Uzbekistan, Central Asian Survey, 15, 2, 213–216, 1996, 10.1080/02634939608400946, BOOK, Lena, Jonson, 2006, Tajikistan in the new Central Asia, 108, BOOK, Cordell, Karl, 1998, Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, Routledge, 0415173124, 201, Consequently the number of citizens who regard themselves as Tajiks is difficult to determine. Tajiks within and outside of the republic, Samarkand State University (SamGU) academics and international commentators suggest that there may be between six and seven million Tajiks in Uzbekistan, constituting 30 per cent of the republic's twenty-two million population, rather than the official figure of 4.7 per cent (Foltz 1996:213; Carlisle 1995:88)., as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.The Persian language is a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE), itself a continuation of Old Persian, which was used in the Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC).BOOK, Ulrich, Ammon, Norbert, Dittmar, Klaus J., Mattheier, Peter, Trudgill, Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, 3, Walter de Gruyter, 2006, 2nd, 1912, The Pahlavi language (also known as Middle Persian) was the official language of Iran during the Sassanid dynasty (from 3rd to 7th century A. D.). Pahlavi is the direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country. However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, Arabic became the dominant language of the country and Pahlavi lost its importance, and was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian (Moshref 2001)., It originated in the region of Fars (Persia) in southwestern Iran.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Skjærvø, Prods Oktor, 2006, Encyclopædia Iranica,weblink XIII, 344-377, Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts, (...) Persian, the language originally spoken in the province of Fārs, which is descended from Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid empire (6th-4th centuries B.C.E.), and Middle Persian, the language of the Sasanian empire (3rd-7th centuries C.E.)., Its grammar is similar to that of many European languages.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Richard, Davis, Persian, Josef W., Meri, Jere L., Bacharach, Medieval Islamic Civilization, Taylor & Francis, 2006, 602–603, Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi, but Arabic lexical items predominated for more abstract or abstruse subjects and often replaced their Persian equivalents in polite discourse. (...) The grammar of New Persian is similar to that of many contemporary European languages., Throughout history, Persian has been a prestigious cultural language used by various empires in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Persian literature, J.T.P., de Bruijn, 14 December 2015, Old Persian written works are attested in Old Persian cuneiform on several inscriptions from between the 6th and the 4th centuries BC, and Middle Persian literature is attested in Aramaic-derived scripts (Pahlavi and Manichaean) on inscriptions from the time of the Parthian Empire and in books centered in Zoroastrian and Manichaean scriptures from between the 3rd to the 10th century AD. New Persian literature began to flourish after the Arab conquest of Iran with its earliest records from the 9th century, since then adopting the Arabic script.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Iranica,weblink Iran vi. Iranian languages and scripts (2) Documentation, Prods Oktor, Skjærvø, 348-366, XIII, 30 December 2012, Persian was the first language to break through the monopoly of Arabic on writing in the Muslim world, with the writing of Persian poetry developed as a court tradition in many eastern courts. Some of the famous works of medieval Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Panj Ganj of Nizami Ganjavi, the Divān of Hafez, The Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur, and the miscellanea of Gulistan and Bustan by Saadi Shirazi.Persian has left a considerable influence on its neighboring languages, including other Iranian languages, the Turkic languages, Armenian, Georgian and the Indo-Aryan languages (especially Urdu). It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic,BOOK, harv, Holes, Clive, Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary,weblink 2001, BRILL, 90-04-10763-0, XXX, while borrowing some vocabulary from it under medieval Arab rule.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Lazard, Gilbert, 1975, The Rise of the New Persian Language, Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, 4, 595–632, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period (early Islamic times) by the name of Dari or Farsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc., Old Persian, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. It had its origin in Fars (the true Persian country from the historical point of view) and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran., BOOK, Lazard, Gilbert, Pahlavi, Pârsi, dari: Les langues d'Iran d'apès Ibn al-Muqaffa, R.N., Frye, Iran and Islam. In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press, 1971, WEB,weblink Persian Loan Words in Arabic, Nushin, Namazi, 24 November 2008, 1 June 2009, BOOK, Encyclopedia of literary translation into English, Classe, Olive, 2000, Taylor & Francis, 1-884964-36-2, 1057,weblink Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language (which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script) and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature., BOOK, Ann K. S., Lambton, Persian grammar, Cambridge University Press, 1953, The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized., There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, including Persians, Tajiks, Hazaras, Caucasian Tats and Aimaqs. The term Persophone might also be used to refer to a speaker of Persian.JOURNAL, A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar: Handbook of Oriental Studies, 2, John R., Perry, Boston, Brill, 2005, 90-04-14323-8, 284, BOOK,weblink Making Space: Sufis and Settlers in Early Modern India, Nile, Green, Oxford University Press, 2012, 12-13,


Persian is a member of the Western Iranian group of the Iranian languages, which make up a branch of the Indo-European languages in their Indo-Iranian subdivision. The Western Iranian languages themselves are divided into two subgroups: Southwestern Iranian languages, of which Persian is the most widely spoken, and Northwestern Iranian languages, of which Kurdish is the most widely spoken.BOOK, The World's Major Languages, 1987, Windfuhr, Gernot, Berard, Comrie, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-506511-4, 523–546,


The term Persian is an English derivation of Latin , the adjectival form of , itself deriving from Greek {{grc-tr|Περσίς}} (),{{LSJ|*persi/s|Περσίς|ref}}. a Hellenized form of Old Persian {{transl|peo|Pārsa}} (),{{OEtymD|Persia}} which means "Persia" (a region in southwestern Iran, corresponding to modern-day Fars). According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century.Oxford English Dictionary online, s.v. "Persian", draft revision June 2007.Farsi, which is the Persian word for the Persian language, has also been used widely in English in recent decades, more commonly to refer to the standard Persian of Iran. However, the name Persian is still more widely used. The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has called for avoiding the use of the endonym Farsi in foreign languages and has maintained that Persian is the appropriate designation of the language in English, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Farhangestān,weblink Encyclopædia Iranica, 3 October 2014, M. A., Jazayeri, 15 December 1999, Eminent Iranian historian and linguist Ehsan Yarshater, founder of Encyclopædia Iranica and the Center for Iranian Studies at Columbia University, mentions the same concern in an academic journal on Iranology, rejecting the use of Farsi in foreign languages.JOURNAL, Zaban-i Nozohur, Iran-Shenasi: A Journal of Iranian Studies, IV, I, 1992, 27-30, Etymologically, the Persian term {{transl|fa|Fārsi}} derives from its earlier form {{transl|fa|Pārsi}} ({{transl|pal|Pārsik}} in Middle Persian), which in turn comes from the same root as the English term Persian.BOOK,weblink Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order, 2012, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934536563, Brian, Spooner, William L., Hanaway, 6, 81, BOOK, Spooner, Brian, Schiffman, Harold, Language Policy and Language Conflict in Afghanistan and Its Neighbors: The Changing Politics of Language Choice, 2012, Brill, Leiden, 94, 9004201459,weblink Dari, Farsi, and Tojiki, The phonemic shift from {{IPA|/p/}} to {{IPA|/f/}} is a result of the medieval Arabic influences that followed the Arab conquest of Iran, and is due to the lack of the phoneme {{IPA|/p/}} in Standard Arabic.BOOK, Campbell, George L., King, Gareth, Compendium of the World's Languages, 2013, Routledge, 1339, 3rd, Persian,weblink

Standard varieties' names

Iran's standard Persian has been called, apart from Persian and Farsi, by names such as Iranian Persian and Western Persian, exclusively.BOOK, The International Cyclopedia: A Compendium of Human Knowledge, Richardson, Charles Francis, Dodd, Mead, 1892, 541, BOOK, Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Strazny, Philipp, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-45522-4, 324, Officially, the official language of Iran is designated simply as Persian (, {{transl|pes|fārsi}}).Dari Persian (, {{transl|prs|fārsi-ye dari}}), that is the standard Persian of Afghanistan, has been officially named Dari (, {{transl|prs|dari}}) since 1958. Also referred to as Afghan Persian in English, it is one of Afghanistan's two official languages together with Pashto. The term Dari, meaning "of the court", originally referred to the variety of Persian used in the court of the Sasanian Empire in capital Ctesiphon, which was spread to the northeast of the empire and gradually replaced the former Iranian dialects of Parthia (Parthian).ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Darī, Encyclopædia Iranica, 17 November 2011, Gilbert, Lazard, VII, 34-35, It is derived from the word for dar (court, lit., "gate"). Darī was thus the language of the court and of the capital, Ctesiphon. On the other hand, it is equally clear from this passage that darī was also in use in the eastern part of the empire, in Khorasan, where it is known that in the course of the Sasanian period Persian gradually supplanted Parthian and where no dialect that was not Persian survived. The passage thus suggests that darī was actually a form of Persian, the common language of Persia. (...) Both were called pārsī (Persian), but it is very likely that the language of the north, that is, the Persian used on former Parthian territory and also in the Sasanian capital, was distinguished from its congener by a new name, darī ([language] of the court)., ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ludwig, Paul,weblink Persian Language: i: Early New Persian, Encyclopædia Iranica, 19 November 2013, Northeast. Khorasan, the homeland of the Parthians (called abaršahr "the upper lands" in MP), had been partly Persianized already in late Sasanian times. Following Ebn al-Moqaffaʿ, the variant of Persian spoken there was called Darī and was based upon the one used in the Sasanian capital Seleucia-Ctesiphon (Ar. al-Madāʾen). (...) Under the specific historical conditions that have been sketched above, the Dari (Middle) Persian of the 7th century was developed, within two centuries, to the Dari (New) Persian that is attested in the earliest specimens of NP poetry in the late 9th century., Tajik Persian (, {{transl|tg|forsi-i tojikī}}), that is the standard Persian of Tajikistan, has been officially designated as Tajik (, {{transl|tg|tojikī}}) since the time of the Soviet Union. It is the name given to the varieties of Persian spoken in Central Asia, in general.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Encyclopædia Iranica, Tajik ii. Tajik Persian, John, Perry, 20 July 2009,

ISO codes

The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code fa, as its coding system is mostly based on the native-language designations. The more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name "Persian" (code fas) for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan. This consists of the individual languages Dari (Afghan Persian) and Iranian Persian.WEB,weblink Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: fas,, 13 July 2010,


{{History of the Persian language}}In general, the Iranian languages are known from three periods, namely Old, Middle, and New (Modern). These correspond to three historical eras of Iranian history; Old era being sometime around the Achaemenid Empire (i.e., 400–300 BC), Middle era being the next period most officially around the Sasanian Empire, and New era being the period afterwards down to present day.{{harv|Skjaervo|2006}} vi(2). Documentation.According to available documents, the Persian language is "the only Iranian language" for which close philological relationships between all of its three stages are established and so that Old, Middle, and New Persian represent one and the same language of Persian; that is, New Persian is a direct descendant of Middle and Old {{harv|Skjaervo|2006}} vi(2). Documentation. Excerpt 1: "Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages. Modern Yaḡnōbi belongs to the same dialect group as Sogdian, but is not a direct descendant; Bactrian may be closely related to modern Yidḡa and Munji (Munjāni); and Wakhi (Wāḵi) belongs with Khotanese. Excerpt 2: New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries."The known history of the Persian language can be divided into the following three distinct periods:

Old Persian

File:Persépolis. Inscription.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.15|An Old Persian inscription written in Old Persian cuneiform in PersepolisPersepolisAs a written language, Old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions. The oldest known text written in Old Persian is from the Behistun Inscription, dating to the time of king Darius I (reigned 522-486 BC).{{Harv|Schmitt|2008|pp=80–1}} Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla),{{sfn|Kuhrt|2013|page=197}}{{sfn|Frye|1984|page=103}}{{sfn|Schmitt|2000|page=53}} Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt.Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953Kent, R. G.: "Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon", page 6. American Oriental Society, 1950. Old Persian is one of the oldest Indo-European languages which is attested in original texts.{{harv|Skjærvø|2006|loc=vi(2). Documentation. Old Persian.}}Related to Old Persian, but from a different branch of the Iranian language family, was Avestan, the language of the Zoroastrian liturgical texts.

Middle Persian

File:Stone block with Paikuli inscription.JPG|thumb|Middle Persian text written in Inscriptional Pahlavi on the Paikuli inscription from between 293 and 297. Slemani Museum, Iraqi KurdistanIraqi KurdistanThe complex grammatical conjugation and declension of Old Persian yielded to the structure of Middle Persian in which the dual number disappeared, leaving only singular and plural, as did gender. Middle Persian developed the ezāfe construction, expressed through ī (modern ye), to indicate some of the relations between words that have been lost with the simplification of the earlier grammatical system.Although the "middle period" of the Iranian languages formally begins with the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the transition from Old to Middle Persian had probably already begun before the 4th century BC. However, Middle Persian is not actually attested until 600 years later when it appears in the Sassanid era (224–651) inscriptions, so any form of the language before this date cannot be described with any degree of certainty. Moreover, as a literary language, Middle Persian is not attested until much later, in the 6th or 7th century. From the 8th century onward, Middle Persian gradually began yielding to New Persian, with the middle-period form only continuing in the texts of Zoroastrianism.Middle Persian is considered to be a later form of the same dialect as Old Persian.Nicholas Sims-Williams, "The Iranian Languages", in Steever, Sanford (ed.) (1993), The Indo-European Languages, p. 129. The native name of Middle Persian was Parsig or Parsik, after the name of the ethnic group of the southwest, that is, "of Pars", Old Persian Parsa, New Persian Fars. This is the origin of the name Farsi as it is today used to signify New Persian. Following the collapse of the Sassanid state, Parsik came to be applied exclusively to (either Middle or New) Persian that was written in the Arabic script. From about the 9th century onward, as Middle Persian was on the threshold of becoming New Persian, the older form of the language came to be erroneously called Pahlavi, which was actually but one of the writing systems used to render both Middle Persian as well as various other Middle Iranian languages. That writing system had previously been adopted by the Sassanids (who were Persians, i.e. from the southwest) from the preceding Arsacids (who were Parthians, i.e. from the northeast). While Ibn al-Muqaffa' (eighth century) still distinguished between Pahlavi (i.e. Parthian) and Persian (in Arabic text: al-Farisiyah) (i.e. Middle Persian), this distinction is not evident in Arab commentaries written after that date.Gernot Windfuhr considers new Persian as an evolution of the Old Persian language and the Middle Persian languageBOOK, harv, Comrie, Bernard, The Major Languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa,weblink 2003, Routledge, 978-1-134-93257-3, , p. 82. "The evolution of Persian as the culturally dominant language of major parts of the Near East, from Anatolia and Iran, to Central Asia, to northwest India until recent centuries, began with the political domination of these areas by dynasties originating in southwestern province of Iran, Pars, later Arabicised to Fars: first the Achaemenids (599–331 BC) whose official language was Old Persian; then the Sassanids (c. AD 225–651) whose official language was Middle Persian. Hence, the entire country used to be called Perse by the ancient Greeks, a practice continued to this day. The more general designation 'Iran(-shahr)" derives from Old Iranian aryanam (Khshathra)' (the realm) of Aryans'. The dominance of these two dynasties resulted in Old and Middle-Persian colonies throughout the empire, most importantly for the course of the development of Persian, in the north-east i.e., what is now Khorasan, northern Afghanistan and Central Asia, as documented by the Middle Persian texts of the Manichean found in the oasis city of Turfan in Chinese Turkistan (Sinkiang). This led to certain degree of regionalisation". but also states that none of the known Middle Persian dialects is the direct predecessor of Modern Persian.Comrie, Bernard (1990) The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Taylor & Francis, p. 82Barbara M. Horvath, Paul Vaughan, Community languages, 1991, p. 276 Ludwig Paul states: "The language of the Shahnameh should be seen as one instance of continuous historical development from Middle to New Persian."L. Paul (2005), "The Language of the Shahnameh in historical and dialectical perspective", p. 150: "The language of the Shahnameh should be seen as one instance of continuous historical development from Middle to New Persian.", in BOOK, harv, Weber, Dieter, MacKenzie, D. N., Languages of Iran: Past and Present: Iranian Studies in Memoriam David Neil MacKenzie,weblink 2005, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 978-3-447-05299-3,

New Persian

File:Rudaba.JPG|thumb|right|upright=1.2|Ferdowsi's ShahnamehShahnameh"New Persian" (Modern) is conventionally divided into three stages:
  • Early New Persian (8th/9th centuries)
  • Classical Persian (10th–18th centuries)
  • Contemporary Persian (19th century to present)
Early New Persian remains largely intelligible to speakers of Contemporary Persian, as the morphology and, to a lesser extent, the lexicon of the language have remained relatively stable.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jeremias, Eva M., Encyclopaedia of Islam, Iran, iii. (f). New Persian, New Edition, Supplement, 2004, 12, 90-04-13974-5, 432,

Early New Persian

"New Persian" is taken to replace Middle Persian in the course of the 8th to 9th centuries, under Abbasid rule.Johanson, Lars, and Christiane Bulut. 2006. Turkic-Iranian contact areas: historical and linguistic aspects. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.With the decline of the Abbasids began the re-establishment of Persian national life and Persians laid the foundations for a renaissance in the realm of letters. New Persian as an independent literary language first emerges in Bactria through the adaptation of the spoken form of Sassanian Middle Persian court language called Pārsi-ye Dari. The cradle of the Persian literary renaissance lay in the east of Greater Iran in Greater Khorasan and Transoxiana close to the Amu Darya (modern day Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan).Jackson, A. V. Williams. 1920. Early Persian poetry, from the beginnings down to the time of Firdausi. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp.17–19. (in Public Domain) The vocabulary of the New Persian language was thus heavily influenced by other Eastern Iranian languages, particularly Sogdian.{{sfn|Litvinsky|Jalilov|Kolesnikov|1996|p=376}}The mastery of the newer speech having now been transformed from Middle into New Persian was already complete by the era of the three princely dynasties of Iranian origin, the Tahirid dynasty (820–872), Saffarid dynasty (860–903) and Samanid Empire (874–999), and could develop only in range and power of expression.Abbas of Merv is mentioned as being the earliest minstrel to chant verse in the newer Persian tongue and after him the poems of Hanzala Badghisi were among the most famous between the Persian-speakers of the time.Jackson, A. V. Williams.pp.17–19.The first poems of the Persian language, a language historically called Dari, emerged in Afghanistan.BOOK, Adamec, Ludwig W., Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, 2011, Scarecrow, 978-0-8108-7815-0, 4th Revised, 105, The first significant Persian poet was Rudaki. He flourished in the 10th century, when the Samanids were at the height of their power. His reputation as a court poet and as an accomplished musician and singer has survived, although little of his poetry has been preserved. Among his lost works is versified fables collected in the Kalila wa Dimna.The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture. New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca, a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least 19th century. In the late Middle Ages, new Islamic literary languages were created on the Persian model: Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai and Urdu, which are regarded as "structural daughter languages" of Persian.

Classical Persian

{{See also|List of Persian poets and authors}}File:Kalila wa Dimna 001.jpg|right|upright=1.2|thumb|Kalilah va Dimna, an influential work in Persian literature]]"Classical Persian" loosely refers to the standardized language of medieval Persia used in literature and poetry.This is the language of the 10th to 12th centuries, which continued to be used as literary language and lingua franca under the "Persianized" Turko-Mongol dynasties during the 12th to 15th centuries, and under restored Persian rule during the 16th to 19th centuries.according to "the language (ninth to thirteenth centuries), preserved in the literature of the Empire, is known as Classical Persian, due to the eminence and distinction of poets such as Roudaki, Ferdowsi, and Khayyam. During this period, Persian was adopted as the lingua franca of the eastern Islamic nations. Extensive contact with Arabic led to a large influx of Arab vocabulary. In fact, a writer of Classical Persian had at one's disposal the entire Arabic lexicon and could use Arab terms freely either for literary effect or to display erudition. Classical Persian remained essentially unchanged until the nineteenth century, when the dialect of Teheran rose in prominence, having been chosen as the capital of Persia by the Qajar Dynasty in 1787. This Modern Persian dialect became the basis of what is now called Contemporary Standard Persian. Although it still contains a large number of Arab terms, most borrowings have been nativized, with a much lower percentage of Arabic words in colloquial forms of the language."Persian during this time served as lingua franca of Greater Persia and of much of the Indian subcontinent.It was also the official and cultural language of many Islamic dynasties, including the Samanids, Buyids, Tahirids, Ziyarids, the Mughal Empire, Timurids, Ghaznavids, Karakhanids, Seljuqs, Khwarazmians, the Sultanate of Rum, Delhi Sultanate, the Shirvanshahs, Safavids, Afsharids, Zands, Qajars, Khanate of Bukhara, Khanate of Kokand, Emirate of Bukhara, Khanate of Khiva, Ottomans and also many Mughal successors such as the Nizam of Hyderabad.Persian was the only non-European language known and used by Marco Polo at the Court of Kublai Khan and in his journeys through China.John Andrew Boyle, Some thoughts on the sources for the Il-Khanid period of Persian history, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, British Institute of Persian Studies, vol. 12 (1974), p. 175.

Use in Asia Minor

File:Ottoman miniature painters.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.2|Persian on an Ottoman miniatureOttoman miniatureDespite Anatolia having been ruled at various times prior to the Middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the Sasanian Empire. Centuries later, however, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Persian language, art and letters to Anatolia.BOOK, harv, de Laet, Sigfried J., History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century,weblink 1994, UNESCO, 978-92-3-102813-7, , p 734 They adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire.BOOK, harv, Ágoston, Gábor, Masters, Bruce Alan, Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire,weblink 2010, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-1025-7, , p 322 The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire.Doris Wastl-Walter. The Ashgate Research Companion to Border Studies Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011 {{ISBN|0754674061}} p 409 The educated and noble class of the Ottoman Empire all spoke Persian, such as Sultan Selim I, despite being Safavid Iran's archrival and a staunch opposer of Shia Islam.Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd {{ISBN|9971774887}} p 68 It was a major literary language in the empire.Franklin D. Lewis. Rumi – Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jal l al-Din Rumi Oneworld Publications, 18 okt. 2014 {{ISBN|1780747373}} Some of the noted earlier Persian works during the Ottoman rule are Idris Bidlisi's Hasht Bihisht, which began in 1502 and covered the reign of the first eight Ottoman rulers, and the Salim-Namah, a glorification of Selim I. After a period of several centuries, Ottoman Turkish (which was highly Persianised itself) had developed towards a fully accepted language of literature, which was even able to satisfy the demands of a scientific presentation.Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd {{ISBN|9971774887}} p 69 However, the number of Persian and Arabic loanwords contained in those works increased at times up to 88%.

Use in South Asia

{{See also|Persian and Urdu}}File:Agra India persian poem.jpg|thumb|Persian poem, Agra FortAgra FortFile:Agra castle India persian poem.jpg|thumb|Persian poem, Takht-e Shah Jahan, Agra FortAgra FortThe Persian language influenced the formation of many modern languages in West Asia, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. Following the Turko-Persian Ghaznavid conquest of South Asia, Persian was firstly introduced in the region by Turkic Central Asians.WEB,weblink South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny, 2 January 2015, The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. For five centuries prior to the British colonization, Persian was widely used as a second language in the Indian subcontinent, due to the admiration the Mughals (who were of Turco-Mongol origin) had for the foreign language. It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole "official language" under the Mughal emperors.Beginning in 1843, though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent.BOOK, Eternal Iran, 2004, Clawson, Patrick, Palgrave Macmillan, 6, 1-4039-6276-6, Evidence of Persian's historical influence there can be seen in the extent of its influence on certain languages of the Indian subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu, also historically known as Hindustani. There is also a small population of Zoroastrian Iranis in India, who migrated in the 19th century to escape religious execution in Qajar Iran and speak a Dari dialect.

Contemporary Persian

(File:Persian keyboard layout, unshifted.gif|thumb|right|A variant of the Iranian standard ISIRI 9147 keyboard layout for Persian)

Qajar dynasty

In the 19th century, under the Qajar dynasty, the dialect that is spoken in Tehran rose to prominence. There was still substantial Arabic vocabulary, but many of these words have been integrated into Persian phonology and grammar. In addition, under the Qajar rule numerous Russian, French, and English terms entered the Persian language, especially vocabulary related to technology. The first official attentions to the necessity of protecting the Persian language against foreign words, and to the standardization of Persian orthography, were under the reign of Naser ed Din Shah of the Qajar dynasty in 1871.{{Citation needed|date=October 2014}} After Naser ed Din Shah, Mozaffar ed Din Shah ordered the establishment of the first Persian association in 1903. This association officially declared that it used Persian and Arabic as acceptable sources for coining words. The ultimate goal was to prevent books from being printed with wrong use of words. According to the executive guarantee of this association, the government was responsible for wrongfully-printed books. Words coined by this association, such as rāh-āhan () for "railway", were printed in Soltani Newspaper; but the association was eventually closed due to inattention.{{Citation needed|date=October 2014}}A scientific association was founded in 1911, resulting in a dictionary called Words of Scientific Association (), which was completed in the future and renamed Katouzian Dictionary ().BOOK, برنامه‌ریزی زبان فارسی, روایت فتح, 978-600-6128-05-4, نگار داوری اردکانی, 33, 1389,

Pahlavi dynasty

The first academy for the Persian language was founded in May 20, 1935, under the name Academy of Iran. It was established by the initiative of Reza Shah Pahlavi, and mainly by Hekmat e Shirazi and Mohammad Ali Foroughi, all prominent names in the nationalist movement of the time. The academy was a key institution in the struggle to re-build Iran as a nation-state after the collapse of the Qajar dynasty. During the 1930s and 1940s, the academy led massive campaigns to replace the many Arabic, Russian, French, and Greek loanwords whose immense use in Persian during the centuries preceding the foundation of the Pahlavi dynasty had created a literary language considerably different from the spoken Persian of the time. This became the basis of what is now known as "Contemporary Standard Persian".


There are three modern varieties of standard Persian: All these three varieties are based on the classic Persian literature and its literary tradition. There are also several local dialects from Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan which slightly differ from the standard Persian. The Hazaragi dialect (in Central Afghanistan and Pakistan), Herati (in Western Afghanistan), Darwazi (in Afghanistan and Tajikistan), and the Tehrani accent (in Iran, the basis of standard Iranian Persian) are examples of these dialects. Persian-speaking peoples of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan can understand one another with a relatively high degree of mutual intelligibility.WEB,weblink Persian, Dari and Tajik, William, Beeman, Brown University, PDF, 30 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 25 October 2012, live, dmy, The following are some languages closely related to Persian, or in some cases are considered dialects:
  • Luri (or Lori), spoken mainly in the southwestern Iranian provinces of Lorestan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, some western parts of Fars Province and some parts of Khuzestan Province.
  • Lari (in southern Iran)
  • Tat, spoken in parts of Azerbaijan, Russia, and Transcaucasia. It is classified as a variety of Persian.Gernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979. pg 4:""Tat- Persian spoken in the East Caucasus""V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38.V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38. Excerpt: "Like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristic features"C Kerslake, Journal of Islamic Studies (2010) 21 (1): 147–151. excerpt: "It is a comparison of the verbal systems of three varieties of Persian—standard Persian, Tat, and Tajik—in terms of the 'innovations' that the latter two have developed for expressing finer differentiations of tense, aspect and modality..." weblinkJOURNAL, Borjian, Habib, Tabari Language Materials from Il'ya Berezin's Recherches sur les dialectes persans, Iran & the Caucasus, 2006, 10, 2, 243–258, , "It embraces Gilani, Talysh, Tabari, Kurdish, Gabri, and the Tati Persian of the Caucasus, all but the last belonging to the north-western group of Iranian language." (This dialect is not to be confused with the Tati language of northwestern Iran, which is a member of a different branch of the Iranian languages.)
  • Judeo-Tat. Part of the Tat-Persian continuum, spoken in Azerbaijan, Russia, as well as by immigrant communities in Israel and New York.
For other more distantly related branches of the Iranian language family, such as Kurdish and Balochi, see Iranian languages.


Iranian Persian has six vowels and twenty-three consonants.(File:Dinani Greats and Century Philosopher.ogg|thumb|Spoken Persian)


(File:Farsi vowel chart.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.3|The vowel phonemes of modern Tehran Persian)Historically, Persian distinguished length. Early New Persian had a series of five long vowels ({{IPAslink|iː}}, {{IPAslink|uː}}, {{IPAslink|ɒː}}, {{IPAslink|oː}} and {{IPAslink|eː}}) along with three short vowels {{IPAslink|æ}}, {{IPA|/i/}} and {{IPA|/u/}}. At some point prior to the 16th century in the general area now modern Iran, {{IPA|/eː/}} and {{IPA|/iː/}} merged into {{IPA|/iː/}}, and {{IPA|/oː/}} and {{IPA|/uː/}} merged into {{IPA|/uː/}}. Thus, older contrasts such as shēr "lion" vs. shīr "milk", and zūd "quick" vs zōr "strong" were lost. However, there are exceptions to this rule, and in some words, ē and ō are merged into the diphthongs {{IPA|[eɪ]}} and {{IPA|[oʊ]}} (which are descendants of the diphthongs {{IPA|[æɪ]}} and {{IPA|[æʊ]}} in Early New Persian), instead of merging into {{IPA|/iː/}} and {{IPA|/uː/}}. Examples of the exception can be found in words such as {{IPA|[roʊʃæn]}} (bright). Numerous other instances exist.However, in Dari, the archaic distinction of {{IPA|/eː/}} and {{IPA|/iː/}} (respectively known as Yā-ye majhūl and Yā-ye ma'rūf) is still preserved as well as the distinction of {{IPA|/oː/}} and {{IPA|/uː/}} (known as Wāw-e majhūl and Wāw-e ma'rūf). On the other hand, in standard Tajik, the length distinction has disappeared, and {{IPA|/iː/}} merged with {{IPA|/i/}} and {{IPA|/uː/}} with {{IPA|/u/}}.Perry, J. R. (2005) A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar (Boston : Brill) {{ISBN|90-04-14323-8}} Therefore, contemporary Afghan Dari dialects are the closest to the vowel inventory of Early New Persian.According to most studies on the subject (e.g. Samareh 1977, Pisowicz 1985, Najafi 2001), the three vowels traditionally considered long ({{IPA|/i/}}, {{IPA|/u/}}, {{IPA|/ɒ/}}) are currently distinguished from their short counterparts ({{IPA|/e/}}, {{IPA|/o/}}, {{IPA|/æ/}}) by position of articulation rather than by length. However, there are studies (e.g. Hayes 1979, Windfuhr 1979) that consider vowel length to be the active feature of the system, with {{IPA|/ɒ/}}, {{IPA|/i/}}, and {{IPA|/u/}} phonologically long or bimoraic and {{IPA|/æ/}}, {{IPA|/e/}}, and {{IPA|/o/}} phonologically short or monomoraic.There are also some studies that consider quality and quantity to be both active in the Iranian system (such as Toosarvandani 2004). That offers a synthetic analysis including both quality and quantity, which often suggests that Modern Persian vowels are in a transition state between the quantitative system of Classical Persian and a hypothetical future Iranian language, which will eliminate all traces of quantity and retain quality as the only active feature.The length distinction is still strictly observed by careful reciters of classic-style poetry for all varieties (including Tajik).

Consonants {| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center;"

!! Labial! Alveolar! Postalveolar! Palatal! Velar! Uvular! Glottal!Nasalm}} {{IPA linkŋ}} !Plosivep}} {{IPA linkt}} {{IPA linkk}} {{IPA linkq}}) {{IPA link|!Affricatetʃ}} {{IPA link|!Fricativef}} {{IPA links}} {{IPA linkʃ}} {{IPA linkVoiceless velar fricative>x ɣh}}!Flap or TapDental and alveolar flaps>ɾ !Approximantl}} {{IPA link| |Notes:
  • in Iranian Persian {{IPAslink|É£}} and {{IPAslink|q}} have merged into [{{IPA link|É£}}~É¢], as a voiced velar fricative {{IPA|[É£]}} when positioned intervocalically and unstressed, and as a voiced uvular stop {{IPA|[É¢]}} otherwise.BOOK, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, 1999, 978-0-521-63751-0, Cambridge, 124–125, BOOK, Linguistic Convergence and Areal Diffusion: Case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Jahani, Carina, RoutledgeCurzon, 2005, 0-415-30804-6, Éva Ágnes Csató, London, 79–96, The Glottal Plosive: A Phoneme in Spoken Modern Persian or Not?, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, BOOK, An Introduction to Persian, Thackston, W. M., 1993-05-01, Ibex Publishers, 0-936347-29-5, 3rd Rev, xvii, The Phonology of Persian,weblink



Suffixes predominate Persian morphology, though there are a small number of prefixes.CONFERENCE, Karine, Megerdoomian, Persian computational morphology: A unification-based approach, Memoranda in Computer and Cognitive Science: MCCS-00-320, 1, 2000,weblink Verbs can express tense and aspect, and they agree with the subject in person and number.BOOK, Persian, 1997, Mahootian, Shahrzad, Routledge, London, 0-415-02311-4,weblink There is no grammatical gender in Persian, and pronouns are not marked for natural gender.


Normal declarative sentences are structured as (S) (PP) (O) V: sentences have optional subjects, prepositional phrases, and objects followed by a compulsory verb. If the object is specific, the object is followed by the word rā and precedes prepositional phrases: (S) (O + rā) (PP) V.


Native word formation

Persian makes extensive use of word building and combining affixes, stems, nouns and adjectives. Persian frequently uses derivational agglutination to form new words from nouns, adjectives, and verbal stems. New words are extensively formed by compounding – two existing words combining into a new one, as is common in German.


{{See also|List of English words of Persian origin|List of French loanwords in Persian|Iranian languages#Comparison table of the Iranian languages}}While having a lesser influence on Arabic and other languages of Mesopotamia and its core vocabulary being of Middle Persian origin, New Persian contains a considerable amount of Arabic lexical items, which were Persianized and often took a different meaning and usage than the Arabic original. Persian loanwords of Arabic origin especially include Islamic terms. The Arabic vocabulary in other Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages is generally understood to have been copied from New Persian, not from Arabic itself.John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. pg 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries"John R. Perry, in his article Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic, estimates that about 24 percent of an everyday vocabulary of 20,000 words in current Persian, and more than 25 percent of the vocabulary of classical and modern Persian literature, are of Arabic origin. The text frequency of these loan words is generally lower and varies by style and topic area. It may approach 25 percent of a text in literature.John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. p.97 According to another source, about 40% of everyday Persian literary vocabulary is of Arabic origin.BOOK, The Oxford Handbook of Arabic Linguistics, Owens, Jonathan, 2013, OUP USA, 978-0-19-976413-6, 352, en, Among the Arabic loan words, relatively few (14 percent) are from the semantic domain of material culture, while a larger number are from domains of intellectual and spiritual life.Perry 2005, p.99. Most of the Arabic words used in Persian are either synonyms of native terms or could be glossed in Persian.Perry 2005, p. 99.The inclusion of Mongolic and Turkic elements in the Persian language should also be mentioned,e.g. The role of Azeri-Turkish in Iranian Persian, on which see John Perry, "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran", Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5 (2001), pp. 193–200. not only because of the political role a succession of Turkic dynasties played in Iranian history, but also because of the immense prestige Persian language and literature enjoyed in the wider (non-Arab) Islamic world, which was often ruled by sultans and emirs with a Turkic background. The Turkish and Mongolian vocabulary in Persian is minor in comparison to that of Arabic and these words were mainly confined to military, pastoral terms and political sector (titles, administration, etc.).Xavier Planhol, "Land of Iran", Encyclopedia Iranica. "The Turks, on the other hand, posed a formidable threat: their penetration into Iranian lands was considerable, to such an extent that vast regions adapted their language. This process was all the more remarkable since, in spite of their almost uninterrupted political domination for nearly 1,500 years, the cultural influence of these rough nomads on Iran's refined civilization remained extremely tenuous. This is demonstrated by the mediocre linguistic contribution, for which exhaustive statistical studies have been made (Doerfer). The number of Turkish or Mongol words that entered Persian, though not negligible, remained limited to 2,135, i.e., 3 percent of the vocabulary at the most. These new words are confined on the one hand to the military and political sector (titles, administration, etc.) and, on the other hand, to technical pastoral terms. The contrast with Arab influence is striking. While cultural pressure of the Arabs on Iran had been intense, they in no way infringed upon the entire Iranian territory, whereas with the Turks, whose contributions to Iranian civilization were modest, vast regions of Iranian lands were assimilated, notwithstanding the fact that resistance by the latter was ultimately victorious. Several reasons may be offered." New military and political titles were coined based partially on Middle Persian (e.g. arteš for "army", instead of the Uzbek qoʻshin; sarlaškar; daryābān; etc.) in the 20th century.Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially other Indo-European languages such as Armenian,WEB,weblink ARMENIA AND IRAN iv. Iranian influences in Armenian Language, 2 January 2015, Urdu, Bengali and (to a lesser extent) Hindi; the latter three through conquests of Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan invaders;WEB,weblink South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny, 23 April 2015, Turkic languages such as Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai, Tatar, Turkish,Andreas Tietze, Persian loanwords in Anatolian Turkish, Oriens, 20 (1967) pp- 125–168. (accessed August 2016) Turkmen, Azeri,L. Johanson, "Azerbaijan: Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish" in Encyclopedia Iranica weblink" title=""> Uzbek, and Karachay-Balkar;BOOK,weblink Compendium of the World Languages, Routledge, 2013, George L. Campbell and Gareth King, 978-1-136-25846-6, 23 May 2014, Caucasian languages such as Georgian,WEB,weblink GEORGIA v. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS WITH IRANIAN LANGUAGES, 2 January 2015, and to a lesser extent, Avar and Lezgin;WEB,weblink DAGESTAN, 2 January 2014, Afro-Asiatic languages like Assyrian (List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) and Arabic;WEB, Pasad,weblink,, 13 July 2010, and even Dravidian languages indirectly especially Telugu and Brahui; as well as Austronesian languages such as Indonesian and Malay. Persian has also had a significant lexical influence, via Turkish, on Albanian, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbo-Croatian, particularly as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Use of occasional foreign synonyms instead of Persian words can be a common practice in everyday communications as an alternative expression. In some instances in addition to the Persian vocabulary, the equivalent synonyms from multiple foreign languages can be used. For example, in Iranian colloquial Persian (not in Afghanistan or Tajikistan), the phrase "thank you" may be expressed using the French word merci (stressed, however, on the first syllable), the hybrid Persian-Arabic phrase motešakker am ( motešakker being "thankful" in Arabic, commonly pronounced motčakker in Persian, and the verb am meaning "I am" in Persian), or by the pure Persian phrase sepās-gozār am.


(File:Nastaliq-proportions.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Example showing Nastaʿlīq's (Persian) proportion rules.{{ref label | Smith1989 | 1 | a}})File:Dehkhoda note.jpg|thumb|right|Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda's personal handwriting, a typical cursivecursiveFile:The word Persian in Pahlavi script.png|thumb|right|upright=1.3|The word Persian in the Book PahlaviBook PahlaviThe vast majority of modern Iranian Persian and Dari text is written with the Arabic script. Tajiki, which is considered by some linguists to be a Persian dialect influenced by Russian and the Turkic languages of Central Asia,BOOK, A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar, 2005, Perry, John R., Brill, Boston, 90-04-14323-8, JOURNAL, Charactères distinctifs de la langue Tadjik, 1956, Lazard, Gilbert, Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris, 52, 117–186, harv, is written with the Cyrillic script in Tajikistan (see Tajik alphabet). There also exist several romanization systems for Persian.

Persian alphabet

Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written using the Persian alphabet which is a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet, which uses different pronunciation and additional letters not found in Arabic language. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, it took approximately 200 years which is referred to as Two Centuries of Silence in Iran, before Persians adopted the Arabic script in place of the older alphabet. Previously, two different scripts were used, Pahlavi, used for Middle Persian, and the Avestan alphabet (in Persian, Dīndapirak or Din Dabire—literally: religion script), used for religious purposes, primarily for the Avestan but sometimes for Middle Persian.In the modern Persian script, historically short vowels are usually not written, only the historically long ones are represented in the text, so words distinguished from each other only by short vowels are ambiguous in writing: Iranian Persian {{transl|fa|kerm}} "worm", {{transl|fa|karam}} "generosity", {{transl|fa|kerem}} "cream", and {{transl|fa|krom}} "chrome" are all spelled {{transl|fa|krm}} () in Persian. The reader must determine the word from context. The Arabic system of vocalization marks known as harakat is also used in Persian, although some of the symbols have different pronunciations. For example, a ḍammah is pronounced {{IPA|[ʊ~u]}}, while in Iranian Persian it is pronounced {{IPA|[o]}}. This system is not used in mainstream Persian literature; it is primarily used for teaching and in some (but not all) dictionaries.(File:Persian typewriter keyboard layout.svg|thumb|Persian typewriter keyboard layout)There are several letters generally only used in Arabic loanwords. These letters are pronounced the same as similar Persian letters. For example, there are four functionally identical letters for {{IPAslink|z}} (), three letters for {{IPAslink|s}} (), two letters for {{IPAslink|t}} (), two letters for {{IPAslink|h}} ().On the other hand, there are four letters that don't exist in Arabic .


The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet:{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"! Sound! Isolated form! Name/p/}} | pe/tʃ/}} | če (che)/ʒ/}} | že (zhe or jhe)/ɡ/}} | ge (gāf)Historically, there was also a special letter for the sound {{IPA|/β/}}. This letter is no longer used, as the /β/-sound changed to /b/, e.g. archaic زڤان /zaβān/ > زبان /zæbɒn/ 'language'WEB,weblink PERSIAN LANGUAGE i. Early New Persian, 18 March 2019, {| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"! Sound! Isolated form! Name/β/}} | βe


The Persian alphabet also modifies some letters of the Arabic alphabet. For example, alef with hamza below ( ) changes to alef ( ); words using various hamzas get spelled with yet another kind of hamza (so that becomes ) even though the latter is also correct in Arabic; and teh marbuta ( ) changes to heh ( ) or teh ( ).The letters different in shape are:{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"! Arabic Style letter! Persian Style letter! name ك ک| ke (kāf) ي ی| ye

Latin alphabet

The International Organization for Standardization has published a standard for simplified transliteration of Persian into Latin, ISO 233-3, titled "Information and documentation – Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters – Part 3: Persian language – Simplified transliteration"WEB,weblink ISO 233-3:1999,, 14 May 2010, 13 July 2010, but the transliteration scheme is not in widespread use.Another Latin alphabet, based on the Common Turkic Alphabet, was used in Tajikistan in the 1920s and 1930s. The alphabet was phased out in favor of Cyrillic in the late 1930s.Fingilish is Persian using ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is most commonly used in chat, emails and SMS applications. The orthography is not standardized, and varies among writers and even media (for example, typing 'aa' for the {{IPA|[ɒ]}} phoneme is easier on computer keyboards than on cellphone keyboards, resulting in smaller usage of the combination on cellphones).

Tajik alphabet

(File:Akademijai ilmxhoi jumxhurii tojikiston.jpg|thumb|right|Tajiki advertisement for an academy)The Cyrillic script was introduced for writing the Tajik language under the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in the late 1930s, replacing the Latin alphabet that had been used since the October Revolution and the Persian script that had been used earlier. After 1939, materials published in Persian in the Persian script were banned from the country.WEB,weblink, 13 December 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 January 2010, dead, dmy-all,


The following text is from Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.{| class="wikitable"! Iranian Persian ! Iranian Persiantransliteration{{transl>fa|Hamaye afrâd bašâr âzâd be donyâ miâyand o heysiyat o hoğuğe šân bâ ham barâbar ast hame šân andiše o vejdân dârand o bâjad dar barâbare yekdigar bâ ruhe barâdari raftâr konand.}}
! Iranian Persian IPA[hæmeje æfrɒde bæʃær ɒzɒd be donjɒ miɒjænd o hejsijæt o hoɢuɢe ʃɒn bɒ hæm bærɒbær æst hæme ʃɒn ændiʃe o vedʒdɒn dɒrænd o bɒjæd dær bærɒbære jekdiɡær bɒ ruhe bærɒdæri ræftɒr konænd]}}! Tajiki! English translation|All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also




  • BOOK, Kuhrt, A., The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period, Routledge, 2013, 978-1-136-01694-3, harv,
  • BOOK, Frye, Richard Nelson, Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft: Alter Orient-Griechische Geschichte-Römische Geschichte. Band III,7: The History of Ancient Iran, C.H. Beck, 1984, 978-3-406-09397-5, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Schmitt, Rüdiger, The Old Persian Inscriptions of Naqsh-i Rustam and Persepolis, Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum by School of Oriental and African Studies, 2000, 978-0-7286-0314-1, harv,
  • BOOK, History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The crossroads of civilizations, A.D. 250 to 750, 1996, UNESCO, B. A. Litvinsky, Ahmad Hasan Dani, 1–569, 9789231032110,weblink harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK

, Asatrian
, Garnik
, Etymological Dictionary of Persian
, Brill Publishers, Brill Academic Publishers
, Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, 12
, 2010
, 978-90-04-18341-4
, 23 May 2010
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 27 December 2010
, dead
, dmy-all
  • BOOK, Bleeck, Arthur Henry,weblink A concise grammar of the Persian language, 1857, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Bleeck, Arthur Henry,weblink A concise grammar of the Persian language: containing dialogues, reading lessons, and a vocabulary: together with a new plan for facilitating the study of languages, 1857, B. Quaritch, 206, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Bleeck, Arthur Henry,weblink A concise grammar of the Persian language, 1857, Oxford University, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Dahlén, Ashk, Modern persisk grammatik, Ferdosi International Publication, April 2014, 9789197988674, 2nd, 1st edition October 2010,weblink
  • BOOK, Logos Verlag, 978-3-8325-1620-8, Delshad, Farshid, Anthologia Persica, September 2007
  • BOOK, Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji,weblink The student's Persian and English dictionary, pronouncing, etymological, & explanatory, 1880, Irish Presbyterian Mission Press, 558, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji, SaÊ»dÄ«,weblink Second book of Persian, to which are added the Pandnámah of Shaikh Saádi and the Gulistán, chapter 1, together with vocabulary and short notes, 1880, Irish Presbyterian Mission Press, 2, 120, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji,weblink The Persian primer, being an elementary treatise on grammar, with exercises, 1879, Irish Presbyterian Mission Press, 94, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji,weblink A new grammar of the Persian tongue for the use of schools and colleges, 1875, Irish Presbyterian Mission Press, 84, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Forbes, Duncan,weblink A grammar of the Persian language: To which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a copious vocabulary, 1844, Printed for the author, sold by Allen & co., 2, 158, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Forbes, Duncan,weblink A grammar of the Persian language: To which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a copious vocabulary, 1844, Printed for the author, sold by Allen & co., 2, 114, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Forbes, Duncan,weblink A grammar of the Persian language: to which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a vocabulary, and translations, 1876, W.H. Allen, 238, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Forbes, Duncan,weblink A grammar of the Persian language: to which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a vocabulary, and translations, 1869, W.H. Allen & co., 4, 238, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Ibrâhîm, Muḥammad,weblink A grammar of the Persian language, 1841, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Jones, Sir William, William Jones (philologist),weblink A grammar of the Persian language, 1783, 3, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Jones, Sir William,weblink A grammar of the Persian language, 1797, 4, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Jones, Sir William,weblink A grammar of the Persian language, 1801, Murray and Highley, J. Sewell, 5, 194, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Jones, Sir William, Samuel Lee,weblink A grammar of the Persian language, 1823, Printed by W. Nicol, for Parbury, Allen, and co., 8, 230, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Jones, Sir William,weblink A grammar of the Persian language, Samuel Lee, 1828, Printed by W. Nicol, for Parbury, Allen, and Co., 9, 283, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Lazard, Gilbert, Grammaire du persan contemporain, Institut Français de Recherche en Iran, January 2006, 978-2909961378,weblink
  • BOOK, Lumsden, Matthew,weblink A grammar of the Persian language; comprising a portion of the elements of Arabic inflexion etc, 1810, Watley, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, illustrated, RoutledgeCurzon, 0-7007-1695-5, Mace, John, Persian Grammar: For Reference and Revision, 18 October 2002,
  • BOOK, Moises, Edward,weblink The Persian interpreter: in three parts: A grammar of the Persian language. Persian extracts, in prose and verse. A vocabulary: Persian and English, 1792, Printed by L. Hodgson, 143, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Palmer, Edward Henry, Edward Henry Palmer,weblink A concise dictionary, English-Persian; together with a simplified grammar of the Persian language. Completed and ed. by G. Le Strange, Guy Le Strange, 1883, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Palmer, Edward Henry, Edward Henry Palmer,weblink A concise dictionary, English-Persian: together with a simplified grammar of the Persian language, Guy Le Strange, 1883, Trübner, 42, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Platts, John Thompson,weblink A grammar of the Persian language ..., 1894, Williams and Norgate, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Ranking, George Speirs Alexander,weblink A primer of Persian: containing selections for reading and composition with the elements of syntax, 1907, The Claredon Press, 72, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Richardson, John,weblink A vocabulary, Persian, Arabic, and English: abridged from the quarto edition of Richardson's dictionary, Sir Charles Wilkins, David Hopkins, 1810, Printed for F. and C. Rivingson, 643, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Rosen, Friedrich, Nāṣir al-DÄ«n Shāh (Shah of Iran),weblink Modern Persian colloquial grammar: containing a short grammar, dialogues and extracts from Nasir-Eddin shah's diaries, tales, etc., and a vocabulary, 1898, Luzac & C.ÌŠ, 400, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, L. Reichert, 3-88226-413-6, Compendium linguarum Iranicarum, 1989, Rüdiger, Schmitt
  • BOOK, Sen, Ramdhun,weblink A dictionary in Persian and English, with pronunciation (ed. by M.C. Sen)., Madhub Chunder Sen, 1841, 2, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Sen, Ramdhun,weblink A dictionary in Persian and English, 1829, Printed for the author at the Baptist Mission Press, 226, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Sen, Ramdhun,weblink A dictionary in English and Persian, 1833, Printed at the Baptist Mission Press, 276, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Sen, Ramdhun,weblink A dictionary in English and Persian, 1833, 6 July 2011,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts, Prods Oktor, Skjærvø, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 2006, 13, Skjaervo2006
  • BOOK, 3rd Rev, Ibex Publishers, 0-936347-29-5, Thackston, W. M., An Introduction to Persian, 1 May 1993,weblink
  • BOOK, Tucker, William Thornhill,weblink A pocket dictionary of English and Persian, 1801, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Tucker, William Thornhill,weblink A pocket dictionary of English and Persian, 1850, J. Madden, 145, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, Tucker, William Thornhill,weblink A pocket dictionary of English and Persian, 1850, J. Madden, 145, 6 July 2011,
  • BOOK, 2, Routledge, 0-415-35339-4, Bernard Comrie, Windfuhr, Gernot L., The World's Major Languages, Persian, 15 January 2009
  • BOOK, Wollaston, (Sir) Arthur Naylor,weblink An English-Persian dictionary, 1882, W. H. Allen, 6 July 2011,

External links

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