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{{For|modern relations|Austria–Hungary relations}}{{Short description|Constitutional monarchic union between 1867 and 1918}}{{coord|48|12|N|16|21|E|source:kowiki|display=title}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2019}}

{{smallde{{native nameOsztrák-Magyar Monarchia}}}}}}|common_name=Austria–Hungary|era= New Imperialism{{*}}World War IAustro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867>1867 Compromise|year_start = 1867|date_start = 30 MarchDual Alliance (1879)>Dual Alliance|date_event1 = 7 October 1879|event2 = Bosnian Crisis|date_event2 = 6 October 1908Assassination of Franz Ferdinand}}|date_event3 = 28 June 1914Serbian Campaign of World War I>Invasion of Serbia |date_event4 = 28 July 1914Aster Revolution>Dissolution of Austria-Hungary|date_event5 = 31 October 1918Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919)>Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye10 September 1919}}Treaty of Trianon>Treaty of Trianon|date_event7 = 4 June 1920|life_span = 1867-1918|p1=Austrian Empire|p2=Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867){{!}}Kingdom of Hungary|flag_p1=Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg|flag_p2=Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg|s1=Republic of German-Austria|s2=First Hungarian Republic|s3=First Czechoslovak Republic|s4=Second Polish Republic|s5=Kingdom of Romania|s6=State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs{{!}}State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs|s7=Kingdom of Italy|flag_s1=Flag of Austria.svg|flag_s2=Flag of Hungary (1918-1919).svg|flag_s3=Flag of the Czech Republic.svg|flag_s4=Flag of Poland.svg|flag_s5=Flag of Romania.svg|flag_s6=Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.svg|flag_s7=Flag of Italy (1861-1946) crowned.svg|image_flag=Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svgAustria-Hungary#Flags and heraldry>Civil ensign{{efncivil ensign, as a symbol of "corporate identity", doubled as the consular flag, as decreed on 18 February 1869. It came into use on 1 August 1869. Legations, however, flew the black-and-yellow Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy>flag of Austria alongside the red-white-green flag of Hungary, while embassies flew the two national flags alongside the imperial standard.(:de:Rudolf Agstner|Rudolf Agstner), Austria(-Hungary) and Its Consulates in the United States of America since 1820 (LIT Verlag, 2012), p. 45.}}|image_coat=Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria.svg|symbol_type=Coat of arms|image_map=Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1914).svg|image_map_caption=Austria-Hungary on the eve of World War I|image_map2=File:Stielers Handatlas 1891 17.jpg|image_map2_caption=Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1878 and 1914 at its greatest exent (Stielers Handatlas)‘Indivisibly and inseparably’}}’God shall save, God shall protect‘}} ----Other spoken languages:Czech, Slovak, Yiddish, Slovene, Serbian, Bosnian, Polish, Romanian, Rusyn, Ukrainian, Carpathian Romani{{refn|From the Encyclopædia Britannica (1878), although note that this "Romani" refers to the language of those described by the EB as "Gypsies"; the EB{{'}}s "Romani or Wallachian" refers to what is today known as Romanian; Rosyn and Ukrainian correspond to dialects of what the EB refers to as "Ruthenian"; and Yiddish was the common language of the Austrian Jews, although Hebrew was also known by many.}}Catholic (incl. 64–66% Latin Church>Latin & 10–12% Eastern Catholic) 8.9% Protestantism>Protestant (Lutheranism, Calvinism>Reformed, Unitarianism) 8.7% Eastern Orthodox Church>Orthodox4.4% Jewish 1.3% Muslim{{small|(1910 censusGeographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde, 1911, Tabelle 3.)}}|capital=Vienna (Cisleithania)Budapest (Transleithania)|demonym=Austro-Hungarianconstitutional monarchy>Constitutional dual monarchyEmperor of Austria>Emperor-KingFranz Joseph I of Austria>Franz Joseph I|year_leader1=1867–1916Charles I of Austria>Charles I & IV|year_leader2=1916–1918List of Ministers-President of Austria#Austria-Hungary (1867–1918)>Minister-President of Austria|representative1=Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust|year_representative1=1867 (first)|representative2=Heinrich Lammasch |year_representative2=1918 (last)List of Prime Ministers of Hungary#Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (1867–1918)>Prime Minister of Hungary|deputy1=Gyula Andrássy |year_deputy1=1867–1871 (first)|deputy2=János Hadik|year_deputy2=1918 (last)|legislature=2 national legislaturesImperial Council (Austria)>Imperial CouncilHerrenhaus (Austria)>HerrenhausAbgeordnetenhaus|type_house2=Diet of HungaryHouse of Magnates of Hungary>House of Magnates{{nowrapHouse of Representatives of Hungary>House of Representatives}}|stat_pop1=52,800,000|stat_year1=1914|stat_year2=1905
  • Gulden (1867–1892)
  • Krone (1892–1918){edih}|iso3166code=omit|area_km2=|area_rank=|GDP_PPP=|GDP_PPP_year=|HDI=|HDI_year=|stat_area2={{convert|239,977|mi2|km2|2|abbr=|disp=number}}|ref_area2=BOOK,weblink Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, "Austria, Lower" to "Bacon" Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 1, English, 12 January 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2019, no, dmy-all, }}
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.The union was established by the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 on 30 March 1867 in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War. It consisted of two monarchies (Austria and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and Hungarian states were co-equal in power. Foreign and military affairs came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.Austria-Hungary was a multinational state and one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at {{convert|621538|km2|sqmi|sp=us|abbr=on}}, and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom.Schulze, Max-Stephan. Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria-Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century, p. 295. Peter Lang (Frankfurt), 1996. Austria-Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire.BOOK, Publishers' Association, Booksellers Association of Great Britain and Ireland, The Publisher, Volume 133, 355, 1930, BOOK, Contributors: Austria. Österreichische konsularische Vertretungsbehörden im Ausland, Austrian Information Service, New York, Austrian information, 17, 1965, After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina came under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian ruleMinahan, James. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, p. 48. until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers."EB1911, Kingsley Garland, Jayne, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 4, 279–286, The northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was also under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870–1914.- The Austrian occupation of Novibazar, 1878–1909 {{Webarchive|url= |date=22 April 2014 }} The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.NEWS,weblink Imperial Gazette −1912, IGGIO Islamische Glaubensgemeinschaft in Osterreich, 2011, 4 June 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2014, no, dmy-all, Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I, which began with an Austro-Hungarian war declaration on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Structure and name

The realm's official name was in ' and in ' (),Manuscript of Franz Joseph I. – Stephan Vajda, Felix Austria. Eine Geschichte Österreichs, Ueberreuter 1980, Vienna, {{ISBN|3-8000-3168-X}}, in German though in international relations Austria-Hungary was used (, ). The Austrians also used the names k. u. k. Monarchie ()Eva Philippoff-Die Doppelmonarchie Österreich-Ungarn. Ein politisches Lesebuch (1867–1918), Presses Univ. Septentrion, 2002, Villeneuve d’Ascq, {{ISBN|2-85939-739-6}}, ({{Google book|id=iJNlObrtF_cC |title=online|page=60}}) (in detail , )Michael Kotulla – Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: Vom Alten Reich bis Weimar, p§ 32 II, =2008 Springer, {{ISBN|978-3-540-48705-0}},weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=27 March 2019 }} and Danubian Monarchy (, ) or Dual Monarchy (, ) and The Double Eagle (, ), but none of these became widepsread either in Hungary, or elsewhere.The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen.German: Hungarian: The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire ("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania) and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania). Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence).Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement).(File:Pietzner, Carl (1853-1927) - Emperor Franz Josef I - ca 1885.jpg|thumb|left|Franz Joseph I (1885))The division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both.BOOK,weblink Austria-Hungary and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present, Eric, Roman, 401, Infobase Publishing, 2009, 9780816074693, 1 January 2013, BOOK,weblink The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003, 9780852299616, 1 January 2013, Encyclopaedia Britannica, This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.WEB,weblink Ferenc Tibor, Szávai, Könyvszemle (Book review): Kozári Monika: A dualista rendszer (1867–1918): Modern magyar politikai rendszerek, Magyar Tudomány, 2006/12, 1542, Hungarian, 20 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2013, no, dmy-all, BOOK,weblinkweblink yes, 7 December 2012, Ferenc, Szávai, Osztrák–magyar külügyi ingatlanok hovatartozása a Monarchia felbomlása után, Hungarian, 598, 2010, However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them.Antun Radić, "Hrvatski paÅ¡uÅ¡i (putnice)" Dom, 15 January 1903, page 11) It is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}}The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804."In 1804 Emperor Franz assumed the title of Emperor of Austria for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary formally became part of the Empire of Austria. The Court reassured the diet, however, that the assumption of the monarch's new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary." {{Citation|last=Laszlo|first=Péter|title=Hungary's Long Nineteenth Century: Constitutional and Democratic Traditions |publisher= Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, the Netherlands |year=2011|page=6}}The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848–49 Hungarian revolution) remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary (the Gubernium) – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna.Éva H. Balázs: Hungary and the Habsburgs, 1765–1800: An Experiment in Enlightened Absolutism. p. 320. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, and were reinstated after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867.Despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities.BOOK, European Review of Economic History, April 2006, 10, 1, Marc, Flandreau, B00440PZZC, 1361–4916, Cambridge University Press,weblink 3–33, 18 December 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 15 November 2013, no, dmy-all, Since the beginnings of the personal union (from 1527), the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separate and independent budget. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary obtained a separate budget.{{EB1911 |inline=1 |last=Briliant |first=Oscar |wstitle=Hungary|volume=13 |page=900}} From 1527 (the creation of the monarchic personal union) to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories.Richard L. Rudolph: Banking and Industrialization in Austria-Hungary: The Role of Banks in the Industrialization of the Czech Crownlands, 1873–1914, Cambridge University Press, 2008 (page 17) After 1867, the Austrian and Hungarian customs union agreement had to be renegotiated and stipulated every ten years. The agreements were renewed and signed by Vienna and Budapest at the end of every decade because both countries hoped to derive mutual economic benefit from the customs union. The Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary contracted their foreign commercial treaties independently of each other.EB1911, harv, Headlam, James Wycliffe, Austria-Hungary, 3, 2–39, Austria-Hungary was a great power but it contained a large number of ethnic groups that sought their own nation. The Dual Monarchy was effectively ruled by a coalition of the two most powerful and numerous ethnic groups, the Germans and the Hungarians. Stresses regarding nationalism were building up, and the severe shock of a poorly handled war caused the system to collapse.BOOK,weblink Disaster Ending in Final Victory: The Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Gaetano, Cavallaro, Gaetano Cavallaro, 2010, 201, 9781413468014, BOOK,weblink Researching World War I: A Handbook, Robin D. S., Higham, Dennis E., Showalter, 130, Greenwood, 2003, 9780313288500, Vienna served as the Monarchy's primary capital. The Cisleithanian (Austrian) part contained about 57 percent of the total population and the larger share of its economic resources, compared to the Hungarian part.{{anchor|Names}}Following a decision of Franz Joseph I in 1868, the realm bore the official name Austro-Hungarian Monarchy/Realm (; ) in its international relations. It was often contracted to the Dual Monarchy in English, or simply referred to as Austria.EB9, Kay, David, Austria, 3, 116–141,


{{History of Austria|boxwidth=200px|marginleft=0|marginright=0}}{{History of Hungary|boxwidth=200px|marginleft=0|marginright=0}}The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (called the Ausgleich in German and the Kiegyezés in Hungarian), which inaugurated the empire's dual structure in place of the former Austrian Empire (1804–1867), originated at a time when Austria had declined in strength and in power—both in the Italian Peninsula (as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence of 1859) and among the states of the German Confederation (it had been surpassed by Prussia as the dominant German-speaking power following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866).Kann (1974); Sked (1989); Taylor (1964) The Compromise re-establishedBOOK, André Gerrits, Dirk Jan Wolffram, Political Democracy and Ethnic Diversity in Modern European History, Stanford University Press, 2005, 42, 9780804749763,weblink the full sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, which was lost after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.Other factors in the constitutional changes were continued Hungarian dissatisfaction with rule from Vienna and increasing national consciousness on the part of other nationalities (or ethnicities) of the Austrian Empire. Hungarian dissatisfaction arose partly from Austria's suppression with Russian support of the Hungarian liberal revolution of 1848–49. However, dissatisfaction with Austrian rule had grown for many years within Hungary and had many other causes.By the late 1850s, a large number of Hungarians who had supported the 1848–49 revolution were willing to accept the Habsburg monarchy. They argued that while Hungary had the right to full internal independence, under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, foreign affairs and defense were "common" to both Austria and Hungary.{{harvnb|Kann|1974|pp=}}After the Austrian defeat at Königgrätz, the government realized it needed to reconcile with Hungary to regain the status of a great power. The new foreign minister, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust, wanted to conclude the stalemated negotiations with the Hungarians. To secure the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Hungarian nobility, led by Ferenc Deák, to ensure their support. In particular, Hungarian leaders demanded and received the Emperor's coronation as King of Hungary and the re-establishment of a separate parliament at Pest with powers to enact laws for the lands of the Holy Crown of Hungary.From 1867 onwards, the abbreviations heading the names of official institutions in Austria-Hungary reflected their responsibility: (' or Imperial and Royal) was the label for institutions common to both parts of the Monarchy, e.g. the ' (War Fleet) and, during the war, the ' (Army). There were three ' or joint ministries:
  • The Imperial and Royal Ministry of the Exterior and the Imperial House
  • The Imperial and Royal War Ministry
  • The Imperial and Royal Ministry of Finance
The last was responsible only for financing the Imperial and Royal household, the diplomatic service, the common army and the common war fleet. All other state functions were to be handled separately by each of the two states.{{harvnb|Taylor|1964|pp=}}From 1867 onwards, common expenditures were allocated 70% to Austria and 30% to Hungary. This split had to be negotiated every decade. By 1907, the Hungarian share had risen to 36.4%. The negotiations in 1917 ended with the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy.The common army changed its label from ' to ' only in 1889 at the request of the Hungarian government.


{{See also|Imperial Council (Austria)|Diet of Hungary}}There were three parts to the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire:Kann, A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918 (1974)
  1. the common foreign, military and a joint financial policy (only for diplomatic, military and naval expenditures) under the monarch
  2. the "Austrian" or Cisleithanian government
  3. the Hungarian government
{| align="center"| {{family tree/start}}{{family tree | | | AHu | | AHu=Austria-Hungary}}{{familytree | | |!| |!}}{{family tree | A | | Hu | A=Lands of the Austrian Imperial Council | Hu=Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen}}{{family tree | | | | |:| |:}}{{family tree | | | H | | C | H = Kingdom of Hungary | C = Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia}}{{family tree/end}} ← common emperor-king, common ministries ← entities ← partner states(File:Parlament Wien abends edit.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Austrian Parliament building)(File:Parliament Buildung Hungary 20090920.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Hungarian Parliament building)Hungary and Austria maintained separate parliaments each with its own prime minister. Linking/co-ordinating the two parliaments fell to a government under the monarch. In this sense Austria-Hungary remained under an autocratic government, as the Emperor-King appointed both Austrian and Hungarian Prime ministers along with their respective cabinets. This made both Governments responsible to the Emperor-King, as neither half could have a government with a program contrary to the views of the Monarch. The Emperor-King could appoint non-parliamentary governments, for example, or maintain in power a government which does not have a majority in Parliament to block the formation of another which he does not approve. The Monarch had other prerogatives such as the right of Royal Assent before any kind of Bill would be presented to the National Assembly (the common name for the Hungarian Diet), the right to veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and the power to prorogue or dissolve the Assembly and call to new elections (he had the same prerogatives considering the Croatian-Slavonian Diet or Croatian Parliament, the common name for the Croatian-Slavonian Diet). In the Austrian half, however, the Monarchs's power was even greater, as the Emperor had the power to both appoint and dismiss its Prime minister and cabinet members. The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union. Due to the lack of common law between Austria and Hungary, to conclude identical texts, each parliament elected 60 of its members to form a delegation that discussed motions of the Imperial and Royal ministries separately and worked towards a compromise.A common Ministerial Council ruled the common government: it comprised the three ministers for the joint responsibilities (joint finance, military, and foreign policy), the two prime ministers, some Archdukes and the monarch.{{harvnb|Sked|1989|pp=}} Two delegations of representatives (60–60 members), one each from the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, met separately and voted on the expenditures of the Common Ministerial Council giving the two governments influence in the common administration. However, the ministers ultimately answered only to the monarch who had the final decision on matters of foreign and military policy.Overlapping responsibilities between the joint ministries and the ministries of the two halves caused friction and inefficiencies. The armed forces suffered particularly from overlap. Although the unified government determined the overall military direction, the Austrian and Hungarian governments each remained in charge of recruiting, supplies and training. Each government could have a strong influence over common governmental responsibilities. Each half of the Dual Monarchy proved quite prepared to disrupt common operations to advance its own interests.Relations during the half-century after 1867 between the two parts of the dual monarchy featured repeated disputes over shared external tariff arrangements and over the financial contribution of each government to the common treasury. Under the terms of the "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867", an agreement renegotiated every ten years, determined these matters. There was political turmoil during the build-up to each renewal of the agreement. The disputes culminated in the early 1900s in a prolonged constitutional crisis. It was triggered by disagreement over which language to use for command in Hungarian army units, and deepened by the advent to power in Budapest in April 1906 of a Hungarian nationalist coalition. Provisional renewals of the common arrangements occurred in October 1907 and in November 1917 on the basis of the status quo.

Judicial system

Empire of Austria

{{Expand section|date=March 2013}}

Kingdom of Hungary

The judicial power was independent of the administrative power. After 1868 (Croatian–Hungarian Settlement), Croatia-Slavonia had its own independent judicial system (the Table of Seven was the court of last instance for Croatia-Slavonia with final civil and criminal jurisdiction). The judicial authorities in Hungary were:
  1. the district courts with single judges (458 in 1905);
  2. the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these were attached 15 jury courts for press offences. These were courts of first instance. In Croatia-Slavonia these were known as the court tables after 1874;
  3. Royal Tables (12 in number), which were courts of second instance, established at Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kassa, Kolozsvár, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pécs, Pressburg, Szeged, Temesvár and Ban's Table at Zagreb.
  4. The Royal Supreme Court at Budapest, and the Supreme Court of Justice, or Table of Seven, at Zagreb, which were the highest judicial authorities. There were also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.

Public administration and local governments

Empire of Austria

File:Otevření mostu 14. 6. 1904.jpg|thumb|Emperor Franz Joseph I visiting PraguePragueFile:Rząca_Tadeusz,_Rynek_Główny_w_Krakowie.jpg|thumb|Kraków, a historical Polish city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire where in 1870 authorities allowed the use of the Polish language in the Jagiellonian UniversityJagiellonian UniversityThe organization of the administrative system in the Austrian Empire was complicated by the fact that between the State and the purely local communal administration there intruded yet a third element, grounded in history, the territories (Länder). The State administration comprised all affairs having relation to rights, duties and interests "which are common to all territories"; all other administrative tasks were left to the territories. Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere.To this division of the work of administration corresponded a three-fold organization of the authorities: State, territorial and communal. The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration. The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care. Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible. The lowest administrative unit was the political sub-district (Bezirk) under an official (Bezirkshauptmann), who united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries according to their attributions.Side by side with the State administration certain Crown territory administrations also existed in the 17 Crown territories, carried on by selected honorary officials, having under them a staff of professional officials. Many branches of the territorial administration had great similarities with those of the State, so that their spheres of activity frequently overlapped and came into collision. This administrative "double track", as it was called, led, it is true, in many cases to lively emulation, but was on the whole highly extravagant. The evils of this complicated system are obvious, and easy to condemn. They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State – for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality – partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slavs, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system. Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform.Bienerth's last act as premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform. So early as 1904 Korber had declared a complete change in the principles of administration to be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working. After seven years of inaction, however, this imperial rescript was pitched in a far lower key. The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better. It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy. After a year had gone by it drew up "Proposals for the training of State officials". After another two years it had indeed brought to light carefully prepared material for study, which was of great scientific value; but its proposals. though politically of importance, did not provide any basis for reform on a large scale. And so when the World War broke out the commission dispersed without practical results, leaving behind it an imposing array of folio volumes of great scientific value. It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect."Austrian Empire" article of Encyclopædia Britannica 1911

Kingdom of Hungary

Administrative divisions and the counties of Hungary

File:Ferenc József koronázása Budán.jpg|thumb|right|Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth Amalie at Matthias Church, BudaBudaFrom 1867 the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown were in great measure remodelled. In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous. In 1873 part of the "Military Frontier" was united with Hungary proper and part with Croatia-Slavonia. Hungary proper, according to ancient usage, was generally divided into four great divisions or circles, and Transylvania up to 1876 was regarded as the fifth. In 1876 a general system of counties was introduced. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania forms one. The whole country is divided into the following counties:(a) The circle on the left bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: (1) Árva, (2) Bars, (3) Esztergom, (4) Hont, (5) Liptó, (6) Nógrád, (7) Nyitra, (8) Pozsony (9) Trencsén, (10) Túrócz and (11) Zólyom.(b) The circle on the right bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: Baranya, Fejér, Győr, Komárom, Moson, Somogy, Sopron, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém and Zala.(c) The circle between the Danube and Tisza contains five counties: Bács-Bodrog, Csongrád, Heves, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun.(d) The circle on the right bank of the Tisza contains eight counties: Abaúj-Torna, Bereg, Borsod, Gömör-es Kis-Hont, Sáros, Szepes, Ung, Zemplén.(e) The circle on the left bank of the Tisza contains eight counties: Békés, Bihar, Hajdú, Máramaros, Szabolcs, Szatmár, Szilágy and Ugocsa.(f) The circle between the Tisza and the Maros contains five counties: Arad, Csanád, Krassó-Szörény, Temes and Torontál.(g) Transylvania contains fifteen counties: Also-Fehér, Besztercze-Naszód, Brassó, Csík, Fogaras, Háromszek, Hunyad, Kis-Küküllő, Kolozs, Maros-Torda, Nagy-Küküllő, Szeben, Szolnok-Doboka, Torda-Aranyos and Udvarhely.Fiume town and district forms a separate division.Croatia-Slavonia is divided into eight counties: Bjelovar-Križevci, Lika-Krbava, Modrus-Fiume, Pozega, Srijemska, Varaždin, Virovitica and Zagreb.

Municipal rights of the biggest cities in Hungary

In regard to local government, the country was divided into municipalities or counties, which possessed a certain amount of self-government. Hungary proper was divided into sixty-three rural, and—including Fiume—twenty-six urban municipalities (see section on Administrative Divisions). These urban municipalities were towns which for their local government were independent of the counties in which they were situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns. The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body. Since 1876 each municipality had a council of twenty members to exercise control over its administration. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles.Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary had twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights. These were: Arad, Baja, Debreczen, Győr, Hódmezővásárhely, Kassa, Kecskemét, Kolozsvár, Komárom, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pancsova, Pécs, Pozsony, Selmecz- és Bélabanya, Sopron, Szabadka, Szatmárnémeti, Szeged, Székesfehervár, Temesvár, Újvidék, Versecz, Zombor, the town of Fiume and Budapest, the capital of the country.In Croatia-Slavonia there are four urban counties or towns with municipal rights namely: Osijek, Varaždin and Zagreb and Zemun.


{{See also|Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen}}(File:Political map of the Ausgleich.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Electoral districts of Austria and Hungary in the 1880s. On the map opposition districts are marked in different shades of red, ruling party districts are in different shades of green, independent districts are in white.)The first prime minister of Hungary after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871). The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary. Andrássy next served as the Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879).The Empire relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy.

Political struggles in the Empire

The traditional aristocracy and land-based gentry class gradually faced increasingly wealthy men of the cities, who achieved wealth through trade and industrialization. The urban middle and upper class tended to seek their own power and supported progressive movements in the aftermath of revolutions in Europe.As in the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire frequently used liberal economic policies and practices. From the 1860s, businessmen succeeded in industrializing parts of the Empire. Newly prosperous members of the bourgeoisie erected large homes, and began to take prominent roles in urban life that rivaled the aristocracy's. In the early period, they encouraged the government to seek foreign investment to build up infrastructure, such as railroads, in aid of industrialization, transportation and communications, and development.File:Manifestace za hlasovací právo 1905.jpg|thumb|Demonstration for universal right to vote in Prague, Bohemia, 1905]]The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe, the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893. Taaffe used a coalition of clergy, conservatives and Slavic parties to weaken the liberals. In Bohemia, for example, he authorized Czech as an official language of the bureaucracy and school system, thus breaking the German speakers' monopoly on holding office. Such reforms encouraged other ethnic groups to push for greater autonomy as well. By playing nationalities off one another, the government ensured the monarchy's central role in holding together competing interest groups in an era of rapid change.During the First World War, rising national sentiments and labour movements contributed to strikes, protests and civil unrest in the Empire. After the war, republican, national parties contributed to the disintegration and collapse of the monarchy in Austria and Hungary. Republics were established in Vienna and Budapest.BOOK, Aviel Roshwald, Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–23,weblink 2002, Taylor & Francis, 116, 9780203187722, Legislation to help the working class emerged from Catholic conservatives. They turned to social reform by using Swiss and German models and intervening in private industry. In Germany Chancellor Otto von Bismarck had used such policies to neutralize socialist promises. The Catholics studied the Swiss Factory Act of 1877 that limited working hours for everyone, and gave maternity benefits, and German laws that insured workers against industrial risks inherent in the workplace. These served as the basis for Austria's 1885 Trade Code Amendment.Margarete Grandner, "Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880–1890." Austrian History Yearbook 27 (1996): 77–107.

Heavy dominance of ethnic minority elected liberal parties in the Hungarian Parliament

The Austro-Hungarian compromise and its supporting parliamentary parties remained bitterly unpopular among the ethnic Hungarian voters, and the continuous successes of the pro-compromise liberal parties in the Hungarian parliamentary elections caused long lasting frustration among Hungarian voters. The ethnic minorities had the key-role in the political maintenance of the compromise in Hungary, because they were able to vote the pro-compromise liberal parties into the position of the majority/ruling parties of the Hungarian parliament. The pro-compromise liberal parties were the most popular among ethnic minority voters, however the Slovak Serb Romanian minority parties have remained unpopular among the ethnic minorities. The nationalist Hungarian parties - which were supported by the overwhelming majority of ethnic Hungarian voters - have always remained in the opposition. The only short exception was the 1906-1910 period, where the Hungarian supported nationalist parties could form András Gerő (2014): Nationalities and the Hungarian Parliament (1867-1918) LINK:weblink

Ethnic relations

{{see also|Trialism in Austria-Hungary|United States of Greater Austria|Magyarization|Austro-Slavism|Panslavism}}(File:Austria Hungary ethnic.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910)File:Meyers b12 s0486a.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Meyers Konversations-LexikonMeyers Konversations-Lexikon(File:Literacy in Austria-Hungary (1880).JPG|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Literacy in Austria-Hungary (census 1880))(File:Literacy in Hungary in the 1910s.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Literacy in Hungary by counties in 1910 (excluding Croatia))(File:Austria1914physical.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Austria-Hungary 1914, physical)In July 1849, the Hungarian Revolutionary Parliament proclaimed and enacted ethnic and minority rights (the next such laws were in Switzerland), but these were overturned after the Russian and Austrian armies crushed the Hungarian Revolution. After the Kingdom of Hungary reached the Compromise with the Habsburg Dynasty in 1867, one of the first acts of its restored Parliament was to pass a Law on Nationalities (Act Number XLIV of 1868). It was a liberal piece of legislation, and offered extensive language and cultural rights. It did not recognize non-Hungarians to have rights to form states with any territorial autonomy.The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867" created the personal union of the independent states of Hungary and Austria, linked under a common monarch also having joint institutions. The Hungarian majority asserted more of their identity within the Kingdom of Hungary, and it came to conflict with some of her own minorities. The imperial power of German speakers who controlled the Austrian half was resented by others. In addition, the emergence of nationalism in the newly independent Romania and Serbia also contributed to ethnic issues in the empire.Article 19 of the 1867 "Basic State Act" (Staatsgrundgesetz), valid only for the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary, said:") in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language (""), each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.{{sfn|Headlam|1911|p=39}}}}The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary". The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire. German nationalists, especially in the Sudetenland (part of Bohemia), looked to Berlin in the new German Empire.Solomon Wank and Barbara Jelavich, "The Impact of the Dual Alliance on the Germans in Austria and Vice-Versa," East Central Europe (1980) 7#2 pp 288–309 There was a German-speaking element in Austria proper (west of Vienna), but it did not display much sense of German nationalism. That is, it did not demand an independent state; rather it flourished by holding most of the high military and diplomatic offices in the Empire.Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" () by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages as equal to their own. On one occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Grün) entered the Diet of Carniola carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education.The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. From 1867, laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia. From 1882, there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola and in the capital Laibach (Ljubljana); they replaced German with Slovene as their primary official language. Galicia designated Polish instead of German in 1869 as the customary language of government.The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia, where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. The Czechs had lived primarily in Bohemia since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery in the 13th century. The constitution of 1627 made the German language a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno (Brünn)). The old Charles University in Prague, hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in 1882.At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians in Transylvania and in the eastern Banat, Slovaks in today's Slovakia, and Croats and Serbs in the crown lands of Croatia and of Dalmatia (today's Croatia), in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina (today's northern Serbia). The Romanians and the Serbs began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania (1859–1878) and Serbia.Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia in 1868. To some extent, they modeled their relationship to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria of the previous year. In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. In the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina many advocated the idea of a trialist Austro-Hungaro-Croatian monarchy; among the supporters of the idea were Archduke Leopold Salvator, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and emperor and king Charles I who during his short reign supported the trialist idea only to be vetoed by the Hungarian government and Count Istvan Tisza. The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October 1918.Budisavljević, SrÄ‘an, Stvaranje-Države-SHS, Creation of the state of SHS, Zagreb, 1958, p. 132–133.Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics. All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German. By the "Ordinance of 5 April 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire. The Crown dismissed Badeni.The Hungarian Minority Act of 1868 gave the minorities (Slovaks, Romanians, Serbs, et al.) individual (but not also communal) rights to use their language in offices, schools (although in practice often only in those founded by them and not by the state), courts and municipalities (if 20% of the deputies demanded it). From June 1907, all public and private schools in Hungary were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian. This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages.The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence. According to Misha Glenny in his book, The Balkans, 1804–1999, the Austrians responded to Hungarian support of Czechs by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb.In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke (and used) German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree.


missing image!
- Orthodox Jews in Leopoldstadt 1915.JPG -
Orthodox Jews from Galicia in Leopoldstadt, Vienna, 1915
Around 1900, Jews numbered about two million in the whole territory of the Austro-Hungarian Empire;BOOK, Vital, David, A People Apart: A Political History of the Jews in Europe 1789–1939, Oxford University Press, 299, 1999,weblink 978-0198219804, their position was ambiguous. Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but the governments of Vienna and Budapest did not initiate pogroms or implement official antisemitic policies.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}} They feared that such ethnic violence could ignite other ethnic minorities and escalate out of control. The antisemitic parties remained on the periphery of the political sphere due to their low popularity among voters in the parliamentary elections.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}In that period, the majority of Jews in Austria-Hungary lived in small towns (shtetls) in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary and Bohemia; however, they had large communities and even local majorities in the downtown districts of Vienna, Budapest and Prague. Of the pre-World War I military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews to positions of command.{{sfn|Rothenberg|1976|p=118}} While the Jewish population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy was about five percent, Jews made up nearly eighteen percent of the reserve officer corps.{{sfn|Rothenberg|1976|p=128}} Thanks to the modernity of the constitution and to the benevolence of emperor Franz Joseph, the Austrian Jews came to regard the era of Austria-Hungary as a golden era of their history.David S. Wyman, Charles H. Rosenzveig: The World Reacts to the Holocaust. (page 474) By 1910 about 900,000 religious Jews made up approximately 5% of the population of Hungary and about 23% of Budapest's citizenry. Jews accounted for 54% of commercial business owners, 85% of financial institution directors and owners in banking, and 62% of all employees in commerce,WEB,weblink Hungary – Social Changes,, 19 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2012, no, dmy-all, 20% of all general grammar school students, and 37% of all commercial scientific grammar school students, 31.9% of all engineering students, and 34.1% of all students in human faculties of the universities. Jews were accounted for 48.5% of all physicians,László Sebők (2012): The Jews in Hungary in the light of the numbers LINK: weblink and 49.4% of all lawyers/jurists in Hungary.Victor Karady and Peter Tibor Nagy: The numerus clausus in Hungary, Page: 42 LINK:weblink Note: The numbers of Jews were reconstructed from religious censuses. They did not include the people of Jewish origin who had converted to Christianity, or the number of atheists.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}} Among many Hungarian parliament members of Jewish origin, the most famous Jewish members in Hungarian political life were Vilmos Vázsonyi as Minister of Justice, Samu Hazai as Minister of War, János Teleszky as minister of finance and János Harkányi as minister of trade, and József Szterényi as minister of trade.

Foreign policy

{{see also|International relations (1814–1919)|Foreign Ministry of Austria-Hungary}}File:Sarajevo 1878..jpg|thumb|right|Bosnian Muslim resistance during the battle of Sarajevo in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian occupation.]]The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties.F.R. Bridge, From Sadowa to Sarajevo: The Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary 1866–1914 (1972)The Dual Monarchy was created in the wake of a losing war in 1866 with Prussia and Italy. To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust became foreign secretary. He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck, who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him. Beust looked to France and negotiated with Emperor Napoleon III and Italy for an anti-Prussian alliance. No terms could be reached. The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of 1870 with France and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired.JOURNAL, 4545476, Count Beust and Germany, 1866-1870: Reconquest, Realignment, or Resignation?, Central European History, 1, 1, 20–34, Schmitt, Hans A., 1968, 10.1017/S000893890001476X, After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans. Both Russia and Austria-Hungary saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Russia in particular took on the role of protector of Slavs and Orthodox Christians. Austria envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. Count Gyula Andrássy, a Hungarian who was Foreign Minister (1871 to 1879), made the centerpiece of his policy one of opposition to Russian expansion in the Balkans and blocking Serbian ambitions to dominate a new South Slav federation. He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia.William L. Langer, European Alliances and Alignments: 1871–1890 (2nd ed. 1950) p. 20When Russia defeated Turkey in a war the resulting Treaty of San Stefano was seen in Austria as much too favourable for Russia and its Orthodox-Slavic goals. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 let Austria occupy (but not annex) the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a predominantly Slavic area. In 1914, Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.Langer, European Alliances and Alignments: 1871–1890 pp. 138, 155–6, 163


File:BanknoteA-H.jpg|thumb|right|A 20-crown banknote of the Dual Monarchy, using all official and recognized languages except Hungarian]]File:Schwarzer Freitag Wien 1873.jpg|thumb|Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long DepressionLong DepressionThe Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire during its 50-year existences. Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The first Austrian stock exchange (the Wiener Börse) was opened in 1771 in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary (the Budapest Stock Exchange) was opened in Budapest in 1864. The central bank (Bank of issue) was founded as Austrian National Bank in 1816. In 1878, it transformed into Austro-Hungarian National Bank with principal offices in both Vienna and Budapest.WEB, Thomas, Barcsay, Banking in Hungarian Economic Development, 1867–1919, Ryeson Polytechnical Institute, 1991, 216,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 November 2014, yes, 28 August 2016, The central bank was governed by alternating Austrian or Hungarian governors and vice-governors.Peter F. Sugar, Péter Hanák: A History of Hungary (Publisher: Indiana University Press) Page: 262The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.76% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%). However, in a comparison with Germany and Britain, the Austro-Hungarian economy as a whole still lagged considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later. Like the German Empire, that of Austria-Hungary frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices. In 1873, the old Hungarian capital Buda and Óbuda (Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. Economic growth centered on Vienna and Budapest, the Austrian lands (areas of modern Austria), the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands. In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands. As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire. In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern. The Kingdom of Hungary became the world's second largest flour exporter after the United States.MAX-STEPHAN SCHULZE>TITLE=ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY'S MACHINE-BUILDING INDUSTRY IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURYYEAR=1996, 80, The large Hungarian food exports were not limited to neighbouring Germany and Italy: Hungary became the most important foreign food supplier of the large cities and industrial centres of the United Kingdom.Commercial Relations of the United States: Reports from the Consuls of the United States on the Commerce, Manufactures, Etc., of Their Consular Districts. Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881 (page: 371)However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western. The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary with the centre of Budapest became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe. Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries. This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union, led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century. However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution, but Hungary had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution, in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant.BOOK, Iván T., Berend, Iván T. Berend, Case Studies on Modern European Economy: Entrepreneurship, Inventions, and Institutions, Routledge, 2013, 151,weblink 9781135917685, The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry, locomotive industry and automotive industry, while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant. Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world.MAX-STEPHAN SCHULZE>TITLE=ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY'S MACHINE-BUILDING INDUSTRY IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURYYEAR=1996, 295, The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany (1910: 48% of all exports, 39% of all imports), and Great Britain (1910: almost 10% of all exports, 8% of all imports), the third most important partner was the United States, it followed by Russia, France, Switzerland, Romania, the Balkan states and South America. Trade with the geographically neighbouring Russia, however, had a relatively low weight (1910: 3% of all exports /mainly machinery for Russia, 7% of all imports /mainly raw materials from Russia).

Automotive industry

Prior to World War I, the Austrian Empire had five car manufacturer companies. These were: Austro-Daimler in Wiener-Neustadt (cars trucks, buses),Erik Eckermann: World History of the Automobile – Page 325 Gräf & Stift in Vienna (cars),Hans Seper: Die Brüder Gräf: Geschichte der Gräf & Stift-Automobile Laurin & Klement in Mladá Boleslav (motorcycles, cars),WEB,weblink Václav Laurin a Václav Klement, cs,weblink" title="">weblink 1 June 2004, Nesselsdorfer in Nesselsdorf (KopÅ™ivnice), Moravia (automobiles), and Lohner-Werke in Vienna (cars).Kurt Bauer (2003), Faszination des Fahrens: unterwegs mit Fahrrad, Motorrad und Automobil (in German), Böhlau Verlag Wien, Kleine Enzyklopädie des Fahrens, "Lohner", pp. 250–1 Austrian car production started in 1897.Prior to World War I, the Kingdom of Hungary had four car manufacturer companies. These were: the Ganz companyIván Boldizsár: NHQ; the New Hungarian Quarterly – Volume 16, Issue 2; Volume 16, Issues 59–60 – Page 128Hungarian Technical Abstracts: Magyar Műszaki Lapszemle – Volumes 10–13 – Page 41 in Budapest, RÁBA AutomobileJoseph H. Wherry: Automobiles of the World: The Story of the Development of the Automobile, with Many Rare Illustrations from a Score of Nations (Page:443) in GyÅ‘r, MÁG (later Magomobil)WEB,weblink The history of the biggest pre-War Hungarian car maker, 2 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2014, no, dmy-all, Commerce Reports Volume 4, page 223 (printed in 1927) in Budapest, and MARTA (Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad)G.N. Georgano: The New Encyclopedia of Motorcars, 1885 to the Present. S. 59. in Arad. Hungarian car production started in 1900. Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}

Aeronautic industry

The first airplane in Austria was Edvard Rusjan's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia on 25 November 1909.WEB,weblink Edvard Rusjan, Pioneer of Slovene Aviation, Republic of Slovenia – Government Communication Office, 13 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2015, no, dmy-all, The first Hungarian hydrogen filled experimental balloons were built by István Szabik and József Domin in 1784.The first Hungarian designed and produced airplane (powered by Hungarian built inline engine) was flown at Rákosmező on 4 NovemberWEB,weblink "Aircraft"(in Hungarian),, 25 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2017, no, dmy-all, 1909.The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA): History of Flight from Around the World {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 May 2014 }}: Hungary article. The earliest Hungarian radial engine powered airplane was built in 1913. Between 1913 and 1918, the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing. The three greatest: UFAG Hungarian Aircraft Factory (1914), Hungarian General Aircraft Factory (1916), Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft, Engine Factory at Aszód (1916),WEB,weblink Mária Kovács: Short History Of Hungarian Aviation, 5 May 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2013, no, dmy-all, and Marta in Arad (1914).WEB, Puskel Péter,weblink Az aradi autógyártás sikertörténetéből,, 9 April 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, no, dmy-all, During the First World War, fighter planes, bombers and reconnaissance planes were produced in these factories. The most important aeroengine factories were Weiss Manfred Works, GANZ Works, and Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad.

Locomotive engine and railway vehicle manufacturers

The locomotive (steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures) factories were installed in Vienna (Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company, founded in 1839), in Wiener Neustadt (New Vienna Locomotive Factory, founded in 1841), and in Floridsdorf (Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory, founded in 1869).{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}NEWS,weblink velocipedes,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2018, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Czechoslovak Foreign Trade, Volume 29, Rapid, Czechoslovak Advertising Agency, 1989, 6, BOOK, Iron Age, Volume 85, Issue 1, Chilton Company, 1910, 724–725, The Hungarian Locomotive (engines and wagons bridge and iron structures) factories were the MÁVAG company in Budapest (steam engines and wagons) and the Ganz company in Budapest (steam engines, wagons, the production of electric locomotives and electric trams started from 1894).WEB,weblink Hipo Hipo – Kálmán Kandó(1869–1931),, 29 January 2004, 25 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2013, no, dmy-all, and the RÁBA Company in Győr.


{{See also|Poverty in Austrian Galicia}}Galicia has been described as the poorest province of Austro-Hungary. The near constant famines in Galicia, resulting in 50,000 deaths a year, have been described as endemic.BOOK, Norman Davies, God's Playground A History of Poland: Volume II: 1795 to the Present,weblink 24 February 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-925340-1, 106–108, 17 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2014, no, dmy-all,


(File:Railway map Austria-Hungary.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Detailed railway and canal map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1910 without Bosnia-Herzegovina occupied 1879, annexed 1908.)(File:Railways Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary.jpg|thumb|300px|Railway network of Kingdom of Hungary in 1913, Red lines represents the Hungarian State Railways, blue, green and yellow lines were owned by private companies)File:Hydrography of the Pannonian basin before the river and lake regulations in the 19th century.jpg|thumb|300px|Hydrography of the Pannonian basinPannonian basinFile:Wagenfuhrer 1900 Vienna Adriatic Sea canal.jpg|thumb|300px|Plan (1900) to link the Danube and the Adriatic SeaAdriatic Sea(File:1896-17 vasút építkezés Klösz György.JPG|thumb|upright=1.35|right|The start of construction of the underground in Budapest (1894–1896))(File:KaiserFranzJoseph Schiff.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I (12,567 t) of the Austro-Americana company was the largest passenger ship ever built in Austria. Because of its control over the Littorals and much of the Balkans, Austria-Hungary had access to several seaports.)(File:Telefon Hirmondo - Stentor reading the day's news.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|A stentor reading the day's news in the Telefonhírmondó of Budapest)(File:A1TA 7097 Wandapp aus 1890 Postmuseum 1941.gif|thumb|upright=0.7|An Austrian public telephone in a rural post office, 1890)



By 1913, the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary reached {{convert|43,280|km|abbr=off}}. In Western Europe only Germany had more extended railway network ({{cvt|63,378|km|disp=comma}}); the Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France ({{cvt|40,770|km|disp=comma}}), the United Kingdom ({{cvt|32,623|km|disp=comma}}), Italy ({{cvt|18,873|km|disp=comma}}) and Spain ({{cvt|15,088|km|disp=comma}}).BOOK, Stephen Broadberry, Kevin H. O'Rourke, The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 80, 9781139489515,weblink

Railway network of the Austrian Empire

Rail transport expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its predecessor state, the Habsburg Empire, had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by 1841. Austria's first steam railway from Vienna to Moravia with its terminus in Galicia (Bochnie) was opened in 1839. The first train travelled from Vienna to Lundenburg (Břeclav) on 6 June 1839 and one month later between the imperial capital in Vienna and the capital of Moravia Brünn (Brno) on 7 July. At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction. Pozsony (Bratislava), Budapest, Prague, Kraków, Graz, Laibach (Ljubljana) and Venedig (Venice) became linked to the main network. By 1854, the empire had almost {{convert|2000|km|mi|sp=us|abbr=on}} of track, about 60–70% of it in state hands. The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the 1848 Revolution and of the Crimean War.From 1854 to 1879, private interests conducted almost all rail construction. What would become Cisleithania gained {{convert|7952|km|mi|sp=us|abbr=on}} of track, and Hungary built {{convert|5839|km|mi|sp=us|abbr=on}} of track. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections. This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area. Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers.After 1879, the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the 1870s. Between 1879 and 1900, more than {{convert|25000|km|mi|sp=us|abbr=on}} of railways were built in Cisleithania and Hungary. Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time. The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy. In 1914, of a total of {{convert|22981|km|2|sp=us|abbr=on}} of railway tracks in Austria, {{convert|18859|km|mi|sp=us|abbr=on}} (82%) were state owned.

Railway network in the Kingdom of Hungary

The first Hungarian steam locomotive railway line was opened on 15 July 1846 between Pest and Vác.Mikulas Teich, Roy Porter, The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA, p. 266. In 1890 most large Hungarian private railway companies were nationalized as a consequence of the poor management of private companies, except the strong Austrian-owned Kaschau-Oderberg Railway (KsOd) and the Austrian-Hungarian Southern Railway (SB/DV). They also joined the zone tariff system of the MÁV (Hungarian State Railways). By 1910, the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached {{convert|22,869|km|abbr=off}}, the Hungarian network linked more than 1,490 settlements. Nearly half (52%) of the empire's railways were built in Hungary, thus the railroad density there became higher than that of Cisleithania. This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world (ahead of countries as Germany or France).BOOK,weblink History Derailed: Central and Eastern Europe in the Long Nineteenth Century, Iván T. Berend, Hungarian, 152, University of California Press, 2003, 9780520232990,

Electrified railway lines of Hungary

Budapest (See: BHÉV):
  • Ráckeve line (1887),
  • Szentendre line (1888),
  • GödöllÅ‘ line (1888),
  • Csepel line (1912)István Tisza and László Kovács: A magyar állami, magán- és helyiérdekű vasúttársaságok fejlÅ‘dése 1876–1900 között, Magyar Vasúttörténet 2. kötet. Budapest: Közlekedési Dokumentációs Kft., 58–59, 83–84. o. {{ISBN|9635523130}} (1996)(English: The development of Hungarian private and state owned commuter railway companies between 1876 – 1900, Hungarian railway History Volume II.

Metropolitan transit systems

Tramway lines in the cities

Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century. Between the 1850s and 1880s many were built. Vienna (1865), Budapest (1866), Brno (1869). Steam trams appeared in the late 1860s. The electrification of tramways started from the late 1880s. The first electrified tramway in Austria-Hungary was built in Budapest in 1887.Electric tramway lines in the Austrian Empire:
  • Austria: Gmunden (1894); Linz, Vienna (1897); Graz (1898); Ljubljana (1901); Innsbruck (1905); Unterlach, Ybbs an der Donau (1907); Salzburg (1909); Klagenfurt, Sankt Pölten (1911); Piran (1912)
  • Austrian Littoral: Pula (1904).
  • Bohemia: Prague (1891); Teplice (1895); Liberec (1897); Ústí nad Labem, Plzeň, Olomouc (1899); Moravia, Brno, Jablonec nad Nisou (1900); Ostrava (1901); Mariánské LáznÄ› (1902); BudÄ›jovice, ÄŒeské BudÄ›jovice, Jihlava (1909)
  • Austrian Silesia: Opava (Troppau) (1905), Cieszyn (Cieszyn) (1911)
  • Dalmatia: Dubrovnik (1910)
  • Galicia: Lviv (1894), Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a (1895); Kraków (1901); Tarnów, Cieszyn (1911)Tramways in Austria: Book: Buckley, Richard (2000). Tramways and Light Railways of Switzerland and Austria (2nd edition), pp. 129–135 {{ISBN|0948106271}}.Tramways in Czech Republic: Book: Jan VinaÅ™ : Historické krovy (page 351)Tramways in Poland (including Galicia), Book: Arkadiusz KoÅ‚oÅ›, Uniwersytet JagielloÅ„ski. Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej: Rozwój przestrzenny a współczesne funkcjonowanie miejskiego transportu szynowego w Polsce (page: 19)
Electric tramway lines in the Kingdom of Hungary:
  • Hungary: Budapest (1887); Pressburg/Pozsony/Bratislava (1895); Szabadka/Subotica, Szombathely, Miskolc (1897); Temesvár/TimiÈ™oara (1899); Sopron (1900); Szatmárnémeti/Satu Mare (1900); Nyíregyháza (1905); Nagyszeben/Sibiu (1905); Nagyvárad/Oradea (1906); Szeged (1908); Debrecen (1911); Újvidék/Novi Sad (1911); Kassa/KoÅ¡ice (1913); Pécs (1913)
  • Croatia: Fiume (1899); Pula (1904); Opatija – Lovran (1908); Zagreb (1910); Dubrovnik (1910).History of Public Transport in Hungary. Book: Zsuzsa Frisnyák: A magyarországi közlekedés krónikája, 1750–2000Tramways in Croatia: Book: Vlado Puljiz, Gojko Bežovan, Teo Matković, dr. Zoran Å ućur, SiniÅ¡a Zrinščak: Socijalna politika HrvatskeWEB,weblink Trams and Tramways in Romania – TimiÈ™oara, Arad, Bucharest,, 19 August 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2013, no, dmy-all, Tramways in Slovakia: Book: Július Bartl: Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon – p. 112


The Budapest metro Line 1 (originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company") is the second oldest underground railway in the worldKogan Page: Europe Review 2003/2004, fifth edition, Wolden Publishing Ltd, 2003, page 174 (the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line and the third being Glasgow), and the first on the European mainland. It was built from 1894 to 1896 and opened on 2 May 1896.WEB,weblink The History of BKV, Part 1,, 22 November 1918, 25 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2013, no, dmy-all, In 2002, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.WEB,weblink UNESCO World Heritage Centre – World Heritage Committee Inscribes 9 New Sites on the World Heritage List, UNESCO World Heritage Centre,, 10 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2009, no, dmy-all,

Canals and river regulations

In 1900 the engineer C. Wagenführer drew up plans to link the Danube and the Adriatic Sea by a canal from Vienna to Trieste. It was born from the desire of Austria-Hungary to have a direct link to the Adriatic SeaBOOK,weblink Emona: Myth and Reality, Irena, Žmuc, 63, Sustained Interest, Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana; City Museum of Ljubljana, Bernarda, Županek, 2010, 9789616509206, 19 June 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 5 November 2013, yes, but was never constructed.

Regulation of the lower Danube and the Iron Gates

In 1831 a plan had already been drafted to make the passage navigable, at the initiative of the Hungarian politician István Széchenyi. Finally Gábor Baross, Hungary's "Iron Minister", succeeded in financing this project. The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping. In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Near the actual "Iron Gates" strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until 1896: the river widened considerably here and the water level was consequently low. Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious.

Regulation of the Tisza River

The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be {{convert|1419|km|abbr=off}}. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "regulation of the Tisza" (Hungarian: a Tisza szabályozása) which started on 27 August 1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary was {{convert|966|km|abbr=on}} ({{convert|1358|km|abbr=on}} total), with {{convert|589|km|abbr=on}} of "dead channels" and {{convert|136|km|abbr=on}} of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises {{convert|2940|km|abbr=on}} (out of {{convert|4220|km|abbr=on}} of all Hungarian protected rivers).

Shipping and ports

File:Ragusa, the Inner Gate, Dalmatia, Austro-Hungary-LCCN2002710786.jpg|thumb|Dubrovnik, Kingdom of DalmatiaKingdom of DalmatiaThe first Hungarian steamship was built by Antal Bernhard in 1817, called S.S. Carolina. It was also the first steamship in Habsburg ruled states.Iván Wisnovszky, Study trip to the Danube Bend, Hydraulic Documentation and Information Centre, 1971, p. 13 However it was Count István Széchenyi (with the help of Austrian ship's company Erste Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft (DDSG)), who established the Óbuda Shipyard on the Hungarian Hajógyári Island in 1835, which was the first industrial scale steamship building company in the Habsburg Empire.Victor-L. Tapie, The Rise and Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy p. 267The most important seaport was Trieste (today part of Italy), where the Austrian merchant marine was based. Two major shipping companies (Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana) and several shipyards were located there. The k.u.k. navy used the port's shipyards to build new ships for the navy. This port grew as Venice declined. From 1815 to 1866, Venice was included within the monarchy: it was prevented from competing with Austrian-ruled ports. The merchant marine did not develop until Venice's shipping interest declined. The navy became significant during the time of the k.u.k. monarchy as industrialization provided sufficient revenues to develop it.The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k.u.k. was Fiume (Rijeka, today part of Croatia), where the Hungarian shipping companies, such as the Adria, operated. The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius.Another significant seaport was Pola (Pula, today part of Croatia) – especially for the navy. In 1889, the Austrian merchant marine consisted of 10,022 ships, with 7,992 fishing vessels. The coast and sea trade had a total of 1,859 sailboats with crews of 6,489 men and a load capacity of 140,838 tons; and 171 steamers with a load capacity of 96,323 tons and a crew of 3,199 men.The first Danubian steamer company, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt-Gesellschaft (DDSG), was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.u.k. The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers. The Austro-Americana owned one third of them, including the biggest Austrian passenger ship, the SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I. In comparison to the Austrian Lloyd, the Austro-American concentrated on destinations in North and South America.



In 1847, the first telegraph connection (Vienna – Brno – Prague) started operation.Paula Sutter Fichtner: Historical Dictionary of Austria (p. 69) The first telegraph station on Hungarian territory was opened in December 1847 in Pressburg/ Pozsony /Bratislava/. In 1848, during the Hungarian Revolution, another telegraph centre was built in Buda to connect the most important governmental centres. The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest–Buda (later Budapest) was constructed in 1850,WEB,weblink Google Drive – MegtekintÅ‘, 25 March 2013, {{dead link|date=July 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} and Vienna–Zagreb in 1850.WEB,weblink Telegraph Vienna-Zagreb, Croatian, 11 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2016, no, dmy-all, Austria joined a telegraph union with German states.Kiesewetter, Herbert: Industrielle Revolution in Deutschland. Regionen als Wachstumsmotoren. Stuttgart, Franz Steiner 2004, {{ISBN|3515086137}}, p. 246.

Austrian Empire

{{Expand section|date=January 2013}}

Kingdom of Hungary

In 1884, 2,406 telegraph post offices operated in the Kingdom of Hungary.WEB,weblink Telegráf – Lexikon,, 25 March 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2014, no, dmy-all, By 1914 the number of telegraph offices reached 3,000 in post offices and further 2,400 were installed in the railway stations of the Kingdom of Hungary.Dániel Szabó, Zoltán Fónagy, István Szathmári, Tünde Császtvay: Kettős kötődés : Az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia (1867–1918)|weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=31 July 2013 }}


The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb (8 January 1881),Museum of Moslavina Kutina, Jasmina Uroda Kutlić: 'Telefon – čudo Novoga vijeka' (Telephone the miracle of Modern era)WEB,weblink 125 godina telefonije u Hrvatskoj (125 years of Telephony in Croatia), Croatian, 11 March 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2016, yes, HT Muzej (Croatian Telecom Museum): '125 godina telefonije u Hrvatskoj' (125 years of Telephony in Croatia), Zagreb 2006., P.-2, the second was in Budapest (1 May 1881),Telephone History Institute: Telecom History – Issue 1 – Page 14 and the third was opened in Vienna (3 June 1881).Thomas Derdak, Adéle Hast: International Directory of Company Histories – Volume 5 – Page 315 Initially telephony was available in the homes of individual subscribers, companies and offices. Public telephone stations appeared in the 1890s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations. Austria-Hungary had 568 million telephone calls in 1913; only two Western European countries had more phone calls: the German Empire and the United Kingdom. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France with 396 million telephone calls and Italy with 230 million phone calls.See the above cited book: Stephen Broadberry and Kevin H. O'Rourke: The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, page: 80

Austrian Empire

{{Expand section|date=January 2013}}In 1916, there were 366 million telephone calls in the Austrian half of the monarchy, among them 8.4 million long distant calls.Brousek; Karl M.: Die Großindustrie Böhmens 1848–1918, München: Oldenbourg 1987, {{ISBN|9783486518719}}, p. 31.

Kingdom of Hungary

All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Kingdom of Hungary were linked until 1893.By 1914, more than 2000 settlements had telephone exchange in Kingdom of Hungary.

Electronic broadcasting

The Telefon Hírmondó (Telephone Herald) news and entertainment service was introduced in Budapest in 1893. Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sport news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest daily. It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system.


The following data is based on the official Austro-Hungarian census conducted in 1910.

Population and area{| class"wikitable"

! Area! Territory (km2)! Population| 28,571,934 (≈57.8% of Austria-Hungary)| 20,886,487 (≈42.2% of Austria-Hungary)| 1,931,802PUBLISHER=MTHOLYOKE.EDU ACCESSDATE=9 APRIL 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=23 APRIL 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, 8,403 135,000(File:Nagy Géza-Nemes Mihály A magyar viseletek története 1900.jpg|thumb|Traditional costumes in Hungary, late 19th century)


In Austria (Cisleithania), the census of 1910 recorded Umgangssprache, everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache, even when having a different Muttersprache. 36.8% of the total population spoke German as their native language, and more than 71% of the inhabitants spoke some German.In Hungary (Transleithania), the census was based primarily on mother tongue,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 4 February 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 22 July 2018, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink 1910. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS 1. A népesség főbb adatai községek és népesebb puszták, telepek szerint (1912) | Könyvtár | Hungaricana,, 48.1% of the total population spoke Hungarian as their native language. Not counting autonomous Croatia-Slavonia, more than 54.4% of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary were native speakers of Hungarian (this included also the Jews – around 5% of the population -, as mostly they were Hungarian-speaking).WEB,weblink Archived copy, 6 February 2019,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2019, no, dmy-all, A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948.Note that some languages were considered dialects of more widely spoken languages. For example: in the census, Rhaeto-Romance languages were counted as "Italian". Yiddish was counted as "German" in both Austria and Hungary.{| class="infobox" style="width:180px;"! colspan="2" style="background:#bce;"| Linguistic distributionof Austria-Hungary as a whole| 24%| 20%| 13%| 10%| 8%| 6%| 5%| 4%| 4%| 3%| 3%{| class="wikitable"
| align=right |12,006,521
| align=right |23.36
| align=right |10,056,315
| align=right |19.57
| align=right |6,442,133
| align=right |12.54
| align="right" |5,621,797
| align="right" |10.94
| align=right |4,976,804
| align=right |9.68
|Ruthenian and Ukrainian
| align=right |3,997,831
| align=right |7.78
| align=right |3,224,147
| align=right |6.27
| align=right |1,967,970
| align=right |3.83
| align=right |1,255,620
| align=right |2.44
| align=right |768,422
| align=right |1.50
| align=right |1,072,663
| align=right |2.09
| align=right |51,390,223
| align=right |100.00
|}File:Emil Rau - A Summer’s Day in Tyrol.jpg|thumb|Traditional costumes of TyrolTyrol File:FRIEDBERG Salomon Emanuel – vojenská paráda v Praze (1900).jpg|thumb|Parade in Prague, Kingdom of BohemiaKingdom of Bohemia{| class="wikitable"weblink 17 November 2016, no, dmy-all,
! Land! colspan=2 | Most common language! colspan=6 | Other languages (more than 2%)Kingdom of Bohemia>Bohemia| 63.2%Czech language>Czech| 36.45% (2,467,724)| GermanKingdom of Dalmatia>Dalmatia| 96.2%| Serbo-Croatian|  2.8%| ItalianKingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria>Galicia| 58.6%| Polish| 40.2%Ukrainian language>Ukrainian|  1.1%| German| Lower Austria| 95.9%| German|  3.8%| Czech| Upper Austria| 99.7%| German|  0.2%| Czech| Bukovina| 38.4%| Ukrainian| 34.4%Romanian language>Romanian| 21.2%| German|  4.6%| PolishDuchy of Carinthia>Carinthia| 78.6%| German| 21.2%Slovene language>SloveneDuchy of Carniola>Carniola| 94.4%| Slovene|  5.4%| GermanDuchy of Salzburg>Salzburg| 99.7%| German|  0.1%| CzechAustrian Silesia>Silesia| 43.9%| German| 31.7%| Polish| 24.3%| CzechDuchy of Styria>Styria| 70.5%| German| 29.4%| SloveneMargraviate of Moravia>Moravia| 71.8%| Czech| 27.6%| German|   0.6%| Polish| Gorizia and Gradisca| 59.3%| Slovene| 34.5%| Italian|  1.7%| German| Trieste| 51.9%| Italian| 24.8%| Slovene|  5.2%| German|  1.0%| Serbo-CroatianMargraviate of Istria>Istria| 41.6%| Serbo-Croatian| 36.5%| Italian| 13.7%| Slovene|  3.3%| GermanCounty of Tyrol>Tyrol| 57.3%| German| 42.1%| Italian| Vorarlberg| 95.4%| German|  4.4%| Italian
missing image!
- Cumania-Jazygia-1700s.png -
Cumans and Jasz people preserved their regional autonomy (Cumania and Jazygia) until 1876.
{| class="wikitable"|+Mother tongues in Transleithania (Hungary) (1910 census)! rowspan=2|Language! colspan=2 |Hungary proper! colspan=2 |Croatia-Slavonia! speakers! % of population! speakers! % of population| Hungarian| 9,944,627| 54.5%| 105,948| 4.1%| Romanian| 2,948,186| 16.0%| 846|

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