African Americans

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African Americans
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{{About|the U.S. population of Americans of Sub-Saharan African ancestry|the population of recent African origins|African immigration to the United States|the African diaspora throughout the Americas|African diaspora in the Americas}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{short description|Racial or ethnic group in the United States with African ancestry}}

12.7% of the total U.S. population (2017) 39,445,495 non-Hispaniweblink of the total U.S. population (2017weblinkSouthern United States>South and urban areas(American English, African-American English)}}Louisiana Creole FrenchGullah language>Gullah Creole EnglishProtestantism>Protestant (71%) {{longlinkCatholic Church>Catholic (5%), Jehovah's Witnesses (2%), Islam in the United States (2%); Irreligion>Irreligious or unaffiliated (18%)}}HTTPS://WWW.PEWFORUM.ORG/RELIGIOUS-LANDSCAPE-STUDY/COMPARE/RELIGIOUS-TRADITION/BY/RACIAL-AND-ETHNIC-COMPOSITION/ >TITLE=RELIGIOUS TRADITION BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2014) PEW RESEARCH CENTER>THE PEW FORUM ON RELIGION & PUBLIC LIFE, April 5, 2019, Black Hispanic and Latino Americans}} {{longlinkAfrican diaspora in the Americas}} {{hlist>Afro-CaribbeanBlack Canadians>Sierra Leone Creole people}}{{hlistAmerico-Liberians>Afro-Latin Americans}}}}{{African American topics sidebar}}African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans)BOOK, Cornel West, West, Cornel, The Paradox of Afro-American Rebellion, 44–58, The 60s Without Apology, 1985, Sohnya, Sayres, Anders, Stephanson, Stanley, Aronowitz, Fredric, 3, Jameson, University of Minnesota Press, 978-0-8166-1337-3, are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa."The Black Population: 2010" (PDF),, September 2011. "Black or African Americans" refers to a person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. The Black racial category includes people who marked the "Black, African Am., or Negro" checkbox. It also includes respondents who reported entries such as African American; Sub-Saharan African entries, such as Kenyan and Nigerian; and Afro-Caribbean entries, such as Haitian and Jamaican."African Americans Law & Legal Definition: "African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa. In the United States, the terms are generally used for Americans with at least partial Sub-Saharan African ancestry." The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.BOOK, Carol Lynn Martin, Richard Fabes, Discovering Child Development, 2008, Cengage Learning, 978-1111808112, 19,weblink October 25, 2014, most (but not all) Americans of African descent are grouped racially as Black; however, the term African American refers to an ethnic group, most often to people whose ancestors experienced slavery in the United States (Soberon, 1996). Thus, not all Blacks in the United States are African-American (for example, some are from Haiti and others are from the Caribbean)., BOOK, Don C. Locke, Deryl F. Bailey, Increasing Multicultural Understanding, 2013, SAGE Publications, 978-1483314211, 106,weblink March 7, 2018, African American refers to descendants of enslaved Black people who are from the United States. The reason we use an entire continent (Africa) instead of a country (e.g., Irish American) is because slave masters purposefully obliterated tribal ancestry, language, and family units in order to destroy the spirit of the people they enslaved, thereby making it impossible for their descendants to trace their history prior to being born into slavery., African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans).WEB, American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau,weblink United States â€“ QT-P4. Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2000,, January 20, 2011, Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States.Gomez, Michael A: Exchanging Our Country Marks: The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and Antebellum South, p. 29. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1998.BOOK, The River Flows On: Black resistance, culture, and identity formation in early America, Walter C., Rucker, LSU Press, 2006, 978-0-8071-3109-1,weblink 126, On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry.BOOK, In Search of Our Roots: How 19 Extraordinary African Americans Reclaimed Their Past, Gates, Henry Louis Jr, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., New York: Crown Publishing, 2009, 20–21, According to U.S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities (≈95%).WEB, Kusow, AM, African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action,weblink Iowa State University, May 16, 2016, Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.WEB,weblink The size and regional distribution of the black population, October 1, 2007, Lewis Mumford Center,weblink October 12, 2007, African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, and in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, and the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865.NEWS, How the end of slavery led to starvation and death for millions of black Americans,weblink The Guardian, October 8, 2015, Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men of property could vote.BOOK, Schultz, Jeffrey D., Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans,weblink 284, 2002, October 8, 2015, 9781573561488, Leland T. Saito (1998). "Race and Politics: Asian Americans, Latinos, and Whites in a Los Angeles Suburb". p. 154. University of Illinois Press These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.NEWS, Barack Obama to be America's first black president,weblink The Guardian, November 5, 2008, February 19, 2016, 0261-3077, Ewen, MacAskill, Suzanne, Goldenberg, Elana, Schor,


Colonial era

The first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony (most likely located in the Winyah Bay area of present-day South Carolina), founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526.JOURNAL, Robert Wright, Richard, Richard Robert Wright, 1941, Negro Companions of the Spanish Explorers, Phylon, 2, 4, The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine (Spanish Florida), is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.{{citation|url=|title=Luisa de Abrego: Marriage, Bigamy, and the Spanish Inquisition|publisher=University of Southern Florida|author=J. Michael Francis, PhD}}The ill-fated colony was almost immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned. The settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence they had come.The first recorded Africans in British North America (including most of the future United States) were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants.BOOK, Frank E., Grizzard Jr., Frank E. Grizzard, Jr., D. Boyd, Smith, Jamestown Colony: A Political, Social, and Cultural History, 2007, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif., 978-1-85109-637-4, 198, As English settlers died from harsh conditions, more and more Africans were brought to work as laborers.BOOK, Betty, Wood, The Origins of American Slavery: Freedom and Bondage in the English Colonies, 1997, Hill and Wang, New York, 978-0-8090-1608-2, Tobacco Slaves: The Chesapeake Colonies, 68–93, (File:1670 virginia tobacco slaves.jpg|thumb|Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia, illustration from 1670)An indentured servant (who could be white or black) would work for several years (usually four to seven) without wages. The status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, and on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", and a small cash payment called "freedom dues".MAGAZINE, Tim, Hashaw, The First Black Americans,weblink U.S. News & World Report, January 21, 2007, February 13, 2008, dead,weblink February 2, 2011, Africans could legally raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink The shaping of Black America: forthcoming 400th celebration,, June 26, 2006, January 20, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 5, 2008, dead, mdy-all, They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers.WEB,weblink The First Black Americans â€“ U.S. News & World Report,, January 29, 2007, January 20, 2011,weblink February 2, 2011, dead, File:First Slave Auction 1655 Howard Pyle.jpg|thumb|upright|The first slave auction at New Amsterdam in 1655, illustration from 1895 by Howard PyleWEB, New Netherland Institute :: Slave Trade,weblink, New Netherland InstituteNew Netherland InstituteBy the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away.BOOK, White Over Black: American attitudes Toward the Negro, 1550–1812, Winthrop, Jordan, University of North Carolina Press, 1968, 978-0807871416, BOOK, In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period, A. Leon, Higginbotham, Greenwood Press, 1975,weblink 9780195027457, In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, and their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos. The Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism. Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves also reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683.{{citation|url=|title=Sanctuary in the Spanish Empire: An African American officer earns freedom in Florida|author=Gene Allen Smith, Texas Christian University|publisher=National Park Service}}One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would later own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case.John Henderson Russell, The Free Negro In Virginia, 1619–1865, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1913, pp. 29–30, scanned text online.BOOK, Frank W. Sweet, Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule,weblink July 2005, Backintyme, 978-0-939479-23-8, 117, The popular conception of a race-based slave system did not fully develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam (present-day New York City). All the colony's slaves, however, were freed upon its surrender to the British.{{Citation|last=Hodges|first=Russel Graham|title=Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863|place=Chapel Hill, North Carolina |publisher=University of North Carolina Press|year=1999|edition=|url=|id=|isbn=|quote=}}File:Slave Auction Ad.jpg|thumb|upright|Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769.]]Massachusetts was the first British colony to legally recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women (who were of African descent and thus foreigners) took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law. This principle was called partus sequitur ventrum.Taunya Lovell Banks, "Dangerous Woman: Elizabeth Key's Freedom Suit – Subjecthood and Racialized Identity in Seventeenth Century Colonial Virginia", 41 Akron Law Review 799 (2008), Digital Commons Law, University of Maryland Law School, accessed April 21, 2009PBS. Africans in America: the Terrible Transformation. "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." Accessed September 13, 2011.By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported, virtually defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the colony.William J. Wood, "The Illegal Beginning of American Slavery", ABA Journal, 1970, American Bar Association In 1670, the colonial assembly passed a law prohibiting free and baptized negroes (and Indians) from purchasing Christians (in this act meaning English or European whites) but allowing them to buy people "of their owne nation".JOURNAL, Colored Freemen as Slave Owners in Virginia, John H., Russell, Journal of Negro History, June 1916, 1, 3, 233–242, 10.2307/3035621, 3035621, In the Spanish Louisiana although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others.weblink{{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Berquist, Emily. Early Anti-Slavery Sentiment in the Spanish Atlantic World, 1765–1817 Although some did not have the money to buy their freedom that government measures on slavery allowed a high number of free blacks. That brought problems to the Spaniards with the French Creoles who also populated Spanish Louisiana, French creoles cited that measure as one of the system's worst elements.{{citation|url=||title=Slavery in Spanish Colonial Louisiana|access-date=July 21, 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=July 21, 2018|url-status=dead}} In spite of that, there was a greater number of slaves as the years passed, as also the entire Spanish Louisiana population increased.The earliest African-American congregations and churches were organized before 1800 in both northern and southern cities following the Great Awakening. By 1775, Africans made up 20% of the population in the American colonies, which made them the second largest ethnic group after the English.WEB,weblink Scots to Colonial North Carolina Before 1775,, April 20, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink February 19, 2012, dead, mdy-all,

From the American Revolution to the Civil War

File:Crispus Attucks.jpg|thumb|upright|Crispus Attucks, the first "martyr" of the American Revolution. He was of Native American and African-American descent.]]During the 1770s, Africans, both enslaved and free, helped rebellious English colonists secure American independence by defeating the British in the American Revolution.WEB,weblink African Americans in the American Revolution,, June 6, 1999, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 14, 2011, Africans and Englishmen fought side by side and were fully integrated.WEB,weblink,, January 20, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2011, dead, mdy-all, Blacks played a role in both sides in the American Revolution. Activists in the Patriot cause included James Armistead, Prince Whipple and Oliver Cromwell.Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the American revolution (1961).In the Spanish Louisiana, Governor Bernardo de Gálvez organized Spanish free blackmen into two militia companies to defend New Orleans during the American Revolution. They fought in the 1779 battle in which Spain took Baton Rouge from the British. Gálvez also commanded them in campaigns against the British outposts in Mobile, Alabama, and Pensacola, Florida, he recruited slaves for the militia by pledging to free anyone who was seriously wounded and promised to secure a low price for coartación (buy their freedom and that of others) for those who received lesser wounds. During the 1790s, Governor Francisco Luis Héctor, baron of Carondelet reinforced local fortifications and recruit even more free blackmen for the militia. Carondelet doubled the number of free blackmen who served, creating two more militia companies—one made up of black members and the other of pardo (mixed race). Serving in the militia brought free blackmen one step closer to equality with whites, allowing them, for example, the right to carry arms and boosting their earning power. However actually these privileges distanced free blackmen from enslaved blacks and encouraged them to identify with whites.Slavery had been tacitly enshrined in the U.S. Constitution through provisions such as Article I, Section 2, Clause 3, commonly known as the 3/5 compromise. Slavery, which by then meant almost exclusively African Americans, was the most important political issue in the antebellum United States, leading to one crisis after another. Among these were the Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act, and the Dred Scott decision.File:Frederick Douglass by Samuel J Miller, 1847-52.png|thumb|upright|left|Frederick DouglassFrederick DouglassPrior to the Civil War, eight serving presidents owned slaves, a practice protected by the U.S. Constitution.BOOK, Calore, Paul, The Causes of the Civil War: The Political, Cultural, Economic and Territorial Disputes between North and South, 2008, McFarland, 10, By 1860, there were 3.5 to 4.4 million enslaved blacks in the U.S. due to the Atlantic slave trade, and another 488,000–500,000 African Americans lived free (with legislated limits)"Background on conflict in Liberia", Friends Committee on National Legislation, July 30, 2003 {{webarchive |url= |date=February 14, 2007 }} across the country.BOOK, P Sukumar Nair, Human Rights In A Changing World,weblink January 1, 2011, Gyan Publishing House, 978-81-7835-901-4, 111, BOOK, Edmund Terence Gomez, Ralph Premdas, Affirmative Action, Ethnicity and Conflict,weblink Routledge, 978-0-415-64506-5, 48, With legislated limits imposed upon them in addition to "unconquerable prejudice" from whites according to Henry Clay,Maggie Montesinos Sale (1997). The Slumbering Volcano: American Slave Ship Revolts and the Production of Rebellious Masculinity, Duke University Press, 1997, p. 264. {{ISBN|0-8223-1992-6}} some blacks who weren't enslaved left the U.S. for Liberia in Africa. Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society (ACS) in 1821, with the abolitionist members of the ACS believing blacks would face better chances for freedom and equality in Africa.The slaves not only constituted a large investment, they produced America's most valuable product and export: cotton. They not only helped build the U.S. Capitol, they built the White House and other District of Columbia buildings. (Washington was a slave trading center.)"Ending slavery in the District of Columbia", consulted June 20, 2015. Similar building projects existed in slaveholding states.In 1863, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation declared that all slaves in Confederate-held territory were free.WEB, The Emancipation Proclamation, Featured Documents, National Archives and Records Administration, June 7, 2007,weblinkweblink June 7, 2007, live, Advancing Union troops enforced the proclamation with Texas being the last state to be emancipated, in 1865.WEB,weblink History of Juneteenth,, 2005, June 7, 2007,weblink May 27, 2007, live, File:Harriet Tubman c1868-69.jpg|thumb|upright|Harriet TubmanHarriet TubmanSlavery in Union-held Confederate territory continued, at least on paper, until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.Seward certificate proclaiming the Thirteenth Amendment to have been adopted as part of the Constitution as of December 6, 1865. Prior to the Civil War, only white men of property could vote, and the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only. The 14th Amendment (1868) gave African-Americans citizenship, and the 15th Amendment (1870) gave African-American males the right to vote (only males could vote in the U.S. at the time).

Reconstruction Era and Jim Crow

African Americans quickly set up congregations for themselves, as well as schools and community/civic associations, to have space away from white control or oversight. While the post-war Reconstruction era was initially a time of progress for African Americans, that period ended in 1876. By the late 1890s, Southern states enacted Jim Crow laws to enforce racial segregation and disenfranchisement.WEB, Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay, Davis, Ronald L.F., PhD, The History of Jim Crow, New York Life Insurance Company, June 7, 2007,weblinkweblink dead, June 14, 2002, Segregation, which began with slavery, continued with Jim Crow laws, with signs used to show blacks where they could legally walk, talk, drink, rest, or eat.Leon Litwack, Jim Crow Blues, Magazine of History (OAH Publications, 2004) For those places that were racially mixed, non whites had to wait until all white customers were dealt with. Most African Americans obeyed the Jim Crow laws, in order to avoid racially motivated violence. To maintain self-esteem and dignity, African Americans such as Anthony Overton and Mary McLeod Bethune continued to build their own schools, churches, banks, social clubs, and other businesses.WEB,weblink Surviving Jim Crow, Davis, Ronald, PhD, The History of Jim Crow, New York Life Insurance Company, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 26, 2012, mdy-all, In the last decade of the 19th century, racially discriminatory laws and racial violence aimed at African Americans began to mushroom in the United States, a period often referred to as the "nadir of American race relations". These discriminatory acts included racial segregation—upheld by the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896—which was legally mandated by southern states and nationwide at the local level of government, voter suppression or disenfranchisement in the southern states, denial of economic opportunity or resources nationwide, and private acts of violence and mass racial violence aimed at African Americans unhindered or encouraged by government authorities.Plessy v. Ferguson {{Ussc|163|537|1896}}

Great migration and civil rights movement

File:Omaha courthouse lynching.jpg|thumb|right|A group of white men pose for a 1919 photograph as they stand over the black victim Will Brown who had been lynched and had his body mutilated and burned during the Omaha race riot of 1919 in (Omaha, Nebraska]]. Postcards and photographs of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.Moyers, Bill. "Legacy of Lynching". PBS. Retrieved July 28, 2016)The desperate conditions of African Americans in the South sparked the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century which led to a growing African-American community in Northern and Western United States.WEB,weblink The Great Migration, October 22, 2007, African American World, Public Broadcasting Service, PBS, 2002,weblink October 12, 2007, The rapid influx of blacks disturbed the racial balance within Northern and Western cities, exacerbating hostility between both blacks and whites in the two regions.Michael O. Emerson, Christian Smith (2001). "Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America". p. 42. Oxford University Press The Red Summer of 1919 was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the U.S. as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities, such as the Chicago race riot of 1919 and the Omaha race riot of 1919. Overall, blacks in Northern and Western cities experienced systemic discrimination in a plethora of aspects of life. Within employment, economic opportunities for blacks were routed to the lowest-status and restrictive in potential mobility. Within the housing market, stronger discriminatory measures were used in correlation to the influx, resulting in a mix of "targeted violence, restrictive covenants, redlining and racial steering".JOURNAL, Tolnay, Stewart, The African American 'Great Migration' and Beyond, Annual Review of Sociology, 2003, 29, 218–221, 10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100009, 30036966, While many whites defended their space with violence, intimidation, or legal tactics toward African Americans, many other whites migrated to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions, a process known as white flight.BOOK, Seligman, Amanda, Block by block : neighborhoods and public policy on Chicago's West Side, 2005, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 978-0-226-74663-0, 213–14, By the 1950s, the civil rights movement was gaining momentum. A 1955 lynching that sparked public outrage about injustice was that of Emmett Till, a 14-year-old boy from Chicago. Spending the summer with relatives in Money, Mississippi, Till was killed for allegedly having wolf-whistled at a white woman. Till had been badly beaten, one of his eyes was gouged out, and he was shot in the head. The visceral response to his mother's decision to have an open-casket funeral mobilized the black community throughout the U.S.NEWS,weblink How 'The Blood of Emmett Till' Still Stains America Today, II, Vann R. Newkirk, The Atlantic, July 29, 2017, Vann R. Newkirk| wrote "the trial of his killers became a pageant illuminating the tyranny of white supremacy". The state of Mississippi tried two defendants, but they were speedily acquitted by an all-white jury.Whitfield, Stephen (1991). A Death in the Delta: The story of Emmett Till. pp 41–42. JHU Press. One hundred days after Emmett Till's murder, Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus in Alabama—indeed, Parks told Emmett's mother Mamie Till that "the photograph of Emmett's disfigured face in the casket was set in her mind when she refused to give up her seat on the Montgomery bus."BOOK, The Assassination of Fred Hampton, Haas, Jeffrey, Chicago Review Press, 2011, 978-1569767092, Chicago, 17, File:March on washington Aug 28 1963.jpg|thumb|March on Washington for Jobs and FreedomMarch on Washington for Jobs and FreedomThe March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom and the conditions which brought it into being are credited with putting pressure on Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Johnson put his support behind passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and labor unions, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which expanded federal authority over states to ensure black political participation through protection of voter registration and elections.WEB,weblink History of Federal Voting Rights Laws: The Voting Rights Act of 1965, United States Department of Justice, August 12, 2017, August 6, 2015, By 1966, the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from 1966 to 1975, expanded upon the aims of the civil rights movement to include economic and political self-sufficiency, and freedom from white authority.WEB,weblink The March On Washington, 1963, October 22, 2007, Abbeville Press,weblink October 12, 2007, dead, During the postwar period, many African Americans continued to be economically disadvantaged relative to other Americans. Average black income stood at 54 percent of that of white workers in 1947, and 55 percent in 1962. In 1959, median family income for whites was $5,600, compared with $2,900 for nonwhite families. In 1965, 43 percent of all black families fell into the poverty bracket, earning under $3,000 a year. The Sixties saw improvements in the social and economic conditions of many black Americans.The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II by William H. ChafeFrom 1965 to 1969, black family income rose from 54 to 60 percent of white family income. In 1968, 23 percent of black families earned under $3,000 a year, compared with 41 percent in 1960. In 1965, 19 percent of black Americans had incomes equal to the national median, a proportion that rose to 27 percent by 1967. In 1960, the median level of education for blacks had been 10.8 years, and by the late Sixties the figure rose to 12.2 years, half a year behind the median for whites.

Post–civil rights era

File:Crowd at JJ Hill - Philando Castile (27547111053).jpg|thumb|Black Lives Matter protest in response to the Philando Castile shooting in July 2016]]Politically and economically, African Americans have made substantial strides during the post–civil rights era. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected governor in U.S. history. Clarence Thomas became the second African-American Supreme Court Justice. In 1992, Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois became the first African-American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. There were 8,936 black officeholders in the United States in 2000, showing a net increase of 7,467 since 1970. In 2001, there were 484 black mayors.{{citation|last=Jordan|first=John H.|title=Black Americans 17th Century to 21st Century: Black Struggles and Successes|publisher=Trafford Publishing|page=3|year=2013}}In 2005, the number of Africans immigrating to the United States, in a single year, surpassed the peak number who were involuntarily brought to the United States during the Atlantic Slave Trade.NEWS, Roberts, Sam, February 21, 2005, More Africans Enter U.S. Than in Days of Slavery,weblink New York Times, October 26, 2014, On November 4, 2008, Democratic Senator Barack Obama defeated Republican Senator John McCain to become the first African American to be elected president. At least 95 percent of African-American voters voted for Obama.NEWS,weblink Exit polls: Obama wins big among young, minority voters, November 4, 2008, CNN, June 22, 2010, WEB,weblink Exit polls: How Obama won, Kuhn, David Paul, November 5, 2008, Politico (newspaper), Politico, June 22, 2010, He also received overwhelming support from young and educated whites, a majority of Asians,NEWS,weblink Exit polls, 2008, New York Times, September 6, 2012, Hispanics, and Native AmericansWEB,weblink Paying Attention to the Native American Vote â€“ Votes of Native Americans could impact several battleground states,, November 4, 2008, April 20, 2012, {{Failed verification|date=June 2010}} picking up a number of new states in the Democratic electoral column. Obama lost the overall white vote, although he won a larger proportion of white votes than any previous nonincumbent Democratic presidential candidate since Jimmy Carter.WEB, Noah, Timothy,weblink,, November 10, 2008, January 20, 2011,weblink January 24, 2011, live, Obama was reelected for a second and final term, by a similar margin on November 6, 2012.NEWS, Barnes, Robert, Obama wins a second term as U.S. president,weblink The Washington Post, November 6, 2012, August 12, 2017,


(File:New 2000 black percent.gif|thumb|The proportional geographic distribution of African Americans in the United States, 2000.)(File:Absenceblacks.png|thumb|U.S. Census map indicating U.S. counties with fewer than 25 black or African-American inhabitants)(File:African American by state in the USA in 2010.svg|thumb|Percentage of population self-reported as African-American by state in 2010:{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}{{Legend|#D5E5FF|less than 2 %}}{{Legend|#AACCFF|2–5 %}}{{Legend|#80B3FF|5–10 %}}{{Legend|#5599FF|10–15 %}}{{Legend|#2A7FFF|15–20 %}}{{col-2}}{{Legend|#0066FF|20–25 %}}{{Legend|#0055D4|25–30 %}}{{Legend|#0044AA|30–35 %}}{{Legend|#003380|35–40 %}}{{col-end}})File:Percentage of African American population living in the American South.png|thumb|Graph showing the percentage of the African-American population living in the American South, 1790–2010. Note the major declines between 1910 and 1940 and 1940–1970, and the reverse trend post-1970. Nonetheless, the absolute majority of the African-American population has always lived in the American South.]]{{Further|Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States#Black population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state (1790–2010)|List of U.S. communities with African-American majority populations|List of U.S. counties with African-American majority populations|List of U.S. states by African-American population}}In 1790, when the first U.S. Census was taken, Africans (including slaves and free people) numbered about 760,000—about 19.3% of the population. In 1860, at the start of the Civil War, the African-American population had increased to 4.4 million, but the percentage rate dropped to 14% of the overall population of the country. The vast majority were slaves, with only 488,000 counted as "freemen". By 1900, the black population had doubled and reached 8.8 million.WEB,weblink We the Americans: Blacks, US Bureau of Census, 3 May 2019, In 1910, about 90% of African Americans lived in the South. Large numbers began migrating north looking for better job opportunities and living conditions, and to escape Jim Crow laws and racial violence. The Great Migration, as it was called, spanned the 1890s to the 1970s. From 1916 through the 1960s, more than 6 million black people moved north. But in the 1970s and 1980s, that trend reversed, with more African Americans moving south to the Sun Belt than leaving it.BOOK, Magazine, Editors of Time, Time: Almanac 2005, Time Incorporated Home Entertainment, 377,weblink December 7, 2004, The following table of the African-American population in the United States over time shows that the African-American population, as a percentage of the total population, declined until 1930 and has been rising since then.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size:85%;"|+ African Americans in the United StatesThis table gives the African-American population in the United States over time, based on U.S. Census figures. (Numbers from years 1920 to 2000 are based on U.S. Census figures as given by the Time Almanac of 2005, p. 377.)! Year||Number||% of totalpopulation||% Change(10 yr)||Slaves||% in slavery|92%|89%|86%|87%|86%|87%|88%|89%| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“| â€“By 1990, the African-American population reached about 30 million and represented 12% of the U.S. population, roughly the same proportion as in 1900.WEB,weblink Time Line of African American History, 1881–1900,, April 20, 2012, At the time of the 2000 Census, 54.8% of African Americans lived in the South. In that year, 17.6% of African Americans lived in the Northeast and 18.7% in the Midwest, while only 8.9% lived in the western states. The west does have a sizable black population in certain areas, however. California, the nation's most populous state, has the fifth largest African-American population, only behind New York, Texas, Georgia, and Florida. According to the 2000 Census, approximately 2.05% of African Americans identified as Hispanic or Latino in origin, many of whom may be of Brazilian, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Cuban, Haitian, or other Latin American descent. The only self-reported ancestral groups larger than African Americans are the Irish and Germans.WEB,weblink c2kbr01-2.qxd, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink September 20, 2004, mdy-all, According to the 2010 U.S. Census, nearly 3% of people who self-identified as black had recent ancestors who immigrated from another country. Self-reported non-Hispanic black immigrants from the Caribbean, mostly from Jamaica and Haiti, represented 0.9% of the U.S. population, at 2.6 million."Total Ancestry Reported", American FactFinder. Self-reported black immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa also represented 0.9%, at about 2.8 million. Additionally, self-identified Black Hispanics represented 0.4% of the United States population, at about 1.2 million people, largely found within the Puerto Rican and Dominican communities."The Hispanic Population: 2010", 2010 Census Briefs. US Census Bureau, May 2011. Self-reported black immigrants hailing from other countries in the Americas, such as Brazil and Canada, as well as several European countries, represented less than 0.1% of the population. Mixed-Race Hispanic and non-Hispanic Americans who identified as being part black, represented 0.9% of the population. Of the 12.6% of United States residents who identified as black, around 10.3% were "native black American" or ethnic African Americans, who are direct descendants of West/Central Africans brought to the U.S. as slaves. These individuals make up well over 80% of all blacks in the country. When including people of mixed-race origin, about 13.5% of the U.S. population self-identified as black or "mixed with black".WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, U.S. Census, Bureau,, However, according to the U.S. census bureau, evidence from the 2000 Census indicates that many African and Caribbean immigrant ethnic groups do not identify as "Black, African Am., or Negro". Instead, they wrote in their own respective ethnic groups in the "Some Other Race" write-in entry. As a result, the census bureau devised a new, separate "African American" ethnic group category in 2010 for ethnic African Americans.WEB, 2010 CENSUS PLANNING MEMORANDA SERIES,weblink United States Census Bureau, November 3, 2014,

U.S. cities

{{Further|List of U.S. cities with large African-American populations|List of U.S. metropolitan areas with large African-American populations}}After 100 years of African-Americans leaving the south in large numbers seeking better opportunities in the west and north, a movement known as the Great Migration, there is now a reverse trend, called the New Great Migration. As with the earlier Great Migration, the New Great Migration is primarily directed toward cities and large urban areas, such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Houston, Dallas, Raleigh, Tampa, San Antonio, Memphis, Nashville, Jacksonville, and so forth.Greg Toppo and Paul Overberg, "After nearly 100 years, Great Migration begins reversal", USA Today, 2014. A growing percentage of African-Americans from the west and north are migrating to the southern region of the U.S. for economic and cultural reasons. New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles have the highest decline in African Americans, while Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston have the highest increase respectively.Among cities of 100,000 or more, Detroit, Michigan had the highest percentage of black residents of any U.S. city in 2010, with 82%. Other large cities with African-American majorities include Jackson, Mississippi (79.4%), Miami Gardens, Florida (76.3%), Baltimore, Maryland (63%), Birmingham, Alabama (62.5%), Memphis, Tennessee (61%), New Orleans, Louisiana (60%), Montgomery, Alabama (56.6%), Flint, Michigan (56.6%), Savannah, Georgia (55.0%), Augusta, Georgia (54.7%), Atlanta, Georgia (54%, see African Americans in Atlanta), Cleveland, Ohio (53.3%), Newark, New Jersey (52.35%), Washington, D.C. (50.7%), Richmond, Virginia (50.6%), Mobile, Alabama (50.6%), Baton Rouge, Louisiana (50.4%), and Shreveport, Louisiana (50.4%).The nation's most affluent community with an African-American majority resides in View Park–Windsor Hills, California with an annual median income of $159,618."10 of the Richest Black Communities in America", Atlanta Black Star, January 3, 2014. Other largely affluent predominantly African-American communities include Prince George's County in Maryland (namely Mitchellville, Woodmore, and Upper Marlboro), Dekalb County and South Fulton in Georgia, Charles City County in Virginia, Baldwin Hills in California, Hillcrest and Uniondale in New York, and Cedar Hill, DeSoto, and Missouri City in Texas. Queens County, New York is the only county with a population of 65,000 or more where African Americans have a higher median household income than White Americans.Seatack, Virginia is currently the oldest African-American community in the United States.WEB,weblink Video Gallery – U.S. Representative Scott Rigell, July 18, 2016, dead,weblink August 21, 2016, mdy-all, It survives today with a vibrant and active civic community.WEB,weblink Seatack Community Celebrates 200+ Years With Banquet, {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}


File:Neil deGrasse Tyson - NAC Nov 2005.jpg|thumb|upright|Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson is director of New York City's Hayden PlanetariumHayden PlanetariumBy 2012, African Americans had advanced greatly in education attainment. They still lagged overall compared to white or Asian Americans but surpassed other ethnic minorities, with 19 percent earning bachelor's degrees and 6 percent earning advanced degrees."Good News! More Than 5 Million African Americans Now Hold College Degrees", The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education,{{failed verification|reason= advanced degree attainment|date=March 2018}} Between 1995 and 2009, freshmen college enrollment for African Americans increased by 73 percent and only 15 percent for whites.Michael A. Fletcher, "Minorities and whites follow unequal college paths, report says", The Washington Post, July 31, 2013. Black women are enrolled in college more than any other race and gender group, leading all with 9.7% enrolled according to the 2011 U.S. Census Bureau.NEWS,weblink Black women become most educated group in US, June 3, 2016, July 18, 2016, WEB,weblink Archived copy, December 10, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink January 18, 2017, dead, mdy-all, Predominantly black schools for kindergarten through twelfth grade students were common throughout the U.S. before the 1970s. By 1972, however, desegregation efforts meant that only 25% of Black students were in schools with more than 90% non-white students. However, since then, a trend towards re-segregation affected communities across the country: by 2011, 2.9 million African-American students were in such overwhelmingly minority schools, including 53% of Black students in school districts that were formerly under desegregation orders.Kozol, J. "Overcoming Apartheid", The Nation. December 19, 2005. p. 26.NEWS,weblink Segregation Now, Hannah-Jones, Nikole, April 16, 2014, ProPublica, December 14, 2015, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), which were originally set up when segregated colleges did not admit African Americans, continue to thrive and educate students of all races today. The majority of HBCUs were established in the southeastern United States, Alabama has the most HBCUs of any state."Lists of Historical Black Colleges and Universities" {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 2, 2017 }}, The Network Journal.WEB,weblink TECH-Levers: FAQs About HBCUs, July 18, 2016, As late as 1947, about one third of African Americans over 65 were considered to lack the literacy to read and write their own names. By 1969, illiteracy as it had been traditionally defined, had been largely eradicated among younger African Americans.Public Information Office, U.S. Census Bureau. High School Completions at All-Time High, Census Bureau Reports {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 27, 2010 }}. September 15, 2000.U.S. Census surveys showed that by 1998, 89 percent of African Americans aged 25 to 29 had completed a high-school education, less than whites or Asians, but more than Hispanics. On many college entrance, standardized tests and grades, African Americans have historically lagged behind whites, but some studies suggest that the achievement gap has been closing. Many policy makers have proposed that this gap can and will be eliminated through policies such as affirmative action, desegregation, and multiculturalism.WEB,weblink California, Closing the Achievement Gap, January 22, 2008, April 20, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink April 28, 2012, dead, mdy-all, The average high school graduation rate of blacks in the United States has steadily increased to 71% in 2013.Allie Bidwell, "Racial Gaps in High School Graduation Rates Are Closing", U.S. News, March 16, 2015. Separating this statistic into component parts shows it varies greatly depending upon the state and the school district examined. 38% of black males graduated in the state of New York but in Maine 97% graduated and exceeded the white male graduation rate by 11 percentage points.WEB, Alonso, Andres A., Black Male Graduation Rates,weblink, The Schott Foundation for Public Education, September 24, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 16, 2014, dead, mdy-all, In much of the southeastern United States and some parts of the southwestern United States the graduation rate of white males was in fact below 70% such as in Florida where 62% of white males graduated from high school. Examining specific school districts paints an even more complex picture. In the Detroit school district the graduation rate of black males was 20% but 7% for white males. In the New York City school district 28% of black males graduate from high school compared to 57% of white males. In Newark County{{Where|date=September 2014}} 76% of black males graduated compared to 67% for white males. Further academic improvement has occurred in 2015. Roughly 23% of all blacks have bachelor's degrees. In 1988, 21% of whites had obtained a bachelor's degree versus 11% of blacks. In 2015, 23% of blacks had obtained a bachelor's degree versus 36% of whites.WEB, Ryan, Camille L., Educational Attainment In The United States,weblink, The United States Bureau Of Statistics, July 22, 2017, Foreign born blacks, 9% of the black population, made even greater strides. They exceed native born blacks by 10 percentage points.

Economic status

File:US Homeownership by Race 2009.png|thumb|US Homeownership by Race 2009|The US homeownership rate according to race.WEB,weblink US Census Bureau, homeownership by race, October 6, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2010, dead, mdy-all, ]]Economically, African Americans have benefited from the advances made during the civil rights era, particularly among the educated, but not without the lingering effects of historical marginalisation when considered as a whole. The racial disparity in poverty rates has narrowed. The black middle class has grown substantially. In 2010, 45% of African Americans owned their homes, compared to 67% of all Americans.WEB,weblink Homeownership Rates by Race and Ethnicity of Householder,, April 20, 2012, The poverty rate among African Americans has decreased from 26.5% in 1998 to 24.7% in 2004, compared to 12.7% for all Americans.File:US real median household income 1967 - 2011.PNG|thumb|This graph shows the real median (Household income in the United States|US household income]] by race: 1967 to 2011, in 2011 dollars.BOOK, Carmen, DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D., Proctor, Jessica C., Smith, September 2012, Real Median Household Income by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1967 to 2010, 8, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2011,weblink U.S. Census Bureau, )African Americans have a combined buying power of over $892 billion currently and likely over $1.1 trillion by 2012.WEB,weblink Report: Affluent African-Americans have 45% of buying power,, February 22, 2008, April 20, 2012, NEWS,weblink Buying Power Among African Americans to Reach $1.1 Trillion by 2012,, February 6, 2008, April 20, 2012, dead,weblink September 12, 2009, mdy-all, In 2002, African American-owned businesses accounted for 1.2 million of the US's 23 million businesses.weblink" title="">Minority Groups Increasing Business Ownership at Higher Rate than National Average, Census Bureau Reports U.S. Census Press Release {{as of|2011}} African American-owned businesses account for approximately 2 million US businesses.WEB, Tozzi, John,weblink Minority Businesses Multiply But Still Lag Whites,, July 16, 2010, April 20, 2012, Black-owned businesses experienced the largest growth in number of businesses among minorities from 2002 to 2011.In 2004, African-American men had the third-highest earnings of American minority groups after Asian Americans and non-Hispanic whites.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2006-05-23, Incomes, Earnings, and Poverty from the 2004 American Community Survey, United States Census Bureau, August 2005, October 24, 2006, Twenty-five percent of blacks had white-collar occupations (management, professional, and related fields) in 2000, compared with 33.6% of Americans overall.WEB,weblink Occupations: 2000, Peter Fronczek, Patricia Johnson, United States Census Bureau, August 2003, October 24, 2006, WEB,weblink The Black Population in the United States: March 2002, Jesse McKinnon, United States Census Bureau, April 2003, October 24, 2006, In 2001, over half of African-American households of married couples earned $50,000 or more. Although in the same year African Americans were over-represented among the nation's poor, this was directly related to the disproportionate percentage of African-American families headed by single women; such families are collectively poorer, regardless of ethnicity.In 2006, the median earnings of African-American men was more than black and non-black American women overall, and in all educational levels.WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 131,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 15, 2011, mdy-all, WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 254,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 9, 2011, mdy-all, WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 259,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 11, 2011, mdy-all, WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 135,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 9, 2011, mdy-all, WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 253,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 9, 2011, mdy-all, At the same time, among American men, income disparities were significant; the median income of African-American men was approximately 76 cents for every dollar of their European American counterparts, although the gap narrowed somewhat with a rise in educational level.WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 128,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 9, 2011, mdy-all, Overall, the median earnings of African-American men were 72 cents for every dollar earned of their Asian American counterparts, and $1.17 for every dollar earned by Hispanic men.WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 133,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 11, 2011, mdy-all, On the other hand, by 2006, among American women with post-secondary education, African-American women have made significant advances; the median income of African-American women was more than those of their Asian-, European- and Hispanic American counterparts with at least some college education.WEB,weblink PINC-03-Part 5,, August 29, 2006, January 20, 2011, dead,weblink May 9, 2011, mdy-all, The U.S. public sector is the single most important source of employment for African Americans.WEB,weblink "Black Workers and the Public Sector", Dr Steven Pitts, University of California, Berkeley, Center for Labor Research and Education, April 4, 2011, July 21, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink July 13, 2014, dead, mdy-all, During 2008–2010, 21.2% of all Black workers were public employees, compared with 16.3% of non-Black workers. Both before and after the onset of the Great Recession, African Americans were 30% more likely than other workers to be employed in the public sector.The public sector is also a critical source of decent-paying jobs for Black Americans. For both men and women, the median wage earned by Black employees is significantly higher in the public sector than in other industries.In 1999, the median income of African-American families was $33,255 compared to $53,356 of European Americans. In times of economic hardship for the nation, African Americans suffer disproportionately from job loss and underemployment, with the black underclass being hardest hit. The phrase "last hired and first fired" is reflected in the Bureau of Labor Statistics unemployment figures. Nationwide, the October 2008 unemployment rate for African Americans was 11.1%,WEB,weblink,, January 7, 2011, January 20, 2011,weblink December 13, 2010, live, while the nationwide rate was 6.5%.WEB,weblink,, January 20, 2011,weblink January 20, 2011, live, The income gap between black and white families is also significant. In 2005, employed blacks earned 65% of the wages of whites, down from 82% in 1975.JOURNAL, Carmen DeNavas-Walt, Bernadette D. Proctor, Cheryl Hill Lee,weblink Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, August 2005, United States Census Bureau, 60–229, The New York Times reported in 2006 that in Queens, New York, the median income among African-American families exceeded that of white families, which the newspaper attributed to the growth in the number of two-parent black families. It noted that Queens was the only county with more than 65,000 residents where that was true.NEWS,weblink Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens, October 1, 2006, The New York Times, July 18, 2016, In 2011, it was reported that 72% of black babies were born to unwed mothers.WASHINGTON, J. (2010). Blacks struggle with 72 percent unwed mothers rate. The poverty rate among single-parent black families was 39.5% in 2005, according to Williams, while it was 9.9% among married-couple black families. Among white families, the respective rates were 26.4% and 6% in poverty.Ammunition for poverty pimps {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 25, 2017 }} Walter E. Williams, October 27, 2005.Collectively, African Americans are more involved in the American political process than other minority groups in the United States, indicated by the highest level of voter registration and participation in elections among these groups in 2004.WEB,weblink Voting and Registration in the Election of November 2007, March 2006, May 30, 2007, African Americans collectively attain higher levels of education than immigrants to the United States. African Americans also have the highest level of Congressional representation of any minority group in the U.S.WEB, Jonathan D. Mott,weblink The United States Congress Quick Facts,, February 4, 2010, January 20, 2011,weblink March 5, 2011, dead, mdy-all,


A large majority of African Americans support the Democratic Party. In the 2004 Presidential Election, Democrat John Kerry received 88% of the African-American vote compared to 11% for Republican George W. Bush.NEWS,weblink 2004 Election Results, CNN, 2004, Although there is an African-American lobby in foreign policy, it has not had the impact that African-American organizations have had in domestic policy.JOURNAL, American Society and the African American Foreign Policy Lobby: Constraints and Opportunities, David A., Dickson, Journal of Black Studies, 1996, 139–151, 27, 10.1177/002193479602700201, 2, Many African Americans were excluded from electoral politics in the decades following the end of Reconstruction. For those that could participate, until the New Deal, African Americans were supporters of the Republican Party because it was Republican President Abraham Lincoln who helped in granting freedom to American slaves; at the time, the Republicans and Democrats represented the sectional interests of the North and South, respectively, rather than any specific ideology, and both conservative and liberal were represented equally in both parties.The African-American trend of voting for Democrats can be traced back to the 1930s during the Great Depression, when Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal program provided economic relief to African Americans. Roosevelt's New Deal coalition turned the Democratic Party into an organization of the working class and their liberal allies, regardless of region. The African-American vote became even more solidly Democratic when Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson pushed for civil rights legislation during the 1960s. In 1960, nearly a third of African Americans voted for Republican Richard Nixon.BOOK, John Clifford Green, Daniel J. Coffey, The State of the Parties: The Changing Role of Contemporary American Politics,weblink 2007, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-5322-4, 29,


{{further|Race and health in the United States#African-Americans}}The life expectancy for Black men in 2008 was 70.8 years.WEB,weblink "Life expectancy gap narrows between blacks, whites", Rosie Mestel, The Los Angeles Times, June 5, 2012., July 21, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink August 26, 2017, dead, mdy-all, June 5, 2012, Life expectancy for Black women was 77.5 years in 2008. In 1900, when information on Black life expectancy started being collated, a Black man could expect to live to 32.5 years and a Black woman 33.5 years. In 1900, White men lived an average of 46.3 years and White women lived an average of 48.3 years. African-American life expectancy at birth is persistently five to seven years lower than European Americans.JOURNAL, LaVeist TA, Racial segregation and longevity among African Americans: an individual-level analysis, Health Services Research, 38, 6 Pt 2, 1719–33, December 2003, 14727794, 1360970, 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2003.00199.x, Black people have higher rates of obesity, diabetes and hypertension than the U.S. average. For adult Black men, the rate of obesity was 31.6% in 2010.WEB,weblink CDC 2012. Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Adults: 2010, p. 107, For adult Black women, the rate of obesity was 41.2% in 2010. African Americans have higher rates of mortality than does any other racial or ethnic group for 8 of the top 10 causes of death.JOURNAL, Hummer RA, Ellison CG, Rogers RG, Moulton BE, Romero RR, Religious involvement and adult mortality in the United States: review and perspective, Southern Medical Journal, 97, 12, 1223–30, December 2004, 15646761, 10.1097/01.SMJ.0000146547.03382.94, In 2013, among men, black men had the highest rate of getting cancer, followed by white, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) men. Among women, white women had the highest rate of getting cancer, followed by black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native women.WEB,weblink Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex, Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, June 21, 2016, February 24, 2017, Violence has an impact upon African-American life expectancy. A report from the U.S. Department of Justice states "In 2005, homicide victimization rates for blacks were 6 times higher than the rates for whites".Homicide trends in the U.S. {{webarchive|url= |date=December 12, 2006 }}, U.S. Department of Justice The report also found that "94% of black victims were killed by blacks."According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, African-Americans also have higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to whites, with 5 times the rates of syphilis and chlamydia, and 7.5 times the rate of gonorrhea.WEB, STDs in Racial and Ethnic Minorities,weblink Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2017, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 June 2019, June 17, 2019, AIDS is one of the top three causes of death for African-American men aged 25–54 and for African-American women aged 35–44 years. In the United States, African Americans make up about 48% of the total HIV-positive population and make up more than half of new HIV cases. The main route of transmission for women is through unprotected heterosexual sex. African-American women are 19 times more likely to contract HIV than other women.WEB,weblink Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report Summarizes Opinion Pieces on U.S. AIDS Epidemic, The Body â€“ The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource, June 20, 2005, December 27, 2010, Washington, D.C. has the nation's highest rate of HIV/AIDS infection, at 3%. This rate is comparable to what is seen in West Africa, and is considered a severe epidemic.NEWS,weblink Epedimic in Washington, D.C., Alex Altman, March 17, 2009, TIME, Time Inc., November 17, 2014, WEB,weblink AIDS in Black America: The World's 16th Worst Epidemic, Sarah Moughty, December 1, 2014, FRONTLINE, PBS, November 17, 2014, Dr. Ray Martins, Chief Medical Officer at the Whitman-Walker Clinic, the largest provider of HIV care in Washington D.C., estimated that the actual underlying percent with HIV/AIDS in the city is "closer to five percent".Although in the last decade black youth have had lower rates of cannabis (marijuana) consumption than whites of the same age, they have disproportionately higher arrest rates than whites: in 2010, for example, blacks were 3.73 times as likely to get arrested for using cannabis than whites, despite not significantly more frequently being users.WEB, Matthews, Dylan, The black/white marijuana arrest gap, in nine charts,weblink Washington Post, ACLU. The War on Marijuana in Black and White. June 2013. 2010 rates on page 47.


According to a Gallup survey, 4.6% of Black or African-Americans self-identified as LGBT in 2016, while the total portion of American adults in all ethnic groups identifying as LGBT was 4.1% in 2016.NEWS,weblink In US, More Adults Identifying as LGBT, Gallup (company), Gallup, January 11, 2017, The disproportionately high incidence of HIV/AIDS among African-Americans has been attributed to homophobic attitudes and lack of access to healthcare.NEWS, Homophobia in Black Communities Means More Young Men Get AIDS, The Atlantic, November 22, 2013,weblink January 21, 2014,


Genome-wide studies

File:Individual ancestry estimates for 128 African Americans.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Genetic clustering of 128 African Americans, by Zakharaia et al. (2009). Each vertical bar represents an individual.]]Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors. These studies found that on average, African Americans have 73.2–82.1% West African, 16.7%–24% European, and 0.8–1.2% Native American genetic ancestry, with large variation between individuals.JOURNAL, Katarzyna Bryc, Eric Y. Durand, J. Michael Macpherson, David Reich, Joanna L. Mountain, The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States, The American Journal of Human Genetics, January 8, 2015, 96, 1, 37–53, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010, 4289685, 25529636, JOURNAL, Soheil Baharian, Maxime Barakatt, Christopher R. Gignoux, Suyash Shringarpure, Jacob Errington, William J. Blot, Carlos D. Bustamante, Eimear E. Kenny, Scott M. Williams, Melinda C. Aldrich, Simon Gravel, The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity, PLOS Genetics, May 27, 2015, 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006059, 12, 5, e1006059, 27232753, 4883799, Genetics websites themselves have reported similar ranges, with some finding 1 or 2 percent Native American ancestry and reporting an outlying percentage of European ancestry among African Americans, 29%.Henry Louis Gates, Jr., "Exactly How ‘Black’ Is Black America?", The Root, February 11, 2013.According to a genome-wide study by Bryc et al. (2009), the mixed ancestry of African Americans in varying ratios came about as the result of sexual contact between West/Central Africans (more frequently females) and Europeans (more frequently males). Consequently, the 365 African Americans in their sample have a genome-wide average of 78.1% West African ancestry and 18.5% European ancestry, with large variation among individuals (ranging from 99% to 1% West African ancestry). The West African ancestral component in African Americans is most similar to that in present-day speakers from the non-Bantu branches of the Niger-Congo (Niger-Kordofanian) family.JOURNAL, Katarzyna Bryc, Adam Auton, Matthew R. Nelson, Jorge R. Oksenberg, Stephen L. Hauser, Scott Williams, Alain Froment, Jean-Marie Bodo, Charles Wambebe, Sarah A. Tishkoff, Carlos D. Bustamante, Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, January 12, 2010, 107, 2, 786–791, 10.1073/pnas.0909559107, 20080753, 2818934, 2010PNAS..107..786B, {{refn|group=nb|DNA studies of African-Americans have determined that they primarily descend from various Niger-Congo-speaking West/Central African ethnic groups: Akan (including the Ashanti and Fante subgroups), Balanta, Bamileke, Bamun, Bariba, Biafara, Bran, Chokwe, Dagomba, Edo, Ewe, Fon, Fula, Ga, Gurma, Hausa, Ibibio (including the Efik subgroup), Igbo, Igala, Ijaw (including the Kalabari subgroup), Itsekiri, Jola, Luchaze, Lunda, Kpele, Kru, Mahi, Mandinka (including the Mende subgroup), Naulu, Serer, Susu, Temne, Tikar, Wolof, Yaka, Yoruba, and Bantu peoples; specifically the Duala, Kongo, Luba, Mbundu (including the Ovimbundu subgroup) and Teke.WEB,weblink African Ethnicities and Their Origins, John, Thornton, John Thornton (historian), Linda, Heywood, October 1, 2011, The Root (magazine), The Root, January 2, 2017, }}Correspondingly, Montinaro et al. (2014) observed that around 50% of the overall ancestry of African Americans traces back to the Niger-Congo-speaking Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin, reflecting the centrality of this West African region in the Atlantic Slave Trade. The next most frequent ancestral component found among African Americans was derived from Great Britain, in keeping with historical records. It constitutes a little over 10% of their overall ancestry, and is most similar to the Northwest European ancestral component also carried by Barbadians.JOURNAL, Francesco Montinaro, George B.J. Busby, Vincenzo L. Pascali, Simon Myers, Garrett Hellenthal, Cristian Capelli, Unravelling the hidden ancestry of American admixed populations, Nature Communications, March 24, 2015, 10.1038/ncomms7596, 6, 6596, 25803618, 4374169, 2015NatCo...6.6596M, Zakharaia et al. (2009) found a similar proportion of Yoruba associated ancestry in their African-American samples, with a minority also drawn from Mandenka and Bantu populations. Additionally, the researchers observed an average European ancestry of 21.9%, again with significant variation between individuals.JOURNAL, Fouad Zakharia, Analabha Basu, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, Alan S Go, Mark A Hlatky, Carlos Iribarren, Joshua W Knowles, Jun Li, Balasubramanian Narasimhan, Steven Sidney, Audrey Southwick, Richard M Myers, Thomas Quertermous, Neil Risch, Hua Tang, Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans, Genome Biology, 2009, 10, R141, R141, 10.1186/gb-2009-10-12-r141, 20025784, 2812948,weblink April 10, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2015, dead, mdy-all, Bryc et al. (2009) note that populations from other parts of the continent may also constitute adequate proxies for the ancestors of some African-American individuals; namely, ancestral populations from Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Sierra Leone in West Africa and Angola in Southern Africa.Altogether, genetic studies suggest that African Americans are a multiracial people. According to DNA analysis led in 2006 by Penn State geneticist Mark D. Shriver, around 58 percent of African Americans have at least 12.5% European ancestry (equivalent to one European great-grandparent and his/her forebears), 19.6 percent of African Americans have at least 25% European ancestry (equivalent to one European grandparent and his/her forebears), and 1 percent of African Americans have at least 50% European ancestry (equivalent to one European parent and his/her forebears).WEB, Henry Louis Gates Jr.: Michelle's Great-Great-Great-Granddaddy—and Yours,weblink Henry Louis Gates Jr., November 8, 2009, April 11, 2015, According to Shriver, around 5 percent of African Americans also have at least 12.5% Native American ancestry (equivalent to one Native American great-grandparent and his/her forebears).BOOK, The Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Reader, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Basci Civitas Books, WEB, 5 Things to Know About Blacks and Native Americans,weblink November 20, 2012, April 11, 2015, Research suggests that Native American ancestry among people who identify as African American is a result of relationships that occurred soon after slave ships arrived in the American colonies, and European ancestry is of more recent origin, often from the decades before the Civil War.WEB, Zimmer, Carl, Tales of African-American History Found in DNA,weblink The New York Times, May 10, 2019, May 27, 2016,


Africans bearing the E-V38 (E1b1a) likely traversed across the Sahara, from east to west, approximately 19,000 years ago.JOURNAL, Shrine, Daniel, Rotimi, Charles, Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Haplotypes Reveal Single Origin of the Sickle Allele during the Holocene Wet Phase, American Journal of Human Genetics, 102, 4, 547–556, Am J Hum Genet, 5985360, 2018, 29526279, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.003, E-M2 (E1b1a1) likely originated in West Africa or Central Africa.JOURNAL, Trombetta, Beniamino, Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent, Genome Biology and Evolution, 7, 7, 1940–1950, Genome Biol Evol, 4524485, 2015, 26108492, 10.1093/gbe/evv118, According to a Y-DNA study by Sims et al. (2007), the majority (≈60%) of African Americans belong to various subclades of the E-M2 (E1b1a1, formerly E3a) paternal haplogroup. This is the most common genetic paternal lineage found today among West/Central African males, and is also a signature of the historical Bantu migrations. The next most frequent Y-DNA haplogroup observed among African Americans is the R1b clade, which around 15% of African Americans carry. This lineage is most common today among Northwestern European males. The remaining African Americans mainly belong to the paternal haplogroup I (≈7%), which is also frequent in Northwestern Europe.JOURNAL, Lynn M. Sims, Dennis Garvey, Jack Ballantyne, Sub-populations within the major European and African derived haplogroups R1b3 and E3a are differentiated by previously phylogenetically undefined Y-SNPs, Human Mutation, January 2007, 28, 1, 97, 10.1002/humu.9469, 17154278,


According to an mtDNA study by Salas et al. (2005), the maternal lineages of African Americans are most similar to haplogroups that are today especially common in West Africa (>55%), followed closely by West-Central Africa and Southwestern Africa (

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