Donald Trump

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Donald Trump
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{{Other uses}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-vand|small=yes}}{{short description|45th and current president of the United States}}{{Use American English|date=August 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}

|birth_place = Queens, New York City Republican Party (United States)>Republican (1987–1999, 2009–2011, 2012–present) {edih} }} }}Fred Trump|Mary Anne MacLeod}}Family of Donald Trump>Trump familyList of honors and awards received by Donald Trump>List of honors and awards {edih}Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania>The Wharton School (Bachelor of Science in Economics>Econ.) name=Wealth}}Politicianreal-estate developer|television personality}}|signature = Donald Trump Signature.svg|signature_alt = Donald J Trump stylized autograph, in ink
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}}{{Donald Trump series}}Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens, and received a B.S. degree in economics from the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He took charge of his family's real-estate business in 1971. He renamed it The Trump Organization and expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, mostly by licensing his name. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal. He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion.Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated 16 other candidates in the primaries. His political positions have been described as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. He was elected in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, although he lost the popular vote.{{efn|name=electoral-college|Presidential elections in the United States are decided by the Electoral College, in which each state names a number of electors equal to its representation in Congress, and all delegates from each state usually vote for the winner of the local state vote (except for faithless electors). Consequently, it is possible for the president-elect to have received fewer votes from the country's total population (the popular vote). This situation has occurred five times since 1824.}} He became the oldest first-term U.S. president,{{efn|Ronald Reagan was older upon his second-term inauguration.}} and the first one without prior military or government service. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Trump has made many false or misleading statements during his campaign and presidency. The statements have been documented by fact-checkers, and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Many of his comments and actions have also been characterized as racially charged or racist.During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He enacted a tax-cut package for individuals and businesses, which also rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge. He appointed Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court. In foreign policy, Trump has pursued an America First agenda, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs triggering a trade war with China, and started negotiations with North Korea towards their denuclearization.Trump and members of his 2016 campaign were suspected of being complicit in Russian election interference that favored him, but a special counsel investigation did not find sufficient evidence to establish conspiracy or coordination with Russia. Trump was also personally investigated for obstruction of justice, and was neither indicted nor exonerated. Separately, in September 2019, the House of Representatives initiated an impeachment inquiry alleging abuse of office for political gain. In July 2019, Trump had asked Ukraine to investigate Hunter Biden, whose father Joe Biden is a potential rival presidential candidate for 2020, and a whistleblower alleged that the White House had tried to cover up Trump's request.{{TOC limit|3}}

Family and personal life

Early life and education

Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City.NEWS,weblink Certificate of Birth, Department of Health – City of New York – Bureau of Records and Statistics, ABC News,weblink May 12, 2016, October 23, 2018, NEWS,weblink Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump, The Jamaica Hospital, Fox News,weblink April 9, 2011, live, October 23, 2018, His father was Frederick Christ Trump, a Bronx-born real estate developer, whose own parents were German immigrants. His mother was Scottish-born housewife and socialite Mary Anne MacLeod Trump.NEWS,weblink Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93, Rozhon, Tracie, June 26, 1999, The New York Times, October 3, 2018, Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, and attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=32}}NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Old Queens Neighborhood Contrasts With the Diverse Area Around It, Jason, Horowitz, The New York Times, September 22, 2015, November 7, 2018, At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school. He excelled at sports. His favorite sport was golf, and he was a tight end on the football team in his freshman and sophomore years.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=38}}BOOK,weblink The 75th Anniversary Shrapnel, New York Military Academy, Spring 1964, January 21, 2017, 107,weblink" title="">weblink January 22, 2017, NEWS,weblink Confident. Incorrigible. Bully: Little Donny was a lot like candidate Donald Trump, Paul, Schwartzman, Michael E., Miller, June 22, 2016, The Washington Post, April 2, 2017, limited, In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=45}}NEWS, Matt, Viser, Even in college, Donald Trump was brash, The Boston Globe,weblink August 28, 2015, May 28, 2018, Two years later he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=241}} after an interview with an admissions officer who had been a classmate of Trump's brother Fred.{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=241}}NEWS, Kranish, Michael,weblink Trump has referred to his Wharton degree as 'super genius stuff.' An admissions officer recalls it differently., The Washington Post, August 2, 2019, While at Wharton, he worked at the family business, Elizabeth Trump & Son,NEWS,weblink The real reason Donald Trump is so rich, The Washington Post, September 3, 2015, January 17, 2016, Max, Ehrenfreund, limited, graduating in May 1968 with a B.S. in economics.WEB, The Best Known Brand Name in Real Estate, Spring 2007, The Wharton School,weblink April 2, 2017, WEB,weblink 19–21, Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees, University of Pennsylvania, May 20, 1968, July 19, 2016,weblink The Boston Globe in 2015 contacted some of Trump's former Wharton classmates, who described him as a vocal but unexceptional student, rarely participating in campus activities and instead pursuing his business career.NEWS, Viser, Matt, Even in college, Donald Trump was brash,weblink The Boston Globe, June 10, 2019, August 28, 2015, File:Donald Trump NYMA.jpg|upright|thumb|alt=A black-and-white photograph of Donald Trump as a teenager, smiling and wearing a dark pseudo-military uniform with various badges and a light-colored stripe crossing his right shoulder|Senior yearbook photo of Trump in 1964 wearing the uniform of his private boarding school, New York Military AcademyNew York Military AcademyWhile in college, Trump obtained four student draft deferments.NEWS,weblink How deferments protected Donald Trump from serving in Vietnam, Lee, Kurtis, August 4, 2016, Los Angeles Times, August 4, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show, April 29, 2011, CBS News, Brian, Montopoli, July 17, 2015, In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination, and in July 1968 a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve.WEB,weblink Donald John Trump's Selective Service Draft Card and Selective Service Classification Ledger, August 15, 2016, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives, September 23, 2019, – via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) In October 1968, he was medically deferred and classified {{nowrap|1-Y}} (unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency).NEWS,weblink Questions linger about Trump's draft deferments during Vietnam War, Whitlock, Craig, Craig Whitlock, July 21, 2015, The Washington Post, April 2, 2017, limited, Trump said in 2015 that the medical deferment was due to a bone spur in a foot but he could not remember which foot was afflicted; his presidential campaign stated that he had minor bone spurs in both heels and that they were expected to be temporary. In 1972, he was reclassified {{nowrap|4-F}}, which permanently disqualified him from service.NEWS, Emery, David,weblink Donald Trump's Draft Deferments,, August 2, 2016, October 16, 2018, In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability of being called up.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet, Eder, Steve, Philipps, Dave, David Philipps, August 1, 2016, The New York Times, August 2, 2016, limited, Profiles of Trump published in The New York Times in 1973 and 1976 erroneously reported as fact that he had graduated first in his class at Wharton. A 1984 Times profile of Trump noted that he had never made the school's honor roll. In 1988, he acknowledged this to New York magazine.NEWS, The Washington Post, May 20, 2018, Avi, Selk, It's the 50th anniversary of the day Trump left college and (briefly) faced the draft, March 3, 2019,weblink


{{Further|Trump family}}Trump's ancestors on his father's side came from the German village of Kallstadt in the Palatinate,{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=23–25}} and on his mother's side from the Outer Hebrides of Scotland.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=19}} His paternal grandfather, Frederick Trump, immigrated to the United States in 1885 at age 16 and became a citizen in 1892.NEWS, Alexander, Panetta, Donald Trump's grandfather ran Canadian brothel during gold rush,weblink CBC News, December 10, 2015, September 19, 2015, He married Elisabeth Christ in 1902, and the couple settled in New York in 1905.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=23–25}} Frederick died during the 1918 flu pandemic.{{sfn|Blair|2015a|p=5}}Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in the Bronx and started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after his father's death. Their company, "E. Trump & Son",{{efn|Some modern sources, including Donald Trump's The Art of the Deal, refer to the company as "Elizabeth Trump & Son".BOOK,weblink 67, Donald, Trump, Tony, Schwartz, The Art of the Deal, 1987, Random House, 978-0-345-47917-4, BOOK,weblink Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture, 874, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-39883-4, Knight, Gladys L., August 11, 2014, Contemporary sources, however, refer to it as "E. Trump & Son".NEWS, Advertisement for E. Trump & Son, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 6, 1927, D3,weblink, NEWS, Real estate news, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 5, 1930, 8,weblink, }} founded in 1923,BOOK,weblink The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire, 978-0-7432-1079-9, Blair, Gwenda, Gwenda Blair, December 4, 2001, 120, was active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn, building and selling thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments.NEWS, Blair, Gwenda, Gwenda Blair, August 24, 2015, The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is,weblink Politico, July 24, 2016, In spite of his German ancestry, Fred claimed to be Swedish amid the anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II;{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=159}}NEWS, Trump's family denied German heritage for years, Jennifer, Hansler, November 28, 2017, CNN,weblink Trump repeated this claim, including in his book The Art of the Deal, until the 1990s.NEWS, For Donald Trump's Family, an Immigrant's Tale With 2 Beginnings, Jason, Horowitz, August 21, 2016, The New York Times,weblink Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Tong, Lewis, Scotland, to a Gaelic-speaking family. At age 18 in 1930, she emigrated to New York, where she worked as a maid.NEWS, Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother, Mary, Pilon, Mary Pilon, June 24, 2016, The New Yorker,weblink April 2, 2017, Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.NEWS, The Ancestral German Home of the Trumps, Sally, McGrane, April 29, 2016, The New Yorker,weblink April 2, 2017, Trump grew up with three elder siblings{{snd}} Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth{{snd}} and younger brother Robert.File:Trump Family Hand Up.jpg|thumb|Trump is sworn in as president by Chief Justice John Roberts on January 20, 2017: Trump, his wife Melania, and his children Donald Jr., Barron, Ivanka, Eric, and Tiffany.]]In 1977, Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková.{{sfn|Blair|2015|p=300}}NEWS,weblink After The Gold Rush, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, Marie, Brenner, Marie Brenner, September 1990, January 10, 2016, They have three children, Donald Jr. (born 1977), Ivanka (born 1981), and Eric (born 1984), and ten grandchildren.NEWS,weblink Lara and Eric Trump welcome second child, NBC Montana, August 20, 2019, August 21, 2019, Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988.NEWS, The Lewiston Journal, Associated Press, Google News,weblink Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen, May 27, 1988, August 21, 2015, The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples.NEWS,weblink Ivana Trump to write memoir about raising US president's children, The Guardian, Associated Press, March 16, 2017, May 6, 2017, Maples and Trump married in 1993NEWS,weblink The Donald Bids Hearts For Marla Trump Wedding Draws 1,100 Friends, But Not Many Stars, The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 21, 1993, August 21, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2015, NEWS, Capuzzo, Mike, Marla Finally Becomes Mrs. Trump It Was 'Paparazzi' Aplenty And Glitz Galore As The Couple Pledged Their Troth., The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 21, 1993, June 20, 2019,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2016-01-19, and had one daughter, Tiffany (born 1993).NEWS, Graham, Ruth, July 20, 2016, Tiffany Trump's Sad, Vague Tribute to Her Distant Father,weblink Slate (magazine), Slate, July 24, 2016, They were divorced in 1999,NEWS,weblink Marla Maples Still Loves Donald Trump, People (magazine), People, Sheila Cosgrove, Baylis, August 7, 2013, May 6, 2017, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in California.NEWS,weblink The Other Trump, The New York Times, Alessandra, Stanley, Alessandra Stanley, October 1, 2016, May 6, 2017, In 2005, Trump married Slovenian model Melania Knauss.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump, Settling Down, The Washington Post, Tina, Brown, Tina Brown, January 27, 2005, May 7, 2017, They have one son, Barron (born 2006).NEWS, Donald Trump Fast Facts,weblink March 10, 2015, CNN, March 7, 2014, Melania gained United States citizenship in 2006.NEWS, Gunter, Joel,weblink What is the Einstein visa? And how did Melania Trump get one?, March 2, 2018, August 2, 2019, BBC,


Trump is a Presbyterian.NEWS, Katie, Glueck,weblink Trump's religious dealmaking pays dividends, Politico, December 7, 2016, April 3, 2017, Trump is a Presbyterian, and speculation is already underway over whether, and where, he might go to church regularly in Washington., His ancestors were Lutheran on his paternal grandfather's side in Germany{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=28–29}} and Presbyterian on his mother's side in Scotland.NEWS, Peter, Geoghegan,weblink Few rooting for Donald Trump on his mother's Scottish island, The Irish Times, May 28, 2016, April 3, 2017, His parents married in a Presbyterian church in 1936.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=29}} As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, where he had his confirmation.NEWS,weblink Overlooked Influences on Donald Trump: A Famous Minister and His Church, The New York Times, James, Barron, James Barron (journalist), September 5, 2016, October 13, 2016, In the 1970s, his parents joined the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan,NEWS, Schwartzman, Paul, How Trump got religion – and why his legendary minister's son now rejects him,weblink March 18, 2017, The Washington Post, January 21, 2016, part of the Reformed Church.NEWS,weblink Marble Collegiate Church Says Donald Trump Is Not an Active Member, The Christian Post, Leonardo, Blair, August 28, 2015, October 10, 2018, The pastor at Marble, Norman Vincent Peale, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=81}}Trump says he is "not sure" whether he ever asked God for forgiveness: "If I do something wrong, I just try and make it right. I don't bring God into that picture." He tries to take Holy Communion as often as possible because it makes him "feel cleansed".NEWS,weblink Trump believes in God, but hasn't sought forgiveness, Eugene, Scott, July 19, 2015, CNN, April 3, 2017, While campaigning, Trump referred to The Art of the Deal as his second favorite book saying, "Nothing beats the Bible."NEWS, The Washington Post,weblink In Michigan, Trump attacks China, critiques auto bailout, and judges Bernie Sanders 'weak', August 11, 2015, August 22, 2015, David, Weigel, David Weigel, Trump has associations with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called his "closest spiritual confidant".NEWS,weblink The guilt-free gospel of Donald Trump, Daniel, Burke, CNN, October 24, 2016, January 17, 2017, In 2015, he released a list of religious advisers, which included James Dobson, Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, Michele Bachmann, and Robert Jeffress.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Trump campaign announces evangelical executive advisory board, June 21, 2016, January 17, 2017, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc.,weblink January 18, 2017, NEWS,weblink June 22, 2016, Kate, Shellnutt, Sarah Eekhoff, Zylstra, Who's Who of Trump's 'Tremendous' Faith Advisers, Christianity Today, May 10, 2018,

Health and lifestyle

Trump abstains from alcohol, a reaction to his older brother Fred Trump Jr.'s alcoholism and early death,NEWS,weblink For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering, The New York Times, Horowitz, Jason, January 2, 2016, July 24, 2016, and claims to have never smoked cigarettes or cannabis.NEWS, Part 2: Donald Trump on 'Watters' World',weblink September 4, 2016, Watters' World, Fox News, February 6, 2016, Watters: "Have you ever smoked weed?" Trump: "No, I have not. I have not. I would tell you one hundred percent because everyone else seems to admit it nowadays, so I would actually tell you. This is almost like, it's almost like 'Hey, it's a sign'. No, I have never. I have never smoked a cigarette, either.", He is known to enjoy eating fast food.NEWS, Parker, Ashley, Ashley Parker, Donald Trump's Diet: He'll Have Fries With That,weblink The New York Times, June 10, 2019, August 8, 2016, He has said he prefers three to four hours of sleep per night.NEWS, Donald Trump is the poster child of sleep deprivation: Arianna Huffington,weblink CNBC, June 10, 2019, January 17, 2017, Sam, Meredith, Tania, Bryer, Tania Bryer, In December 2015, Harold Bornstein, who had been Trump's personal physician since 1980, released a letter stating that he would "be the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency".NEWS,weblink Trump's Doctor Says Trump Basically Wrote That Glowing Health Letter: Report, Herreria, Carla, May 1, 2018, HuffPost, October 10, 2018, Bornstein noted that Trump had an appendectomy at age 10, but did not mention the bone spurs that Trump said caused his medical deferment from the military at age 22. A follow-up letter by Bornstein in September 2016 showed Trump's blood pressure, liver and thyroid functions to be in normal ranges, and that he takes a statin to control cholesterol. In May 2018, Bornstein said Trump himself had dictated the contents of the December 2015 letter,NEWS, Alex, Marquardt, Lawrence III, Crook, Bornstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter,weblink CNN, May 1, 2018, May 20, 2018, and that three Trump representatives, including longtime bodyguard Keith Schiller, had taken away his medical records in February 2017.NEWS,weblink Trump doctor Harold Bornstein says bodyguard, lawyer 'raided' his office, took medical files, Schechter, Anna R., May 1, 2018, NBC News, June 6, 2019,weblink May 1, 2018, live, NEWS, Watson, Kathryn, Trump's ex-personal doctor claims his office was "raided" for Trump's records, May 1, 2018,weblink CBS News, June 9, 2019, In January 2018, Trump was examined by White House physician Ronny Jackson, who said he was in excellent health and that his cardiac assessment revealed no medical issues,NEWS, Trump's first full presidential physical exam, explained,weblink Vox (website), Vox, Eliza, Barclay, Julia, Belluz, Julia Belluz, January 16, 2018, January 18, 2017, although his weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended.NEWS,weblink Jamie, Ducharme, The White House Doctor Called President Trump's Health 'Excellent.' Here's the Full Summary of His Physical Exam, Time (magazine), Time, January 17, 2018, January 18, 2018, Several outside cardiologists commented that Trump's weight, lifestyle, and LDL cholesterol level ought to have raised serious concerns about his cardiac health.NEWS, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, Gina, Kolata, Gina Kolata, Trump's Physical Revealed Serious Heart Concerns, Outside Experts Say,weblink The New York Times, January 17, 2018, June 3, 2018, In February 2019, after a new examination, White House physician Sean Conley said Trump was in "very good health overall", although he was clinically obese.NEWS, Howard, Jacqueline, Liptak, Kevin, Trump in 'very good health overall' but obese, according to physical exam results,weblink CNN, February 15, 2019, February 14, 2019, His 2019 coronary CT calcium scan score indicates he suffers from coronary artery disease, which is common for white males at his age.NEWS, Gupta, Sanjay, President Trump has common form of heart disease, February 1, 2018,weblink CNN, June 10, 2019, He has called golfing his "primary form of exercise",TWEET, realDonaldTrump, Donald Trump, 1018068353305411584, I have arrived in Scotland and will be at Trump Turnberry for two days of meetings, calls and hopefully, some golf - my primary form of exercise! The weather is beautiful, and this place is incredible! Tomorrow I go to Helsinki for a Monday meeting with Vladimir Putin., July 14, 2018, July 4, 2019, although he usually does not walk the course.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump says he gets most of his exercise from golf, then uses cart at Turnberry, Golf News Net, July 14, 2018, July 4, 2019, NEWS,weblink Exercise? I get more than people think, Trump says, Reuters, Jeff, Mason, Steve, Holland, January 18, 2018, He gets exercise by playing golf, he said, even though he typically rides around the course in a golf cart., He considers exercise a waste of energy, because he believes the body is "like a battery, with a finite amount of energy" which is depleted by exercise.NEWS,weblink Ahead of annual physical, Trump has not followed doctor's orders, CNN, Jeremy, Diamond, Kevin, Liptak, February 7, 2019, Nearly a dozen White House officials and sources close to Trump said they don't believe he's set foot in the fitness room in the White House residence, maintaining his view that exercise would be a waste of the energy he has always touted as one of his best attributes., NEWS,weblink Trump thinks that exercising too much uses up the body's finite energy, The Washington Post, May 12, 2017, Trump mostly gave up athletics after college because he "believed the human body was like a battery, with a finite amount of energy, which exercise only depleted".,


{{See also|Tax returns of Donald Trump}}In 1982, Trump was listed on the initial Forbes List of wealthy individuals as having a share of his family's estimated $200 million net worth. His financial losses in the 1980s caused him to be dropped from the list between 1990 and 1995, and reportedly obliged him to borrow from his siblings' trusts in 1993.NEWS,weblink What's He Really Worth?, Timothy L., O'Brien, Timothy L. O'Brien, February 25, 2016, October 23, 2005, The New York Times, In its 2019 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $3.1 billion{{efn|name=Wealth|This estimate is by Forbes in their annual ranking. Bloomberg Billionaires Index listed Trump's net worth as $2.84 billion in May 2018,NEWS, Bloomberg Billionaires Index – Donald Trump,weblink Bloomberg News, May 31, 2018, May 9, 2019, and Wealth-X listed it as at least $3.2 billion in May 2019.WEB, Donald John Trump – Wealth-X Dossiersier,weblink Wealth-X, May 9, 2019, }} (715th in the world, 259th in the U.S.)MAGAZINE,weblink #715 Donald Trump, Forbes, 2019, March 5, 2019, making him one of the richest politicians in American history and the first billionaire American president. During the three years since Trump announced his presidential run in 2015, Forbes estimated his net worth declined 31% and his ranking fell 138 spots.NEWS,weblink Trump has fallen 138 spots on Forbes' wealthiest-Americans list, his net worth down over $1 billion, since he announced his presidential bid in 2015, Business Insider, October 3, 2018, John, Walsh, October 3, 2018, When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth over $50 million, yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million. Trump reported hundreds of millions of dollars of yearly income from 2014 to 2018.WEB,weblink Donald J. Trump Files Personal Financial Disclosure Statement With Federal Election Commission, Corey R., Lewandowski, Corey Lewandowski, Hope, Hicks, Hope Hicks, July 15, 2015, March 8, 2016, March 9, 2016,weblink NEWS, Harwood, John, John Harwood (journalist), Trump's money-making power as unprecedented as his words,weblink December 21, 2018, CNBC, June 29, 2018, Trump stated in a 2007 deposition, "My net worth fluctuates, and it goes up and down with markets and with attitudes and with feelings, even my own feelings."NEWS, The Washington Post, August 10, 2016, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Robert Jr., O'Harrow, Trump: A True Story, October 14, 2018,weblink Journalist Jonathan Greenberg reported in April 2018 that Trump, using a pseudonym "John Barron", called him in 1984 to falsely assert he then owned "in excess of ninety percent" of the Trump family's business in an effort to secure a higher ranking on the Forbes 400 list of wealthy Americans. Greenberg also wrote that Forbes had vastly overestimated Trump's wealth and wrongly included him on the Forbes 400 rankings of 1982, 1983, and 1984.NEWS, The Washington Post, April 20, 2018, Jonathan, Greenberg, Trump lied to me about his wealth to get onto the Forbes 400. Here are the tapes.,weblink Trump has often said he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father, and that he had to pay it back with interest.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump: My dad gave me 'a small loan' of $1 million to get started, CNBC, Scott, Stump, October 26, 2015, November 13, 2016, In October 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump "was a millionaire by age 8", borrowed at least $60 million from his father, largely failed to reimburse him, and had received $413 million (adjusted for inflation) from his father's business empire over his lifetime.NEWS, Barstow, David, David Barstow, Craig, Susanne, Susanne Craig, Buettner, Russ,weblink 11 Takeaways From The Times's Investigation Into Trump's Wealth, The New York Times, October 2, 2018, October 3, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Engaged in Suspect Tax Schemes as He Reaped Riches From His Father, The New York Times, Barstow, David, David Barstow, Craig, Susanne, Susanne Craig, Buettner, Russ, October 2, 2018, October 2, 2018, According to the report, Trump and his family committed tax fraud, which a lawyer for Trump denied; the tax department of New York says it is "vigorously pursuing all appropriate avenues of investigation" into it.NEWS, USA Today, Jon, Campbell, Joseph, Spector, New York could levy hefty penalties if Trump tax fraud is proven,weblink October 3, 2018, October 5, 2018, Analyses by The Economist and The Washington Post have concluded that Trump's investments under-performed the stock market.NEWS, From the Tower to the White House, The Economist, February 20, 2016, February 29, 2016,weblink Mr Trump's performance has been mediocre compared with the stockmarket and property in New York., NEWS, Ana, Swanson, The myth and the reality of Donald Trump's business empire, February 29, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink Forbes estimated in October 2018 that the value of Trump's personal brand licensing business had declined by 88% since 2015, to $3 million.NEWS,weblink Trump tumbles down the Forbes 400 as his net worth takes major hit, Kevin, Breuninger, October 2, 2018, CNBC, January 4, 2019, Trump's tax returns from 1985 to 1994 show net losses totaling $1.17 billion over the ten-year period, in contrast to his claims about his financial health and business abilities. The New York Times reported that "year after year, Mr. Trump appears to have lost more money than nearly any other individual American taxpayer", and Trump's "core business losses in 1990 and 1991{{snd}} more than $250 million each year{{snd}} were more than double those of the nearest taxpayers in the I.R.S. information for those years". In 1995 his reported losses were $915.7 million.NEWS,weblink Decade in the Red: Trump Tax Figures Show Over $1 Billion in Business Losses, The New York Times, May 8, 2019, May 8, 2019, Russ, Buettner, Susanne, Craig, Susanne Craig, NEWS,weblink The Secret That Was Hiding in Trump's Taxes, The Atlantic, May 8, 2019, May 8, 2019, Conor, Friedersdorf, Conor Friedersdorf,

Business career

{{Further|Business projects of Donald Trump in Russia}}

Real estate

File:Trump Tower - lower part.jpg|thumb|upright|The distinctive façade of Trump Tower, the headquarters of the Trump Organization, in Midtown ManhattanMidtown ManhattanTrump began his career in 1968 at his father Fred's real estate development company, E. Trump & Son, which owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs.{{sfn|Trump|Schwartz|2009|p=46}} Trump worked for his father to revitalize the Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, which the elder Trump had bought in 1964.NEWS, Korte, Gregory,weblink Complex was troubled from beginning, The Cincinnati Enquirer, September 1, 2002, May 20, 2018, NEWS, Kelly, Meg,weblink The tall tale of President Trump's Cincinnati 'success', The Washington Post, February 28, 2018, May 19, 2018, In 1971, Trump was promoted to president of the company, and renamed it The Trump Organization.{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=250}} The Trumps sold the property in 1972, with vacancy on the rise.

Manhattan developments

Trump has embarked on numerous ventures in the New York borough of Manhattan. In 1978, Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by purchasing a fifty percent stake in the derelict Commodore Hotel, located next to Grand Central Terminal. The purchase was funded largely by a $70 million construction loan that was guaranteed jointly by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain.NEWS, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father, March 3, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink {{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=84}} When the remodeling was finished, the hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=32–35}} The same year, Trump obtained the rights to develop Trump Tower, a 58-story, {{convert|664|ft|m|-high|adj=mid}} mixed-use skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan.NEWS, The Expanding Empire of Donald Trump, April 8, 1984, William, Geist, Bill Geist, The New York Times,weblink NEWS, Dohan, William C.,weblink Decades-Old Questions Over Trump's Wealth and Education, The New York Times, September 28, 2015, June 9, 2018, Trump Tower was completed in 1983 and houses Trump's primary residence and the headquarters of the Trump Organization.NEWS,weblink With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home, Matt, Flegenheimer, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, March 29, 2016, March 29, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Loves New York. But It Doesn't Love Him Back., Alexander, Burns, Alex Burns (journalist), The New York Times, December 9, 2016, December 9, 2016, In 1988, Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for $407 million with a loan of $425 million from a consortium of banks. Despite profitability of the hotel improving considerably by 1990, the hotel filed for bankruptcy protection, and a bankruptcy plan was approved in 1992.NEWS, Trump's Plaza Hotel bankruptcy plan approved, New York Times, December 12, 1992,weblink Reuters, July 18, 2019, In 1995, Trump gave up ownership of the hotel for $325 million to two billionaires from Singapore and Saudi Arabia who assumed $300 million of the debt and to Citibank which assumed the rest.NEWS,weblink Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors, The New York Times, David, Stout, David Stout, Kenneth, Gilpin, April 12, 1995, July 18, 2019, NEWS, Satow, Julie,weblink That Time Trump Sold the Plaza Hotel at an $83 Million Loss, Bloomberg, May 23, 2019, July 18, 2019, In 1996, Trump acquired the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, which was a vacant seventy-one story skyscraper on Wall Street. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=81–82}} In 1997, he began construction on Riverside South, which he dubbed Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. He and the other investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for $1.8 billion in 2005 in what was then the biggest residential sale in the history of New York City.NEWS,weblink Trump Group Selling West Side Parcel for $1.8 billion, Bagli, Charles V., The New York Times, June 1, 2005, May 17, 2016, From 1994 to 2002, Trump owned a fifty percent share of the Empire State Building.{{sfn|Pacelle|2001|p=18}}

Palm Beach estate

(File:Mar-a-lago in 2009.jpg|thumb|Mar-a-Lago in 2009)In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida, for $10 million, $7 million for the real estate and $3 million for the furnishings.NEWS, Peterson-Withorn, Chase,weblink Donald Trump Has Gained More Than $100 Million On Mar-a-Lago, Forbes, April 23, 2018, July 4, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Fights Property Taxes, Associated Press, March 29, 1988, July 4, 2018, His initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he was able to obtain the property for the lower price after a real estate market "slump".WEB,weblink A History of Mar-a-Lago, Donald Trump's American Castle, Dangremond, Sam, December 22, 2017,, July 3, 2018, The home was built in the 1920s by heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post.NEWS,weblink The Ironic History of Mar-a-Lago, Luongo, Michael, November 2017, Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian, December 9, 2017, After her death, her heirs unsuccessfully tried to donate the property to the government before putting it up for sale.NEWS, Jordan, Mary, Mary Jordan (journalist), Helderman, Rosalind S., Rosalind Helderman,weblink Inside Trump's Palm Beach castle and his 30-year fight to win over the locals, The Washington Post, October 14, 2015, July 4, 2018, In addition to using a wing of the estate as a home, Trump turned Mar-a-Lago into a private club. In order to join, prospective members had to pay an initiation fee and annual dues.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=161}} The initiation fee was $100,000 until 2016; it was doubled to $200,000 in January 2017.WEB, Dangremond, Sam,weblink Here's What We Know About the Membership of Mar-a-Lago, Town&Country, October 9, 2017, July 4, 2018,

Atlantic City casinos

After New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, Trump traveled to Atlantic City to explore new business opportunities. Seven years later, he opened Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino; the project was built by Trump with financing from the Holiday Corporation, who also managed its operation.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=57–58}} It was renamed "Trump Plaza" soon after it opened.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=128}} The casino's poor financial results exacerbated disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corporation, which led to Trump paying $70 million in May 1986 to buy out their interest in the property.NEWS, Trump Stake in Holiday,weblink May 31, 2017, The New York Times, September 5, 1986, NEWS, Crudele, John, John Crudele, Holiday Corp. Plans Restructuring,weblink May 31, 2017, The New York Times, November 13, 1986, Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million; when completed in 1985, that hotel and casino became Trump Castle, and Trump's wife Ivana managed the property until 1988.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=59–60}}{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=137}}File:Trump Taj Mahal, 2007.jpg|thumb|alt=The entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal, a casino in Atlantic City. It has motifs evocative of the Taj Mahal in India.|Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic CityAtlantic CityTrump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal, in 1988 while it was under construction, through a complex transaction with Merv Griffin and Resorts International.NEWS, Seven Acquisitive Executives Who Made Business News in 1988: Donald Trump â€“ Trump Organization; The Artist of the Deal Turns Sour into Sweet, Cuff, Daniel, December 18, 1988,weblink May 27, 2011, The New York Times, It was completed at a cost of $1.1 billion and opened in April 1990.NEWS,weblink Trump's Taj â€“ Open at Last, With a Scary Appetite, April 8, 1990, Glynn, Lenny, The New York Times, August 14, 2016, The project was financed with $675 million in junk bondsNEWS,weblink Trump reaches agreement with bondholders on Taj Mahal, United Press International, April 9, 1991, March 21, 2016, and was a major gamble by Trump.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=135}} The project underwent debt restructuring the following year,NEWS,weblink Amy, Bingham, Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times, ABC News, April 21, 2011, February 20, 2015, leaving Trump with fifty percent ownership.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Taj Mahal is out of Bankruptcy, May 22, 2008, October 5, 1991, Facing "enormous debt", he gave up control of his money-losing airline, Trump Shuttle, and sold his {{convert|282|ft|m|adj=mid}} mega yacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.NEWS,weblink Trump Is Reportedly Selling Yacht, The New York Times, May 11, 1990, July 3, 2018, Hylton, Richard, NEWS,weblink The Donald Ducks Out, May 19, 1997, September 10, 2015, People (magazine), People, Karen S., Schneider, {{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=132–133}}In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary, Indiana.NEWS, Trump Plaza casino stock trades today on Big Board, The New York Times, Floyd, Norris, Floyd Norris, June 7, 1995,weblink December 14, 2014, THCR purchased Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent bankruptcy restructuring in 2004 and 2009, leaving Trump with ten percent ownership in the Trump Taj Mahal and other Trump casino properties.NEWS,weblink The Truth About the Rise and Fall of Donald Trump's Atlantic City Empire, Philadelphia (magazine), Philadelphia, August 16, 2015, March 21, 2016, Dan, McQuade, Trump remained chairman of THCR until 2009.NEWS,weblink How Donald Trump Made Millions Off His Biggest Business Failure, Tully, Shawn, March 10, 2016, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, May 6, 2018,

Golf courses

File:Trump Turnberry Hotel - - 5273443.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A golf course. In the background is the Turnberry Hotel, a two-story hotel with white façade and a red roof.|Turnberry Hotel and golf course in AyrshireAyrshire{{As of|December 2016}}, the Trump Organization owns or operates 18 golf course and golf resorts in the United States and abroad.NEWS, Garcia, Ahiza, Trump's 17 golf courses teed up: Everything you need to know,weblink January 21, 2018, CNN Money, December 29, 2016, According to Trump's FEC personal financial disclosure, his 2015 golf and resort revenue amounted to $382 million,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Personal Financial Disclosure Form 2015, The Washington Post, July 15, 2015, NEWS,weblink A peek at Donald Trump's finances, Cristina, Alesci, Cristina Alesci, Laurie, Frankel, Jeanne, Sahadi, CNN, May 19, 2016, May 20, 2016, while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.NEWS, Bloomberg News,weblink Trump Is Richer in Property and Deeper in Debt in New Valuation, July 19, 2016, Caleb, Melby, In the year that Donald Trump was transformed ... into the presumptive Republican nominee, the value of his golf courses and his namesake Manhattan tower soared ... His net worth rose to $3 billion on the Bloomberg Billionaires Index ..., Trump began acquiring and constructing golf courses in 1999; his first property was the Trump International Golf Club, West Palm Beach in Florida.WEB, Donald Trump: King of Clubs,weblink Golf Magazine, Golf, February 21, 2007, August 5, 2018, By 2007, he owned four courses around the U.S. Following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, he began purchasing existing golf courses and re-designing them.NEWS, DiMeglio, Steve, Donald Trump brings new life to world of golf, USA Today,weblink March 3, 2015, July 21, 2018, His use of these courses during his presidency was controversial. Despite frequently criticizing his predecessor Barack Obama for his numerous golf outings, Trump golfed eleven times during his first eight weeks in office.WEB, Beall, Joel, President Trump appears to still really like golf, makes 11th trip to course in eight weeks in office,weblink July 21, 2018, March 20, 2017, Trump visited one of his golf resorts on 187 of his first 848 days in office, 22 percent of the time.NEWS,weblink Tracking the president's visits to Trump properties, NBC News, Liz, Johnstone,

Branding and licensing

{{See also|List of things named after Donald Trump}}File:Chicago September 2016-2.jpg|thumb|upright|Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago]]The Trump Organization expanded its business into branding and management by licensing the Trump name for a large number of building projects that are owned and operated by other people and companies. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, it expanded its footprint beyond New York with the branding and management of various developers' hotel towers around the world. These included projects in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City, Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-branded buildings in Dubai, Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.NEWS,weblink From Manila to Hawaii, Meet The Licensing Partners Who Paid Trump The Most, Forbes, Jennifer, Wang, March 20, 2017, May 6, 2017, The Trump name has also been licensed for various consumer products and services, including the short-lived Cadillac Trump Series,NEWS, Autoweek Staff, When Donald Trump and Cadillac joined forces to build the 'most opulent' limo ever,weblink Autoweek, January 13, 2017, May 17, 2019, NEWS, Ehrenfreund, Max, Tankersley, Jim, Donald Trump has a favorite carmaker, and that might be a problem,weblink The Washington Post, December 22, 2016, May 17, 2019, foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings.NEWS, Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, How many Trump products were made overseas? Here's the complete list.,weblink The Washington Post, August 26, 2016, May 17, 2019, NEWS, The Washington Post, April 13, 2018, Zane, Anthony, Kathryn, Sanders, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Whatever happened to Trump neckties? They're over. So is most of Trump's merchandising empire.,weblink According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than fifty licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies.NEWS, Aaron, Williams, Anu, Narayanswamy,weblink How Trump has made millions by selling his name, January 25, 2017, December 12, 2017, By 2018 only two consumer goods companies continued to license his name.

Lawsuits and bankruptcies

{{As of|April 2018}}, Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today.NEWS, Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits,weblink April 17, 2018, USA Today, {{as of|2016}}, he or one of his companies had been the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.NEWS, Exclusive: Trump's 3,500 lawsuits unprecedented for a presidential nominee,weblink June 2, 2016, USA Today, June 2, 2016, Nick, Penzenstadler, Susan, Page, Susan Page, About 100 additional disputes centered on other issues at the casinos. Trump and his enterprises have been named in almost 700 personal-injury claims and about 165 court disputes with government agencies ... Due to his branding value, Trump is determined to defend his name and reputation., NEWS,weblink Trump brags about winning record in lawsuits, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, June 2, 2016, Savransky, Rebecca, Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, although in 1990 he came within one missed bank loan payment of doing so, agreeing to a deal that temporarily ceded management control of his company to his banks and put him on a spending allowance.NEWS,weblink Banks Approve Loans for Trump, But Take Control of His Finances, Richard D., Hylton, October 13, 2018, The New York Times, June 27, 1990, Trump claimed to have initiated this deal with his banks as he saw the downturn in the real estate market, but bankers involved in the matter stated they initiated the negotiations before Trump had realized there was a problem.NEWS, Reuters, July 17, 2016, Emily, Flitter, Art of the spin: Trump bankers question his portrayal of financial comeback, October 14, 2018,weblink His hotel and casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds.NEWS,weblink 4 Times Donald Trump's Companies Declared Bankruptcy, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, June 29, 2015, January 17, 2016, Bryan, Hood, NEWS,weblink Hao, Li, Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies, International Business Times, April 12, 2011, February 19, 2015, Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws â€“ they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt.NEWS, Stone, Peter, Donald Trump's lawsuits could turn off conservatives who embrace tort reform,weblink March 14, 2016, Center for Public Integrity, May 5, 2011, NEWS, Kurtz, Howard, Howard Kurtz, Kurtz: The Trump Backlash,weblink March 14, 2016, Newsweek, April 24, 2011, The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).NEWS, Winter, Tom, Trump Bankruptcy Math Doesn't Add Up,weblink NBC News, October 8, 2016, NEWS,weblink Clare, O'Connor, Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him, Forbes, April 29, 2011, February 19, 2015, During the 1980s, more than seventy banks had lent Trump $4 billion, but in the aftermath of his corporate bankruptcies of the early 1990s, most major banks declined to lend to him, with a notable exception of Deutsche Bank.NEWS, Business Insider, December 8, 2017, Allan, Smith, Trump's long and winding history with Deutsche Bank could now be at the center of Robert Mueller's investigation, October 14, 2018,weblink In April 2019 the House Oversight Committee (HOC) issued subpoenas seeking financial details from Trump's banks, Deutsche Bank and Capital One, and his accounting firm, Mazars USA. In response, Trump sued the banks, Mazars, and HOC chairman Elijah Cummings to prevent the disclosures.NEWS, Trump sues Deutsche Bank and Capital One over Democrat subpoenas,weblink BBC News, April 30, 2019, May 1, 2019, NEWS, April 22, 2019, Fahrenthold, David, David Fahrenthold, Bade, Rachael, Wagner, John, Trump sues in bid to block congressional subpoena of financial records,weblink The Washington Post, May 1, 2019, In May, DC District Court judge Amit Mehta ruled that Mazars must comply with the subpoena,NEWS,weblink Accountants Must Turn Over Trump's Financial Records, Lower-Court Judge Rules, Charlie, Savage, Charlie Savage, May 20, 2019, The New York Times, and judge Edgardo Ramos of the Southern District Court of New York ruled that the banks must also comply.NEWS,weblink Judge rejects Trump's request to halt congressional subpoenas for his banking records, The Washington Post, May 22, 2019, Renae, Merle, Michael, Kranish, Michael Kranish, Felicia, Sonmez, NEWS,weblink Deutsche Bank Can Release Trump Records to Congress, Judge Rules, Emily, Flitter, May 22, 2019, The New York Times, Trump's attorneys appealed the rulings,NEWS,weblink Trump's appeal to keep finances away from Democrats goes to court headed by Merrick Garland, May 21, 2019, Newsweek, Alexandra, Hutzler, arguing that Congress was attempting to usurp the "exercise of law-enforcement authority that the Constitution reserves to the executive branch".NEWS, Lawfare (blog), Lawfare, June 10, 2019, Mikhaila, Vogel, Trump Legal Team Files Brief in Mazars Appeal, June 12, 2019,weblink NEWS, The Washington Post, May 28, 2019, Renae, Merle, House subpoenas for Trump's bank records put on hold while President appeals, May 28, 2019,weblink

Side ventures

After taking over control of the Trump Organization in 1971, Trump expanded its real estate operations and ventured into other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.NEWS,weblink Five take-aways from Donald Trump's financial disclosure, BBC Online, July 23, 2015, January 17, 2016, Anthony, Zurcher, In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals{{snd}} an American football team that played in the United States Football League (USFL). After the 1985 season, the league folded largely due to Trump's strategy of moving games to a fall schedule where they competed with the NFL for audience, and trying to force a merger with the NFL by bringing an antitrust lawsuit against the organization.NEWS, Arash, Markazi, Arash Markazi, 5 things to know about Donald Trump's foray into doomed USFL, July 14, 2015, ESPN,weblink NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Fought the NFL Once Before. He Got Crushed, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, September 24, 2017, June 22, 2018, Morris, David, Trump's businesses have hosted several boxing matches at the Atlantic City Convention Hall adjacent to and promoted as taking place at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, including Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael Spinks.NEWS,weblink Trump Gets Tyson Fight, February 11, 2011, February 25, 1988, The New York Times, {{sfn|O'Donnell|Rutherford|1991|p=137}} In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia.NEWS,weblink The Strange Tale of Donald Trump's 1989 Biking Extravaganza, Kevin, Hogan, Politico, April 10, 2016, April 12, 2016, In 1988, Trump founded Trump Shuttle, purchasing 21 planes and landing rights at three airports in New York City, Boston, and the Washington, D.C., area, from the defunct Eastern Air Lines, costing $380 million financed from 22 banks. The airline offered charter services in addition to scheduled shuttle flights, and was eventually sold to USAir Group in 1992 after failing to operate at a profit.NEWS, Kessler, Glenn, Glenn Kessler (journalist),weblink Too good to check: Sean Hannity's tale of a Trump rescue, The Washington Post, August 11, 2016, March 14, 2019, File:Donald Trump star Hollywood Walk of Fame.JPG|thumb|upright|Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of FameHollywood Walk of FameFrom 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe pageants, including Miss USA and Miss Teen USA.NEWS,weblink Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency, September 15, 2015, The New York Times, January 9, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump just sold off the entire Miss Universe Organization, September 14, 2015, Business Insider, May 6, 2016, Due to disagreements with CBS about scheduling, he took both pageants to NBC in 2002.NEWS,weblink Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC, June 22, 2002, Jim, Rutenberg, Jim Rutenberg, August 14, 2016, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink There She Goes: Pageants Move to NBC, June 22, 2002, Lisa, De Moraes, Lisa de Moraes, The Washington Post, August 14, 2016, In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work as producer of Miss Universe.NEWS, Zara, Christopher, Christopher Zara,weblink Why the heck does Donald Trump have a Walk of Fame star, anyway? It's not the reason you think, Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company, October 29, 2016, June 16, 2018, In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization, and sold the entire company to the William Morris talent agency.NEWS,weblink Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency, September 15, 2015, The New York Times, February 5, 2016,

Trump University

Trump University was a for-profit education company that was founded by Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny. The company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500 and $35,000 per course.NEWS, Gitell, Seth, March 8, 2016, I Survived Trump University,weblink Politico, March 18, 2016, NEWS,weblink Big Hair on Campus: Did Donald Trump Defraud Thousands of Real Estate Students?, Cohan, William D., William D. Cohan, Vanity Fair, March 6, 2016, NEWS, Michael, Barbaro, New York Attorney General Is Investigating Trump's For-Profit School, May 19, 2011, The New York Times,weblink In 2005, New York State authorities notified the operation that its use of the word "university" was misleading and violated state law. After a second such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the "Trump Entrepreneurial Institute". Trump was also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.NEWS,weblink Karen, Freifeld, New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school, Reuters, October 16, 2014, February 20, 2015, Ronald Schnackenberg, a sales manager for Trump University, testified that he had been reprimanded for not trying harder to sell a $35,000 real estate class to a couple who could not afford it.NEWS,weblink Former Trump University Workers Call the School a 'Lie' and a 'Scheme' in Testimony, Barbaro, Michael, Eder, Steve, May 31, 2016, The New York Times, March 24, 2018, Schnackenberg said he believed "Trump University was a fraudulent scheme" which "preyed upon the elderly and uneducated to separate them from their money".In 2013, the State of New York filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers.NEWS, David, Halperin, NY Court Refuses to Dismiss Trump University Case, Describes Fraud Allegations, March 1, 2016, The Huffington Post,weblink NEWS,weblink Michelle Ye Hee, Lee, Donald Trump's misleading claim that he's 'won most of' lawsuits over Trump University, The Washington Post, February 27, 2016, February 27, 2016, In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to Trump University; they named Trump personally as well as his companies.NEWS,weblink Trump faces two-front legal fight over 'university', USA Today, Kevin, McCoy, August 26, 2013, During the presidential campaign, Trump criticized presiding judge Gonzalo P. Curiel, alleging bias in his rulings because of his Mexican heritage.NEWS, Rappeport, Alan, Alan Rappeport, June 3, 2016, That Judge Attacked by Donald Trump? He's Faced a Lot Worse,weblink The New York Times, June 4, 2016, MAGAZINE, Ford, Matt, June 3, 2016, Why Is Donald Trump So Angry at Judge Gonzalo Curiel?, The Atlantic,weblink June 3, 2016, Shortly after Trump won the presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases, whereby Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any wrongdoing.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement, Eder, Steve, November 18, 2016, The New York Times, November 18, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald set to pay $25M in Trump University fraud case settlement, November 18, 2016, New York Daily News, November 18, 2016, Kenneth, Lovett, Nancy, Dillon,


The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundationNEWS,weblink Nonprofit Explorer â€“ ProPublica, ProPublica, Mike, Tigas, Sisi, Wei, September 9, 2016, that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal.WEB,weblink Donald J Trump Foundation Inc â€“ GuideStar Profile, GuideStar, September 9, 2016, NEWS, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold,weblink Trump pays IRS a penalty for his foundation violating rules with gift to aid Florida attorney general, The Washington Post, September 1, 2016, The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump,NEWS,weblink Missing from Trump's list of charitable giving: His own personal cash, April 10, 2016, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Helderman, Rosalind S., Rosalind Helderman, The Washington Post, who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups.NEWS, Long Island Business News, September 15, 2016, Claude, Solnik, Taking a peek at Trump's (foundation) tax returns,weblink In 2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about forty groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000).NEWS, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Danielle, Rindler,weblink Searching for evidence of Trump's personal giving, The Washington Post, August 18, 2016, NEWS, Qiu, Linda, Yes, Donald Trump has given to the Clinton Foundation,weblink PolitiFact, October 17, 2018, From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of WWE, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007.In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion.NEWS, The Washington Post, September 15, 2016, Chris, Cillizza, Chris Cillizza, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Meet the reporter who's giving Donald Trump fits,weblink Also in 2016, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the Trump Foundation that the foundation appeared to be in violation of New York laws regarding charities, ordering it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York.NEWS,weblink NY attorney general is investigating Trump Foundation practices, September 14, 2016, CNN, September 25, 2016, Bradner, Eric, Frehse, Rob, The Post had reported that the recipients of five charitable contributions listed by the Trump Foundation had no record of receiving those donations. But the newspaper updated its report after CNN questioned the accuracy of three of the five donations it had cited., NEWS,weblink Trump Foundation Falls Under Investigation By New York Attorney General, September 14, 2016, Toh, Michelle, September 27, 2016, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, NEWS, The Washington Post, October 3, 2016, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Trump Foundation ordered to stop fundraising by N.Y. attorney general's office,weblink A Trump spokesman called the Attorney General's investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with [his] role as President".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump to dissolve his charitable foundation after mounting complaints, Jacobs, Ben, Ben Jacobs (journalist), December 24, 2016, The Guardian, December 25, 2016, According to an IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intended to shut down and distribute its assets (about $970,000) to other charities. However, the New York Attorney General's office had to complete their ongoing investigation before the foundation could legally shut down,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is shutting down his charitable foundation, November 20, 2017, NBC News, November 28, 2017, Ken, Dilanian, Rich, Gardella, Patrick, Martin, and in June 2018 they filed a civil suit against the foundation for $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties.NEWS,weblink New York attorney general sues Trump Foundation, CNN, Chris, Isidore, Melanie, Schuman, June 14, 2018, June 15, 2018, The suit names Trump himself as well as his adult children Donald Jr., Eric, and Ivanka.NEWS,weblink Five things to know about the lawsuit against the Trump Foundation, Thomsen, Jacqueline, June 14, 2018, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, June 15, 2018, In December 2018, the foundation agreed to cease operation and disburse all its assets. Attorney General Barbara Underwood, who oversaw the investigation and lawsuit, said the investigation uncovered a "shocking pattern of illegality".NEWS,weblink Trump Foundation Will Dissolve, Accused of 'Shocking Pattern of Illegality', The New York Times, December 18, 2018, May 9, 2019, Shane, Goldmacher, NEWS,weblink A shocking pattern of illegality': Trump Foundation shuts down, Sydney Morning Herald, December 19, 2018, May 9, 2019, David, Fahrenthold,

Conflicts of interest

Before being inaugurated as president, Trump moved his businesses into a revocable trust run by his eldest sons and a business associate.NEWS, Marilyn, Geewax, Trump Has Revealed Assumptions About Handling Presidential Wealth, Businesses,weblink NPR, January 20, 2018, NEWS, A list of Trump's potential conflicts,weblink BBC Online, April 18, 2017, According to ethics experts, as long as Trump continues to profit from his businesses, the measures taken by Trump do not help to avoid conflicts of interest.NEWS, Venook, Jeremy, Trump's Interests vs. America's, Dubai Edition,weblink The Atlantic, August 9, 2017, Because Trump would have knowledge of how his administration's policies would affect his businesses, ethics experts recommend that Trump sell off his businesses. While Trump has said his organization would eschew "new foreign deals", the Trump Organization has since pursued expansions of its operations in Dubai, Scotland, and the Dominican Republic. Multiple lawsuits have been filed alleging that Trump is violating the emoluments clause of the United States Constitution, which forbids presidents from taking money from foreign governments, due to his business interests; they argue that these interests allow foreign governments to influence him.NEWS, LaFraniere, Sharon, Sharon LaFraniere, Lawsuit on Trump Emoluments Violations Gains Traction in Court,weblink January 25, 2018, The New York Times, January 25, 2018, Previous presidents in the modern era have either divested their holdings or put them in blind trusts, and he is the first president to be sued over the emoluments clause.A lawsuit, D.C. and Maryland v. Trump, brought by the attorneys general of Maryland and the District of Columbia in June 2017, cleared three judicial hurdles to proceed to the discovery phase during 2018.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Lawsuit Over Trump's Ties to His Businesses Is Allowed to Advance, Sharon, LaFraniere, Sharon LaFraniere, March 28, 2018, January 3, 2019, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, In Ruling Against Trump, Judge Defines Anticorruption Clauses in Constitution for First Time, Sharon, LaFraniere, Sharon LaFraniere, July 25, 2018, January 3, 2019, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Judge Orders Evidence to Be Gathered in Emoluments Case Against Trump, Sharon, LaFraniere, Sharon LaFraniere, November 2, 2018, January 3, 2019, Prosecutors issued 38 subpoenas to Trump's businesses and cabinet departments in December 2018 before the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a stay days later at the behest of the Justice Department, pending hearings in March 2019.NEWS,weblink 2 attorneys general issue subpoenas to Trump entities in Washington hotel case, Jonathan, O'Connell, Ann E., Marimow, David A., Fahrenthold, David Fahrenthold, Chicago Tribune, January 4, 2019, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Justice Department Asks Court to Halt Emoluments Case Against Trump, Sharon, LaFraniere, Sharon LaFraniere, December 17, 2018, January 4, 2019, NEWS,weblink Reuters, Jan, Wolfe, U.S. appeals court grants Trump request for halt to emoluments case, December 21, 2018, January 3, 2019, In a March 18, 2019 hearing, a three-judge panel of the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals was sharply skeptical of the legal basis of the suit, while the plaintiffs appeared confident they would prevail. On July 10, 2019 the court dismissed the case, finding the plaintiffs did not have standing.NEWS,weblink Appeals Court Judges Appear Skeptical of Emoluments Case Against Trump, Sharon, LaFraniere, Sharon LaFraniere, March 19, 2019, The New York Times, April 30, 2019, NEWS,weblink Federal Appeals Court Rules for Trump in Emoluments Case, The New York Times, July 10, 2019, Lafraniere, Sharon, On April 30, 2019 judge Emmet Sullivan, who had been presiding over another related suit filed by congressional Democrats in the DC District Court, declined a request from Trump's attorneys to dismiss the case.NEWS,weblink Congressional Democrats' emoluments lawsuit targeting President Trump's private business can proceed, judge says, The Washington Post, Jonathan, O'Connell, Ann E., Marimow, Carol D., Leonnig, Carol D. Leonnig, April 30, 2019, April 30, 2019, On June 25, Sullivan denied a request by Trump's attorneys to stay the suit pending an appeal, allowing Democrats to seek some of Trump's financial records.NEWS,weblink Trump loses bid to halt Democratic lawsuit over foreign payments, Reuters, June 26, 2019, On July 19, Sullivan stayed the Democrats' subpoenas for Trump's records, the same day the Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit said it should hear the case before the records are provided.NEWS, CNN, July 19, 2019, Katelyn, Polantz, Judge halts Democrats' subpoenas of Trump Org docs in emoluments case,weblink

Media career


Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987 was (Trump: The Art of the Deal), in which he is credited as co-author with Tony Schwartz, who has said he did all the writing. It reached the top of the New York Times Best Seller list, stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list for 48 weeks. According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful dealmaker and tycoon."NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Ghostwriter Tells All, The New Yorker, Jane, Mayer, Jane Mayer, July 18, 2016, June 19, 2017, Trump's published writings shifted post-2000 from stylized memoirs to financial tips and political opinion.NEWS, Carlos, Lozada, The Washington Post, I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned.,weblink July 30, 2015, June 18, 2017,

Film and television

Relationship with WWE

Trump has had a sporadic relationship with professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment since the late 1980s; in 1988 and 1989, WrestleMania IV and V, which took place at the Atlantic City Convention Hall, was billed as taking place at the nearby Trump Plaza.NEWS, Lelinwalla, Mark,weblink Looking Back At Donald Trump's WWE Career, Tech Times, March 4, 2016, July 6, 2019, WEB,weblink Donald Trump bio, WWE, March 14, 2015, NEWS, Kelly, Chris, Wetherbee, Brandon,weblink Heel in Chief, Slate (magazine), Slate, December 9, 2016, March 5, 2019, He has appeared in several WWE storylines, including a scripted feud with WWE owner Vince McMahon leading into WrestleMania 23 in 2007 and a storyline in 2009 in which Trump "bought" and later "sold" Monday Night Raw. In 2013, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame as part of the weekend festivities surrounding WrestleMania 29.NEWS, Graser, Marc,weblink Donald Trump Enters WWE's Hall of Fame, Variety (magazine), Variety, February 25, 2013, March 5, 2019, McMahon and his wife Linda{{snd}} who later served under President Trump as the Administrator of the Small Business Administration{{snd}} have also made donations to Trump's endeavors, including a combined total of $5 million to the Donald Trump Foundation after Trump's WWE appearances in 2007 and 2009, and $6 million to his presidential campaign in 2016.In July 2017, Trump posted an altered video clip with the hashtag "FraudNewsCnn" to his personal Twitter account. The clip, which was retweeted by the official @POTUS Twitter account, showed him at WrestleMania 23 seeming to knock McMahon to the ground and punch him; in the edited version, a CNN logo is superimposed on McMahon's head.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump posts video clip of him 'beating' CNN in wrestling, BBC, July 2, 2017, March 22, 2019, Following months of Trump attacking the media and particularly CNN as "fake news" and "enemies of the people", the tweet was criticized as appearing to incite violence against journalists.NEWS, Silva, Daniella,weblink President Trump Tweets Wrestling Video of Himself Attacking 'CNN', NBC News, July 2, 2017, March 22, 2019,

The Apprentice

In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a one-year management job with the Trump Organization; applicants were successively eliminated from the game with the catchphrase "You're fired."NEWS, Jacob, Koffler, Donald Trump's 16 Biggest Business Failures and Successes, August 7, 2015, Time (magazine), Time,weblink NEWS, Grynbaum, Michael M., Parker, Ashley, Ashley Parker,weblink Donald Trump the Political Showman, Born on 'The Apprentice', The New York Times, July 16, 2016, July 8, 2018, NEWS, Fisher, Marc, Marc Fisher, On TV, Trump loved to say 'You're fired.' In real life, he leaves the dirty work to others.,weblink The Washington Post, October 5, 2019, March 15, 2018, He went on to be co-host of The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities.NEWS, Nussbaum, Emily, Emily Nussbaum,weblink The TV That Created Donald Trump, The New Yorker, July 31, 2017, July 8, 2018, In February 2015, Trump said he was "not ready" to sign on for another season of the show because of the possibility of a presidential run.NEWS,weblink New Hampshire Union Leader, Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run, Paul, Feely, February 27, 2015, July 28, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2015, Despite this, NBC announced they were going ahead with production of a 15th season.NEWS,weblink Politico, NBC still planning for 'Apprentice', despite Donald Trump's presidential claims, Dylan, Byers, Dylan Byers, March 18, 2015, July 28, 2015, In June, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, "Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."NEWS,weblink NBC Just Fired Presidential Hopeful Donald Trump from 'The Apprentice', Jacob, Siegel, June 29, 2015, Boy Genius Report, July 28, 2015,


Trump has made cameo appearances in twelve films and 14 television series,WEB,weblink Casting Notes: Donald Trump Cameos in Wall Street 2; Jeremy Piven and Kate Walsh go to Canada, Russ, Fischer, /Film,, November 30, 2009, September 18, 2018, including as the father of one of the characters in The Little Rascals.NEWS, Adrienne, LaFrance, Three Decades of Donald Trump Film and TV Cameos, December 21, 2015, The Atlantic,weblink NEWS, Lockett, Dee,weblink Yes, Donald Trump Did Actually Play a Spoiled Rich Kid's Dad in The Little Rascals, Vulture, June 21, 2016, July 14, 2018, He performed a song with Megan Mullally at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2005.NEWS, Shanley, Patrick,weblink Emmys Flashback: When Trump Sang the 'Green Acres' Theme in Overalls, The Hollywood Reporter, September 15, 2016, July 14, 2018, NEWS, Nededog, Jethro,weblink Megan Mullally regrets helping Trump with a 'landslide' win: 'I'm not giving him any points', Business Insider, December 15, 2016, July 14, 2018, Trump receives a pension as a member of the Screen Actors Guild.NEWS,weblink How Did Donald Trump Get a $110K SAG Pension?, The Hollywood Reporter, July 22, 2015, January 17, 2016, Jonathan, Handel, His financial disclosure forms mentioned an annual pension of $110,000 in 2016 and $85,000 in 2017.NEWS,weblink Inside Donald Trump's $110,000 Hollywood Pension Disclosure, Bloomberg News, July 22, 2015, January 17, 2016, Christopher, Palmeri, NEWS, Handler, Jonathan,weblink Trump Ethics Filing Reveals SAG Pension, Entertainment Income, The Hollywood Reporter, June 16, 2017, July 14, 2018,

Radio and television commentary

{{See also|Trumped!}}Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show, but he has made no appearances since he became president.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=166}} He also had his own short-form talk radio program called Trumped! (one to two minutes on weekdays) from 2004 to 2008.NEWS, Massie, Christopher, Kaczynski, Andrew, Andrew Kaczynski,weblink There Are Hours Of Audio Of Donald Trump's Nationally Syndicated Radio Show In The 2000s, BuzzFeed News, March 16, 2016, October 21, 2018, NEWS,weblink The Donald to Get New Wife, Radio Show, People (magazine), People, April 29, 2004, November 19, 2013, Stephen M., Silverman, Stephen M. Silverman, NEWS, Bob, Tedeschi,weblink Now for Sale Online, the Art of the Vacation, The New York Times, February 6, 2006, October 21, 2018, In 2011, he was given a weekly unpaid guest commentator spot on Fox & Friends that continued until he started his presidential candidacy in 2015.NEWS, Grynbaum, Michael M.,weblink Fox News Once Gave Trump a Perch. Now It's His Bullhorn., The New York Times, July 1, 2018, July 7, 2018, NEWS, Gertz, Matthew,weblink I've Studied the Trump-Fox Feedback Loop for Months. It's Crazier Than You Think., Politico, January 5, 2018, July 8, 2018, NEWS, Montopoli, Brian,weblink Donald Trump gets regular Fox News spot, CBS News, April 1, 2011, July 7, 2018, NEWS, Grossman, Matt, Hopkins, David A., How the conservative media is taking over the Republican Party,weblink October 19, 2018, The Washington Post, September 9, 2016,

Political career

Political activities up to 2015

Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over the years. He registered as a Republican in Manhattan in 1987, switched to the Reform Party in 1999, the Democratic Party in 2001, and back to the Republican Party in 2009.NEWS, Gillin, Joshua, Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade',weblink March 18, 2017, PolitiFact, August 24, 2015, He made donations to both the Democratic and the Republican parties, party committees, and candidates until 2010 when he stopped donating to Democrats and increased his donations to Republicans considerably.NEWS, Kurtzleben, Danielle,weblink Most of Donald Trump's Political Money Went To Democrats – Until 5 Years Ago, NPR, July 28, 2015, September 5, 2018, In 1987 Trump spent $94,801 ({{Inflation|US|94,801|1987|fmt=eq}}) to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, proclaiming "America should stop paying to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves."NEWS,weblink Trump Gives a Vague Hint of Candidacy, The New York Times, Michael, Oreskes, Michael Oreskes, September 2, 1987, February 17, 2016, The advertisements also advocated for "reducing the budget deficit, working for peace in Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union."NEWS,weblink Trump Urged To Head Gala Of Democrats, The New York Times, November 18, 1987, Fox, Butterfield, After rumors of a presidential run, Trump was invited by then U.S. senator John Kerry (Democrat from Massachusetts), House speaker Jim Wright of Texas, and Arkansas congressman Beryl Anthony Jr. to host a fundraising dinner for Democratic congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony told The New York Times that "the message Trump has been preaching is a Democratic message." Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump denied being a candidate, but said, "I believe that if I did run for President, I'd win." According to a Gallup poll in December 1988, Trump was the tenth most admired man in America.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=3}}{{sfn|Gallup|1990|p=3}}

2000 presidential campaign

In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election.NEWS, Richard, Winger, Richard Winger, Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries, December 25, 2011, Ballot Access News,weblink A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support.NEWS, Donald Trump eyeing a run at the White House, Johnson, Glen, Standard-Speaker, Hazelton, Pennsylvania, Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but still went on to win the Reform Party primaries in California and Michigan.WEB,weblink CA Secretary of State â€“ Primary 2000 â€“ Statewide Totals,, July 1, 2015,weblink February 16, 2015, After his run, he left the party due to the involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani.NEWS, Donald J., Trump, What I Saw at the Revolution, February 19, 2000, The New York Times,weblink He also considered running for president in 2004.NEWS, Travis, Shannon, Was he ever serious? How Trump strung the country along, again,weblink CNN, June 7, 2015, May 17, 2011, In 2005, Trump said he had voted for George W. Bush.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump in the No Spin Zone, Fox News, September 22, 2005, June 17, 2018, In 2008, he endorsed Republican John McCain for president.NEWS,weblink Trump endorses McCain, CNN, September 18, 2008, July 12, 2016,

2012 presidential speculation

File:Donald Trump (5440995138).jpg|thumb|Trump speaking at the Conservative Political Action ConferenceConservative Political Action ConferenceTrump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012 election, and made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party.NEWS,weblink GOProud Leads 'Trump in 2012' Movement at CPAC,, February 10, 2011, Belonsky, Andrew, On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election.NEWS, CNN Political Unit, Trump not running for president,weblink May 16, 2011, CNN, May 16, 2011, In February 2012, Trump endorsed Mitt Romney for president.NEWS, Trump endorses Romney, cites tough China position and electability, February 2, 2012, Fox News,weblink Trump's presidential ambitions were generally not taken seriously at the time.NEWS, MacAskill, Ewen, Ewen MacAskill, Donald Trump bows out of 2012 US presidential election race,weblink The Guardian, May 16, 2011, Few US political commentators took his campaign seriously and many suggested he was only in it for the publicity., Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump says he might run for president. Three reasons he won't., The Christian Science Monitor, February 10, 2011, Peter, Grier, April 21, 2011, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President' Act To CPAC, The Huffington Post, April 21, 2011, Jason, Linkins, February 11, 2011, Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump "accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world" after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in April 2011.NEWS, The New York Times, March 12, 2016, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, Alexander, Burns, Alex Burns (journalist), Donald Trump's Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature, April 13, 2018,weblink In 2011, according to Evan Jones, the headmaster of the New York Military Academy at the time, the then-superintendent Jeffrey Coverdale had demanded Trump's academic records, to hand them over to "prominent, wealthy alumni of the school who were Mr. Trump's friends" at their request. Coverdale said he had refused to hand over Trump's records to trustees of the school, and instead sealed Trump's records on campus. Jones stated: "It was the only time in my education career that I ever heard of someone's record being removed," while Coverdale further said: "It's the only time I ever moved an alumnus's records." The incident reportedly happened days after Trump demanded President Barack Obama's academic records.NEWS, March 5, 2019, Fisher, Marc, Marc Fisher, 'Grab that record': How Trump's high school transcript was hidden,weblink The Washington Post, June 9, 2019,


In 2013, Trump was a featured CPAC speaker.NEWS, Donald Trump to address CPAC,weblink Yahoo! News, March 5, 2013, Chris, Moody, March 6, 2013, In a sparsely-attended speech, he railed against illegal immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested that the government "take" Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers.NEWS, Lucy, Madison, Trump: Immigration reform a "suicide mission" for GOP, March 15, 2013, CBS News,weblink NEWS, Dan, Amira, Photos of Donald Trump Delivering His Self-Aggrandizing CPAC Speech to a Half-Empty Ballroom, March 15, 2013, New York (magazine), New York (magazine),weblink He spent over $1 million that year to research a possible 2016 candidacy.NEWS, Trump researching 2016 run, May 27, 2013, Page Six,weblink In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship.NEWS, Spector, Joseph, N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor,weblink USA Today, October 14, 2013, October 31, 2013, A February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election.NEWS, Miller, Jake,weblink Trump trumped by Cuomo in N.Y. governor race, poll finds, February 13, 2014, CBS News, February 9, 2017, In February 2015, Trump told NBC he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The Apprentice, as he mulled his political future.NEWS, Paul, Feely, Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run, February 27, 2015, New Hampshire Union Leader,weblink July 22, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink July 12, 2018, Trump's former personal lawyer Michael Cohen revealed during a congressional hearing that Trump had instructed him to threaten schools he attended not to release Trump's academic records, including Fordham University and the New York Military Academy. Cohen provided copies of a May 2015 letter threatening Fordham University with civil and criminal actions if any were released without Trump's permission which Fordham University confirmed receiving. A former dean of academics at the New York Military Academy, Mika Saarela, also acknowledged receiving a similar letter.NEWS, Ashford, Grace, Michael Cohen Says Trump Told Him to Threaten Schools Not to Release Grades,weblink The New York Times, June 9, 2019, February 27, 2019, NEWS, Frazin, Rachel, Cohen: Trump directed me to threaten schools not to release grades, SAT scores,weblink The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, June 9, 2019, February 27, 2019,

2016 presidential campaign

Republican primaries

{{See also|2016 Republican Party presidential primaries}}File:Donald Trump Laconia Rally, Laconia, NH 4 by Michael Vadon July 16 2015 19.jpg|thumb|alt=Trump speaking behind a brown wooden podium, wearing a dark blue suit and a red tie. The podium sports a blue "TRUMP" sign.|Trump campaigning in Laconia, New HampshireLaconia, New HampshireOn June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump discussed illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt, and Islamic terrorism, which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan: "Make America Great Again".SPEECH,weblink Here's Donald Trump's Presidential Announcement Speech, Time (magazine), Time, Donald, Trump, Donald Trump, June 16, 2015, Trump Tower, New York City, Transcript of full speechWEB, Donald Trump Presidential Campaign Announcement Full Speech (C-SPAN),weblink YouTube, C-SPAN, June 2, 2018, Video, June 16, 2015, Trump said his wealth would make him immune to pressure from campaign donors.NEWS,weblink Adam B., Lerner, The 10 best lines from Donald Trump's announcement speech, Politico, June 16, 2015, June 7, 2018, He declared that he was funding his own campaign,TWEET, realDonaldTrump, Donald Trump, 640280850182090752, By self-funding my campaign, I am not controlled by my donors, special interests or lobbyists. I am only working for the people of the U.S.!, September 5, 2015, June 7, 2018, but according to The Atlantic, "Trump's claims of self-funding have always been dubious at best and actively misleading at worst."NEWS,weblink The Lie of Trump's 'Self-Funding' Campaign, The Atlantic, David A., Graham, May 13, 2016, June 7, 2018, In the primaries, Trump was one of seventeen candidates vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American history.NEWS,weblink More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever, Linshi, Jack, July 7, 2015, February 14, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, Trump's campaign was initially not taken seriously by political analysts, but he quickly rose to the top of opinion polls.NEWS,weblink October 27, 2015, Elspeth, Reeve, How Donald Trump Evolved From a Joke to an Almost Serious Candidate, The New Republic, July 23, 2018, On (Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016#March 1, 2016: Super Tuesday|Super Tuesday), Trump won the plurality of the vote, and he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump was poised to win the Republican nomination.NEWS,weblink Why Donald Trump is poised to win the nomination and lose the general election, in one poll, Bump, Philip, March 23, 2016, The Washington Post, After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016{{snd}} which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns{{snd}} RNC chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee.NEWS,weblink RNC Chairman: Trump is our nominee, Nussbaum, Matthew, May 3, 2016, May 4, 2016, Politico,

General election campaign

After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump shifted his focus to the general election. Trump began campaigning against Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016.Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy.NEWS,weblink Poll: Clinton and Trump Now Tied as GOP Convention Kicks Off, Hartig, Hannah, Lapinski, John, Psyllos, Stephanie, July 19, 2016, NBC News, NEWS,weblink 2016 General Election: Trump vs. Clinton, October 3, 2016, The Huffington Post, NEWS,weblink General Election: Trump vs. Clinton, October 3, 2016, RealClearPolitics, File:Donald Trump and Mike Pence RNC July 2016.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Donald Trump and his running mate for vice president, Mike Pence. They appear to be standing in front of a huge screen with the colors of the American flag displayed on it. Trump is at left, facing toward the viewer and making "thumbs-up" gestures. Pence is at right, facing Trump and clapping.|Candidate Trump and running mate Mike Pence at the Republican National ConventionRepublican National ConventionOn July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana governor Mike Pence as his running mate.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence for VP, Levingston, Ivan, July 15, 2016, CNBC, Four days later, the two were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention.NEWS,weblink Trump closes the deal, becomes Republican nominee for president, July 19, 2016, Fox News, The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the other prior nominees did not attend.NEWS,weblink 9 Elephants in the Room at RNC: Who's Missing From the Speakers List, Timm, Jane C., July 17, 2016, August 16, 2016, NBC News, NEWS,weblink Flake, McCain split over backing Trump, Raju, Manu, Manu Raju, May 5, 2016, May 7, 2016, CNN, Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech. The historically long speech received mixed reviews, with net negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.NEWS,weblink 35 million TV viewers watch Donald Trump's acceptance speech at GOP convention, Battaglio, Stephen, July 22, 2016, Los Angeles Times, July 23, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump bounces into the lead, Agiesta, Jennifer, July 25, 2016, August 3, 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink For First Time, Trump's Image on Par With Clinton's, Newport, Frank, July 26, 2016, August 3, 2016, Gallup (company), Gallup News, On September 26, 2016, Trump and Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate, which was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, and moderated by NBC News anchor Lester Holt.WEB,weblink 2016 Presidential Debate Schedule, September 23, 2015, September 30, 2016, The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential debate in United States history.NEWS,weblink Debate breaks record as most-watched in U.S. history, Stelter, Brian, Brian Stelter, September 27, 2016, September 30, 2016, CNN Money, The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The beginning of that debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of Trump making sexually explicit comments, which Trump countered by referring to alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the debate, Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference. The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy.NEWS,weblink US presidential debate: Trump won't commit to accept election result, October 20, 2016, October 27, 2016, BBC News, NEWS,weblink How US media reacted to the third presidential debate, October 20, 2016, October 27, 2016, Australian Broadcasting Corporation,

Political positions

Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countriesNEWS,weblink Trump's promises before and after election, September 19, 2017, BBC Online, to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. During the campaign Trump repeatedly called NATO "obsolete".JOURNAL, 0146-3373, 2018, 10.1080/01463373.2018.1438485, Make America Great Again: Donald Trump and Redefining the U.S. Role in the World, On the campaign trail, Trump repeatedly called North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 'obsolete', Communication Quarterly, 66, 2, 176, Jason A., Edwards, His political positions have been described as populist,BOOK, What Is Populism?, Muller, Jan-Werner, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016, 978-0-8122-9378-4, 101, NEWS,weblink How Can Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Both Be 'Populist'?, Kazin, Michael, Michael Kazin, March 22, 2016, The New York Times Magazine, NEWS,weblink Trump's 6 populist positions, Becker, Bernie, February 13, 2016, Politico, and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation,WEB,weblink Tax Reform, Donald J. Trump for president website,weblink January 4, 2016, January 6, 2016, consistent with Republican Party policies, along with significant infrastructure investment,NEWS,weblink Liberals will love something Donald Trump said last night, Ehrenfreund, Max, December 16, 2015, The Washington Post, usually considered a Democratic Party policy.NEWS,weblink Democrats can finally agree with Donald Trump on something, Sharman, Jon, December 21, 2016, December 21, 2016, The Independent, NEWS,weblink Would Trump's Infrastructure Plan Fix America's Cities?, Williams, Mason B., January 7, 2017, The Atlantic, According to political writer Jack Shafer, Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.NEWS,weblink Did We Create Trump?, Shafer, Jack, Jack Shafer, May 2016, ... Trump's outrageous comments about John McCain, Muslims, the 14th Amendment and all the rest ..., Politico, {{sfn|Trump|Schwartz|2009|p=56}}Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time.NEWS,weblink 20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June, Fahrenthold, David A., David Fahrenthold, August 17, 2015, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink 'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops, Hensch, Mark, July 12, 2015, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, NEWS,weblink Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?, Noah, Timothy, Timothy Noah, July 26, 2015, Politico, Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign.NEWS,weblink A Full List of Donald Trump's Rapidly Changing Policy Positions, Timm, Jane C., July 12, 2016, NBC News,

Campaign rhetoric

In his campaign, Trump said he disdained political correctness; he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias.NEWS, Kenneth T., Walsh, Kenneth T. Walsh, Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt', August 15, 2016, U.S. News & World Report,weblink 'If the disgusting and corrupt media covered me honestly and didn't put false meaning into the words I say, I would be beating Hillary by twenty percent,' Trump also tweeted Sunday., NEWS, Ted, Koppel, Ted Koppel, Trump: "I feel I'm an honest person", July 24, 2016, CBS News,weblink Well, I think that I'm an honest person{{nbsp, ... I feel I'm an honest person. And I don't mind being criticized at all by the media, but I do wanna â€“ you know, I do want them to be straight about it.}}NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is waging war on political correctness. And he's losing., Aaron, Blake, July 6, 2015, The Washington Post, In part due to his fame, and due to his willingness to say things other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is gaining ground automatically provides a compelling news story, Trump received an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.NEWS,weblink This Harvard study is a powerful indictment of the media's role in Donald Trump's rise, Chris, Cillizza, Chris Cillizza, June 14, 2016, The Washington Post, Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of false statements compared to other candidates.NEWS,weblink The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump,, December 21, 2015, NEWS,weblink 2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump, PolitiFact, December 21, 2015, Angie Drobnic, Holan, Angie Drobnic Holan, Linda, Qiu, NEWS, Paul, Farhi, Think Trump's wrong? Fact checkers can tell you how often. (Hint: A lot.), February 26, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink At least four major publications{{snd}} Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times{{snd}} have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements, with the Los Angeles Times saying that "Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has".NEWS, CNN,weblink The weekend America's newspapers called Donald Trump a liar, Brian, Stelter, Brian Stelter, September 26, 2016, NPR said Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive.NEWS, McCammon, Sarah, Donald Trump's controversial speech often walks the line, NPR, August 10, 2016, Many of Trump's opaque statements seem to rely on suggestion and innuendo., Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and where puffery abounds. Trump adopted his ghostwriter's phrase "truthful hyperbole" to describe his public speaking style.NEWS, Emily, Flitter, James, Oliphant, Best president ever! How Trump's love of hyperbole could backfire, August 28, 2015, Reuters,weblink

Support from the far right

{{anchor|White supremacist support}}According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream.JOURNAL, Barkun, Michael, Michael Barkun, 2017, President Trump and the Fringe, Terrorism and Political Violence, 29, 3, 437, 10.1080/09546553.2017.1313649, 1556-1836, During his presidential campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists.NEWS, Lopez, German, We need to stop acting like Trump isn't pandering to white supremacists,weblink January 2, 2018, Vox (website), Vox, August 14, 2017, NEWS, Blow, Charles M., Charles M. Blow, Is Trump a White Supremacist?,weblink The New York Times, September 18, 2017, NEWS, Kharakh, Ben, Primack, Dan, Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists,weblink Fortune (magazine), Fortune, March 22, 2016, He retweeted open racists,NEWS, White, Daniel, Trump Criticized for Retweeting Racist Account,weblink Time (magazine), Time, January 26, 2016, WEB, White Nationalists and the Alt-Right Celebrate Trump's Victory, November 9, 2016,weblink Southern Poverty Law Center, November 10, 2016, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists.NEWS, Donald Trump Refuses to Condemn KKK, Disavow David Duke Endorsement,weblink January 20, 2018, Time (magazine), Time, February 28, 2016, Melissa, Chan, NEWS, Lozada, Carlos, Donald Trump and the alt-right: A marriage of convenience,weblink March 18, 2017, The Washington Post, December 30, 2016, Duke himself enthusiastically supported Trump throughout the 2016 primary and election, and has stated that he and like-minded people voted for Trump because of his promises to "take our country back".NEWS,weblink "Why we voted for Donald Trump": David Duke explains the white supremacist Charlottesville protests, Nelson, Libby, August 12, 2017, Vox (website), Vox, August 18, 2018, NEWS,weblink Former KKK leader David Duke praises Trump for his 'courage', Cummings, William, August 15, 2017, USA Today, August 18, 2018, After repeated questioning by reporters, Trump said he disavowed David Duke and the KKK.NEWS, CNN, March 3, 2016, Eugene, Scott, Trump denounces David Duke, KKK,weblink Trump said on MSNBC's Morning Joe: "I disavowed him. I disavowed the KKK. Do you want me to do it again for the 12th time? I disavowed him in the past, I disavow him now."The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy,NEWS, Ohlheiser, Abby, Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme,weblink The Washington Post, June 3, 2016, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration.NEWS, Weigel, David, David Weigel,weblink 'Racialists' are cheered by Trump's latest strategy, The Washington Post, August 20, 2016, June 23, 2018, NEWS,weblink Clinton is attacking the 'Alt-Right' â€“ What is it?, Gregory, Krieg, August 25, 2016, August 25, 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink 'Alt-right' movement makes mark on US presidential election, Demetri, Sevastopulo, Financial Times, Members of the alt-right enthusiastically supported Trump's campaign.BOOK, Hawley, George, Making Sense of the Alt-Right, 2017, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-54600-3, In August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon{{snd}} the executive chairman of Breitbart News{{snd}} as his campaign CEO; Bannon described Breitbart News as "the platform for the alt-right".NEWS, Clickbait scoops and an engaged alt-right: everything to know about Breitbart News,weblink November 18, 2016, The Guardian, November 15, 2016, Jason, Wilson, In an interview days after the election, Trump condemned supporters who celebrated his victory with Nazi salutes.NEWS, Trump disavows 'alt-right' supporters,weblink BBC Online, November 23, 2016, NEWS, The New York Times, November 23, 2016, Donald Trump's New York Times Interview: Full Transcript,weblink

Financial disclosures

As a presidential candidate, Trump disclosed details of his companies, assets, and revenue sources to the extent required by the FEC. His 2015 report listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $265 million.NEWS,weblink Yahoo! News, Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators, July 22, 2015, August 9, 2015,weblink August 1, 2015, WEB, U.S. Office of Government Ethics, Bloomberg Businessweek, July 15, 2015, Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report (U.S. OGE Form 278e),weblink July 23, 2015,weblink The 2016 form showed little change.Trump has not release his tax returns, contrary to usual practice by every candidate since 1976 and his promise in 2014 to do so if he ran for office.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Breaks With Recent History by Not Releasing Tax Returns, Rappeport, Alan, Alan Rappeport, May 11, 2016, The New York Times, July 19, 2016, He said his tax returns were being audited, and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them.NEWS,weblink Trump says he can't release tax returns because of audits, Isidore, Chris, February 26, 2016, February 26, 2016, Sahadi, Jeanne, CNN, Trump has told the press his tax rate was none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible".NEWS,weblink Trump on his tax rate: 'None of your business', Kopan, Tal, Tal Kopan, May 13, 2016, CNN, In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times. They show that Trump declared a loss of $916 million that year, which could have let him avoid taxes for up to 18 years. During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Acknowledges Not Paying Federal Income Taxes for Years, Eder, Steve, Twohey, Megan, Megan Twohey, October 10, 2016, The New York Times, On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to MSNBC. The document states that Trump had a gross adjusted income of $150 million and paid $38 million in federal taxes. The White House confirmed the authenticity of the documents.NEWS,weblink Trump Wrote Off $100 Million in Business Losses in 2005, Baker, Peter, Peter Baker (journalist), Drucker, Jesse, Craig, Susanne, Susanne Craig, Barstow, David, David Barstow, March 15, 2017, The New York Times, March 15, 2017, NEWS,weblink WH releases Trump tax info ahead of MSNBC report: He paid $38M in federal taxes in '05, Jagoda, Naomi, March 15, 2017, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, On April 3, 2019, the House Ways and Means Committee made a formal request to the Internal Revenue Service for Trump's personal and business tax returns from 2013 to 2018, setting a deadline of April 10.NEWS,weblink House chairman asks IRS for 6 years of Trump's tax returns, Marcy, Gordon, April 4, 2019, AP News, That day, Treasury secretary Steven Mnuchin stated the deadline would not be met,NEWS,weblink Treasury says it will miss Democrats' deadline for turning over Trump tax returns, casts skepticism over request, The Washington Post, April 10, 2019, Jeff, Stein, Damian, Paletta, Damian Paletta, and the deadline was extended to April 23, which also was not honored,NEWS,weblink IRS blows deadline to hand over Trump tax returns, Aaron, Lorenzo, Politico, April 23, 2019, and on May 6 Mnuchin said the request would be denied.NEWS,weblink Steven Mnuchin Refuses to Release Trump's Tax Documents to Congress, Alan, Rappeport, Alan Rappeport, May 6, 2019, The New York Times, On May 10, 2019, committee chairman Richard Neal subpoenaed the Treasury Department and the IRS for the returns and seven days later the subpoenas were defied.NEWS,weblink House Ways and Means Chairman Subpoenas Trump Tax Records, Nicholas, Fandos, Nicholas Fandos, May 10, 2019, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Mnuchin Defies Subpoena for President Trump's Tax Returns, Richard, Rubin, May 17, 2019, The Wall Street Journal, A fall 2018 draft IRS legal memo asserted that Trump must provide his tax returns to Congress unless he invokes executive privilege, contradicting the administration's justification for defying the earlier subpoena.NEWS,weblink Confidential draft IRS memo says tax returns must be given to Congress unless president invokes executive privilege, The Washington Post, May 21, 2019, Jeff, Stein, Josh, Dawsey, Josh Dawsey, Mnuchin asserted the memo actually addressed a different matter.NEWS,weblink Mnuchin dismisses IRS memo saying Congress must be given Trump's tax returns, Toby, Eckert, Politico, May 22, 2019,

Election to the presidency

(File:ElectoralCollege2016.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|2016 electoral vote results)On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides.NEWS, Kiersten, Schmidt, Wilson, Andrews, A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton, December 19, 2016, January 31, 2017, The New York Times,weblink Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote.WEB, Desilver, Drew,weblink Trump's victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones, Pew Research Center, December 20, 2017, {{efn|Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no one had a majority in the electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality).BOOK, Thomas, G. Scott, Counting the Votes: A New Way to Analyze America's Presidential Elections,weblink 125, ABC-CLIO, 2015, 978-1-4408-3883-5, NEWS, Cheney, Kyle, Kyle Cheney (journalist),weblink Trump lawyer cites 1876 crisis to rebuke Electoral College suit, Politico, December 14, 2016, }} Clinton was ahead nationwide by 2.1 percentage points, with 65,853,514 votes ({{percentage| 65,853,514| 136,669,276|2|pad=yes}}) to 62,984,828 votes ({{percentage| 62,984,828| 136,669,276|2|pad=yes}}); neither candidate reached a majority.WEB, Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results,weblink Federal Election Commission, December 2017, February 12, 2018, Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset by most observers, as polls had consistently showed Hillary Clinton with a nationwide{{snd}} though diminishing{{snd}} lead, as well as a favorable advantage in most of the competitive states. Trump's support had been modestly underestimated throughout his campaign,NEWS,weblink Trump pulls off biggest upset in U.S. history, Politico, November 9, 2016, Maxwell, Tani, November 9, 2016, and many observers blamed errors in polls, partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters.NEWS,weblink Why Trump Won: Working-Class Whites, The New York Times, November 9, 2016, Nate, Cohn, November 9, 2016, The polls were relatively accurate,NEWS, FiveThirtyEight, January 17, 2017, Nate, Silver, Nate Silver, Can You Trust Trump's Approval Rating Polls?,weblink but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite a large number of undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states.NEWS, FiveThirtyEight, September 21, 2017, Nate, Silver, Nate Silver, The Media Has A Probability Problem,weblink Trump won 30 states, including Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been considered a blue wall of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and the District of Columbia.Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with control of both chambers of Congress.Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after adjusting for inflation,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is officially the richest US president in history, Martin, Emmie, January 23, 2017, Business Insider, September 9, 2017, and the oldest person to take office as president.NEWS,weblink It's Trump's Birthday. If He Wins, He'd Be The Oldest President Ever To Take Office, Kurtzlebel, Danielle, June 14, 2016, NPR, May 3, 2019, He is also the first president who did not serve in the military or hold elective or appointed government office prior to being elected.NEWS, Peter, Weber, Donald Trump will be the first U.S. president with no government or military experience, November 9, 2016, The Week,weblink NEWS, Jesse, Yomtov, Where Trump ranks among least experienced presidents, November 8, 2016, USA Today,weblink NEWS,weblink Donald Trump will be the only US president ever with no political or military experience, Crockett, Zachary, November 11, 2016, Vox (website), Vox, January 3, 2017, Of the 43{{efn|Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.NEWS, Will Trump Be The 44th Or 45th President? Yes And Yes,weblink NPR, November 10, 2016, June 4, 2017, February 7, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink }} previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not held elective office but had served in the Cabinet, and three had never held public office but had been commanding generals.


File:Women's March on Washington (32593123745).jpg|thumb|Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017, a day after the inauguration]]Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice versa both inside and outside the venues.NEWS,weblink Trump supporter charged after sucker-punching protester at North Carolina rally, Moyer, Justin Wm., March 11, 2016, The Washington Post, August 31, 2016, Starrs, Jenny, Larimer, Sarah, NEWS,weblink Ugly, bloody scenes in San Jose as protesters attack Trump supporters outside rally, Sullivan, Sean, June 3, 2016, The Washington Post, August 31, 2016, Miller, Michael E., NEWS,weblink Pro-Trump, anti-Trump groups clash in San Diego, Diamond, Jeremy, Jeremy Diamond (journalist), May 28, 2016, August 31, 2016, CNN, Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that these were "professional protesters, incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country."NEWS,weblink Trump calls protests 'unfair' in first controversial tweet as president-elect, Cummings, William, November 11, 2016, USA Today, November 27, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump says protesters have 'passion for our great country' after calling demonstrations 'very unfair', Colson, Thomas, November 11, 2016, Business Insider, November 14, 2016, In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which gathered 2,600,000 people worldwide,NEWS,weblink At 2.6 million strong, Women's Marches crush expectations, Przybyla, Heidi M., Schouten, Fredreka, January 22, 2017, USA Today, January 22, 2017, online, including 500,000 in Washington alone.NEWS,weblink We asked ten people why they felt empowered wearing a pink 'pussy' hat, Buncombe, Andrew, January 22, 2017, The Independent, January 15, 2017, Moreover, marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just nine days after his inauguration.NEWS,weblink Here's your list of all the protests happening against the Muslim Ban, ThinkProgress, January 28, 2017, Adrienne Mahsa, Varkiani, September 18, 2018,

2020 presidential campaign

Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency.NEWS,weblink Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things', Westwood, Sarah, The Washington Examiner, January 22, 2017, February 19, 2017, This transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one.NEWS,weblink Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day, KTVK, Phoenix, Arizona, Lee, Morehouse, January 31, 2017, February 19, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2017, Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a rally in Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office.NEWS,weblink Trump Kicks Off His 2020 Reelection Campaign on Saturday, Graham, David A., The Atlantic, February 15, 2017, February 19, 2017, By January 2018, Trump's reelection committee had $22 million in hand,NEWS,weblink Trump's 2020 Re-Election Committee Has $22.1 Million in the Bank, McCormick, John, Jacobs, Jennifer, January 31, 2018, Bloomberg News, March 24, 2018, and it had raised a total amount exceeding $67 million {{as of|December 2018|lc=yes}}.WEB,weblink Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. / Presidential – Principal campaign committee / Financial summary, Federal Election Commission, December 31, 2018, February 5, 2019, $23 million were spent in the fourth quarter of 2018, as Trump supported various Republican candidates for the 2018 midterm elections.WEB,weblink FEC Form 3P – Report of receipts and disbursements – Filing FEC-1312481, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., Federal Election Commission, January 31, 2019, February 5, 2019,


{{for timeline|Timeline of the Donald Trump presidency}}File:58th Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 170120-D-BP749-1327.jpg|thumb|right|Trump with Chuck Schumer, Barack Obama and Joe BidenJoe Biden

Early actions

{{See also|Presidential transition of Donald Trump|First 100 days of Donald Trump's presidency}}Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. During his first week in office, he signed six executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations, reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy, unlocking the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, reinforcing border security, and beginning the planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border with Mexico.NEWS, Quigley, Aidan, All of Trump's executive actions so far,weblink January 28, 2017, Politico, January 25, 2017, Upon inauguration, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his sons Eric and Don Jr.NEWS,weblink Trump Sons Forge Ahead Without Father, Expanding and Navigating Conflicts, Eric, Lipton, Eric Lipton, Susanne, Craig, Susanne Craig, February 12, 2017, The New York Times, May 7, 2017, His daughter Ivanka resigned from the Trump Organization and moved to Washington, D.C., with her husband Jared Kushner. She serves as an assistant to the President,NEWS,weblink V.v.B, Ivanka Trump's new job, March 31, 2017, April 3, 2017, The Economist, and he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.NEWS, Michael S., Schmidt, Michael S. Schmidt, Eric, Lipton, Eric Lipton, Charlie, Savage, Charlie Savage,weblink Jared Kushner, Trump's Son-in-Law, Is Cleared to Serve as Adviser, The New York Times, January 21, 2017, May 7, 2017, On January 31, Trump nominated U.S. Appeals Court judge Neil Gorsuch to fill the seat on the Supreme Court previous held by Justice Antonin Scalia until his death on February 13, 2016.NEWS,weblink Trump picks Colo. appeals court judge Neil Gorsuch for Supreme Court, Barnes, Robert, January 31, 2017, The Washington Post, February 1, 2017,

Domestic policy

Economy and trade

{{See also|Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017|Trump tariffs}}The economic expansion that began in June 2009 continued through Trump's first three years in office. Throughout his presidency, he has repeatedly and falsely characterized the economy as the best in American history.NEWS,weblink President Trump's repeated claim: 'The greatest economy in the history of our country', Kessler, Glenn, The Washington Post, September 7, 2018, May 27, 2019, Glenn Kessler (journalist), In December 2017, Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax credit, doubled the estate tax exemption to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000.NEWS,weblink What's in the Final Republican Tax Bill, The New York Times, Wilson, Andrews, Alicia, Parlapiano, December 15, 2017, December 22, 2017, (File:Donald Trump in Ypsilanti (33998674940) (cropped2).jpg|thumb|Trump speaking to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017)Trump is a skeptic of multilateral trade deals, as he believes they indirectly incentivize unfair trade practices that then tend to go unpoliced. He favors bilateral trade deals, as they allow one party to pull out if the other party is believed to be behaving unfairly. Trump favors neutral or positive balances of trade over negative balances of trade, also known as a "trade deficit". Trump adopted his current skeptical views toward trade liberalization in the 1980s, and he sharply criticized NAFTA during the Republican primary campaign in 2015.NEWS, Schlesinger, Jacob M., Trump Forged His Ideas on Trade in the 1980s – And Never Deviated,weblink November 15, 2018, The Wall Street Journal, November 15, 2018, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech, Epstein, Reid J., June 28, 2016, Nelson, Colleen McCain, The Wall Street Journal {{subscription required, |accessdate=July 22, 2016}}NEWS,weblink Trump calls NAFTA a "disaster", September 25, 2015, CBS News, He withdrew the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations,NEWS,weblink Trump's TPP withdrawal: 5 things to know, Bradner, Eric, January 23, 2017, CNN, March 12, 2018, imposed tariffs on steel and aluminum imports,NEWS,weblink The war over steel: Trump tips global trade into new turmoil, The Guardian, March 10, 2018, March 15, 2018, Inman, Phillip, and launched a trade war with China by sharply increasing tariffs on 818 categories (worth $50 billion) of Chinese goods imported into the U.S.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, January 7, 2016, The New York Times, July 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump sets tariffs on $50 billion in Chinese goods; Beijing strikes, June 16, 2018, Reuters, David, Lawder, Ben, Blanchard, On several occasions, Trump has said incorrectly that these import tariffs are paid by China into the U.S. Treasury.NEWS,weblink Kudlow acknowledges US will pay for China tariffs, contradicting Trump, CNBC, May 12, 2019, May 20, 2019, Emma, Newburger,

Energy and climate

Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate changeNEWS, Ashley, Parker, Ashley Parker, Coral, Davenport, Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules, May 26, 2016, The New York Times,weblink NEWS, Jason, Samenow, Jason Samenow, Donald Trump's unsettling nonsense on weather and climate, March 22, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink as did his first Environmental Protection Agency chief, Scott Pruitt.NEWS, Embury-Dennis, Tom, Trump's environment chief Scott Pruitt suggests climate change could be good for humanity,weblink The Independent, February 27, 2018, NEWS, Bacon, John, February 8, 2018, Scientists rebuff EPA chief's claim that global warming may be good,weblink USA Today, May 28, 2018, In July 2018, facing numerous ethics accusations Pruitt resigned and was replaced with Andrew Wheeler. Prior to his appointment Wheeler worked as a lobbyist representing the coal company, Murray Energy. The Guardian reported in January 2019 that Murray had written the administration a list of rule changes that would benefit industry "and they are largely under way".WEB, Holden, Emily, Andrew Wheeler: Trump's EPA pick says climate change 'not the greatest crisis',weblink The Guardian, September 18, 2019, Since his election Trump has made large budget cuts to programs that research renewable energy and has rolled back Obama-era policies directed at curbing climate change and limiting environmental pollution.NEWS, Trump proposes cuts to climate and clean-energy programs,weblink February 12, 2018, National Geographic Society, May 27, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Got Nearly $1 Million in Energy-Efficiency Subsidies in 2012, Tabuchi, Hiroko, March 3, 2017, The New York Times, May 27, 2018, In June 2017, Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, making the U.S. the only nation in the world to not ratify the agreement.NEWS, Dennis, Brandy, As Syria embraces Paris climate deal, it's the United States against the world,weblink The Washington Post, May 28, 2018, Trump attended the 44th G7 summit held in Canada in 2018 and the 45th G7 summit held in France in 2019, but he skipped the discussions related to the environment and climate. He held a press conference following the 2019 summit in which he said that he is "an environmentalist" adding, "I think I know more about the environment than most people."NEWS, Liptak, Kevin, Trump departs G7 ahead of climate change talks,weblink CNN, June 9, 2018, NEWS, Teirstein, Zoya, Donald 'I'm an environmentalist' Trump skips G7 climate meeting,weblink Grist (magazine), Grist, August 26, 2019, August 27, 2019,

Government size and deregulation

Trump's early policies have favored rollback and dismantling of government regulations. He signed a Congressional Review Act disapproval resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall.MAGAZINE, Adriance, Sam, President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years,weblink February 16, 2017, The National Law Review, March 8, 2017, During his first six weeks in office, he delayed, suspended or reversed ninety federal regulations.NEWS, Farand, Chloe, Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House,weblink March 6, 2017, The Independent, March 7, 2017, NEWS, Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples,weblink The New York Times, DocumentCloud, March 7, 2017, March 5, 2017, More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target., On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze, except for those working in certain areas.NEWS,weblink Trump Orders Broad Hiring Freeze for Federal Government, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, January 23, 2017, January 23, 2017, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Fox News, Trump Orders Hiring Freeze for Much of Federal Government, January 24, 2017, March 6, 2017, Unlike some past freezes, it barred agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving. The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs.NEWS, Yoder, Eric, Hiring freeze could add to government's risk, GAO chief warns, The Washington Post, February 16, 2017,weblink 'We've looked at hiring freezes in the past by prior administrations and they haven't proven to be effective in reducing costs and they cause some problems if they're in effect for a long period of time', Comptroller General Gene Dodaro told a House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing., The hiring freeze was lifted in April 2017.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Trump's Directive Will Lift Hiring Freeze, as It Asks Agencies for Cuts, Alan, Rappeport, Alan Rappeport, April 11, 2017, January 3, 2019, A week later Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue.NEWS, Trump Signs Executive Order to Drastically Cut Federal Regs,weblink January 30, 2017, Fox News, March 6, 2017, WEB, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, White House Office of the Press Secretary, Presidential Executive Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs,weblink May 16, 2017, January 30, 2017, Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups.NEWS, Calabresi, Massimo, Inside Donald Trump's War against the State, Time (magazine), Time, March 9, 2017,weblink Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests.,

Health care

During his campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA or "Obamacare").NEWS, Kodjak, Alison, Alison Fitzgerald Kodjak, Trump Can Kill Obamacare With Or Without Help From Congress,weblink January 12, 2017, All Things Considered, NPR, November 9, 2016, NEWS, Walsh, Deirdre, Lee, MJ, Trump wants Obamacare repeal 'quickly', but Republicans aren't ready,weblink January 12, 2017, CNN, January 10, 2017, Shortly after taking office, he urged Congress to repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the House of Representatives voted to repeal it.NEWS,weblink House passes Obamacare repeal, Sullivan, Peter, May 4, 2017, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, July 31, 2017, Over the course of several months' effort, however, the Senate was unable to pass any version of a repeal bill.NEWS,weblink GOP Obamacare repeal bill fails in dramatic late-night vote, July 28, 2017, CNN, July 31, 2017, Trump has expressed a desire to "let Obamacare fail", and the Trump administration has cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment.NEWS,weblink Trump says he plans to 'let Obamacare fail', Nelson, Louis, July 18, 2017, Politico, September 29, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump Ramps Up Obamacare Sabotage With Huge Cuts To Enrollment Programs, Young, Jeffrey, August 31, 2017, HuffPost, September 29, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump administration slashes Obamacare outreach, Pradhan, Rachana, August 31, 2017, Politico, September 29, 2017, The tax reform Trump signed into law at the end of his first year in office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate that was a major element of the Obamacare health insurance system; this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.NEWS, Robert, Pear,weblink Without the Insurance Mandate, Health Care's Future May Be in Doubt, The New York Times, December 18, 2017, NEWS, Peter, Sullivan,weblink Senate GOP repeals ObamaCare mandate, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, December 2, 2017, NEWS, Health Affairs, December 20, 2017, Timothy, Jost, The Tax Bill And The Individual Mandate: What Happened, And What Does It Mean?,weblink 10.1377/hblog20171220.323429, 2019-05-05,

Social issues

Trump favored modifying the 2016 Republican platform opposing abortion, to allow for exceptions in cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother.NEWS,weblink Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion, Wright, David, April 21, 2016, CNN, He has said he is committed to appointing pro-life justices. He says he personally supports "traditional marriage"NEWS, Max, Ehrenfreund, Here's what Donald Trump really believes, July 22, 2015, The Washington Post,weblink but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue.NEWS,weblink Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled', but Roe v Wade can be changed, CNN, Ariane, De Vogue, November 15, 2016, November 30, 2016, Despite the statement by Trump and the White House saying they would keep in place a 2014 executive order from the Obama administration which created federal workplace protections for LGBT people,NEWS, Peters, Jeremy W., Obama's Protections for L.G.B.T. Workers Will Remain Under Trump,weblink February 2, 2017, The New York Times, January 30, 2017, in March 2017, the Trump administration rolled back key components of the Obama administration's workplace protections for LGBT people.NEWS,weblink LGBTQ Advocates Say Trump's New Executive Order Makes Them Vulnerable to Discrimination, NBC News, Mary Emily, O'Hara, July 30, 2017, Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general,NEWS,weblink A brief history of Donald Trump's stance on gun rights, Newsweek, Gorman, Michele, May 20, 2016, WEB, Second Amendment Rights,weblink Donald J. Trump for President, May 22, 2017,weblink January 7, 2016, There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended., although his views have shifted over time.NEWS,weblink The times Trump changed his positions on guns, CNN, June 20, 2016, Gregory, Krieg, Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana.WEB, Donald Trump on Marijuana,weblink C-SPAN, October 17, 2018, He favors capital punishment,NEWS,weblink Trump: Death penalty for cop killers, December 11, 2015, CNN, Diamond, Jeremy, Jeremy Diamond (journalist), March 15, 2016, NEWS,weblink Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return of the Death Penalty, May 1, 1989, The New York Times, Foderaro, Lisa, March 15, 2016, as well as the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods.NEWS, McCarthy, Tom, Donald Trump: I'd bring back 'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding',weblink The Guardian, February 8, 2016, NEWS, Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding,weblink ABC News, February 6, 2016, February 9, 2016,


File:POTUS visits DHS (31741970743).jpg|thumb|Trump conferring with Vice President Mike Pence and former secretary of homeland security John F. KellyJohn F. KellyTrump's proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for it.NEWS,weblink Who pays for Donald Trump's wall?, February 6, 2017, BBC Online, December 9, 2017, He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States,NEWS, Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border,weblink Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, September 29, 2015, August 19, 2015, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, August 19, 2015, November 22, 2015, Inae, Oh, He said deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security threats.NEWS,weblink Trump retreats on deportations, vows no amnesty, KTRK-TV, Houston, Texas, September 1, 2016, Associated Press, September 2, 2016, As president, he frequently described illegal immigration as an "invasion" and conflated immigrants with the gang MS-13, even though research shows undocumented immigrants have a lower crime rate than native-born Americans.NEWS,weblink A USA TODAY analysis found Trump used words like 'invasion' and 'killer' at rallies more than 500 times since 2017, Fritze, John, USA Today, August 9, 2019, August 8, 2019,

Travel ban

Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented.NEWS, Eugene, Scott, Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban, December 13, 2015, CNN,weblink NEWS, Josh, Barro, How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask, December 15, 2015, The New York Times,weblink Donald J. Trump's proposal to bar Muslim noncitizens from entering the United States ..., NEWS, Jill, Colvin, Bill, Barrow, Donald Trump's supporters see plenty of sense in views that his critics denounce, December 14, 2015, U.S. News & World Report,weblink He said American citizens, including Muslim members of the military, would be exempt, as would certain world leaders and athletes coming to the U.S. to compete., He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a "proven history of terrorism".NEWS, Chicago Tribune, June 25, 2016, Jenna, Johnson, Trump now says Muslim ban only applies to those from terrorism-heavy countries,weblink [A] reporter asked Trump if [he] would be OK with a Muslim from Scotland coming into the United States and he said it 'wouldn't bother me.' Afterward, [spokeswoman] Hicks said in an email that Trump's ban would now just apply to Muslims in terror states ..., NEWS, NPR, June 13, 2016, Scott, Detrow, Trump Calls To Ban Immigration From Countries With 'Proven History Of Terrorism',weblink I will suspend immigration from areas of the world where there's a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies until we fully understand how to end these threats., NEWS,weblink Trump Vows to Stop Immigration From Nations 'Compromised' by Terrorism. How Could It Work?, Park, Haeyoun, July 22, 2016, The New York Times, July 25, 2016, On January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning and took effect immediately.NEWS, Trump signs new travel ban directive,weblink March 18, 2017, BBC News, March 6, 2017, Confusion and protests caused chaos at airports.NEWS, Grinberg, Emanuella, Park, Madison, 2nd day of protests over Trump's immigration policies,weblink March 18, 2017, CNN, January 30, 2017, NEWS,weblink US airports on frontline as Donald Trump's travel ban causes chaos and protests, January 28, 2017, The Guardian, July 19, 2017, Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, which she deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional;NEWS,weblink Trump fires acting AG after she declines to defend travel ban, Evan, Perez, Jeremy, Diamond, Jeremy Diamond (journalist), CNN, January 30, 2017, March 12, 2018, Trump immediately dismissed her.WEB, Statement on the Appointment of Dana Boente as Acting Attorney General,weblink The White House, August 29, 2017, January 30, 2017, NEWS, Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him,weblink The New York Times, August 29, 2017, January 30, 2017, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, Mark, Landler, Mark Landler, Matt, Apuzzo, Matt Apuzzo, Eric, Lichtblau, Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its implementation nationwide.NEWS, The Wall Street Journal, February 4, 2017, Devlin, Barrett, Dan, Frosch, Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees,weblink NEWS, The New York Times, February 5, 2017, Adam, Liptak, Adam Liptak, Where Trump's Travel Ban Stands,weblink On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed priorities for Christian minorities.NEWS, Chakraborty, Barnini, Trump Signs New Immigration Order, Narrows Scope of Travel Ban,weblink March 6, 2017, Fox News, March 6, 2017, Again federal judges in three states blocked its implementation.NEWS, Reuters, March 15, 2017, Dan, Levine, Mica, Rosenberg, Hawaii judge halts Trump's new travel ban before it can go into effect,weblink On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States".NEWS,weblink Trump says Supreme Court decision on travel ban a 'clear victory for our national security', Chicago Tribune, Mark, Sherman, Associated Press, June 26, 2017, June 27, 2017, The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, along with certain Venezuelan officials.NEWS, Laughland, Oliver, September 25, 2017, Trump travel ban extended to blocks on North Korea, Venezuela and Chad,weblink The Guardian, October 13, 2017, After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4,NEWS, Supreme Court lets Trump's latest travel ban go into full effect,weblink Lawrence, Hurley, December 4, 2017, Reuters, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June 2019 ruling.NEWS,weblink Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban, CNN, June 26, 2018, June 26, 2018, Wagner, Meg, Ries, Brian,


In September 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that DACA would be repealed after six months.NEWS,weblink Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act, Shear, Michael D., Michael D. Shear, Davis, Julie Hirschfeld, Julie Hirschfeld Davis, September 5, 2017, The New York Times, September 6, 2017, Trump argued that "top legal experts" believed DACA was unconstitutional, and called on Congress to use the six-month delay to pass legislation solving the "Dreamers" issue permanently.NEWS,weblink Trump ends DACA, but gives Congress window to save it, Kopan, Tal, Tal Kopan, CNN, September 5, 2017, {{As of|2018|3}}, when the delay expired, no legislation had been agreed on DACA.NEWS, Tal, Kopan, Tal Kopan, DACA's March 5 'deadline' marks only inaction,weblink CNN, March 5, 2018, Several states immediately challenged the DACA rescission in court.NEWS, Kopan, Tal, Tal Kopan, Blue states sue Trump over DACA,weblink CNN, September 6, 2017, September 6, 2017, Two injunctions in January and February 2018 allowed renewals of applications and stopped the rolling back of DACA, and in April 2018 a federal judge ordered the acceptance of new applications.NEWS, Jordan, Miriam, U.S. Must Resume DACA and Accept New Applications, Federal Judge Rules,weblink The New York Times, April 24, 2018, In August 2018, United States District Judge Andrew Hanen of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas ruled that DACA is likely unconstitutional, but left the program in place as litigation proceeds.NEWS,weblink Texas Judge Says DACA Is Probably Illegal, But Leaves It In Place, NPR, Joel, Rose, August 31, 2018, August 2, 2019,

Family separation at border

In April 2018, Trump enacted a "zero tolerance" immigration policy that temporarily took adults irregularly entering the U.S. into custody for criminal prosecution and forcibly separated children from parents, eliminating the policy of previous administrations, which had made exceptions for families with children.NEWS,weblink Immigrant Children Who Are Forcibly Separated From Their Parents Face Long-Term Trauma, Vergano, Dan, June 20, 2018, June 15, 2018, BuzzFeed News, {{Citation |last=Bachega |first=Hugo |title=Separation of migrant families: What other countries do |website=BBC Online |date=June 7, 2018 |url=}} By mid-June, more than 2,300 children had been placed in shelters, including Department of Health and Human Services-designated "tender age" shelters for children under thirteen,NEWS, Time (magazine), Time, June 20, 2018, Garance, Burke, Martha, Mendoza, Toddlers Separated From Parents at the Border Are Being Detained in 'Tender Age' Shelters, July 24, 2018,weblink June 20, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink culminating in demands from Democrats, Republicans, Trump allies, and religious groups that the policy be rescinded.NEWS,weblink President Trump's Family Separation Policy Is Dividing Republicans, Time (magazine), Time, June 18, 2018, June 18, 2018, Colvin, Jill,weblink" title="">weblink June 18, 2018, Trump falsely asserted that his administration was merely following the law.NEWS,weblink Separated at the Border From Their Parents: In Six Weeks, 1,995 Children, The New York Times, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, Davis, Julie, NEWS,weblink White House Blames Democrats for Separation of Families at Border, National Review, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, McArdle, Mairead, NEWS,weblink Despite claims, GOP immigration bill would not end family separation, experts say, NBC News, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, Sarlin, Benjy, On June 20, Trump signed an executive order to end family separations at the U.S. border.NEWS, The New York Times, June 20, 2018, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, Abby, Goodnough, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, Trump Retreats on Separating Families, but Thousands May Remain Apart, June 20, 2018,weblink On June 26 a federal judge in San Diego issued a preliminary injunction requiring the Trump administration to stop detaining immigrant parents separately from their minor children, and to reunite family groups who had been separated at the border.NEWS,weblink Federal judge orders reunification of parents and children, end to most family separations at border, Jarrett, Laura, June 27, 2018, CNN, June 28, 2018,

2018–2019 federal government shutdown

On December 22, 2018, the federal government was partially shut down after Trump declared that any funding extension must include $5.6 billion in federal funds for a U.S.–Mexico border wall to partly fulfill his campaign promise.NEWS, Julie Hirschfeld, Davis, Julie Hirschfeld Davis, Michael, Tackett, Michael Tackett,weblink Trump and Democrats Dig In After Talks to Reopen Government Go Nowhere, The New York Times, January 2, 2019, January 3, 2019, The shutdown was caused by a lapse in funding for nine federal departments, affecting about one-fourth of federal government activities.NEWS, Wamsley, Laurel,weblink How Is The Shutdown Affecting America? Let Us Count The Ways, January 9, 2019, NPR, Trump said he would not accept any bill that does not include funding for the wall, and Democrats, who control the House, said they would not support any bill that does. Senate Republicans have said they will not advance any legislation that Trump would not sign.NEWS, Damian, Paletta, Damian Paletta, Erica, Werner,weblink Trump falsely claims Mexico is paying for wall, demands taxpayer money for wall in meeting with Democrats, The Washington Post, January 2, 2019, January 3, 2019, In earlier negotiations with Democratic leaders, Trump commented that he would be "proud to shut down the government for border security".NEWS,weblink 'He's a gut politician': Trump's go-to negotiating tactics aren't working in shutdown standoff, The Washington Post, January 9, 2019, January 10, 2019, David, Nakamura, Seung Min, Kim, On January 25, 2019, Congress passed and Trump signed a 3-week appropriation bill to fund the government while negotiations on border security funding took place.NEWS,weblink Trump Signs Bill Reopening Government for 3 Weeks in Surprise Retreat From Wall, Fandos, Nicholas, Nicholas Fandos, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Baker, Peter, Peter Baker (journalist), January 25, 2019, The New York Times, January 27, 2019, This ended the 35-day shutdown, the longest such shutdown in U.S. history.NEWS,weblink It's Official: The Partial Government Shutdown Is The Longest In U.S. History, NPR, Seipel, Arnie, January 12, 2019, January 12, 2019, On February 14 both houses of Congress passed, and on February 15 Trump signed, a bill to fund the government until September 30, the balance of the fiscal year.NEWS,weblink Trump declares national emergency to build border wall, setting up massive legal fight, Pramuk, Jacob, Wilkie, Christina, January 15, 2019, CNBC, February 16, 2019,

Foreign policy

File:G7 Taormina family photo 2017-05-26.jpg|thumb|President Trump together with other leaders at the 43rd G7 summit43rd G7 summitFile:Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Melania Trump, and Donald Trump, May 2017.jpg|thumb|Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit2017 Riyadh summitTrump has been described as a non-interventionistMAGAZINE,weblink Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party, Cassidy, John, The New Yorker, February 29, 2016, March 5, 2016, NEWS, Philip, Rucker, Philip Rucker, Robert, Costa, Robert Costa (journalist), Trump questions need for NATO, outlines noninterventionist foreign policy, March 21, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink and as an American nationalist.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump, American Nationalist, The National Interest, November 3, 2015, Colin, Dueck, In 2019, Trump gave an anti globalist speech at the UN General Assembly calling for world leaders to look after their own interests.NEWS, Reuters, September 24, 2019, Trump calls on nations to reject globalism, embrace nationalism,weblink He has repeatedly said he supports an "America First" foreign policy.NEWS, Christiane, Amanpour, Christiane Amanpour, Donald Trump's speech: 'America first', but an America absent from the world, July 22, 2016, CNN,weblink He supports increasing United States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region.NEWS, Donald Trump reveals his isolationist foreign-policy instincts, May 22, 2016, The Economist,weblink He says America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs. Trump has repeatedly praised authoritarian strongmen such as China's president Xi Jinping,NEWS, Deutsche Welle, March 4, 2018, US President Donald Trump praises China's Xi Jinping for consolidating grip on power,weblink Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump repeatedly praises Philippines' President Duterte during Asia trip, Global News, November 13, 2017, Jonathan, Lemire, Jill, Colvin, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi,NEWS, The Independent, May 21, 2017, Rachael, Revesz, Donald Trump praises Egypt President al-Sisi and plans trip to Cairo,weblink Turkey's president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan,NEWS, Bloomberg News, September 21, 2017, Margaret, Talev, Jennifer, Jacobs, Trump Praises Erdogan for 'High Marks' Amid Crackdown Concerns,weblink King Salman of Saudi Arabia,NEWS, CNBC, November 6, 2017, Angelica, LaVito, Trump praises Saudi king after crackdown,weblink Italy's prime minister Giuseppe Conte,NEWS,weblink Donal Trump elogia il premier italiano Giuseppe Conte: "È fantastico" – Video, June 15, 2018, TPI News, Di Gianluigi, Spinaci, it, Brazil's president Jair BolsonaroNEWS, CNBC, Reuters, January 1, 2019, Trump praises Brazil's new President Bolsonaro after he vowed to 'strengthen democracy',weblink and Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán.NEWS,weblink Nine Notorious Dictators, Nine Shout-Outs From Donald Trump, Krishnadev, Calamur, March 4, 2018, The Atlantic, Trump also praised Poland under the EU-skeptic, anti-immigrant Law and Justice party (PiS) as a defender of Western civilization.NEWS, Amid protests, Polish leader puts brakes on judicial shakeup,weblink AP News, July 24, 2017, Vanessa, Gera, NEWS, Trump praised Poland as a defender of the West. But their democracy is unraveling,weblink Vox (website), Vox, July 20, 2017, Lindsay, Maizland,

ISIS and foreign wars

In April 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack.NEWS, Syria war: Trump's missile strike attracts US praise – and barbs,weblink April 8, 2017, BBC News, April 7, 2017, According to investigative journalist Bob Woodward, Trump had ordered his defense secretary James Mattis to assassinate Syrian president Bashar al-Assad after the chemical attack, but Mattis declined; Trump denied doing so.NEWS, Trump denies he wanted Syria leader killed,weblink December 20, 2018, BBC Online, September 5, 2018, In April 2018, he announced missile strikes against Assad's regime, following a suspected chemical attack near Damascus.NEWS,weblink Kathleen, Joyce, US strikes Syria after suspected chemical attack by Assad regime, April 14, 2018, Fox News, April 14, 2018, In December 2018, Trump declared "we have won against ISIS," and ordered the withdrawal of all troops from Syria, contradicting Department of Defense assessments.NEWS,weblink Trump withdraws U.S. Forces From Syria, Declaring 'We Have Won Against ISIS', Mark, Landler, Mark Landler, Helene, Cooper, Helene Cooper, Eric, Schmitt, Eric P. Schmitt, December 19, 2018, The New York Times, December 31, 2018, NEWS, Syria conflict: Trump's withdrawal plan shocks allies,weblink December 20, 2018, BBC Online, 20 December 2018, NEWS, Borger, Julian, Julian Borger, Chulov, Martin, Trump shocks allies and advisers with plan to pull US troops out of Syria,weblink December 20, 2018, The Guardian, December 20, 2018, Mattis resigned the next day over disagreements in foreign policy, calling this decision an abandonment of Kurd allies who had played a key role in fighting ISIS.NEWS, Cooper, Helene, Helene Cooper, Jim Mattis, Defense Secretary, Resigns in Rebuke of Trump's Worldview,weblink December 21, 2018, The New York Times, December 20, 2018, One week after his announcement, Trump said he would not approve any extension of the American deployment in Syria.NEWS, The Washington Post, January 6, 2019, Karoun, Demirjian, Karoun Demirjian, Contradicting Trump, Bolton says no withdrawal from Syria until ISIS destroyed, Kurds' safety guaranteed, January 6, 2019,weblink On January 6, 2019, national security advisor John Bolton announced America would remain in Syria until ISIS is eradicated and Turkey guaranteed it would not strike America's Kurdish allies.NEWS, The New York Times, January 6, 2019, David E., Sanger, David E. Sanger, Noah, Weiland, Eric, Schmitt, Eric P. Schmitt, Bolton Puts Conditions on Syria Withdrawal, Suggesting a Delay of Months or Years, January 6, 2019,weblink Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Houthis and signed a $110 billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia.NEWS, Trump praises arms sales as he meets Saudi crown prince,weblink Financial Times, March 20, 2018, NEWS, Senate Votes Down Ending Trump's Support for Saudi-led War in Yemen,weblink Haaretz, May 21, 2018, NEWS, Trump signs $110 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia on 'a tremendous day',weblink ABC News, May 20, 2017, July 6, 2018, Jordyn, Phelps, Ryan, Struyk, Trump also praised his relationship with Saudi Arabia's powerful Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman.U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan increased from 8,500 to 14,000, {{as of|2017|1|lc=y}}.NEWS, Jaffe, Greg, Ryan, Missy, Missy Ryan, Up to 1,000 more U.S. troops could be headed to Afghanistan this spring,weblink The Washington Post, January 21, 2018, reversing Trump's pre-election position critical of further involvement in Afghanistan.NEWS, Gordon, Michael R., Michael R. Gordon, Schmitt, Eric, Eric P. Schmitt, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, Trump Settles on Afghan Strategy Expected to Raise Troop Levels,weblink The New York Times, August 20, 2017, U.S. officials said then that they aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in January 2018, however, Trump spoke against talks with the Taliban.NEWS, Rampton, Roberta, Landay, Jonathan, Trump rejects peace talks with Taliban in departure from Afghan strategy,weblink Reuters, January 29, 2018, In October 2019, after Trump spoke to Turkish president Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan, the White House acknowledged that Turkey would be carrying out a planned military offensive into northern Syria; as such, U.S. troops in northern Syria were withdrawn from the area to avoid interference with that operation. The statement also passed responsibility for the area's captured ISIS fighters to Turkey.NEWS, Chappell, Bill, Neuman, Scott, In Major Policy Shift, U.S. Will Stand Aside As Turkish Forces Extend Reach In Syria,weblink October 11, 2019, NPR, October 7, 2019, Congress members of both parties denounced the move, including Republican allies of Trump like Senator Lindsey Graham. They argued that the move betrayed the American-allied Kurds, and would benefit ISIS, Russia, Iran and Bashar al-Assad's Syrian regime.NEWS,weblink Republicans unload on Trump for Syria shift when he needs them most, Forgey, Quint, October 7, 2019, Politico, October 7, 2019, Trump defended the move, citing the high cost of supporting the Kurds, and the lack of support from the Kurds in past U.S. wars.NEWS,weblink US troops start pullout in Syria as Turkey prepares operation, Al Jazeera, October 9, 2019, NEWS, Singh, Maanvi, Trump defends Syria decision by saying Kurds 'didn't help us with Normandy',weblink October 10, 2019, The Guardian, October 9, 2019, After the U.S. pullout, Turkey proceeded to attack Kurdish-controlled areas in northeast Syria.NEWS, Turkey Syria offensive: Tens of thousands flee homes,weblink October 11, 2019, BBC News, October 10, 2019,


Trump has described the regime in Iran as "the rogue regime".NEWS, Weiler, Yuram Abdullah, What is Basij and how does it function against U.S. and Zionism?,weblink, February 6, 2019, December 2, 2017, He has repeatedly criticized the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or "Iran nuclear deal") that was negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015, calling it "terrible" and saying the Obama administration had negotiated the agreement "from desperation".NEWS, NBC News, July 14, 2015, Katy, Tur, Katy Tur, Donald Trump Weighs in on Iran Deal,weblink At one point Trump said that, despite opposing the content of the deal, he would attempt to enforce it rather than abrogate it.NEWS, Igor, Bobic,weblink Donald Trump Would Not Rip Up The Iran Deal, The Huffington Post, August 16, 2015, August 17, 2019, Following Iran's ballistic missile tests on January 29, 2017, the Trump administration imposed sanctions on 25 Iranian individuals and entities in February 2017.NEWS, Borger, Julian, Julian Borger, Smith, David,weblink Trump administration 'officially putting Iran on notice', says Michael Flynn, The Guardian, February 2, 2017, November 9, 2018, NEWS, Trump administration tightens Iran sanctions, Tehran hits back,weblink Reuters, February 3, 2016, Torbati, Yeganeh, NEWS, Borger, Julian, Julian Borger, Smith, David,weblink Trump administration imposes new sanctions on Iran, The Guardian, February 3, 2017, November 9, 2018, Trump reportedly lobbied "dozens" of European officials against doing business with Iran during the May 2017 Brussels summit; this likely violated the terms of the JCPOA, under which the U.S. may not pursue "any policy specifically intended to directly and adversely affect the normalization of trade and economic relations with Iran". The Trump administration certified in July 2017 that Iran had upheld its end of the agreement.NEWS, Aleem, Zeeshan,weblink Iran says the US is violating the nuclear deal. It has a point, Vox (website), Vox, July 21, 2017, July 22, 2017, On August 2, 2017, Trump signed into law the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) that grouped together sanctions against Iran, Russia, and North Korea.NEWS,weblink Iran says new U.S. sanctions violate nuclear deal, vows 'proportional reaction', Reuters, August 2, 2017, On May 18, 2018, Trump announced the United States' unilateral departure from the JCPOA.NEWS,weblink Trump declares US leaving 'horrible' Iran nuclear accord, Lederman, Josh, May 8, 2018, Associated Press, May 8, 2018, In May 2017, strained relations between the U.S. and Iran escalated when Trump deployed military bombers and a carrier group to the Persian Gulf. Trump hinted at war on social media, provoking a response from Iran for what Iranian foreign minister Javad Zarif called "genocidal taunts".NEWS,weblink Trump: 'I will not let Iran have nuclear weapons', The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, May 19, 2019, May 20, 2019, Zack, Budryk, NEWS,weblink Trump says war will mean 'official end of Iran', warns 'never threaten the United States again', Fox News, May 19, 2019, May 20, 2019, Samuel, Chamberlain, NEWS,weblink Iran hits back at Trump for tweeting 'genocidal taunts', The Guardian, May 20, 2019, May 20, 2019, Patrick, Wintour, Trump and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman are allies in the conflict with Iran.NEWS, U.S. Tells Saudi Arabia Oil Attacks Were Launched From Iran,weblink The Wall Street Journal, September 17, 2019, Trump has approved the deployment of additional U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates following the attack on Saudi oil facilities which the United States has blamed on Iran.NEWS, US to deploy more troops to Saudi Arabia after attack on oil industry,weblink The Guardian, September 21, 2019,


File:President Trump visit to Israel May 22-23, 2017 DSC 3982F (34847749905).jpg|thumb|Trump and Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Yad VashemYad VashemTrump has supported the policies of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.NEWS,weblink How Trump and Netanyahu Became Each Other's Most Effective Political Weapon, Haaretz, Allison, Kaplan Sommer, July 25, 2019, August 2, 2019, On May 22, 2017, he was the first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip.NEWS, The New York Times, May 24, 2017, Mark, Landler, Mark Landler, Jason, Horowitz, With Gift and in Conversation, Vatican Presses Trump on Climate Change, May 14, 2018,weblink NEWS, Rafferty, Andrew, May 23, 2017, Trump Becomes First Sitting U.S. President to Visit Western Wall,weblink NBC News, May 24, 2017, NEWS, Baker, Luke, Holland, Steve, May 23, 2017, In U.S. presidential first, Trump prays at Jerusalem's Western Wall,weblink Reuters, London, England, May 24, 2017, NEWS, Diamond, Jeremy, Jeremy Diamond (journalist), May 23, 2017, Trump makes historic visit to Western Wall,weblink CNN, May 24, 2017, Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and warnings from world leaders. He subsequently opened a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem in May 2018.NEWS,weblink Nelson, Louis, Nussbaum, Matthew, Trump says U.S. recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital, despite global condemnation, Politico, December 6, 2017, December 6, 2017, NEWS, Ynetnews, US Embassy opens in Jerusalem: 'When Trump makes a promise, he keeps it',weblink July 25, 2018, May 14, 2018, The United Nations General Assembly condemned the move, adopting a resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem".WEB,weblink Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory – Turkey and Yemen: draft resolution – Status of Jerusalem, United Nations General Assembly, December 19, 2017, December 21, 2017, NEWS,weblink Defying Trump, U.N. General Assembly Condemns U.S. Decree on Jerusalem, Rick, Gladstone, The New York Times, December 21, 2017, December 21, 2017, In March 2019, Trump reversed decades of U.S. policy by recognizing Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights,NEWS, 'The jungle is back.' With his Golan Heights tweet, Trump emboldens the annexation agendas of the world's strongmen,weblink The Globe and Mail, March 22, 2019, Mark, MacKinnon, Mark MacKinnon, a move condemned by the European Union and Arab League.NEWS, Outcry as Trump backs Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights,weblink Euronews, March 22, 2019, Natalie, Huet, Reuters,


{{See also|China–United States relations#Trump's presidency (2017–)|China–United States trade war}}Before and during his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused China of taking unfair advantage of the U.S.WEB,weblink Trump on the Issues, Council on Foreign Relations, August 24, 2019, NEWS,weblink Trump says China is 'killing us with unfair trade deals', August 7, 2019, Reuters, August 24, 2019, Nandita, Bose, Andrea, Shalal, During his presidency, Trump has launched a trade war against China, sanctioned Huawei for its alleged ties to Iran,NEWS,weblink Huawei sanctions: Who gets hurt in dispute?, USA Today, August 24, 2019, Frank, Bajak, Michael, Liedtke, significantly increased visa restrictions on Chinese nationality students and scholarsNEWS,weblink Trump's Next Trade War Target: Chinese Students in the U.S., Time (magazine), Time, August 24, 2019, NEWS,weblink Visas Are The Newest Weapon In U.S.-China Rivalry, NPR, April 25, 2019, August 24, 2019, and classified China as a "currency manipulator".NEWS,weblink China responds to US after Treasury designates Beijing a 'currency manipulator', Meredith, Sam, August 6, 2019, CNBC, August 6, 2019, In the wake of the significant deterioration of relations, many political observers have warned against a new cold war between China and the U.S.NEWS,weblink Getting acclimatised to the US-China cold war, Financial Times, August 18, 2019, WEB,weblink Is China-US cold war inevitable? Chinese analysts say it can't be ruled out, August 14, 2019, South China Morning Post, August 18, 2019, NEWS,weblink A new cold war in Africa, Maru, Mehari Taddele,, August 18, 2019, According to CNN and Financial Times reports, in June 2019, President Trump promised Chinese president Xi Jinping that the US would remain quiet on Hong Kong protests while trade talks continued.{{citation|website=CNN Politics|date=October 4, 2019|title=Trump promised Xi US silence on Hong Kong democracy protests as trade talks stalled |author1=Jim Sciutto|author2=Gloria Borger|url=}}

North Korea

{{See also|North Korea–United States relations}}File:Kim and Trump shaking hands at the red carpet during the DPRK–USA Singapore Summit.jpg|thumb|Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit, June 2018]]Tests conducted by North Korea in July and September 2017 indicated that it had extended the range of its ballistic missiles and increased the yield of its nuclear weapons to the point where they might become able to strike the entire United States within a year.NEWS, Taylor, Adam, Meko, Tim,weblink What made North Korea's weapons programs so much scarier in 2017, The Washington Post, December 21, 2019, July 5, 2019, NEWS,weblink US slams North Korea missile test as Kim claims 'whole US mainland' in reach, Lendon, Brad, July 30, 2017, CNN, August 11, 2017, NEWS, Wright, David, North Korean ICBM Appears Able to Reach Major US Cities,weblink All Things Nuclear, Union of Concerned Scientists, July 28, 2017, July 28, 2017, In August, Trump dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that further provocation against the U.S. would be met with "fire and fury like the world has never seen".NEWS,weblink Trump reiterates warning to N. Korea: 'Fire and fury' may not have been 'tough enough', Rucker, Philip, Philip Rucker, DeYoung, Karen, Karen DeYoung, August 10, 2017, The Washington Post, December 21, 2018, In response, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un threatened to direct the country's next missile test toward Guam.NEWS,weblink Trump doubles down on 'fire and fury' vow as wargames near, Talmadge, Eric, Lemire, Jonathan, August 11, 2017, Associated Press, U.S. News & World Report, September 30, 2017, On June 12, 2018, Trump and Kim held their first summit in Singapore,NEWS, Trump-Kim summit: Kim Jong Un gave unwavering commitment to denuclearisation, says Trump,weblink The Straits Times, June 13, 2018, June 12, 2018, Jeremy Au, Yong, Tan Dawn, Wei, resulting in North Korea affirming its April 2018 promise to work toward complete denuclearization.WEB, Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit,weblink The White House, June 12, 2018, NEWS, Rosenfeld, Everett, Document signed by Trump and Kim includes four main elements related to 'peace regime',weblink CNBC, June 12, 2018, June 12, 2018, Six months later, North Korea said they would not cease their nuclear weapons program until the U.S. removed its nuclear threat from the Korean peninsula and the surrounding areas.NEWS,weblink North Korea Says It Won't Give Up Nuclear Weapons Unless the U.S. Removes Nuclear Threat, Time (magazine), Time, December 20, 2018, December 26, 2018, Tong-Hyung, Kim, NEWS,weblink North Korea Refuses Nuclear Disarmament until U.S. Eliminates 'Nuclear Threat', National Review, December 20, 2018, December 26, 2018, Mairead, McArdle, A second summit took place in February 2019, in Hanoi, Vietnam.NEWS, Rucker, Philip, Philip Rucker, Denyer, Simon, Nakamura, David, David Nakamura,weblink North Korea's foreign minister says country seeks only partial sanctions relief, The Washington Post, February 28, 2019, March 4, 2019, It ended abruptly without an agreement, both sides blaming each other and offering differing accounts of the negotiations.NEWS, Wong, Edward, Edward Wong,weblink Trump's Talks With Kim Jong-un Collapse, and Both Sides Point Fingers, The New York Times, February 28, 2019, March 1, 2019, NEWS, Diamond, Jeremy, Jeremy Diamond (journalist),weblink Takeaways from the Trump-Kim Hanoi summit, CNN, February 28, 2019, March 1, 2019, On June 30, 2019, Trump and Kim held brief talks at the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), along with South Korean president Moon Jae-in, marking the first time a sitting U.S. president had set foot on North Korean soil. They agreed to resume negotiations "in the coming weeks".NEWS,weblink Trump meets North Korea's Kim at DMZ in landmark visit, Al Jazeera, June 30, 2019, July 8, 2019, On October 6, 2019, the North Korean Foreign Ministry announced that it was withdrawing from negotiations calling them sickening and stating theat "The U.S. has actually not made any preparations for the negotiations but sought to meet its political goal of abusing the D.P.R.K.-U.S. dialogue for its domestic political interests".NEWS, Sang, Hun, North Korea Rules Out Quick Resumption of 'Sickening' Talks with U.S.,weblink 6 October 2019, New York Times, 6 October 2019,


{{See also|Russia–United States relations}}File:Vladimir Putin & Donald Trump in Helsinki, 16 July 2018 (3).jpg|thumb|Putin and Trump at the Helsinki summit, July 2018]]During his campaign and as president, Trump repeatedly said he wants better relations with Russia,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump urges 'good relationship' with Russia in tweets, Flores, Reena, January 7, 2017, CBS News, May 2, 2017, NEWS,weblink GOP warns Trump not to lift Russia sanctions after call with Putin, Berry, Lynn, January 29, 2017, Associated Press, PBS NewsHour, May 2, 2017, and he has praised Russian president Vladimir Putin as a strong leader.NEWS,weblink Trump, Putin agree in phone call to improve 'unsatisfactory' relations between their countries, Kremlin says, Viebeck, Elise, Markon, Jerry, DeYoung, Karen, Karen DeYoung, November 14, 2016, The Washington Post, March 14, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump and Putin's Bromance Could Change the World, Conrad, Peter, January 13, 2017, GQ, May 29, 2017, He also said Russia could help the U.S. in its fight against ISIS.NEWS,weblink Trump suggests U.S. accept Russia's annexation of Crimea, August 1, 2016, PBS NewsHour, Associated Press, February 19, 2017, According to Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.NEWS, US-Russia relations fail to improve in Trump's first year and they are likely to get worse,weblink The Independent, January 19, 2018, Oliver, Carroll, NEWS, Vladimir Putin says US-Russia relations are worse since Donald Trump took office,weblink The Independent, April 12, 2017, Samuel, Osborne, NEWS, U.S.-Russian relations worst Ambassador Antonov can remember,weblink NBC News, March 30, 2018, Alexander, Smith, After Trump met Putin at the Helsinki Summit on July 16, 2018, Trump drew bipartisan criticism for siding with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community.NEWS, Zurcher, Anthony, Trump-Putin summit: After Helsinki, the fallout at home,weblink July 18, 2018, BBC Online, July 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Sides With the Kremlin, Against the U.S. Government, Calamur, Krishnadev, July 16, 2018, The Atlantic, July 18, 2018, NEWS,weblink Top Republicans in Congress break with Trump over Putin comments, Fox, Lauren, July 16, 2018, CNN, July 18, 2018, Trump has made both pro- and anti-Russia statements regarding Crimea,NEWS, Trump expects Russia to return Crimea to Ukraine: White House,weblink Reuters, February 14, 2017, Syria,NEWS, Trump blames Putin for backing 'Animal Assad',weblink Politico, April 8, 2018, Ukraine,NEWS, Trump criticizes Russia, calls for defense of Western civilization,weblink Reuters, July 6, 2017, North Korea,NEWS, Exclusive: Trump accuses Russia of helping North Korea evade sanctions; says U.S. needs more missile defense,weblink Reuters, January 17, 2018, Venezuela,NEWS, Venezuela crisis: Russia hits out at 'boorish' Trump,weblink BBC News, March 28, 2019, election meddling,NEWS, Trump vows to 'counteract' any Russia election meddling,weblink Daily Nation, March 7, 2018, and Skripal poisoning.NEWS, Trump expelling 60 Russian diplomats in wake of UK nerve agent attack,weblink CNN, March 26, 2018, Trump also said U.S. oil companies, including Exxon Mobil, cannot resume oil drilling in Russia.NEWS, Trump denies Exxon permission to drill for oil in Russia, Egan, Matt, Borak, Donna,weblink CNN, April 21, 2017,


{{See also|Cuba–United States relations}}In November 2017, the Trump administration tightened the rules on trade with Cuba and individual visits to the county, undoing the Obama administration's loosening of restrictions. According to an administration official, the new rules were intended to hinder trade with businesses with ties to the Cuban military, intelligence and security services.NEWS, DeYoung, Karen, Karen DeYoung, White House implements new Cuba policy restricting travel and trade,weblink The Washington Post, November 8, 2017,


{{See also|United States–Venezuela relations}}(File:President Trump Delivers Remarks to the Venezuelan American Community (47145953601).jpg|thumb|On February 18, 2019 Trump gave a speech about the crisis in Venezuela)On August 11, 2017, Trump said he is "not going to rule out a military option" to confront the government of Nicolás Maduro.NEWS, Trump won't 'rule out a military option' in Venezuela,weblink The Washington Post, August 11, 2017, Jenna, Johnson, John, Wagner, In September 2018, Trump called "for the restoration of democracy in Venezuela" and said that "socialism has bankrupted the oil-rich nation and driven its people into abject poverty."NEWS, U.S. sanctions Venezuela officials, Trump slams Maduro,weblink Reuters, September 25, 2018, Lesley, Wroughton, Brian, Ellsworth, On January 23, 2019, Maduro announced that Venezuela was breaking ties with the United States following Trump's announcement of recognizing Juan Guaidó, the Venezuelan opposition leader, as the interim president of Venezuela.NEWS, Venezuela's President breaks diplomatic relations with US over Donald Trump's support of Opposition Leader,weblink Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Reuters/Associated Press, AP, January 24, 2019,


File:President Donald Trump and Secretary General Jens Stolenberg Joint Press Conference, April 12, 2017 (01).jpg|thumb|Trump and NATO Secretary General Jens StoltenbergJens StoltenbergAs a candidate, Trump questioned whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Sets Conditions for Defending NATO Allies Against Attack, July 20, 2016, Sanger, David E., David E. Sanger, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, July 31, 2016, and suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance.NEWS,weblink What's Trump's Position on NATO?,, July 31, 2016, As president, he reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO in March 2017.NEWS,weblink Trump supports NATO, but Senate holds up expansion, March 1, 2017, Reuters, Newsweek, May 2, 2017, However, he has repeatedly accused fellow NATO members of paying less than their fair share of the expenses of the alliance.NEWS, Baker, Peter, Peter Baker (journalist), Trump Says NATO Allies Don't Pay Their Share. Is That True?,weblink July 12, 2018, The New York Times, May 26, 2018, In January 2019 The New York Times quoted senior administration officials as saying Trump has privately suggested on multiple occasions that the United States should withdraw from NATO.NEWS,weblink Trump Discussed Pulling U.S. From NATO, Aides Say Amid New Concerns Over Russia, Barnes, Julian E., Cooper, Helene, Helene Cooper, January 14, 2019, The New York Times, January 19, 2019, The next day Trump said the United States is going to "be with NATO one hundred percent" but repeated that the other countries have to "step up" and pay more.NEWS,weblink Trump: We will be with NATO '100 percent', Morin, Rebecca, January 17, 2019, Politico, January 19, 2019,


{{See also|Formation of Donald Trump's Cabinet}}(File:Donald Trump Cabinet meeting 2017-03-13 04.jpg|thumb|Cabinet meeting, March 2017)The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned.NEWS,weblink Trump White House Has Highest Turnover in 40 Years, Trimble, Megan, December 28, 2017, U.S. News & World Report, March 16, 2018, {{As of|2018|7|pre=early}}, 61 percent of Trump's senior aides had leftNEWS,weblink AP: Trump admin sets record for White House turnover, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Wise, Justin, and 141 staffers had left in the past year.NEWS,weblink Trump White House sets turnover records, analysis shows, NBC News, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Associated Press, Both figures set a record for recent presidents{{snd}} more change in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two years.NEWS,weblink White House Staff Turnover Was Already Record-Setting. Then More Advisers Left, Keith, Tamara, NPR, March 16, 2018, Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Mike Flynn (after just 25 days in office), Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, replaced by retired Marine general John F. Kelly on July 28, 2017,NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Reince Priebus Pushed Out After Rocky Tenure as Trump Chief of Staff, Peter, Baker, Peter Baker (journalist), Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close personal aides to Trump such as Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee and Keith Schiller, have quit or been forced out.Trump's cabinet nominations included U.S. senator from Alabama Jeff Sessions as Attorney General,PR,weblink President Donald J. Trump Selects U.S. Senator Jeff Sessions for Attorney General, Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and U.S. Rep. Mike Pompeo as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, New York City, Office of the President Elect and of the Vice President Elect, November 18, 2016, November 18, 2016, financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury,NEWS,weblink Former US banker Steve Mnuchin confirms he will be US treasury secretary, November 30, 2016, BBC News, November 30, 2016, retired Marine Corps general James Mattis as Secretary of Defense,NEWS, Lamothe, Dan,weblink Trump has chosen retired Marine Gen. James Mattis for secretary of defense, The Washington Post, December 1, 2016, and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State.NEWS, The New York Times, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman,weblink Rex Tillerson, Exxon C.E.O., chosen as Secretary of State, December 12, 2016, December 26, 2016, Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, such as neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development,NEWS, Trip, Gabriel, Trump Chooses Ben Carson to Lead HUD, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, The New York Times,weblink and South Carolina governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Gov. Nikki Haley tapped to be Trump's U.N. ambassador, November 23, 2016, November 23, 2016, Robert, Costa, Robert Costa (journalist), Two of Trump's 15 original cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy.NEWS,weblink The Incredibly And Historically Unstable First Year Of Trump's Cabinet, Jones-Rooy, Andrea, November 29, 2017, FiveThirtyEight, March 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Tracking Turnover in the Trump Administration, March 16, 2018, Brookings Institution, March 16, 2018, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt resigned in July 2018 amidst multiple investigations into his conduct,NEWS,weblink Scott Pruitt Out At EPA, NPR, July 5, 2018, July 5, 2018, Rebecca, Hersher, Brett, Neelyin, while Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke resigned five months later as he also faced multiple investigations.NEWS,weblink Ryan Zinke resigns as interior secretary amid multiple investigations, Juliet, Eilperin, Josh, Dawsey, Josh Dawsey, Chicago Tribune, January 3, 2019, Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying that many of the positions are unnecessary. {{As of|2017|10}}, there were hundreds of sub-cabinet positions without a nominee.NEWS,weblink Trump Leaves Top Administration Positions Unfilled, Says Hollow Government By Design, Keith, Tamara, October 12, 2017, NPR, March 16, 2018, By January 8, 2019, of 706 key positions, 433 had been filled (61%) and Trump had no nominee for 264 (37%).NEWS, The Washington Post, January 8, 2019, Tracking how many key positions Trump has filled so far,weblink January 9, 2019,weblink

Dismissal of James Comey

On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI director James Comey. He first attributed this action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein,NEWS, Michael D., Shear, Michael D. Shear, Matt, Apuzzo, Matt Apuzzo, F.B.I. Director James Comey Is Fired by Trump,weblink May 10, 2017, The New York Times, May 10, 2017, which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump fires FBI director Comey over handling of Clinton investigation, Smith, David, May 9, 2017, The Guardian, May 9, 2017, On May 11, Trump said he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing"NEWS, Barrett, Devlin, Rucker, Philip, Philip Rucker, Trump said he was thinking of Russia controversy when he decided to fire Comey,weblink The Washington Post, May 11, 2017, May 12, 2017, and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier, regardless of DOJ advice.NEWS,weblink President Trump just completely contradicted the official White House account of the Comey firing, May 11, 2017, The Week, Becca, Stanek, May 11, 2017, According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into Michael Flynn.NEWS, Wilber, Del Quentin, Del Quentin Wilber, Viswanatha, Aruna, Trump Asked Comey to Drop Flynn Investigation, According to Memo Written by Former FBI Director,weblink The Wall Street Journal {{subscription required, |date=May 16, 2017 |accessdate=May 16, 2017}}In March and April, Trump had told Comey the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency,WEB, Comey, James, Statement for the Record Senate Select Committee on Intelligence,weblink United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Government, June 7, 2017, 7, June 8, 2017, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation.NEWS, Schmidt, Michael S., Michael S. Schmidt, Goldman, Adam, Adam Goldman, Comey to Testify Trump Pressured Him to Say He Wasn't Under Investigation,weblink June 7, 2017, The New York Times, June 7, 2017, He also asked intelligence chiefs Dan Coats and Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election.NEWS, Sciutto, Jim, Watkins, Eli, Trump asked DNI, NSA to deny evidence of Russia collusion,weblink CNN, May 23, 2017, Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal.NEWS, Dilanian, Ken, Windrem, Robert, Trump Asked Top Intel Officials to Push Back Publicly on Russia Probe,weblink NBC News, May 22, 2017, Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself.NEWS,weblink 'I Was Right': As Trump Watches Comey on TV, Anxiety Yields to Relief, The New York Times, Glenn, Thrush, Glenn Thrush, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, June 8, 2017, June 9, 2017,

Public profile

Approval ratings

{{Further|Opinion polling on the Donald Trump administration}}Presidential approval polls taken during the first ten months of Trump's term have shown him to be the least popular U.S. president in the history of modern opinion polls.WEB,weblink ABC News/Washington Post Poll: A year after his surprise election, 65 percent say Trump's achieved little, Gary, Langer, November 5, 2017, Langer Research Associates, November 5, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump Job Approval Slips to 36.9% in His Third Quarter, Jeffrey M., Jones, Gallup (company), Gallup, October 20, 2017, October 20, 2017, NEWS,weblink Poll: Trump's performance lags behind even tepid public expectations, The Washington Post, November 5, 2017, Balz, Dan, Dan Balz, Clement, Scott, A Pew Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a median of just 22 percent has confidence in Trump to do the right thing when it comes to international affairs". This compares to a median of 64 percent rate of confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama. Trump received a higher rating in only two countries: Russia and Israel.WEB, U.S. Image Suffers as Publics Around World Question Trump's Leadership,weblink June 26, 2017, Pew Research Center, Richard, Wike, Bruce, Stokes, Jacob, Poushter, Janell, Fetterolf, January 11, 2018, An August 2017 Politico/Morning Consult poll found on some measures "that majorities of voters have low opinions of his character and competence".NEWS, Poll: Trump hits new low after Charlottesville,weblink Politico, August 23, 2017, By December 2018, Trump's approval ratings, averaged over many polls, stood at roughly 42%, two points below Obama's 44% at the same time in his presidency, and one point above Ronald Reagan.NEWS,weblink How popular is Donald Trump? – How Trump compares with past presidents, FiveThirtyEight, Nate, Silver, Nate Silver, December 20, 2018, December 21, 2018, Trump's two-year average Gallup approval rating was the lowest of any president since World War II.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Approval Rating Average in First Two Years is Lowest For Any President Since World War II, Jessica, Kwong, January 16, 2019, Newsweek, January 25, 2019, Trump is the only elected president who did not place first on Gallup's poll of Americans' most admired men in his first year in office, coming in second behind Obama.NEWS,weblink Trump Is the Only Elected U.S. President Not to Be Named America's Most Admired Man In His First Year, Bach, Natasha, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, December 28, 2017, June 11, 2018, NEWS,weblink Most Admired Man and Woman, Gallup (company), Gallup, June 12, 2018, The Gallup poll near the end of Trump's second year in office named him the second most admired man in America{{snd}} behind Obama{{snd}} for the fourth consecutive year.NEWS,weblink Barack and Michelle Obama top Gallup's list of most-admired men and women in the world, trouncing the Trumps, Jacob, Shamsian, Business Insider, January 2, 2019,

False statements

As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks.NEWS, Linda, Qiu, Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days, April 29, 2017, The New York Times,weblink NEWS, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Michelle Ye Hee, Lee, President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally, May 1, 2017, The Washington Post,weblink NEWS, Linda, Qiu, In One Rally, 12 Inaccurate Claims From Trump, June 22, 2017, The New York Times,weblink The statements have been documented by fact-checkers; academics and the media have widely described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics.
  • JOURNAL, McGranahan, Carole, An anthropology of lying: Trump and the political sociality of moral outrage, American Ethnologist, May 2017, 44, 2, 243–248, 10.1111/amet.12475, It has long been a truism that politicians lie, but with the entry of Donald Trump into the US political domain, the frequency, degree, and impact of lying in politics are now unprecedented [...] Donald Trump is different. By all metrics and counting schemes, his lies are off the charts. We simply have not seen such an accomplished and effective liar before in US politics.,
  • NEWS, The New York Times, August 7, 2017, Sheryl Gay, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Many Politicians Lie. But Trump Has Elevated the Art of Fabrication., March 11, 2019,weblink President Trump, historians and consultants in both political parties agree, appears to have taken what the writer Hannah Arendt once called 'the conflict between truth and politics' to an entirely new level.,
  • NEWS,weblink A year of unprecedented deception: Trump averaged 15 false claims a day in 2018, The Washington Post, December 30, 2018, February 20, 2019, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), 'When before have we seen a president so indifferent to the distinction between truth and falsehood, or so eager to blur that distinction?' presidential historian Michael R. Beschloss said of Trump in 2018.,
  • NEWS, Los Angeles Times, February 6, 2017, Mark Z., Barabak, There's a long history of presidential untruths. Here's why Donald Trump is 'in a class by himself', March 11, 2019,weblink White House scholars and other students of government agree there has never been a president like Donald Trump, whose volume of falsehoods, misstatements and serial exaggerations – on matters large and wincingly small – place him 'in a class by himself', as Texas A&M's George C. Edwards III, George Edwards put it.,
  • NEWS, Toronto Star, December 22, 2017, Daniel, Dale, Daniel Dale, Donald Trump has spent a year lying shamelessly. It hasn't worked, March 4, 2019,weblink 'We've had presidents that have lied or misled the country, but we've never had a serial liar before. And that's what we're dealing with here,' said Douglas Brinkley, the prominent Rice University presidential historian.,
  • NEWS, CNN, May 9, 2018, Chris, Cillizza, Chris Cillizza, President Trump lied more than 3,000 times in 466 days, March 4, 2019,weblink We've never had a president with such a casual relationship to the truth ... The sheer rate of Trump's untruth-telling is staggering. It is unprecedented.,
  • WEB, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2017, Heidi Taksdal, Skjeseth, All the president's lies: Media coverage of lies in the US and France,weblink Trump is not the first president to be at odds with the press, but the amount of lies he delivers and his aggressive attacks on and constant undermining of the legitimacy of the media, is unprecedented.,
  • JOURNAL, Stern, Donnel, Constructivism in the Age of Trump: Truth, Lies, and Knowing the Difference, Psychoanalytic Dialogues, May 9, 2019, 29, 2, 189–196, 10.1080/10481885.2019.1587996, Donald Trump lies so often that some have wondered whether he has poisoned the well [...] We expect politicians to stretch the truth. But Trump is a whole different animal. He lies as a policy.,
  • NEWS, Grosz, Stephen, The real reason Donald Trump lies,weblink Financial Times, June 25, 2019, January 9, 2019, We all lie, but we don't lie like President Trump. He is the most extravagant, reckless, inexhaustible fibber of our era, NEWS,weblink It's True: Trump Is Lying More, and He's Doing It on Purpose, The New Yorker, August 3, 2018, January 10, 2019, Susan, Glasser, Susan Glasser, NEWS, Konnikova, Maria, Maria Konnikova, Trump's Lies vs. Your Brain, Politico, January 20, 2017,weblink March 31, 2018, This trait of his was similarly observed when he was a presidential candidate.NEWS, Finnegan, Michael, Scope of Trump's falsehoods unprecedented for a modern presidential candidate,weblink Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2019, Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has., NEWS, The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump,weblink, March 4, 2019, In the 12 years of's existence, we've never seen his match., December 21, 2015, His falsehoods have also become a distinctive part of his political identity.
Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office, according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office, according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post.NEWS, Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, Kessler, Glenn, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Kelly, Meg, President Trump has made 1,318 false or misleading claims over 263 days,weblink The Washington Post, October 10, 2017, November 5, 2017, By the Post's tally, it took Trump 601 days to reach 5,000 false or misleading statements and another 226 days to reach the 10,000 mark.NEWS,weblink President Trump has made more than 10,000 false or misleading claims, The Washington Post, April 29, 2019, April 29, 2019, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Salvador, Rizzo, Meg, Kelly, For the seven weeks leading up to the midterm elections, it rose to an average of thirty per dayNEWS, The Washington Post, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Salvador, Rizzo, Meg, Kelly, President Trump has made 6,420 false or misleading claims over 649 days, November 2, 2018, November 2, 2018,weblink from 4.9 during his first hundred days in office.NEWS, The Washington Post, September 13, 2018, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Salvador, Rizzo, Meg, Kelly, President Trump has made more than 5,000 false or misleading claims, October 16, 2018,weblink The Post{{'}}s latest reported tally is 12,019 as of August{{nbsp}}5, 2019.NEWS, The Washington Post, August 12, 2019, Glenn, Kessler, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Salvador, Rizzo, Meg, Kelly, President Trump has made 12,019 false or misleading claims over 928 days,weblink

Racial views

Trump has made numerous comments and taken certain actions that have been characterized as racially charged or racist, both by those within the U.S. and by those abroad.Multiple sources:
  • NEWS, Vox (website), Vox, Lopez, German, Donald Trump's long history of racism, from the 1970s to 2019,weblink June 15, 2019, February 14, 2019,
  • NEWS,weblink Every moment in Trump's charged relationship with race, January 12, 2018, PBS NewsHour, January 13, 2018,
  • NEWS, A history of Donald Trump's racially charged statements,weblink October 3, 2019, SBS News, Agence France Presse, July 16, 2019,
  • NEWS, Dawsey, Josh, Josh Dawsey, Trump's history of making offensive comments about nonwhite immigrants, The Washington Post, January 11, 2018,weblink January 11, 2018,
  • NEWS, Trump's 'shithole' comment denounced across the globe,weblink January 13, 2018, Politico, January 12, 2018, Aubree Eliza, Weaver,
  • NEWS, Stoddard, Ed, Mfula, Chris, Africa calls Trump racist after 'shithole' remark,weblink October 1, 2019, Reuters, January 12, 2018, African politicians and diplomats labeled U.S. President Donald Trump a racist on Friday, Trump has repeatedly denied he is a racist.NEWS, Trump's own words revive debate over whether he's racist,weblink Associated Press, Julie, Pace, January 12, 2018, NEWS, Donald Trump denies being a racist after 'shithole' row,weblink BBC Online, January 15, 2018, January 15, 2018, Many of his supporters say the way he speaks reflects his general rejection of political correctness, while others accept it simply because they share such beliefs.NEWS,weblink Poll: Majority of Trump Voters Say His Political Correctness Is 'About Right', Nichols, Laura, June 29, 2017, January 13, 2018, Morning Consult, NEWS, Economic Anxiety Didn't Make People Vote Trump, Racism Did,weblink't-make-people-vote-trump-racism-did/, January 13, 2018, The Nation, May 8, 2017, Sean, McElwee, Jason, McDaniel,
Several studies and surveys have found that racist attitudes fueled Trump's political ascendance and have been more important than economic factors in determining the allegiance of Trump voters.NEWS, The past year of research has made it very clear: Trump won because of racial resentment,weblink January 14, 2018, Vox (website), Vox, December 15, 2017, German, Lopez, In a June 2018 Quinnipiac University poll, 49 percent of respondents believed he was racist, while 47 percent believed he was not.NEWS,weblink 44 Percent Of White Americans Think Donald Trump Is Racist, New Poll Finds, Marcin, Tim, July 5, 2018, July 5, 2018, Newsweek, Additionally, 55 percent said he "has emboldened people who hold racist beliefs to express those beliefs publicly".WEB,weblink Harsh Words For U.S. Family Separation Policy, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Voters Have Dim View Of Trump, Dems On Immigration, Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, July 3, 2018, July 5, 2018, Trump has asserted "I am the least racist person there is anywhere in the world."NEWS,weblink As Trump denies racism, most Americans don't believe him, August 1, 2019, MSNBC, Steve, Benen, In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters.NEWS,weblink 'No Vacancies' for Blacks: How Donald Trump Got His Start, and Was First Accused of Bias, The New York Times, August 27, 2016, January 13, 2018, Mahler, Jonathan, Eder, Steve, He has also been accused of racism for insisting a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger case, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. He maintained his position on the matter into 2019.NEWS, Ransom, Jan, Trump Will Not Apologize for Calling for Death Penalty Over Central Park Five,weblink June 29, 2019, The New York Times, June 18, 2019, Trump launched his political career in 2011 as a leading proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama, the first black U.S. president, was born in Kenya.NEWS, Leave the US, Trump tells liberal congresswomen of color,weblink July 14, 2019, AP, July 14, 2019, In April 2011, Trump claimed credit for pushing the White House to publish the "long-form" birth certificate, which he considered fraudulent, and later stated that his stance had made him "very popular".NEWS,weblink Trump takes credit for Obama birth certificate release, but wonders 'is it real?', Madison, Lucy, April 27, 2011, May 9, 2011, CBS News, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's History of Raising Birther Questions About President Obama, ABC News, Keneally, Meghan, September 18, 2015, August 27, 2016, In September 2016, he acknowledged that Obama was born in the U.S.NEWS, The New York Times, Trump Drops False 'Birther' Theory, but Floats a New One: Clinton Started It, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, Alan, Rappeport, Alan Rappeport, September 16, 2016,weblink According to an analysis in Political Science Quarterly, Trump made "explicitly racist appeals to whites" during his 2016 presidential campaign.JOURNAL, Schaffner, Brian F., Brian Schaffner, Macwilliams, Matthew, Nteta, Tatishe, Understanding White Polarization in the 2016 Vote for President: The Sobering Role of Racism and Sexism, Political Science Quarterly, March 2018, 133, 1, 9–34, 10.1002/polq.12737, In particular, his campaign launch speech drew widespread criticism for saying Mexican immigrants were "bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists".NEWS, Here Are All the Times Donald Trump Insulted Mexico,weblink January 13, 2018, Time (magazine), Time, August 31, 2016, NEWS, Five Insults Donald Trump Has Fired At Mexicans In The Presidential Race,weblink January 13, 2018, Sky News, September 1, 2016, His later comments about a Mexican-American judge presiding over a civil suit regarding Trump University were also criticized as racist.NEWS,weblink Paul Ryan Calls Donald Trump's Attack on Judge 'Racist', but Still Backs Him, June 7, 2016, The New York Times, Jennifer, Steinhauer, Jennifer Steinhauer, Jonathan, Martin, Jonathan Martin (journalist), David M., Herszenhorn, January 13, 2018, File:President Trump Gives a Statement on the Infrastructure Discussion.webm|thumb|start=07:19|Trump makes a statement (begins at 7:20 into the video) on the Unite the Right rallyUnite the Right rallyTrump's comments in reaction to the 2017 Charlottesville far-right rally were interpreted as implying a moral equivalence between white supremacist marchers and counter-protesters.NEWS,weblink Trump: 'Both sides' to blame for Charlottesville, Merica, Dan, August 26, 2017, CNN, January 13, 2018, In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation, he reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African nations as "shithole countries".NEWS,weblink Trump's "shithole countries" comment exposes the core of Trumpism, Beauchamp, Zack, January 11, 2018, Vox (website), Vox, January 11, 2018, His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress.NEWS, Trump's 'shithole' comment denounced across the globe,weblink January 13, 2018, Politico, January 12, 2018, Aubree Eliza, Weaver, NEWS,weblink 'There's no other word but racist': Trump's global rebuke for 'shithole' remark, January 13, 2018, The Guardian, Patrick, Wintour, Patrick Wintour, Jason, Burke, Jason Burke, Anna, Livsey, January 13, 2018, In July 2019, Trump tweeted that four Democratic members of Congress{{snd}} all of whom are women of color and three of whom are native-born Americans{{snd}} should "go back" to the countries they came from.NEWS, The New York Times, July 14, 2019, Katie, Rogers, Nicholas, Fandos, Nicholas Fandos, Trump Tells Congresswomen to 'Go Back' to the Countries They Came From,weblink Two days later the House of Representatives voted 240–187, mostly along party lines, to condemn his "racist comments".NEWS,weblink House Votes To Condemn Trump's 'Racist Comments', Mak, Tim, July 16, 2019, NPR, July 17, 2019, White nationalist publications and social media sites praised his remarks, which continued over the following days.NEWS,weblink Trump said 'many people agree' with his racist tweets. These white supremacists certainly do., Simon, Mallory, Sidner, Sara, Sara Sidner, July 16, 2019, CNN, July 20, 2019,

Allegations of sexual misconduct

Twenty-two women have publicly accused Trump of sexual misconduct {{as of|2019|06|lc=y}}. There were allegations of rape, violence, being kissed and groped without consent, looking under women's skirts, and walking in on naked women.NEWS, Nelson, Libby, McGann, Laura, E. Jean Carroll joins at least 21 other women in publicly accusing Trump of sexual assault or misconduct,weblink June 25, 2019, June 21, 2019, In 2016, he denied all accusations, calling them "false smears", and alleged there was a conspiracy against him.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump threatens to sue New York Times over sexual harassment report, Byers, Dylan, Dylan Byers, October 12, 2016, October 13, 2016, CNN Money, NEWS,weblink Trump demands NYT retracts 'libelous article' about alleged assault as new claims emerge, October 13, 2016, October 13, 2016, Fox News, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Calls Allegations by Women 'False Smears', Healy, Patrick, Rappeport, Alan, Alan Rappeport, October 13, 2016, The New York Times, October 13, 2016, In October 2016, two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was recorded bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Surrogates Have Their Own Baggage With Women Voters, Sakuma, Amanda, October 26, 2016, NBC News, ...{{nbsp, newly unearthed audio recordings showed Trump bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals. }}NEWS,weblink More women accuse Trump of aggressive sexual behavior, Jan, Tracy, October 14, 2016, The Boston Globe, Trump has been confronted with a slew of allegations of sexual misconduct over the past week, starting with a Washington Post report of a 2005 tape featuring him bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals., NEWS,weblink US presidential debate recap: Polls split on whether Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton won poisonous argument, October 13, 2016, Lawler, David, Henderson, Barney, Allen, Nick, Sherlock, Ruth, ... it was a matter of minutes before the lewd tape, in which Mr. Trump brags about 'grabbing p----' and forcibly kissing women, was brought up., The Daily Telegraph, The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the tape, Trump said: "I just start kissing them ... I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy."NEWS, Timm, Jane C., Trump caught on hot mic making lewd comments about women in 2005,weblink NBC News, October 7, 2016, June 10, 2018, During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily".Trump's language on the tape has been described as vulgar, sexist, and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident's widespread media exposure led to Trump's first public apology during the campaign,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Apology Caps Day of Outrage Over Lewd Tape, October 7, 2016, The New York Times, October 8, 2016, Burns, Alexander, Alex Burns (journalist), Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, Martin, Jonathan, Jonathan Martin (journalist), NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's vulgar conversation about women caught on hot mic, Jensen, Salvatore, October 8, 2016, Cosumnes Connection, October 8, 2016,weblink October 9, 2016, and caused outrage across the political spectrum,NEWS,weblink Kaine on lewd Trump tapes: 'Makes me sick to my stomach', Hagen, Lisa, October 7, 2016, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, October 8, 2016, NEWS,weblink Pence to fill in for Donald Trump Saturday following video leak, Stacey, Madison, October 8, 2016, October 8, 2016, WXIN-TV, Indianapolis, Indiana, resulting in a group of GOP senators and representatives withdrawing their support for his candidacy, some requesting that he step aside.NEWS, Lewd Donald Trump Tape Is a Breaking Point for Many in the G.O.P., The New York Times, October 9, 2016,weblink June 24, 2019, NEWS,weblink Here's the fast-growing list of Republicans calling for Donald Trump to drop out, Blake, Aaron, October 8, 2016, The Washington Post, October 8, 2016, In addition to the two women who had previously alleged sexual misconduct against Trump, fifteen more came forward in 2016, during the aftermath of the tape's release with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted kissing and groping.NEWS,weblink The growing list of women who have stepped forward to accuse Trump of touching them inappropriately, Helderman, Rosalind S., Rosalind Helderman, The Washington Post, October 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink The women who have accused Donald Trump, Stableford, Dylan, October 17, 2016, Yahoo! News, October 18, 2016, NEWS,weblink A brief guide to the 17 women Trump has allegedly assaulted, groped or harassed, Nelson, Libby, Frostenson, Sarah, October 20, 2016, October 21, 2016, Vox (website), Vox, Trump publicly apologized for his inappropriate boasting on the tape but also defended it as "locker room talk",NEWS, 'Access Hollywood' Reminds Trump: 'The Tape Is Very Real', The New York Times, November 28, 2017,weblink June 24, 2019, Daniel, Victor, and instead deflected his actions by asserting allegations of inappropriate behavior by Bill and Hillary Clinton.NEWS,weblink "I never said I'm a perfect person," Trump says about lewd comments, October 7, 2016, December 11, 2016, CBS News, Associated Press,

Allegations of inciting violence

Over the years Trump has been accused of inciting violence due to racist and nationalist rhetoric along with goading or praising individuals who commit such violence. Language from his speeches and tweets has been referenced in the manifestos of white supremacist shooters, such as those in El Paso, TX, Christchurch, NZ, and Poway, CA.Some research suggests Trump's rhetoric causes an increased incidence of hate crimes.NEWS,weblink Trump words linked to more hate crime? Some experts think so, Kunzelman, Michael, Galvan, Astrid, August 7, 2019, AP News, NEWS,weblink Analysis | Counties that hosted a 2016 Trump rally saw a 226 percent increase in hate crimes, The Washington Post, Ayal, Feinberg, Regina, Branton, Valerie, Martinez-Ebers, JOURNAL, Rushin, Stephen, Edwards, Griffin Sims, January 14, 2018, The Effect of President Trump's Election on Hate Crimes, 3102652, During the 2016 campaign, he sometimes urged or praised physical attacks against protesters or reporters.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Tells Crowd To "Knock the Crap Out Of" Hecklers, White, Daniel, February 1, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, August 9, 2019, NEWS,weblink Trump Thinks It's Totally Cool That A Congressman Assaulted A Journalist For Asking A Question, Koerner, Claudia, October 18, 2018, BuzzFeed News, August 9, 2019, Since then, some individuals or their attorneys have cited Trump's rhetoric as a defense for their hate speech or violent actions.NEWS,weblink "The President of the United States Says It's Okay": The Rise of the Trump Defense, Tracy, Abigail, August 8, 2019, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, In August 2019 it was reported that a man who allegedly assaulted a minor for perceived disrespect toward the national anthem had cited Trump's rhetoric in his own defense.NEWS,weblink Trump's "Rhetoric" Inspired This Man To Assault A 13-Year-Old For Wearing A Hat During The Anthem, His Lawyer Said, Reinstein, Julia, August 8, 2019, BuzzFeed News, August 9, 2019, It was also reported in August 2019 that a nationwide review conducted by ABC News had identified at least 36 criminal cases where Trump was invoked in direct connection with violence or threats of violence. Of these, 29 were based around someone echoing presidential rhetoric, while the other seven were someone protesting it or not having direct linkage.NEWS,weblink 'No Blame?' ABC News finds 36 cases invoking 'Trump' in connection with violence, threats, alleged assaults., August 14, 2019, Mike, Levine, ABC News, August 16, 2019,

Relationship with the press

{{Further|Presidency of Donald Trump#Relationship with the media}}(File:President Trump's First 100 Days- 45 (33573172373).jpg|thumb|Trump talking to the press, March 2017)Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention. His interactions with the press turned into what some sources called a "love-hate" relationship.NEWS,weblink Trump's love-hate relationship with the press, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, April 28, 2018, July 4, 2018, Parnes, Amy, NEWS,weblink Love and Hate: The Media's Co-Dependent Relationship With Donald Trump, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, March 1, 2016, July 4, 2018, Ingram, Mathew, NEWS,weblink Trump's love-hate relationship with media intensifies, Arab News, January 24, 2017, July 4, 2018, Ben, Flanagan, Trump began promoting himself in the press in the 1970s.INTERVIEW, Who is Donald Trump?, July 10, 2016, July 4, 2018, D'Antonio, Michael, CNN,weblink Fox News anchor Bret Baier and former House speaker Paul Ryan have characterized Trump as a "troll" who makes controversial statements to see people's "heads explode".WEB,weblink Bret Baier: Trump Likes Trolling the Left to Watch 'Heads Explode', Even If He Contradicts Himself, July 24, 2018, Josh, Feldman, NEWS,weblink This Is the Way Paul Ryan's Speakership Ends, Mark, Leibovich, Mark Leibovich, August 7, 2018, The New York Times, Throughout his 2016 presidential campaign and his presidency, Trump has repeatedly accused the press of intentionally misinterpreting his words and of being biased, calling them "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people".NEWS, Bondarenko, Veronika, Trump keeps saying 'enemy of the people' – but the phrase has a very ugly history,weblink Business Insider, October 25, 2017, In the campaign, Trump benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. New York Times writer Amy Chozick wrote in September 2018 that one of the reasons for Trump's appeal was his media dominance. To answer the question of why the U.S. public could not stop being enthralled by his actions, she wrote "Even in the so-called golden age of TV, Mr. Trump hasn't just dominated water-cooler conversation; he's sucked the water right out, making all other entertainment from N.F.L. games to awards shows pale in comparison."NEWS,weblink Why Trump Will Win a Second Term, Chozick, Amy, Amy Chozick, 2018-09-29, The New York Times, 2019-09-22, Chozick quoted Brent Montgomery, the creator of the reality TV show Pawn Stars, saying "Part of what he's doing that makes it feel like a reality show is that he is feeding you something every night. You can't afford to miss one episode or you're left behind."After winning the election, Trump told journalist Lesley Stahl he intentionally demeaned and discredited the media "so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you".NEWS, Thomsen, Jacqueline, '60 Minutes' correspondent: Trump said he attacks the press so no one believes negative coverage,weblink The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, May 23, 2018, Into his presidency, Trump has described negative media coverage as "fake news".NEWS, Trump makes it explicit: Negative coverage of him is fake coverage, The Washington Post, May 9, 2018,weblink Bump, Philip, May 9, 2018, Trump has privately and publicly mused about taking away critical reporters' White House press credentials.NEWS,weblink Trump's latest shot at the press corps: 'Take away credentials?', Brian, Stelter, Brian Stelter, Kaitlan, Collins, Kaitlan Collins, CNN Money, May 9, 2018, In 2019 a member of the foreign press reported many of the same concerns as those of media in the U.S., expressing concern that a normalization process by reporters and media results in an inaccurate characterization of Trump.NEWS,weblink As a foreign reporter visiting the US I was stunned by Trump's press conference, Taylor, Lenore, Lenore Taylor, September 20, 2019, The Guardian, September 22, 2019,

Popular culture

Trump has been the subject of comedians, Flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Garrison. The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a future Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called The President Show debuted in April 2017 on Comedy Central, while another one called Our Cartoon President debuted on Showtime in February 2018.NEWS,weblink 'Donald Trump' Gets a Comedy Central Series, Megan, Garber, The Atlantic, April 3, 2017, April 4, 2017, Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip-hop lyrics since the 1980s, as he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone.VIDEO,weblink 25 years of Donald Trump mentions in hip hop, YouTube, mantolius, February 25, 2016, November 15, 2016, Mentions of Trump turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015.NEWS,weblink Hip-Hop Is Turning On Donald Trump, FiveThirtyEight, July 14, 2016, Allison, McCann,

Social media

Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily on Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's Twitter activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as president. As of May 2019, he is in the top 15 for most Twitter followers at over 60 million.WEB, Twitter: Most Followers,weblinkweblink May 26, 2019, May 26, 2019, live, Trump has frequently used Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press.WEB,weblink Donald Trump's Social Media Use Is Key To Sidelining The Press, Dustin, Steeve, January 23, 2017, The Federalist (website), The Federalist, May 31, 2017, Many of the assertions he tweeted have been proven false.NEWS, Qui, Linda, Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days,weblink The New York Times, April 27, 2017, June 25, 2017, NEWS, Kessler, Glenn, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, Fact Checker Analysis – President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally,weblink The Washington Post, May 1, 2017, June 25, 2017, NEWS, Drinkard, Jim, Woodward, Calvin, Fact check: Trump's missions unaccomplished despite his claims,weblink Chicago Tribune, June 24, 2017, June 25, 2017,


{{Further|List of honors and awards received by Donald Trump}}In 1983, Trump received the Jewish National Fund Tree of Life Award, after he helped fund the building of two playgrounds, a park, and a reservoir in Israel.NEWS,weblink Inside Donald Trump's History of Donations in Israel, Haaretz, Judy, Maltz, May 9, 2017, October 13, 2019, NEWS, Inside Donald Trump's History of Donations in Israel,weblink NEWS, Trump Once Helped Finance Resettlement of Israelis Evacuated From Sinai,weblink In 1986, he received the Ellis Island Medal of Honor in recognition of "patriotism, tolerance, brotherhood and diversity",NEWS,weblink Did Donald Trump Receive an Ellis Island Award in 1986?, Dan, Evon, 5 September 2016, and in 1995 was awarded the President's Medal from the Freedoms Foundation for his support of youth programs.NEWS,weblink Trump to be honored for working with youths, May 25, 1995, The Philadelphia Inquirer, He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2007,WEB,weblink Donald Trump {{!, Hollywood Walk of Fame | |access-date=2019-09-06 |publisher=Hollywood Walk of Fame}} and was indicted in the WWE Hall of Fame in 2013.WEB,weblink Donald Trump cements his WWE legacy: 2013 WWE Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, 2013, WWE, Liberty University awarded Trump an honorary Doctorate of Business in 2012WEB,weblink Donald Trump addresses largest Convocation crowd, praises Liberty, September 24, 2012,, and an honorary Doctor of Laws in 2017, during his first college commencement speech as president.WEB,weblink LU confers seven honorary doctorates to world changers, including President Trump - Liberty University,, NEWS,weblink Watch Donald Trump's First Commencement Speech as President, Rolling Stone, Daniel, Kreps, May 13, 2017, In 2015, Robert Gordon University revoked the honorary Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) they had granted him in 2010, stating that "Mr. Trump has made a number of statements that are wholly incompatible with the ethos and values of the university."NEWS, Donald Trump: Robert Gordon University strips honorary degree,weblink BBC Online, December 9, 2015, May 3, 2018, In December 2016, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year",NEWS, Gibbs, Nancy, Nancy Gibbs, Why Donald Trump is TIME's Person of the Year,weblink December 7, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, December 7, 2016, but Trump took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America".NEWS, Kim, Eun Kyung, Donald Trump: Mitt Romney is still in the running for secretary of state,weblink December 7, 2016, Today (U.S. TV program), Today, December 7, 2016, In the same month, he was named Financial Times Person of the YearNEWS, Luce, Edward, Edward Luce, FT Person of the Year: Donald Trump,weblink December 17, 2017, Financial Times, December 12, 2016, and was ranked by Forbes the second most powerful person in the world after Vladimir Putin.NEWS, The World's Most Powerful People,weblink Forbes, December 2016, December 14, 2016, As president, Trump received the Collar of The Order of Abdulaziz al Saud from Saudi Arabia in 2017.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump awarded with Saudi Arabia's highest civilian honour within hours of landing in the country, Wilts, Alexandra, May 20, 2017, The Independent, May 20, 2017,


{{Further2|Timeline of investigations into Trump and Russia (2017, 2018 and 2019)}}The Crossfire Hurricane FBI investigation into possible links between Russia and the Trump campaign was launched in mid-2016 during the campaign season. Since he assumed the presidency, Trump has been the subject of increasing Justice Department and congressional scrutiny, with investigations covering his election campaign, transition and inauguration, actions taken during his presidency, along with his private businesses, personal taxes, and charitable foundation.NEWS, Woodward, Calvin, Pace, Julie, Scope of investigations into Trump has shaped his presidency,weblink December 19, 2018, Associated Press, December 16, 2018, The New York Times reported in May 2019 that there were 29 open investigations of Trump, including ten federal criminal investigations, eight state and local investigations, and eleven Congressional investigations.NEWS, Buchanan, Larry, Yourish, Karen, Tracking 29 Investigations Related to Trump,weblink June 9, 2019, The New York Times, May 23, 2019,

Hush payments

{{See also|Legal affairs of Donald Trump#Payments related to alleged affairs|Karen McDougal#Alleged affair with Donald Trump}}American Media Inc (AMI) paid $150,000 to Playboy model Karen McDougal in August 2016,NEWS,weblink National Enquirer Shielded Donald Trump From Playboy Model's Affair Allegation, Palazzolo, Joe, Rothfeld, Michael, Alpert, Lukas, The Wall Street Journal, November 4, 2016, February 17, 2018, and Trump's attorney Michael Cohen paid $130,000 to adult film actress Stormy Daniels in October 2016.NEWS,weblink Why the Stormy Daniels-Donald Trump story matters, Luckhurst, Toby, BBC Online, 3 May 2018, Both women were paid for non-disclosure agreements regarding their alleged affairs with Trump between 2006 and 2007.NEWS,weblink How the campaign finance charges against Michael Cohen implicate Trump, The Washington Post, Philip, Bump, August 21, 2018, July 25, 2019, Cohen pleaded guilty in 2018 to breaking campaign finance laws, stating that he had arranged the payments at the direction of Trump in order to influence the presidential election.NEWS,weblink Cohen pleads guilty, implicates Trump in hush-money scheme, Neumeister, Larry, August 22, 2018, Associated Press, Hays, Tom, AMI admitted paying McDougal to prevent publication of stories that might damage Trump's electoral chances.NEWS,weblink National Enquirer owner admits to paying off Playboy model to protect Trump, Watson, Kathyn, CBS News, July 22, 2019, Trump denied the affairs, and claimed he was not aware of Cohen's payment to Daniels, but reimbursed him in 2017.NEWS,weblink White House on Stormy Daniels: Trump 'denied all these allegations', Nelson, Louis, March 7, 2018, Politico, March 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump insists he learned of Michael Cohen payments 'later on', in 'Fox & Friends' exclusive, Singman, Brooke, August 23, 2018, Fox News, August 22, 2018, Federal prosecutors asserted that Trump had been involved in discussions regarding non-disclosure payments as early as 2014.NEWS,weblink Court filings directly implicate Trump in efforts to buy women's silence, reveal new contact between inner circle and Russian, The Washington Post, Barrett, Devlin, Zapotosky, Matt, December 7, 2018, December 7, 2018, Court documents showed that the FBI believed Trump was directly involved in the payment to Daniels, based on calls he had with Cohen in October 2016.NEWS,weblink FBI documents point to Trump role in hush money for porn star Daniels, Allen, Jonathan, Stempel, Jonathan, Reuters, July 18, 2019, July 22, 2019, NEWS,weblink Records detail frenetic effort to bury stories about Trump, Mustian, Jim, Associated Press, July 19, 2019, July 22, 2019, The closure of the federal investigation into the matter was announced in July 2019,NEWS,weblink Feds end probe of hush money that Trump lawyer Michael Cohen directed to Stormy Daniels, Karen McDougal, Kevin, Breuninger, Dan, Mangan, CNBC, July 17, 2019, August 2, 2019, but days later the Manhattan District Attorney subpoenaed the Trump Organization and AMI for records related to the hush paymentsNEWS,weblink Manhattan D.A. Subpoenas Trump Organization Over Stormy Daniels Hush Money, Ben, Protess, William K., Rashbaum, The New York Times, August 1, 2019, August 2, 2019, and in August subpoenaed eight years of tax returns for Trump and the Trump Organization.NEWS, The New York Times, September 16, 2019, William K., Rashbaum, Ben, Protess, 8 Years of Trump Tax Returns Are Subpoenaed by Manhattan D.A.,weblink

Russian interference

{{See also|Links between Trump associates and Russian officials}}In January 2017, American intelligence agencies{{snd}} the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence{{snd}} jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump.NEWS,weblink Trump Misleads on Russian Meddling: Why 17 Intelligence Agencies Don't Need to Agree, Rosenberg, Matthew, Matthew Rosenberg, July 6, 2017, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Intelligence Report on Russian Hacking, January 6, 2017, The New York Times, January 8, 2017, ii, We assess Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election. Russia's goals were to undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Secretary Hillary Clinton, Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency. We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear preference for President-elect Trump. We have high confidence in these judgments., In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."NEWS,weblink It's Official: The FBI Is Investigating Trump's Links to Russia, Berman, Russell, March 20, 2017, The Atlantic, June 7, 2017, The connections between Trump associates and Russia have been widely reported by the press.NEWS,weblink Trump's relationship with Russia – what we know and what comes next, McCarthy, Tom, December 13, 2016, The Guardian, March 11, 2017, NEWS,weblink The web of relationships between Team Trump and Russia, Bump, Philip, March 3, 2017, The Washington Post, March 11, 2017, One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovych win the Ukrainian presidency.NEWS,weblink Paul Manafort's complicated ties to Ukraine, explained, Phillips, Amber, August 19, 2016, The Washington Post, June 14, 2017, Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Many, Many, Many, Many Ties to Russia, Nesbit, Jeff, August 15, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, February 28, 2017, NEWS,weblink Roger Stone, the 'Trickster' on Trump's Side, Is Under F.B.I. Scrutiny, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, March 21, 2017, The New York Times, Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump.NEWS,weblink NYT: Russians discussed using Manafort, Flynn to influence Trump, Williams, Katie Bo, May 24, 2017, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, May 28, 2017, Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Trump campaign had at least 18 undisclosed contacts with Russians: sources, Parker, Ned, Landay, Jonathan, Strobel, Warren, May 18, 2017, May 19, 2017, Reuters, On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Trump later fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions.NEWS,weblink Flynn resigns amid controversy over Russia contacts, Murray, Sara, Sara Murray (journalist), Borger, Gloria, Gloria Borger, Diamond, Jeremy, Jeremy Diamond (journalist), February 14, 2017, March 2, 2017, CNN, The Washington Post reported that Trump had told Sergei Lavrov and Sergey Kislyak in May 2017 he was unconcerned about Russian interference in U.S. elections.NEWS,weblink Trump told Russian officials in 2017 he wasn't concerned about Moscow's interference in U.S. election, The Washington Post, September 26, 2019, Shane, Harris, Shane Harris, Josh, Dawsey, Josh Dawsey, Ellen, Nakashima, Ellen Nakashima,

Special counsel investigation

On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) investigating "any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation", taking over the existing FBI investigation into the matter.NEWS,weblink Rod Rosenstein's Letter Appointing Mueller Special Counsel, Rosenstein, Rod, May 17, 2017, The New York Times, May 18, 2017, The special counsel also investigated whether Trump's dismissal of James Comey as FBI director constituted obstruction of justice, and possible campaign ties to other national governments.NEWS,weblink Trump Is Officially under Investigation. How Did We Get Here?, The Washington Post, Vitkovskaya, Julie, June 16, 2017, June 16, 2017, Trump is officially under investigation{{nbsp, ... Special counsel investigating Trump for possible obstruction of justice ... The president is being investigated ...}} Trump repeatedly denied any collusion between his campaign and the Russian government.NEWS, Bump, Philip, Analysis {{!, Trump and the White House have denied Russian collusion more than 140 times |url= |work=The Washington Post |date=January 11, 2018}} Mueller also investigated the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China.NEWS, Joshua, Keating, Joshua Keating, It's Not Just a "Russia" Investigation Anymore,weblink Slate (magazine), Slate, March 8, 2018, Trump sought to fire Mueller on several occasions{{snd}} in June 2017, December 2017, and April 2018{{snd}} and close the investigation, but backed down after his staff objected or after changing his mind.NEWS, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, Schmidt, Michael S., Michael S. Schmidt, Trump Sought to Fire Mueller in December,weblink The New York Times, April 10, 2018, He tried repeatedly to get Attorney General Jeff Sessions to withdraw his recusal regarding Russia matters, believing Sessions would then put an end to the special counsel investigation.NEWS,weblink Trump to Sessions: Shut down Russia probe, Keneally, Meghan, Mallin, Alexander, August 1, 2018, ABC News, August 1, 2018, On March 22, 2019, the special counsel concluded his investigation and gave his report to Attorney General William Barr.NEWS,weblink Mueller probe ends: Special counsel submits Russia report to Attorney General William Barr, Breuninger, Kevin, March 22, 2019, CNBC, March 22, 2019, On March 24, Barr sent a four-page letter to Congress summarizing what he said were the "principal conclusions" in the report. He said the report did not conclude the President had committed any crimes, although it did not exonerate him for obstruction of justice.NEWS,weblink Trump did not collude with Russia, says Mueller, and is cleared of obstruction by the attorney general, Jacob, Pramuk, Spencer, Kimball, March 24, 2019, CNBC, March 24, 2019, Barr wrote on March 24 that given his authority to decide whether Trump had committed a crime, he and Rosenstein felt there was insufficient evidence to establish obstruction by Trump. Trump interpreted Mueller's report a "complete exoneration", a phrase he repeated multiple times in the ensuing weeks.NEWS,weblink Mueller report a 'complete exoneration' – Donald Trump, March 24, 2019, BBC News, June 1, 2019, Mueller privately complained to Barr on March 27 that his summary did not accurately reflect what the report said and there was now "public confusion".NEWS,weblink Mueller complained that Barr's letter did not capture 'context' of Trump probe, Devlin, Barrett, Matt, Zapotosky, April 30, 2019, The Washington Post, May 30, 2019, Some legal analysts said Barr's description of the report's contents was misleading.NEWS,weblink The Surprises in the Mueller Report, April 19, 2019, Politico, A redacted version of the final Mueller Report was released to the public on April 18, 2019, with the first volume finding that Russia interfered to favor Trump's candidacy and hinder Clinton's.NEWS, Main points of Mueller report,weblink Agence France-Presse, April 20, 2019,weblink April 20, 2019, Despite "numerous links between the Russian government and the Trump campaign", the prevailing evidence "did not establish" that Trump campaign members conspired or coordinated with Russian interference.NEWS, Ostriker, Rebecca, Puzzanghera, Jim, Finucane, Martin, Datar, Saurabh, Uraizee, Irfan, Garvin, Patrick, What the Mueller report says about Trump and more,weblink The Boston Globe, April 22, 2019, NEWS, Law, Tara, Here Are the Biggest Takeaways From the Mueller Report, April 18, 2019,weblink Time (magazine), Time, April 22, 2019, The evidence was incomplete due to encrypted, deleted, or unsaved communications as well as false, incomplete, or declined testimony.NEWS,weblink Mueller says messaging apps likely destroyed Trump-Russia evidence, Gopal, Ratnam, April 19, 2019, Roll Call, The report stated that Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election was illegal and occurred "in sweeping and systematic fashion"WEB, U.S. Department of Justice, March 2019, Robert S. III, Mueller, Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election, The Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election in sweeping and systematic fashion.,weblink NEWS,weblink Redacted Mueller Report Released; Congress, Trump React, Inskeep, Steve, Steve Inskeep, Detrow, Scott, April 18, 2019, NPR, April 22, 2019, Johnson, Carrie, Carrie Johnson (journalist), Davis, Susan, Greene, David, David Greene (journalist), WEB,weblink The Mueller Report, April 18, 2019, YaleGlobal Online, MacMillan Center, May 8, 2019, and was knowingly "welcomed" by the Trump campaign under the belief that they would politically benefit from the foreign interference.NEWS,weblink What The Mueller Report Actually Said, Frum, David, David Frum, May 29, 2019, The Atlantic, May 31, 2019, NEWS,weblink Mueller report: Russians charged with disrupting 2016 election sought help, retweets from team Trump, Timm, Jane, April 18, 2019, NBC News, May 30, 2019, NEWS,weblink Trump campaign won't commit to staying away from hacked material, Alba, Monica, April 24, 2019, NBC News, May 31, 2019, The second volume of the Mueller Report dealt with possible obstruction of justice by Trump.NEWS, Barrett, Devlin, Zapotosky, Matt, Mueller report lays out obstruction evidence against the president,weblink The Washington Post, April 17, 2019, April 20, 2019, The report did not exonerate him of obstruction, saying investigators were not confident of his innocence after examining his intent and actions.NEWS,weblink What the Mueller Report Says About Obstruction, Farley, Robert, Robertson, Lori, Gore, D'Angelo, Spencer, Saranac Hale, Fichera, Angelo, McDonald, Jessica, April 19, 2019,, April 22, 2019, Investigators decided they could not "apply an approach that could potentially result in a judgment that the President committed crimes", as they could not indict a sitting president per an Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) opinion, and would not accuse him of a crime when he cannot clear his name in court.NEWS,weblink Mueller: If it were clear president committed no crime, "we would have said so", Segers, Grace, May 29, 2019, CBS News, June 2, 2019, The report concluded that Congress, having the authority to take action against a president for wrongdoing, "may apply the obstruction laws".NEWS, Mascaro, Lisa, Mueller drops obstruction dilemma on Congress,weblink Associated Press, April 18, 2019, April 20, 2019,


{{see also|Criminal charges brought in the Special Counsel investigation (2017–2019)}}On August 21, 2018, former Trump campaign chairman Paul Manafort was convicted on eight felony counts of false tax filing and bank fraud.NEWS,weblink Manafort convicted on eight counts; mistrial declared on ten others, Zapotosky, Matt, Bui, Lynh, Jackman, Tom, Barrett, Devlin, August 21, 2018, The Washington Post, August 21, 2018, Trump said he felt very badly for Manafort and praised him for resisting the pressure to make a deal with prosecutors, saying "Such respect for a brave man!" According to Giuliani, Trump had sought advice about pardoning Manafort but was counseled against it.NEWS, Leonnig, Carol D., Carol D. Leonnig, Dawsey, Josh, Josh Dawsey, August 23, 2018, Trump sought his lawyers' advice weeks ago on possibility of pardoning Manafort, Giuliani says,weblink The Washington Post, August 23, 2018, In September Manafort faced a second trial on multiple charges, but reached a plea bargain under which he pleaded guilty to conspiracy and witness tampering and agreed to cooperate fully with investigators.NEWS,weblink Paul Manafort pleads guilty and agrees to cooperate with Mueller investigation, Polantz, Katelyn, September 14, 2018, CNN, September 16, 2018, In November, Mueller's office said in a court filing that Manafort had repeatedly lied to investigators, thus violating the terms of the plea agreement.NEWS,weblink Manafort Breached Plea Deal by Repeatedly Lying, Mueller Says, LaFraniere, Sharon, Sharon LaFraniere, November 26, 2018, November 27, 2018, The New York Times, It was also revealed that Manafort, through his attorney, had been briefing White House attorneys about his interactions with the special counsel's office.NEWS,weblink Manafort's Lawyers Brief Trump's Team On Mueller Talks, Giuliani Tells AP, November 28, 2018, NPR, December 12, 2018, Trump publicly hinted that he might pardon Manafort,NEWS,weblink Trump hints at a pardon for Paul Manafort, Deng, Boer, November 29, 2018, The Times, December 12, 2018, but the incoming chair of the House Judiciary Committee warned that "dangling a pardon in front of Manafort" could lead to charges of obstruction of justice.NEWS,weblink Nadler warns Trump 'dangling a pardon' for Manafort is 'close to obstruction of justice', Sullivan, Kate, November 27, 2018, CNN, December 12, 2018, On November 29, Trump's former attorney Michael Cohen pleaded guilty to lying to Congress about Trump's 2016 attempts to reach a deal with Russia to build a Trump Tower in Moscow. Cohen said he had made the false statements on behalf of Trump, who was identified as "Individual-1" in the court documents.NEWS,weblink Michael Cohen, Trump's former lawyer, pleads guilty to lying to Congress about Moscow project, November 29, 2018, The Washington Post, Devlin, Barrett, Matt, Zapotosky, Rosalind S., Helderman, Rosalind Helderman, December 12, 2018, The five Trump associates who have pleaded guilty or have been convicted in Mueller's investigation or related cases include Paul Manafort, Rick Gates, George Papadopoulos, Michael Flynn, and Michael Cohen.
  • For a list of persons who have been charged, see NEWS,weblink Who's been charged in Mueller-linked probes, and why, The Washington Post, Julie, Vitkovskaya, Samuel, Granados, Kevin, Uhrmacher, Aaron, Williams, December 12, 2018, December 20, 2018, Four former Trump campaign officials have pleaded guilty in Mueller's investigation, though none were charged with colluding with Russians to affect the 2016 election.,
  • For charges against Michael Flynn, Rick Gates, and George Papadopoulos, see NEWS, Mangan, Dan, Trump and Giuliani are right that 'collusion is not a crime.' But that doesn't matter for Mueller's probe,weblink CNBC, July 30, 2018,
  • For charges against Michael Flynn, Rick Gates, Paul Manafort, and Michael Cohen, see NEWS, Mueller investigation: No jail time sought for Trump ex-adviser Michael Flynn,weblink BBC Online, December 5, 2018,

On January 25, 2019, Trump adviser Roger Stone was arrested at his home in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and indicted on seven criminal charges.NEWS,weblink Indicting Roger Stone, Mueller Shows Link Between Trump Campaign and WikiLeaks, The New York Times, January 25, 2019, January 25, 2019, Mark, Mazzetti, Mark Mazzetti, Eileen, Sullivan, Eileen Sullivan, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman,

2019 congressional investigation

In March 2019 the House Judiciary Committee launched a broad investigation of Trump for possible obstruction of justice, corruption, and abuse of power.NEWS,weblink House Judiciary Committee launches probe into possible obstruction by Trump, March 3, 2019, March 3, 2019, Yahoo! News, Committee chairman Jerrold Nadler sent letters demanding documents to 81 individuals and organizations associated with Trump's presidency, business, and private life, saying it's "very clear that the president obstructed justice".NEWS,weblink US: House panel to widen Trump probe, request documents, March 3, 2019, March 3, 2019, Al Jazeera, NEWS,weblink With Sweeping Document Request, Democrats Launch Broad Trump Corruption Inquiry, Fandos, Nicholas, March 4, 2019, The New York Times, March 6, 2019, Nicholas Fandos, Three other committee chairmen wrote the White House and State Department requesting details of Trump's communications with Putin, including any efforts to conceal the content of those communications. The White House refused to comply with that request, asserting that presidential communications with foreign leaders are protected and confidential.NEWS,weblink White House rejects Dem requests for info on Putin communications, Herb, Jeremy, March 21, 2019, March 21, 2019, CNN, Brown, Pamela, Pamela Brown (journalist), According to Senator Mark Warner, vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, there is "enormous" evidence of the Trump campaign's involvement with Russia. Representative Adam Schiff, chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, said there is "direct evidence" of collusion between the Trump campaign and Russia.NEWS,weblink Mark Warner says there's 'enormous' evidence of Russia-Trump collusion, Darrah, Nicole, March 3, 2019, Fox News, March 4, 2019, NEWS,weblink Warner: 'Enormous amounts of evidence' of possible Russia collusion, Tamborrino, Kelsey, March 3, 2019, Politico, March 4, 2019,

Impeachment inquiry

During much of Trump's presidency, Democrats were divided on the question of impeachment.NEWS, 'Reluctant impeachment': Will Pelosi ever be swayed to go there?, Lindsey, McPherson,weblink Roll Call, May 24, 2019, Fewer than 20 representatives in the House supported impeachment by January 2019, but this number grew after the Mueller Report was released in April and after special counsel Robert Mueller testified in July, up to around 140 representatives before the Trump–Ukraine controversy began.NEWS, Bump, Philip, The most important number in the impeachment fight keeps getting smaller,weblink October 1, 2019, The Washington Post, September 25, 2019, In September 2019, a revelation emerged that Trump had asked the Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky to investigate Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter.NEWS, Kramer, Andrew E., Ukraine to Review Criminal Case on Owner of Firm Linked to Biden's Son,weblink 4 October 2019, The New York Times, 4 October 2019, In response, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi initiated a formal impeachment inquiry.NEWS, The New York Times, September 24, 2019, Nicholas, Fandos, Nicholas Fandos, Nancy Pelosi Announces Formal Impeachment Inquiry of Trump,weblink NEWS, Rucker, Philip, Philip Rucker, Bade, Rachael, Costa, Robert, Robert Costa (journalist), Trump deflects and defies as Democrats speed up impeachment strategy,weblink 26 September 2019, The Washington Post, 25 September 2019, According to the testimony of multiple White House officials, the events were a part of a broader pressure campaign to further Trump's "personal interests" by abusing the power of the presidency.NEWS,weblink Newsgraphics: Read The Whistleblower Complaint, September 24, 2019, New York Times, October 2, 2019, The Trump administration released a non-verbatim transcript of the July phone call between Trump and Zelensky, confirming that after Zelensky discussed the possibility of buying American anti-tank missiles to defend Ukraine, Trump instead asked for a favor, suggesting an investigation of the company Crowdstrike, in an apparent continuation of Trump's efforts to undermine the finding that Russia had hacked the Democratic National Committee server in the 2016 elections.NEWS, Bump, Philip, Trump wanted Russia's main geopolitical adversary to help undermine the Russian interference story,weblink October 1, 2019, The Washington Post, September 25, 2019, Trump then asked Zelensky to look into investigating the Bidens, and to discuss these matters with Trump's personal attorney Rudy Giuliani and Attorney General William Barr.NEWS, Santucci, John, Mallin, Alexander, Thomas, Pierre, Faulders, Katherine, Trump urged Ukraine to work with Barr and Giuliani to probe Biden: Call transcript,weblink October 1, 2019, ABC News, September 25, 2019, The impeachment inquiry came in the wake of a whistleblower complaint focused on abuse surrounding the Trump–Zelensky call, as well as other allegations: that the White House attempted to "lock down" the call records in a cover-up, and that the call was part of a wider pressure campaign by Giuliani and the Trump administration to urge Ukraine to investigate the Bidens. The whistleblower further alleged that the pressure campaign may have included Trump's canceling Vice President Mike Pence's May 2019 Ukraine trip, and Trump's withholding financial aid from Ukraine in July 2019.NEWS,weblink 6 takeaways from the whistleblower complaint, including Rudy Giuliani's central role, Associated Press, September 27, 2019, October 1, 2019, Michael, Balsamo, Colleen, Long, NEWS,weblink Whistleblower says White House tried to cover up Trump's abuse of power, CNN, September 26, 2019, September 26, 2019, Marshall, Cohen, Katelyn, Polantz, David, Shortell, NEWS, Olorunnipa, Toluse, Parker, Ashley, Ashley Parker, Pence seeks to dodge impeachment spotlight as his Ukrainian moves attract notice,weblink October 1, 2019, The Washington Post, September 27, 2019, Trump confirmed he had indeed temporarily withheld military aid from Ukraine, while offering contradicting reasons for his decision.NEWS, Forgey, Quint, Trump changes story on withholding Ukraine aid,weblink October 1, 2019, Politico, September 24, 2019, NEWS, John, Wagner, Felicia, Sonmez, Colby, Itkowitz, Live updates: Top Democrat warns White House 'we're not fooling around' on impeachment inquiry,weblink 2 October 2019, The Washington Post, Within days, Ukraine envoy Kurt Volker resigned and three House committees issued a subpoena to Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to schedule depositions for Volker and four other State Department employees, and to compel the release of documents.NEWS,weblink Ukraine envoy resigns amid scandal consuming Trump's presidency, Politico, September 27, 2019, September 28, 2019, Nahal, Toosi, NEWS,weblink Democrats subpoena Pompeo for Ukraine documents, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, September 27, 2019, September 28, 2019, Rachel, Frazin, Scott, Wong, Mike, Lillis, NEWS,weblink Democrats decide on rapid timetable for Trump impeachment inquiry, Lowell, Hugo, Hugo Lowell, 2019-09-29, The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph, 2019-09-30, A subpoena was also issued to Giuliani for production of documents.NEWS,weblink House Democrats subpoena Trump lawyer Rudy Giuliani in impeachment probe, CNBC, September 30, 2019, September 30, 2019, Jacob, Pramuk, During a discussion on October 3, 2019, about a potential end to the United States–China trade war, Trump, unprompted, urged the government of China to begin a criminal investigation into Joe Biden and Hunter Biden's business activities in China,NEWS, Explainer: Trump's claims and Hunter Biden's dealings in China,weblink Reuters, October 4, 2019, after adding that the United States has "tremendous power" so they should "do what we want".NEWS,weblink Trump Administration Used Potential Meeting to Pressure Ukraine on Biden, Texts Indicate, Rebecca, Ballhaus, Siobhan, Hughes, Dustin, Volz, The Wall Street Journal, 2019-10-03,





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  • BOOK, Trump Revealed: The Definitive Biography of the 45th President, Kranish, Michael, Michael Kranish, Fisher, Marc, Marc Fisher, Simon & Schuster, 2017, First published 2016, 978-1-5011-5652-6, harv, Trump Revealed,
  • BOOK, Trumped!, O'Donnell, John R., Rutherford, James, Crossroad Press Trade Edition, 1991, First published 1991, 978-1946025-26-5, harv, Trumped! (book),
  • BOOK,weblink Trump: The Art of the Deal, Donald J., Trump, Tony, Schwartz, Tony Schwartz (author), Random House, 2009, First published 1987, 978-0-446-35325-0, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Donald Trump: From Real Estate to Reality TV, Wooten, Sara, Enslow Publishers, 2009, 978-0-7660-2890-6, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK,weblink Taming the Beast: Wall Street's Imperfect Answers to Making Money, Light, Larry, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, 978-1-118-08420-5,

External links

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