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Donald Trump
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{{Other uses}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|45th President of the United States}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{Use American English|date=March 2016}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2018}}







factoids
|birth_place = New York City Republican Party (United States)>Republican (1987–1999, 2009–2011, 2012–present) Fred TrumpMary Anne MacLeod Trump>Mary Anne MacLeod}}Family of Donald Trump>Trump familyList of honors and awards received by Donald Trump>List of honors and awards }}Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania>The Wharton School (Bachelor of Science in Economics>Econ.) US$3.1 billion (March 2018){{refn>group=nb|name=Wealth}}|signature = Donald Trump Signature.svg|signature_alt = Donald J Trump stylized autograph, in ink
  • {{URL|whitehouse.gov/administration/president-trump|White House website}}
  • {{URL|twitter.com/POTUS|Presidential Twitter}}
  • {{URLweblink|Personal Twitter}}}}
}}{{Donald Trump series}}Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens, and received an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He took charge of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it to The Trump Organization, and expanded it into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels, casinos, and golf courses. Trump later started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products. He managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including (Trump: The Art of the Deal|The Art of the Deal). He owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, and he produced and hosted the reality television show The Apprentice from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion.Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries. Commentators described his political positions as populist, protectionist, and nationalist. His campaign received extensive free media coverage; many of his public statements were controversial or false. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. He became the oldest and wealthiest person ever to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, and the fifth to have won the election while losing the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests.During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns; after several legal challenges, the Supreme Court upheld the policy's third revision. He signed tax cut legislation which also rescinded the individual insurance mandate provision of the Affordable Care Act and opened the Arctic Refuge for oil drilling. He enacted a partial repeal of the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U.S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, and imposed import tariffs on various goods from China, Canada, Mexico and the European Union, triggering a trade war with China. After Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, the Justice Department appointed Robert Mueller as Special Counsel to investigate "any links and/or coordination" between the Trump campaign and the Russian government in its election interference. Trump has repeatedly denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt" and saying that it should be terminated.{{TOC limit|3}}

Family and personal life

Ancestry and parents

{{Further|Trump family}}Trump's ancestors originated from the German village of Kallstadt in the Palatinate on his father's side, and from the Outer Hebrides in Scotland on his mother's side. All of his grandparents and his mother were born in Europe.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=19}}Trump's paternal grandfather, Frederick Trump, first immigrated to the United States in 1885 at the age of 16 and became a citizen in 1892. He amassed a fortune operating boom-town restaurants and boarding houses in the Seattle area and the Klondike region of Canada during its gold rush.NEWS, Alexander, Panetta, Donald Trump's grandfather ran Canadian brothel during gold rush,weblink CBC News, December 10, 2015, September 19, 2015, On a visit to Kallstadt, he met Elisabeth Christ and married her in 1902. The couple permanently settled in New York in 1905.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=23–25}} Frederick died from influenza during the 1918 pandemic.{{sfn|Blair|2015a|p=5}}Trump's father Fred was born in 1905 in The Bronx. Fred started working with his mother in real estate when he was 15, shortly after his father's death. Their company, "E. Trump & Son", founded in 1923,BOOK,weblink The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire, 978-0-7432-1079-9, Blair, Gwenda, December 4, 2001, 120, {{refn|group=nb|Some modern sources, including Donald Trump's The Art of the Deal, refer to the company as "Elizabeth Trump & Son."BOOK,weblink 67, Donald, Trump, Tony, Schwartz, The Art of the Deal, 1987, Random House, 978-0-345-47917-4, BOOK,weblink Pop Culture Places: An Encyclopedia of Places in American Popular Culture, 874, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-39883-4, Knight, Gladys L., August 11, 2014, Contemporary sources, however, refer to it as "E. Trump & Son."NEWS, Advertisement for E. Trump & Son, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, November 6, 1927, D3,weblink Newspapers.com, NEWS, Real estate news, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, May 5, 1930, 8,weblink Newspapers.com, }} was primarily active in the New York boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn. Fred eventually built and sold thousands of houses, barracks, and apartments.{{sfn|Blair|2015a|p=5}}NEWS, Blair, Gwenda, August 24, 2015, The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is,weblink Politico, July 24, 2016, The company was later renamed The Trump Organization, after Donald Trump took charge in 1971.{{sfn|Blair|2005|p=23}}In spite of his German ancestry, "Fred Trump sought to pass himself off as Swedish amid anti-German sentiment sparked by World War II";NEWS, Trump's family denied German heritage for years, Jennifer, Hansler, November 28, 2017, CNN,weblink Donald reaffirmed this myth in The Art of the Deal.NEWS, Donald Trump claimed he was of Swedish ancestry – but it's a lie, Vilhelm, Carlström, November 28, 2017, Business Insider,weblink NEWS, For Donald Trump’s Family, an Immigrant’s Tale With 2 Beginnings, Jason, Horowitz, August 21, 2016, New York Times,weblink Trump's mother Mary Anne MacLeod was born in Tong, Lewis, Scotland. At age 18 in 1930, she immigrated to New York, where she worked as a maid.NEWS, Donald Trump's Immigrant Mother, Mary, Pilon, June 24, 2016, The New Yorker,weblink April 2, 2017, Fred and Mary were married in 1936 and raised their family in Queens.NEWS, The Ancestral German Home of the Trumps, Sally, McGrane, April 29, 2016, The New Yorker,weblink April 2, 2017,

Early life and education

File:Donald Trump NYMA.jpg|upright|thumb|alt=A black-and-white photograph of Donald Trump as a teenager, smiling and wearing a dark pseudo-military uniform with various badges and a light-colored stripe crossing his right shoulder.|Senior yearbook photo of Trump in 1964 wearing the uniform of his private boarding school, (New York Military Academy]]{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=45}}BOOK,weblink The 75th Anniversary Shrapnel, NYMA, Spring 1964, January 21, 2017, 107,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170122215658weblink">weblink January 22, 2017, yes, )Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital Medical Center, Queens, New York City, the fourth of five children.New York City Department of Health (June 14, 1946). "Donald Trump Birth Certificate". ABC News. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160512232306weblink">Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2016.Jamaica Hospital (June 14, 1946). "Certificate of Birth: Donald John Trump" (PDF). Fox News Channel. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110409070650weblink">Archived from the original on April 9, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2016. Trump grew up in Jamaica, Queens, and attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=31, 37}}NEWS,weblink Confident. Incorrigible. Bully: Little Donny was a lot like candidate Donald Trump, Paul, Schwartzman, Michael E., Miller, June 22, 2016, The Washington Post, April 2, 2017, limited, In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=45}}NEWS, Matt, Viser, Even in college, Donald Trump was brash, Boston Globe,weblink August 28, 2015, May 28, 2018, After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.{{sfn|Blair|2005|p=16}} While at Wharton, he worked at the family business, Elizabeth Trump & Son.NEWS,weblink The real reason Donald Trump is so rich, The Washington Post, September 3, 2015, January 17, 2016, Max, Ehrenfreund, limited, He graduated in May 1968 with a Bachelor of Science degree in economics.WEB, The Best Known Brand Name in Real Estate, Spring 2007, The Wharton School,weblink April 2, 2017, WEB,weblink Two Hundred and Twelfth Commencement for the Conferring of Degrees, University of Pennsylvania, May 20, 1968,weblink July 19, 2016, y, Trump did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump avoided Vietnam with deferments, records show, April 29, 2011, CBS News, Brian, Montopoli, July 17, 2015, While in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student deferments.NEWS,weblink How deferments protected Donald Trump from serving in Vietnam, Lee, Kurtis, August 4, 2016, Los Angeles Times, 0458-3035, August 4, 2016, In 1966, he was deemed fit for service based upon a military medical examination and in July 1968, after graduating from college, was briefly classified as eligible to serve by a local draft board. In October 1968, he was classified as 1-Y, "unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency," and given a medical deferment which he later attributed to heel spurs; in 1972, the medical deferment was changed to 4-F, "not qualified for service."NEWS,weblink Questions linger about Trump's draft deferments during Vietnam War, Whitlock, Craig, July 21, 2015, The Washington Post, April 2, 2017, limited, WEB, Emery, David,weblink Donald Trump's Draft Deferments, The New York Times, February 26, 2018, May 19, 2018, limited, In the draft lottery in December 1969, Trump's birthday, June 15, received a high number which would have given him a low probability to be called to military service even without the 1-Y medical deferment.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Draft Deferments: Four for College, One for Bad Feet, Eder, Steve, Philipps, Dave, August 1, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, August 2, 2016, limited, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Own Secret: Vietnam Draft Records, Goldman, Russell, April 29, 2011, ABC News, August 1, 2016,

Family

File:Trump Family Hand Up.jpg|left|thumb|Trump is sworn in as president on January 20, 2017. From left to right in foreground: Trump, his wife Melania, and his children Donald Jr., Barron, Ivanka, Eric, and Tiffany.]]Trump grew up with three elder siblings—Maryanne, Fred Jr., and Elizabeth—as well as a younger brother named Robert. Maryanne is an inactive Federal Appeals Court judge on the Third Circuit.NEWS,weblink 3rd Circ. Judge, Trump's Sister, Stops Hearing Cases, Cara, Mannion, February 3, 2017, Law360, April 2, 2017, Trump has five children by three marriages, as well as nine grandchildren.NEWS, Puente, Maria, Eric and Lara Trump announce birth of son, POTUS' ninth grandchild,weblink September 12, 2017, USA Today, September 12, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump's daughter, Ivanka, gives birth to third child, Fox News Channel, Associated Press, March 27, 2016, March 28, 2016, His first two marriages ended in widely publicized divorces.NEWS,weblink Melania Trump, the Silent Partner, October 1, 2015, The New York Times, In 1977, Trump married Czech model Ivana Zelníčková at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, in a ceremony performed by the Reverend Norman Vincent Peale.NEWS,weblink After The Gold Rush, Vanity Fair (magazine), Vanity Fair, Marie, Brenner, September 1990, January 10, 2016, "They were married in New York during Easter of 1977. Mayor Beame attended the wedding at Marble Collegiate Church. Donald had already made his alliance with Roy Cohn, who would become his lawyer and mentor.NEWS,weblink Overlooked Influences on Donald Trump: A Famous Minister and His Church, The New York Times, James, Barron, September 5, 2016, October 13, 2016, Mr. Trump married his first wife, Ivana, at Marble, in a ceremony performed by one of America's most famous ministers, the Rev. Norman Vincent Peale., They had three children: Donald Jr. (born 1977), Ivanka (born 1981), and Eric (born 1984). Ivana became a naturalized United States citizen in 1988.NEWS, Associated Press,weblink Ivana Trump becomes U.S. citizen, May 27, 1988, August 21, 2015, The couple divorced in 1992, following Trump's affair with actress Marla Maples.NEWS,weblink Ivana Trump to write memoir about raising US president's children, The Guardian, Associated Press, March 16, 2017, May 6, 2017, In October 1993, Maples gave birth to Trump's daughter, who was named Tiffany in honor of high-end retailer Tiffany & Company.NEWS, Graham, Ruth, July 20, 2016, Tiffany Trump's Sad, Vague Tribute to Her Distant Father,weblink Slate (magazine), Slate, July 24, 2016, Maples and Trump were married two months later in December 1993.NEWS,weblink The Donald Bids Hearts For Marla Trump Wedding Draws 1,100 Friends, But Not Many Stars, Daily News (New York), Daily News, New York, December 21, 1993, August 21, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151222115146weblink">weblink December 22, 2015, yes, They divorced in 1999,NEWS,weblink Marla Maples Still Loves Donald Trump, People (magazine), People, Sheila, Cosgrove Baylis, August 7, 2013, May 6, 2017, and Tiffany was raised by Marla in California.NEWS,weblink The Other Trump, The New York Times, Alessandra, Stanley, October 1, 2016, May 6, 2017, File:Donald Trump and Melania Trump at Liberty Ball Inauguration 2017.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Trump and his wife Melania at the Liberty Ball on Inauguration Day ]]In 2005, Trump married his third wife, Slovenian model Melania Knauss, at Bethesda-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Palm Beach, Florida.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump, Settling Down, The Washington Post, Tina, Brown, January 27, 2005, May 7, 2017, In 2006, Melania became a United States citizenNEWS,weblink Melania Trump would be a first lady for the ages, Marissa, Charles, The New York Post, August 16, 2015, May 4, 2017, and gave birth to a son, Barron.BOOK, Choron, Harry, Choron, Sandy, Money, 2011, Chronicle Books, 978-1-4521-0559-8, 251,weblink NEWS, Donald Trump Fast Facts,weblink March 10, 2015, CNN, March 7, 2014, Melania became First Lady when Trump became president in January 2017.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the Establishment, The New York Times, Flegenheimer, Matt, Barbaro, Michael, November 9, 2016, September 1, 2017, Upon his inauguration as president, Trump delegated the management of his real estate business to his two adult sons, Eric and Don Jr.NEWS,weblink Trump Sons Forge Ahead Without Father, Expanding and Navigating Conflicts, Eric, Lipton, Susanne, Craig, February 12, 2017, The New York Times, May 7, 2017, His daughter Ivanka resigned from The Trump Organization and moved to Washington, D.C. with her husband Jared Kushner. She serves as an assistant to the president,NEWS,weblink V.v.B, Ivanka Trump's new job, March 31, 2017, April 3, 2017, The Economist, and he is a Senior Advisor in the White House.NEWS, Michael S., Schmidt, Eric, Lipton, Charlie, Savage,weblink Jared Kushner, Trump's Son-in-Law, Is Cleared to Serve as Adviser, The New York Times, January 21, 2017, May 7, 2017,

Religion

Trump is Presbyterian.NEWS, Glueck, Katie,weblink Trump's religious dealmaking pays dividends, Politico, December 7, 2016, April 3, 2017, Trump is a Presbyterian, and speculation is already underway over whether, and where, he might go to church regularly in Washington., WEB,weblink Trump Unplugged, Mattera, Jason, March 14, 2011, Human Events, I am a Protestant. I am a Presbyterian within the Protestant group and I go to Church as much as I can., March 16, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110316171032weblink">weblink March 16, 2011, yes, His ancestors were Lutheran on his paternal grandfather's side in Germany{{sfn|Blair|2015b|p=28–29}} and Presbyterian on his mother's side in Scotland.NEWS, Peter, Geoghegan,weblink Few rooting for Donald Trump on his mother's Scottish island, The Irish Times, May 28, 2016, April 3, 2017, His parents married in a Manhattan Presbyterian church in 1936.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=29}} As a child, he attended the First Presbyterian Church in Jamaica, Queens, where he had his confirmation. In the 1970s, his family joined the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan.NEWS, Schwartzman, Paul, How Trump got religion – and why his legendary minister's son now rejects him,weblink March 18, 2017, The Washington Post, January 21, 2016, The pastor, Norman Vincent Peale, ministered to Trump's family and mentored him until Peale's death in 1993.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=81}} Trump has cited Peale and his works during interviews when asked about the role of religion in his personal life.Trump says he receives Holy Communion as often as possible, believes it to be a form of asking for forgiveness and that he feels 'cleansed'.NEWS,weblink Trump believes in God, but hasn't sought forgiveness, Eugene, Scott, July 19, 2015, CNN, April 3, 2017, While campaigning, Trump referred to The Art of the Deal as his second favorite book after the Bible, saying, "Nothing beats the Bible."NEWS, The Washington Post,weblink In Michigan, Trump attacks China, critiques auto bailout, and judges Bernie Sanders 'weak', August 11, 2015, August 22, 2015, David, Weigel, The New York Times reported that evangelical Christians nationwide thought "that his heart was in the right place, that his intentions for the country were pure".NEWS,weblink Evangelicals See Donald Trump as Man of Conviction, if Not Faith, The New York Times, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, Thomas, Kaplan, January 18, 2016, April 3, 2017, Trump has associations with a number of Christian spiritual leaders, including Florida pastor Paula White, who has been called his "closest spiritual confidant".NEWS,weblink The guilt-free gospel of Donald Trump, Daniel, Burke, CNN, October 24, 2016, January 17, 2017, In 2015, he released a list of religious advisers, including James Dobson, Jerry Falwell Jr., Ralph Reed, Michele Bachmann, Robert Jeffress, and others.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Trump campaign announces evangelical executive advisory board, June 21, 2016, January 17, 2017, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., yes,weblink January 18, 2017, NEWS,weblink Who's Who of Trump's 'Tremendous' Faith Advisers, ChristianityToday.com, May 10, 2018, en,

Health

Trump does not drink alcohol; this decision arose in part from watching his older brother Fred Jr. suffer from alcoholism that contributed to his early death in 1981.NEWS,weblink For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering, The New York Times, Horowitz, Jason, January 2, 2016, July 24, 2016, MAGAZINE, McAfee, Tierney,weblink Donald Trump Opens Up About His Brother's Death from Alcoholism: It Had a "Profound Impact on My Life", People (magazine), People, October 8, 2015, [T]here are a few hard and fast principles that he himself lives by: no drugs, no cigarettes and no alcohol. Trump's abstinence from alcohol was largely shaped by the death of his brother, Fred Jr., from alcoholism in 1981., He also said that he has never smoked cigarettes or consumed drugs, including marijuana.NEWS, Part 2: Donald Trump on 'Watters' World',weblink September 4, 2016, Watters' World, Fox News Channel, February 6, 2016, WATTERS: "Have you ever smoked weed?" TRUMP: "No, I have not. I have not. I would tell you 100 percent because everyone else seems to admit it nowadays, so I would actually tell you. This is almost like, it's almost like 'Hey, it's a sign'. No, I have never. I have never smoked a cigarette, either.", In December 2015, Trump's personal physician, Harold Bornstein, released a superlative-laden letter of health praising Trump for "extraordinary physical strength and stamina".WEB,weblink Statement on Donald J. Trump record of health, Harold, Bornstein, December 4, 2015,weblink February 4, 2016, June 3, 2018, Bornstein later said that Trump himself had dictated the contents.NEWS, Alex, Marquardt, Lawrence, Crook III, Bornstein claims Trump dictated the glowing health letter,weblink CNN, May 1, 2018, May 20, 2018, A followup medical report showed Trump's blood pressure, liver and thyroid functions to be in normal ranges, and that he takes a statin.NEWS, Sam, Frizell,weblink Donald Trump's Doctor's Letter Reveals He is Overweight, But 'In Excellent Health', Time (magazine), Time, September 15, 2016, April 3, 2017, NEWS,weblink A Doctor's Assessment of Whether Donald Trump's Health Is 'Excellent', The New York Times, Lawrence K., Altman, September 18, 2016, October 20, 2017, In January 2018, Trump was examined by White House physician Ronny Jackson, who stated that he was in excellent health, although his weight and cholesterol level were higher than recommended,NEWS,weblink Jamie, Ducharme, The White House Doctor Called President Trump's Health 'Excellent.' Here's the Full Summary of His Physical Exam, Time (magazine), Time, January 17, 2018, January 18, 2018, and that his cardiac assessment revealed no medical issues.NEWS, Trump's first full presidential physical exam, explained,weblink Vox (website), Vox, Eliza, Barclay, Julia, Belluz, January 16, 2018, January 18, 2017, Several outside cardiologists commented that Trump's weight, lifestyle and LDL cholesterol ought to have raised serious concerns about his cardiac health.NEWS, Michael D., Shear, Gina, Kolata, Trump's Physical Revealed Serious Heart Concerns, Outside Experts Say,weblink The New York Times, January 17, 2018, June 3, 2018,

Wealth

File:Las-Vegas-Trump-Hotel-8480.jpg|thumb|upright|right|alt=A tall rectangular-shaped tower in Las Vegas with exterior windows reflecting a golden hue. It is a sunny day and the building is higher than many of the surrounding buildings, also towers. There are mountains in the background.|Trump International Hotel Las Vegas, with gold-infused glassNEWS, Michael J., Mishak, Trump's tower a sore spot on the Strip, April 30, 2011, November 11, 2016, Los Angeles TimesLos Angeles TimesTrump is the beneficiary of several trust funds set up by his father and paternal grandmother beginning in 1949.NEWS, Glenn, Kessler, Trump's false claim he built his empire with a 'small loan' from his father, March 3, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink In 1976, Fred Trump set up trust funds of $1 million for each of his five children and three grandchildren; Donald Trump received annual payments from his trust fund, for example, $90,000 in 1980 and $214,605 in 1981. By 1993, when Trump took two loans totaling $30 million from his siblings, their anticipated shares of Fred's fortune was $35 million each.NEWS,weblink What's He Really Worth?, Timothy L., O'Brien, February 25, 2016, October 23, 2005, The New York Times, Upon Fred Trump's death in 1999, his will divided $20 million after taxes among his surviving children.NEWS,weblink Fred C. Trump, Postwar Master Builder of Housing for Middle Class, Dies at 93, Tracy, Rozhon, June 26, 1999, August 19, 2015, The New York Times, NEWS, Horowitz, Jason,weblink For Donald Trump, Lessons From a Brother's Suffering, The New York Times, January 2, 2016, Then came the unveiling of Fred Sr.'s will, which Donald had helped draft. It divided the bulk of the inheritance, at least $20 million, among his children and their descendants, 'other than my son Fred C. Trump Jr.', Trump said that he began his career with "a small loan of one million dollars" from his father.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump: My dad gave me 'a small loan' of $1 million to get started, CNBC, Scott, Stump, October 26, 2015, November 13, 2016, He appeared on the initial Forbes 400 list of richest Americans in 1982 with an estimated $200 million fortune shared with his father.NEWS, Jennifer, Wang, The Ups And Downs Of Donald Trump: Three Decades On And Off The Forbes 400,weblink Forbes, March 24, 2016, June 9, 2018, Former Forbes reporter Jonathan Greenberg stated in 2018 that during the 1980s Trump had deceived him about his actual net worth and his share of the family assets in order to appear on the list.NEWS, Greenberg, Jonathan, Trump lied to me about his wealth to get onto the Forbes 400. Here are the tapes.,weblink The Washington Post, April 20, 2018, April 20, 2018, NEWS,weblink A new allegation says Trump lied about his wealth. Here's what we do know, CNN, Byron, Wolf, April 20, 2018, April 20, 2018, Trump made the Forbes World's Billionaires list for the first time in 1989,NEWS, A History of Donald Trump's Net Worth Publicity (1988–2011),weblink Elspeth, Reeve, The Atlantic, April 21, 2011, June 7, 2018, but he was dropped from the Forbes 400 from 1990 to 1995 following business losses. In 2005, Deutsche Bank loan documents pegged Trump's net worth at $788 million, while Forbes quoted $2.6 billion and journalist Tim O'Brien gave a range of $150 million to $250 million. In its 2018 billionaires ranking, Forbes estimated Trump's net worth at $3.1 billion{{refn|group=nb|name=Wealth|This estimate is by Forbes in their annual ranking. Bloomberg Billionaires Index listed Trump's net worth as $2.48 billion on May 31, 2018,WEB, Bloomberg Billionaires Index – Donald Trump,weblink Bloomberg.com, July 16, 2018, May 31, 2018, and Wealth-X listed it as at least $3.8 billion on July 16, 2018.WEB, Donald John Trump – Wealth-X Dossiersier,weblink Wealth-X, July 16, 2018, }} (766th in the world, 248th in the U.S.)MAGAZINE,weblink The World's Billionaires – No. 766 Donald Trump, Forbes, 2018, March 7, 2018, making him one of the richest politicians in American history.When he filed mandatory financial disclosure forms with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) in July 2015, Trump claimed a net worth of about $10 billion; however FEC figures cannot corroborate this estimate because they only show each of his largest buildings as being worth "over $50 million", yielding total assets worth more than $1.4 billion and debt over $265 million. Trump reported a yearly income of $362 million for 2014WEB,weblink Donald J. Trump Files Personal Financial Disclosure Statement With Federal Election Commission, Corey R., Lewandowski, Hope, Hicks, July 15, 2015, March 8, 2016, March 9, 2016,weblink yes, and $611 million from January 2015 to May 2016.A 2016 analysis of Trump's business career by The Economist concluded that his performance since 1985 had been "mediocre compared with the stock market and property in New York".NEWS, From the Tower to the White House, The Economist, February 20, 2016, February 29, 2016,weblink Mr Trump's performance has been mediocre compared with the stockmarket and property in New York., A subsequent analysis by The Washington Post concluded that "Trump is a mix of braggadocio, business failures, and real success".NEWS, Ana, Swanson, The myth and the reality of Donald Trump's business empire, February 29, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink

Business career

Real estate

File:Trump Tower - lower part.jpg|thumb|upright|The distinctive façade of Trump Tower, the headquarters of The Trump Organization, in Midtown ManhattanMidtown ManhattanIn 1968, Trump began his career at his father's real estate development company, Elizabeth Trump & Son, which, among other interests, owned middle-class rental housing in New York City's outer boroughs.{{sfn|Trump|Schwartz|2009|p=46}} Trump worked for his father Fred, to revitalize the Swifton Village apartment complex in Cincinnati, Ohio, which the elder Trump had bought in 1964.NEWS, Korte, Gregory,weblink Complex was troubled from beginning, The Cincinnati Enquirer, September 1, 2002, May 20, 2018, NEWS, Kelly, Meg,weblink The tall tale of President Trump's Cincinnati 'success', The Washington Post, February 28, 2018, May 19, 2018, The management of the property was sued for racial discrimination in 1969; the suit "was quietly settled at Fred Trump's direction." The Trumps sold the property in 1972, with vacancy on the rise.When his father became chairman of the board in 1971, Trump was promoted to president of the company and renamed it The Trump Organization.{{sfn|Blair|2005|p=23}}NEWS, Conor, Kelly, Meet Donald Trump: Everything You Need To Know (And Probably Didn't Know) About The 2016 Republican Presidential Candidate, July 27, 2015, ABC News,weblink In 1973, he and his father drew wider attention when the Justice Department contended in a lawsuit that their company systematically discriminated against African Americans who wished to rent apartments. The Department alleged that the Trump Organization had screened out people based on race and not low income as the Trumps had stated. Under an agreement reached in 1975, the Trumps made no admission of wrongdoing and made the Urban League an intermediary for qualified minority applicants.NEWS, Dunlap, David, July 30, 2015, 1973: Meet Donald Trump,weblink The New York Times, Trump Management ... was also to allow the league to present qualified applicants for every fifth vacancy ... Trump himself said he was satisfied that the agreement did not 'compel the Trump Organization to accept persons on welfare as tenants unless as qualified as any other tenant.', NEWS, Kranish, Michael, O'Harrow, Robert Jr., January 23, 2016, Inside the government's racial bias case against Donald Trump's company, and how he fought it,weblink The Washington Post, Civil rights groups in the city viewed the Trump company as just one example of a nationwide problem of housing discrimination. But targeting the Trumps provided a chance to have an impact, said Eleanor Holmes Norton, who was then chairwoman of the city's human rights commission. 'They were big names.', Trump's attorney at the time was Roy Cohn, who valued both positive and negative publicity, and responded to attacks with forceful counterattacks; Trump later emulated Cohn's style.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=64–69, 104}}

Manhattan developments

In 1978, Trump launched his Manhattan real estate business by purchasing a 50 percent stake in the derelict Commodore Hotel, located next to Grand Central Terminal. The purchase was funded largely by a $70 million construction loan that was guaranteed jointly by Fred Trump and the Hyatt hotel chain.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=84}} When the remodeling was finished, the hotel reopened in 1980 as the Grand Hyatt Hotel.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=32–35}}The same year, Trump obtained the rights to develop Trump Tower, a 58-story, {{convert|664|ft|m|-high|adj=mid}} skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan.NEWS, The Expanding Empire of Donald Trump, April 8, 1984, William, Geist, The New York Times,weblink Bill Geist, NEWS, Dohan, William C.,weblink Decades-Old Questions Over Trump's Wealth and Education, The New York Times, September 28, 2015, June 9, 2018, To make way for the new building, a crew of undocumented Polish workers demolished the historic Bonwit Teller store, including art deco features that had initially been marked for preservation.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=86–88}} The building was completed in 1983 and houses both the primary penthouse condominium residence of Trump and the headquarters of The Trump Organization.NEWS,weblink With the New York Presidential Primary, the Circus Is Coming Home, Matt, Flegenheimer, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, March 29, 2016, March 29, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Loves New York. But It Doesn't Love Him Back., Alexander, Burns, The New York Times, December 9, 2016, December 9, 2016, Architectural critic Paul Goldberger said in 1983 that he was surprised to find the tower's atrium was "the most pleasant interior public space to be completed in New York in some years".{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=95}}Goldberger, Paul. "Architecture: Atrium of Trump Tower is a Pleasant Surprise", The New York Times (April 4, 1983).File:Central Park Wollman Rink.jpg|thumb|left|Central Park's Wollman RinkWollman RinkIn 1980, repairs began on Central Park's Wollman Rink, with an anticipated two-and-a-half year construction time frame. Because of flaws in the design and numerous problems during construction, the project remained unfinished by May 1986 and was estimated to require another 18 months and $2 million to $3 million to complete.NEWS,weblink New York Hopes to Learn From Rink Trump Fixed; Wollman Rink Scorecard, The New York Times, November 21, 1986, May 9, 2018, NEWS, Freedlander, David, A 1980s New York City Battle Explains Donald Trump's Candidacy,weblink October 23, 2016, Bloomberg News, Bloomberg L.P., September 29, 2015, Trump was awarded a contract as the general contractor in June 1986 to finish the repairs by December 15 with a cost ceiling of $3 million, with the actual costs to be reimbursed by the city. Trump hired an architect, a construction company, and a Canadian ice-rink manufacturer and completed the work in four months, $775,000 under budget. He operated the rink for a year and gave some of the profits to charity and public works projectsNEWS, Rosenthal, Andrew, Andrew Rosenthal, Trump reports large profit from Wollman Rink,weblink The New York Times, April 1, 1987, November 27, 2017, in exchange for the rink's concession rights.WEB,weblink Trump boasts about his philanthropy. But his giving falls short of his words., The Washington Post, October 29, 2016, July 3, 2018, Fahrenthold, David, Trump managed the rink from 1987 to 1995. He received another contract in 2001 which was extended until 2021.NEWS, Purnicki, Joyce,weblink The Donald Trump we know (and don't love): He's riding high in polls, but NYC's seen his bad side, New York Daily News, May 1, 2011, May 10, 2018, NEWS, Kravitz, Derek, Podkul, Cezary,weblink Trump Said He Made $21 Million in Income From His New York Contracts. He Actually Made a Lot Less., ProPublica, February 28, 2017, May 10, 2018, According to journalist Joyce Purnick, Trump's "Wollman success was also the stuff of a carefully crafted, self-promotional legend." While the work was in progress, Trump called numerous press conferences, for example for the completion of the laying of the pipes and the pouring of the cement.NEWS, Geist, William E.,weblink Trump reports large profit from Wollman Rink, The New York Times, November 15, 1986, May 10, 2018, In 1987, he also unsuccessfully tried to get the city to rename the landmark after him; the Trump logo is prominently displayed on the railing encircling the rink, on the Zamboni, on the rental skates, and on the rink's website.NEWS, Kula, Irwin, Hatkoff, Craig,weblink Donald Trump And The Wollman Rinking of American Politics, Forbes, August 24, 2015, May 10, 2018, In 1988 Trump acquired the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan for $407 million and appointed his wife Ivana to manage its operation.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=65–66}} Trump invested $50 million to restore the building, which he called "the Mona Lisa".{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=190}} According to hotel expert Thomas McConnell, the Trumps boosted it from a three-star to a four-star ranking. They sold it in 1995, by which time Ivana was no longer involved in the hotel's day-to-day operations.NEWS,weblink Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors, The New York Times, David, Stout, Kenneth, Gilpin, April 12, 1995, May 6, 2017, In 1994, Trump's company refurbished the Gulf and Western Building on Columbus Circle with design and structural enhancements turning it into a 44-story luxury residential and hotel propertyNEWS,weblink For a Troubled Building, a New Twist, Dunlap, David W., The New York Times, July 17, 1994, November 18, 2016, NEWS, Muschamp, Herbert, Trump Tries to Convert 50's Style into 90's Gold; Makeover Starts on Columbus Circle Hotel,weblink The New York Times, June 21, 1995, January 18, 2017, known as Trump International Hotel and Tower.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=108}}In 1996, Trump acquired the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, which was a vacant seventy-one story skyscraper on Wall Street. After an extensive renovation, the high-rise was renamed the Trump Building at 40 Wall Street.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=81–82}} In 1997, he began construction on Riverside South, which he dubbed Trump Place, a multi-building development along the Hudson River. He and the other investors in the project ultimately sold their interest for $1.8 billion in 2005 in what was then the biggest residential sale in the history of New York City.NEWS,weblink Trump Group Selling West Side Parcel for $1.8 billion, Bagli, Charles V., The New York Times, June 1, 2005, May 17, 2016, From 1994 to 2002, Trump owned a 50 percent share of the Empire State Building. He intended to rename it "Trump Empire State Building Tower Apartments" if he had been able to boost his share.Elstein, Aaron. "Trump Is Selling Plaza Hotel To Saudi and Asian Investors", Crain's New York Business (April 17, 2016).{{sfn|Pacelle|2001|p=18}} In 2001, Trump completed Trump World Tower.WEB, Emporis,weblink Trump World Tower, May 22, 2008, In 2002, Trump acquired the former Hotel Delmonico, which was renovated and reopened in 2004 as the Trump Park Avenue; the building consisted of 35 stories of luxury condominiums.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=86–87}}

Palm Beach estate

(File:Mar-a-lago in 2009.jpg|thumb|Mar-a-Lago in 2009)In 1985, Trump acquired the Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, Florida, for $10 million, $7 million for the real estate and $3 million for the furnishings.NEWS, Peterson-Withorn, Chase,weblink Donald Trump Has Gained More Than $100 Million On Mar-a-Lago, Forbes, April 23, 2018, July 4, 2018, WEB,weblink Trump Fights Property Taxes, AP News, March 29, 1988, July 4, 2018, His initial offer of $28 million had been rejected, and he was able to obtain the property for the lower price after a real-estate market "slump".WEB,weblink A History of Mar-a-Lago, Donald Trump's American Castle, Dangremond, Sam, December 22, 2017, townandcountrymag.com, July 3, 2018, The home was built in the 1920s by heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post.NEWS,weblink The Ironic History of Mar-a-Lago, Luongo, Michael, November 2017, Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian, December 9, 2017, After her death, her heirs unsuccessfully tried to donate the property to the government before putting it up for sale.WEB, Jordan, Mary, Helderman, Rosalind S.,weblink Inside Trump's Palm Beach castle and his 30-year fight to win over the locals, The Washington Post, October 14, 2015, July 4, 2018, In addition to using a wing of the estate as a home, Trump turned Mar-a-Lago into a private club. In order to join, prospective members had to pay an initiation feeWEB, Lee, Robert,weblink How Do Golf Initiation Fees Work?, Golfweek, July 4, 2018, and annual dues.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=161}} The initiation fee was $100,000 until 2016; it was doubled to $200,000 in January 2017.WEB, Dangremond, Sam,weblink Here's What We Know About the Membership of Mar-a-Lago, Town&Country, October 9, 2017, July 4, 2018, WEB, Frank, Robert,weblink Mar-a-Lago membership fee doubles to $200,000, CNBC, January 25, 2017, July 4, 2018,

Atlantic City casinos

After New Jersey legalized casino gambling in 1977, Trump went to Atlantic City to explore new business opportunities. Seven years later, he opened Harrah's at Trump Plaza hotel and casino; the project was built by Trump with financing from the Holiday Corporation who also managed its operation.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=57–58}} It was renamed "Trump Plaza" soon after it opened.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=128}} The casino's poor financial results exacerbated disagreements between Trump and Holiday Corp., which led to Trump's paying $70 million in May 1986 to buy out their interest in the property.NEWS, Trump Stake in Holiday,weblink May 31, 2017, The New York Times, September 5, 1986, NEWS, Crudele, John, Holiday Corp. Plans Restructuring,weblink May 31, 2017, The New York Times, November 13, 1986, Trump also acquired a partially completed building in Atlantic City from the Hilton Corporation for $320 million; when completed in 1985, that hotel and casino became Trump Castle, and Trump's wife Ivana managed that property until 1988.{{sfn|Wooten|2009|p=59–60}}{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=137}}File:Trump Taj Mahal, 2007.jpg|thumb|left|alt=The entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal, a casino in Atlantic City. It has motifs evocative of the Taj Mahal in India.|Entrance of the Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic CityAtlantic CityTrump acquired his third casino in Atlantic City, the Taj Mahal, in 1988 while it was under construction, through a complex transaction with Merv Griffin and Resorts International.NEWS, Seven Acquisitive Executives Who Made Business News in 1988: Donald Trump â€“ Trump Organization; The Artist of the Deal Turns Sour into Sweet, Cuff, Daniel, December 18, 1988,weblink May 27, 2011, The New York Times, It was completed at a cost of $1.1 billion and opened in April 1990.NEWS,weblink Trump's Taj â€“ Open at Last, With a Scary Appetite, April 8, 1990, Glynn, Lenny, The New York Times, August 14, 2016, NEWS,weblink New owner wants to make Trump's Taj Mahal casino great again, May 20, 2016, Wayne, Parry, Associated Press, PBS NewsHour, August 14, 2016, The project was financed with $675 million in junk bondsNEWS,weblink Trump reaches agreement with bondholders on Taj Mahal, United Press International, April 9, 1991, March 21, 2016, and was a major gamble by Trump.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=135}} The project underwent debt restructuring the following year,NEWS,weblink Amy, Bingham, Donald Trump's Companies Filed for Bankruptcy 4 Times, ABC News, April 21, 2011, February 20, 2015, leaving Trump with 50 percent ownership.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Taj Mahal is out of Bankruptcy, May 22, 2008, October 5, 1991, Facing "enormous debt", he sold his airline, Trump Shuttle, and his 282-foot (86 m) megayacht, the Trump Princess, which had been indefinitely docked in Atlantic City while leased to his casinos for use by wealthy gamblers.WEB,weblink Trump Is Reportedly Selling Yacht, The New York Times, May 11, 1990, July 3, 2018, Hylton, Richard, NEWS,weblink The Donald Ducks Out, May 19, 1997, September 10, 2015, People, Karen S., Schneider, {{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=132–133}}In 1995, Trump founded Trump Hotels & Casino Resorts (THCR), which assumed ownership of Trump Plaza, Trump Castle, and the Trump Casino in Gary, Indiana.NEWS, Trump Plaza casino stock trades today on Big Board, The New York Times, Floyd, Norris, June 7, 1995,weblink December 14, 2014, THCR purchased Taj Mahal in 1996 and underwent bankruptcy restructuring in 2004 and 2009, leaving Trump with 10 percent ownership in the Trump Taj Mahal and other Trump casino properties.NEWS,weblink The Truth About the Rise and Fall of Donald Trump's Atlantic City Empire, Philadelphia Magazine, August 16, 2015, March 21, 2016, Dan, McQuade, Trump remained chairman of THCR until 2009.NEWS,weblink How Donald Trump Made Millions Off His Biggest Business Failure, Fortune, May 6, 2018, en,

Golf courses

File:Trump Turnberry Hotel - geograph.org.uk - 5273443.jpg|thumb|alt=A golf course. In the background is the Turnberry Hotel, a two-story hotel with white façade and a red roof.|Turnberry Hotel and golf course in AyrshireAyrshire{{As of|December 2016}}, the Trump Organization owns or operates 18 golf course and golf resorts in the United States and abroad.NEWS, Garcia, Ahiza, Trump's 17 golf courses teed up: Everything you need to know,weblink January 21, 2018, CNNMoney, December 29, 2016, According to his FEC personal financial disclosure, his 2015 golf and resort revenue amounted to $382 million,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Personal Financial Disclosure Form 2015, The Washington Post, July 15, 2015, NEWS,weblink A peek at Donald Trump's finances, Cristina, Alesci, Laurie, Frankel, Jeanne, Sahadi, CNN, May 19, 2016, May 20, 2016, while his three European golf courses did not show a profit.NEWS, Bloomberg Politics,weblink Trump Is Richer in Property and Deeper in Debt in New Valuation, July 19, 2016, Caleb, Melby, In the year that Donald Trump was transformed ... into the presumptive Republican nominee, the value of his golf courses and his namesake Manhattan tower soared ... His net worth rose to $3 billion on the Bloomberg Billionaires Index ..., Trump began acquiring and constructing golf courses in 1999; his first property was the Trump International Golf Club, West Palm Beach in Florida.WEB, Donald Trump: King of Clubs,weblink Golf Magazine, Golf, February 21, 2007, August 5, 2018, By 2007, Trump owned 4 courses around the US. Following the financial crisis of 2007–2008, Trump began purchasing existing golf courses and re-designing them.NEWS, DiMeglio, Steve, Donald Trump brings new life to world of golf, USA Today,weblink March 3, 2015, July 21, 2018, Trump's use of these courses during his presidency was controversial. Despite frequently criticizing his predecessor Barack Obama for his numerous golf outings, Trump golfed 11 times during his first eight weeks in office.WEB, Beall, Joel, President Trump appears to still really like golf, makes 11th trip to course in eight weeks in office,weblink July 21, 2018, March 20, 2017, According to CNN, Trump visited Trump-owned golf courses 91 times in 2017, although the White House does not disclose whether or not the president actually played on each of those visits.NEWS, Cillizza, Chris, CNN, Donald Trump's huge golf hypocrisy,weblink July 21, 2018, January 3, 2018,

Branding and licensing

File:Chicago September 2016-2.jpg|thumb|upright|Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago]]The Trump Organization expanded its business into branding and management by licensing the Trump name for a large number of building projects that are owned and operated by other people and companies. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, The Trump Organization expanded its footprint beyond New York with the branding and management of various developers' hotel towers around the world. These included projects in Chicago, Las Vegas, Washington D.C., Panama City, Toronto, and Vancouver. There are also Trump-branded buildings in Dubai, Honolulu, Istanbul, Manila, Mumbai, and Indonesia.NEWS,weblink From Manila to Hawaii, Meet The Licensing Partners Who Paid Trump The Most, Forbes, Jennifer, Wang, March 20, 2017, May 6, 2017, The Trump name has also been licensed for various consumer products and services, including foodstuffs, apparel, adult learning courses, and home furnishings. These ventures met with mixed success for Trump, his partners, and investors in the projects.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}} In 2011, Forbes{{'}} financial experts estimated the value of the Trump brand at $200 million. Trump disputed this valuation, saying his brand was worth about $3 billion.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump on His Brand Value: Forbes' Numbers Are Ridiculous, Forbes, Keren, Blankfeld, According to an analysis by The Washington Post, there are more than 50 licensing or management deals involving Trump's name, which have generated at least $59 million in yearly revenue for his companies.NEWS, Aaron, Williams, Anu, Narayanswamy,weblink How Trump has made millions by selling his name, January 25, 2017, December 12, 2017,

Legal affairs and bankruptcies

{{As of|April 2018}}, Trump and his businesses had been involved in more than 4,000 state and federal legal actions, according to a running tally by USA Today.NEWS, Dive into Donald Trump's thousands of lawsuits,weblink April 17, 2018, USA TODAY, en, {{as of|2016}}, he or one of his companies had been the plaintiff in 1,900 cases and the defendant in 1,450. With Trump or his company as plaintiff, more than half the cases have been against gamblers at his casinos who had failed to pay off their debts. With Trump or his company as a defendant, the most common type of case involved personal injury cases at his hotels. In cases where there was a clear resolution, Trump's side won 451 times and lost 38.NEWS, Exclusive: Trump's 3,500 lawsuits unprecedented for a presidential nominee,weblink June 2, 2016, USA Today, June 2, 2016, Nick, Penzenstadler, Susan, Page, About 100 additional disputes centered on other issues at the casinos. Trump and his enterprises have been named in almost 700 personal-injury claims and about 165 court disputes with government agencies ... Due to his branding value, Trump is determined to defend his name and reputation., NEWS,weblink Trump brags about winning record in lawsuits, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, June 2, 2016, Savransky, Rebecca, Trump has never filed for personal bankruptcy, but his hotel and casino businesses have been declared bankrupt six times between 1991 and 2009 in order to re-negotiate debt with banks and owners of stock and bonds.NEWS,weblink 4 Times Donald Trump's Companies Declared Bankruptcy, Vanity Fair News, June 29, 2015, January 17, 2016, Bryan, Hood, NEWS,weblink Hao, Li, Donald Trump Questioned on His Bankruptcies, International Business Times, April 12, 2011, February 19, 2015, Because the businesses used Chapter 11 bankruptcy, they were allowed to operate while negotiations proceeded. Trump was quoted by Newsweek in 2011 saying, "I do play with the bankruptcy laws â€“ they're very good for me" as a tool for trimming debt.NEWS, Stone, Peter, Donald Trump's lawsuits could turn off conservatives who embrace tort reform,weblink March 14, 2016, The Center for Public Integrity, May 5, 2011, NEWS, Kurtz, Howard, Kurtz: The Trump Backlash,weblink March 14, 2016, Newsweek, April 24, 2011, The six bankruptcies were the result of over-leveraged hotel and casino businesses in Atlantic City and New York: Trump Taj Mahal (1991), Trump Plaza Hotel and Casino (1992), Plaza Hotel (1992), Trump Castle Hotel and Casino (1992), Trump Hotels and Casino Resorts (2004), and Trump Entertainment Resorts (2009).NEWS, Winter, Tom, Trump Bankruptcy Math Doesn't Add Up,weblink NBC News, October 8, 2016, NEWS,weblink Clare, O'Connor, Fourth Time's A Charm: How Donald Trump Made Bankruptcy Work For Him, Forbes, April 29, 2011, February 19, 2015, Adult film actress Stormy Daniels has alleged that she and Trump had an affair in 2006,NEWS, Luckhurst, Toby, The Stormy Daniels-Donald Trump story explained,weblink BBC News, March 11, 2018, which Trump denied.NEWS,weblink White House on Stormy Daniels: Trump 'denied all these allegations', Nelson, Louis, March 7, 2018, Politico, March 16, 2018, Just before the 2016 presidential election Daniels was paid $130,000 by Trump's attorney Michael Cohen as part of a non-disclosure agreement (NDA); Cohen said he paid her with his own money.NEWS,weblink Trump's lawyer says he paid $130,000 to porn star ahead of election, Tatum, Sophie, Cuomo, Chris, February 14, 2018, CNN, March 16, 2018, In February 2018, Daniels sued Cohen's company asking to be released from the NDA and be allowed to tell her story. Cohen obtained a restraining order to keep her from discussing the case.NEWS,weblink Trump lawyer Michael Cohen tries to silence adult-film star Stormy Daniels, Fitzpatrick, Sarah, March 8, 2018, NBC News, March 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump tries to move Stormy Daniels lawsuit to federal court, claims she owes him $20 million, Fitzpatrick, Sarah, Connor, Tracy, March 16, 2018, NBC News, March 17, 2018, In March 2018, Daniels claimed in court that the NDA never came into effect because Trump did not sign it personally.NEWS, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, Stormy Daniels files lawsuit against Trump, Brandon, Carter, Daniels, whose legal name is Stephanie Clifford, claims in her suit filed Tuesday that the nondisclosure agreement is not valid because Trump never signed the deal, according to documents revealed publicly by her attorney, Michael Avenatti., March 6, 2018,weblink In May 2018, Trump's annual financial disclosure revealed that he reimbursed Cohen in 2017 for payments related to Daniels.NEWS,weblink Trump Acknowledges Financial 'Liability' For Stormy Daniels Payment, NPR.org, May 16, 2018, en,

Side ventures

After Trump took over the family real estate firm in 1971 and renamed it The Trump Organization, he expanded its real estate operations and ventured into other business activities. The company eventually became the umbrella organization for several hundred individual business ventures and partnerships.NEWS,weblink Five take-aways from Donald Trump's financial disclosure, BBC, July 23, 2015, January 17, 2016, Anthony, Zurcher,

Sports

In September 1983, Trump purchased the New Jersey Generals—an American football team that played in the United States Football League (USFL). After the 1985 season, the league folded largely due to Trump's strategy of moving games to a fall schedule where they competed with the NFL for audience, and trying to force a merger with the NFL by bringing an antitrust lawsuit against the organization.NEWS, Arash, Markazi, 5 things to know about Donald Trump's foray into doomed USFL, July 14, 2015, ESPN,weblink WEB,weblink Donald Trump Fought the NFL Once Before. He Got Crushed., Fortune (magazine), Fortune, September 24, 2017, June 22, 2018, Morris, David, Trump operated golf courses in several countries. He hosted several boxing matches at the Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, including Mike Tyson's 1988 heavyweight championship fight against Michael Spinks.NEWS,weblink Trump Gets Tyson Fight, February 11, 2011, February 25, 1988, The New York Times, He also acted as a financial advisor to Mike Tyson.NEWS,weblink Sports of The Times; Trump: Promoter Or Adviser?, February 11, 2011, July 12, 1988, The New York Times, Anderson, Dave, In 1989 and 1990, Trump lent his name to the Tour de Trump cycling stage race, which was an attempt to create an American equivalent of European races such as the Tour de France or the Giro d'Italia.NEWS,weblink The Strange Tale of Donald Trump's 1989 Biking Extravaganza, Kevin, Hogan, Politico, April 10, 2016, April 12, 2016,

Miss Universe

File:Donald Trump star Hollywood Walk of Fame.JPG|right|thumb|upright|Trump's star on the Hollywood Walk of FameHollywood Walk of FameFrom 1996 to 2015, Trump owned part or all of the Miss Universe pageants.NEWS,weblink Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency, September 15, 2015, The New York Times, January 9, 2016, NEWS, Donald Trump just sold off the entire Miss Universe Organization,weblink May 6, 2016, Business Insider, September 14, 2015, The pageants include Miss USA and Miss Teen USA. His management of this business involved his family members—daughter Ivanka once hosted Miss Teen USA.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=164}} He became dissatisfied with how CBS scheduled the pageants, and took both Miss Universe and Miss USA to NBC in 2002.NEWS,weblink Three Beauty Pageants Leaving CBS for NBC, June 22, 2002, Jim, Rutenberg, August 14, 2016, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink There She Goes: Pageants Move to NBC, June 22, 2002, Lisa, de Moraes, The Washington Post, August 14, 2016, In 2007, Trump received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work as producer of Miss Universe.NEWS, Zara, Christopher,weblink Why the heck does Donald Trump have a Walk of Fame star, anyway? It's not the reason you think, Fast Company, October 29, 2016, June 16, 2018, Following Trump's controversial statements about illegal Mexican immigrants during his 2015 presidential campaign kickoff speech, NBC ended its business relationship with him, stating that it would no longer air the Miss Universe or Miss USA pageants on its networks.NEWS,weblink NBC Cuts Ties With Donald Trump Over "Derogatory Statements," Pulls Miss USA and Miss Universe Pageants, Kate, Stanhope, June 29, 2015, The Hollywood Reporter, June 30, 2015, In September 2015, Trump bought NBC's share of the Miss Universe Organization and then sold the entire company to the WME/IMG talent agency.NEWS,weblink Trump Sells Miss Universe Organization to WME-IMG Talent Agency, September 15, 2015, The New York Times, February 5, 2016,

Trump University

Trump University was a for-profit education company that was founded by Trump and his associates, Michael Sexton and Jonathan Spitalny. The company ran a real estate training program and charged between $1,500 and $35,000 per course.NEWS, Gitell, Seth, March 8, 2016, I Survived Trump University,weblink Politico, March 18, 2016, NEWS,weblink Big Hair on Campus: Did Donald Trump Defraud Thousands of Real-Estate Students?, Cohan, William D., Vanity Fair, March 6, 2016, NEWS, Michael, Barbaro, New York Attorney General Is Investigating Trump's For-Profit School, May 19, 2011, The New York Times,weblink In 2005, New York State authorities notified the operation that its use of the word "university" was misleading and violated state law. After a second such notification in 2010, the name of the company was changed to the "Trump Entrepreneurial Institute". Trump was also found personally liable for failing to obtain a business license for the operation.NEWS,weblink Karen, Freifeld, New York judge finds Donald Trump liable for unlicensed school, Reuters, October 16, 2014, February 20, 2015, Ronald Schneckenberg, a sales manager for Trump University, said in a testimony that he was reprimanded for not trying harder to sell a $35,000 real estate class to a couple who could not afford it.NEWS,weblink Former Trump University Workers Call the School a 'Lie' and a 'Scheme' in Testimony, Barbaro, Michael, Eder, Steve, May 31, 2016, The New York Times, March 24, 2018, Schneckenberg said that he believed "Trump University was a fraudulent scheme" which "preyed upon the elderly and uneducated to separate them from their money."In 2013, New York State filed a $40 million civil suit against Trump University; the suit alleged that the company made false statements and defrauded consumers.NEWS, David, Halperin, NY Court Refuses to Dismiss Trump University Case, Describes Fraud Allegations, March 3, 2016, HuffPost,weblink NEWS,weblink Michelle Ye Hee, Lee, Donald Trump's misleading claim that he's 'won most of' lawsuits over Trump University, The Washington Post, February 27, 2016, February 27, 2016, In addition, two class-action civil lawsuits were filed in federal court relating to Trump University; they named Trump personally as well as his companies.NEWS,weblink Trump faces two-front legal fight over 'university', USA Today, Kevin, McCoy, August 26, 2013, During the presidential campaign, Trump criticized presiding Judge Gonzalo P. Curiel, alleging bias in his rulings because of his Mexican heritage.NEWS, Rappeport, Alan, June 3, 2016, That Judge Attacked by Donald Trump? He's Faced a Lot Worse,weblink The New York Times, June 4, 2016, MAGAZINE, Ford, Matt, June 3, 2016, Why Is Donald Trump So Angry at Judge Gonzalo Curiel?, The Atlantic,weblink June 3, 2016, Shortly after Trump won the presidency, the parties agreed to a settlement of all three pending cases, whereby Trump paid a total of $25 million and denied any wrongdoing.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement, Eder, Steve, November 18, 2016, The New York Times, November 18, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Agrees to Pay $25 Million in Trump University Settlement, November 18, 2016, Daily News, New York, November 18, 2016,

Foundation

The Donald J. Trump Foundation is a U.S.-based private foundationNEWS,weblink Nonprofit Explorer â€“ ProPublica, ProPublica, Mike, Tigas, Sisi, Wei, September 9, 2016, that was established in 1988 for the initial purpose of giving away proceeds from the book Trump: The Art of the Deal.WEB,weblink Donald J Trump Foundation Inc â€“ GuideStar Profile, GuideStar, September 9, 2016, NEWS, David A., Fahrenthold,weblink Trump pays IRS a penalty for his foundation violating rules with gift to aid Florida attorney general, The Washington Post, September 1, 2016, The foundation's funds have mostly come from donors other than Trump,NEWS,weblink Missing from Trump's list of charitable giving: His own personal cash, April 10, 2016, David A., Fahrenthold, Helderman, Rosalind S., The Washington Post, who has not given personally to the charity since 2008.The foundation's tax returns show that it has given to health care and sports-related charities, as well as conservative groups.Solnik, Claude. "Taking a peek at Trump's (foundation) tax returns", Long Island Business News (September 15, 2016): "charitable giving to conservative political groups, healthcare and sports-related charities." In 2009, for example, the foundation gave $926,750 to about 40 groups, with the biggest donations going to the Arnold Palmer Medical Center Foundation ($100,000), the New York–Presbyterian Hospital ($125,000), the Police Athletic League ($156,000), and the Clinton Foundation ($100,000).NEWS, David A., Fahrenthold, Danielle, Rindler,weblink Searching for evidence of Trump's personal giving, The Washington Post, August 18, 2016, Qiu, Linda (August 28, 2016). Yes, Donald Trump donated $100,000 to the Clinton Foundation. PolitiFact.com. Retrieved September 16, 2016. From 2004 to 2014, the top donors to the foundation were Vince and Linda McMahon of WWE, who donated $5 million to the foundation after Trump appeared at WrestleMania in 2007. Trump later named Linda McMahon as Administrator of the Small Business Administration.NEWS,weblink Trump picks wrestling magnate Linda McMahon to lead Small Business Administration, Pramuk, Jacob, December 7, 2016, MSNBC, In 2016, The Washington Post reported that the charity had committed several potential legal and ethical violations, including alleged self-dealing and possible tax evasion.Cillizza, Chris and Fahrenthold, David. "Meet the reporter who's giving Donald Trump fits", The Washington Post (September 15, 2016). Also in 2016, the New York State Attorney General's office notified the Trump Foundation that the foundation appeared to be in violation of New York laws regarding charities, ordering it to immediately cease its fundraising activities in New York.NEWS,weblink NY attorney general is investigating Trump Foundation practices, September 14, 2016, CNN, September 25, 2016, Bradner, Eric, Frehse, Rob, The Post had reported that the recipients of five charitable contributions listed by the Trump Foundation had no record of receiving those donations. But the newspaper updated its report after CNN questioned the accuracy of three of the five donations it had cited., NEWS,weblink Trump Foundation Falls Under Investigation By New York Attorney General, September 14, 2016, Toh, Michelle, September 27, 2016, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, Farenthold, David. "Trump Foundation ordered to stop fundraising by N.Y. attorney general's office", The Washington Post (October 3, 2016). A Trump spokesman called the Attorney General's investigation a "partisan hit job". In response to mounting complaints, Trump's team announced in late December 2016 that the Trump Foundation would be dissolved to remove "even the appearance of any conflict with [his] role as President."NEWS,weblink Donald Trump to dissolve his charitable foundation after mounting complaints, Jacobs, Ben, December 24, 2016, The Guardian, 0261-3077, December 25, 2016, According to an IRS filing in November 2017, the foundation intended to shut down and distribute its assets (about $970,000) to other charities. However, the New York Attorney General's office had to complete their ongoing investigation before the foundation could legally shut down,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is shutting down his charitable foundation, November 20, 2017, NBC News, November 28, 2017, and in June 2018 they filed a civil suit against the foundation for $2.8 million in restitution and additional penalties.NEWS,weblink New York attorney general sues Trump Foundation, CNN, Chris, Isidore, Melanie, Schuman, June 14, 2018, June 15, 2018, The suit names Trump himself as well as his adult children Donald Jr., Eric, and Ivanka.NEWS,weblink Five things to know about the lawsuit against the Trump Foundation, Thomsen, Jacqueline, June 14, 2018, The Hill, June 15, 2018,

Conflicts of interest

Before being inaugurated as president, Trump moved his businesses into a revocable trust run by his eldest sons and a business associate.NEWS, Marilyn, Geewax, Trump Has Revealed Assumptions About Handling Presidential Wealth, Businesses,weblink NPR.org, en, NEWS, A list of Trump's potential conflicts,weblink BBC News, April 18, 2017, According to ethics experts, as long as Trump continues to profit from his businesses, the measures taken by Trump do not help to avoid conflicts of interest.NEWS, Venook, Jeremy, Trump's Interests vs. America's, Dubai Edition,weblink The Atlantic, August 9, 2017, Because Trump would have knowledge of how his administration's policies would affect his businesses, ethics experts recommend that Trump sell off his businesses. Multiple lawsuits have been filed alleging that Trump is violating the emoluments clause of the United States Constitution due to his business interests; they argue that these interests allow foreign governments to influence him.NEWS, LaFraniere, Sharon, Lawsuit on Trump Emoluments Violations Gains Traction in Court,weblink January 25, 2018, The New York Times, January 25, 2018, Previous presidents in the modern era have either divested their holdings or put them in blind trusts, and he is the first president to be sued over the emoluments clause.

Media career

Books

Trump has published numerous books. His first published book in 1987 was (Trump: The Art of the Deal), in which Trump is credited as co-author with Tony Schwartz, who has stated that he did all the writing for the book.WEB,weblink 'He Pretty Much Gave In to Whatever They Asked For', Politico, June 1, 2018, June 11, 2018, Kruse, Michael, WEB, Jane Mayer, The New Yorker, June 19, 2017,weblink Donald Trump's Ghostwriter Tells All, Jane, Mayer, July 25, 2016, WEB,weblink Donald Trump Threatens the Ghostwriter of "The Art of the Deal", Mayer, Jane, The New Yorker, July 20, 2016, June 11, 2018, It reached number 1 on The New York Times Best Seller list, stayed there for 13 weeks, and altogether held a position on the list for 48 weeks. According to The New Yorker, "The book expanded Trump's renown far beyond New York City, promoting an image of himself as a successful dealmaker and tycoon."Trump's published writings shifted post-2000 from stylized memoirs to financial tips and political opinion.NEWS, Carlos, Lozada, The Washington Post, I just binge-read eight books by Donald Trump. Here's what I learned.,weblink July 30, 2015, June 18, 2017,

Film and television

Wrestling

In 1988 and 1989, Trump hosted WrestleMania IV and V at Boardwalk Hall, and he has been an active participant in several World Wrestling shows.WEB,weblink Donald Trump bio, WWE, March 14, 2015, In 2013, he was inducted into the celebrity wing of the WWE Hall of Fame at Madison Square Garden for his contributions to the promotion.WEB,weblink Donald Trump announced for WWE Hall of Fame, Ryan, Murphy, WWE,

The Apprentice

In 2003, Trump became the executive producer and host of the NBC reality show The Apprentice, in which contestants competed for a one-year management job with the Trump Organization; applicants were successively eliminated from the game with the catchphrase "You're fired".NEWS, Jacob, Koffler, Donald Trump's 16 Biggest Business Failures and Successes, August 7, 2015, Time (magazine), Time,weblink NEWS, Grynbaum, Michael M., Parker, Ashley,weblink Donald Trump the Political Showman, Born on 'The Apprentice', The New York Times, July 16, 2016, July 8, 2018, He went on to be co-host of The Celebrity Apprentice, in which celebrities compete to win money for their charities.NEWS, Nussbaum, Emily,weblink The TV That Created Donald Trump, The New Yorker, July 31, 2017, July 8, 2018, In February 2015, Trump stated that he was "not ready" to sign on for another season of the show because of the possibility of a presidential run.NEWS,weblink New Hampshire Union Leader, Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run, Paul, Feeley, February 27, 2015, July 28, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150710152015weblink">weblink July 10, 2015, yes, Despite this, NBC announced they were going ahead with production of a 15th season.NEWS,weblink Politico, NBC still planning for 'Apprentice,' despite Donald Trump's presidential claims, Dylan, Byers, March 18, 2015, July 28, 2015, In June, after widespread negative reaction stemming from Trump's campaign announcement speech, NBC released a statement saying, "Due to the recent derogatory statements by Donald Trump regarding immigrants, NBCUniversal is ending its business relationship with Mr. Trump."WEB,weblink NBC Just Fired Presidential Hopeful Donald Trump from 'The Apprentice', Jacob, Siegel, June 29, 2015, Boy Genius Report, July 28, 2015,

TV commentary

In 2011, Trump was given a weekly unpaid guest commentator spot on Fox & Friends that continued for years.NEWS, Grynbaum, Michael M.,weblink Fox News Once Gave Trump a Perch. Now It's His Bullhorn., The New York Times, July 1, 2018, July 7, 2018, NEWS, Gertz, Matthew,weblink I've Studied the Trump-Fox Feedback Loop for Months. It's Crazier Than You Think., Politico, January 5, 2018, July 8, 2018, NEWS, Montopoli, Brian,weblink Donald Trump gets regular Fox News spot, CBS News, April 1, 2011, July 7, 2018,

Acting

Trump has made cameo appearances in 12 films and 14 television series,WEB,weblink Casting Notes: Donald Trump Cameos in Wall Street 2; Jeremy Piven and Kate Walsh go to Canada, /Film, Slashfilm.com, November 30, 2009, April 21, 2011, {{dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} including a cameo as one of the characters' father in The Little Rascals.NEWS, Adrienne, LaFrance, Three Decades of Donald Trump Film and TV Cameos, December 21, 2015, The Atlantic,weblink NEWS, Lockett, Dee,weblink Yes, Donald Trump Did Actually Play a Spoiled Rich Kid’s Dad in The Little Rascals, Vulture, June 21, 2016, July 14, 2018, He performed a song with Megan Mullally at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2005.NEWS, Shanley, Patrick,weblink Emmys Flashback: When Trump Sang the 'Green Acres' Theme in Overalls, The Hollywood Reporter, September 15, 2016, July 14, 2018, NEWS, Nededog, Jethro,weblink Megan Mullally regrets helping Trump with a 'landslide' win: 'I'm not giving him any points', Business Insider, December 15, 2016, July 14, 2018, Trump receives a pension as a member of the Screen Actors Guild.NEWS,weblink How Did Donald Trump Get a $110K SAG Pension?, The Hollywood Reporter, July 22, 2015, January 17, 2016, Handel, Jonathan, His financial disclosure forms mentioned an annual pension of $110,000 in 2016 and $85,000 in 2017.NEWS,weblink Inside Donald Trump's $110,000 Hollywood Pension Disclosure, Bloomberg, July 22, 2015, January 17, 2016, Christopher, Palmeri, NEWS, Handler, Jonathan,weblink Trump Ethics Filing Reveals SAG Pension, Entertainment Income, The Hollywood Reporter, June 16, 2017, July 14, 2018,

Public profile

Approval ratings

Presidential approval polls taken during the first ten months of Trump's term have shown him to be the least popular U.S. president in the history of modern opinion polls.WEB,weblink ABC News/Washington Post Poll: A year after his surprise election, 65 percent say Trump's achieved little, Gary, Langer, November 5, 2017, Langer Research Associates, November 5, 2017, WEB,weblink Trump Job Approval Slips to 36.9% in His Third Quarter, Jeffrey M., Jones, Gallup (company), Gallup, October 20, 2017, October 20, 2017, NEWS,weblink Poll: Trump's performance lags behind even tepid public expectations, The Washington Post, November 5, 2017, Balz, Dan, Clement, Scott, A Pew Research Center global poll conducted in July 2017, found "a median of just 22 percent has confidence in Trump to do the right thing when it comes to international affairs". This compares to a median of 64 percent rate of confidence for his predecessor Barack Obama. Trump received a higher rating in only two countries: Russia and Israel.WEB, U.S. Image Suffers as Publics Around World Question Trump's Leadership,weblink Pew Research Center, January 11, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180111013256weblink">weblink January 11, 2018, yes, An August 2017 POLITICO/Morning consult poll found on some measures "that majorities of voters have low opinions of his character and competence".NEWS, Poll: Trump hits new low after Charlottesville,weblink POLITICO, August 23, 2017, Trump is the only elected president who did not place first on Gallup's poll of men Americans most admired in his first year in office, coming in second behind Barack Obama.WEB,weblink Trump Is the Only Elected U.S. President Not to Be Named America's Most Admired Man In His First Year, Bach, Natasha, Fortune, December 28, 2017, June 11, 2018, WEB,weblink Most Admired Man and Woman, Gallup, June 12, 2018,

False statements

As president, Trump has frequently made false statements in public speeches and remarks.NEWS, Linda, Qiu, Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days, April 29, 2017, The New York Times,weblink NEWS, Glenn, Kessler, Michelle Ye Hee, Lee, President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally, May 1, 2017, The Washington Post,weblink NEWS, Linda, Qiu, In One Rally, 12 Inaccurate Claims From Trump, June 22, 2017, The New York Times,weblink NEWS,weblink Trump has said 1,340,330 words as president. They’re getting more dishonest, a Star study shows, Dale, Daniel, July 14, 2018, The Star, July 15, 2018, Trump uttered "at least one false or misleading claim per day on 91 of his first 99 days" in office according to The New York Times, and 1,318 total in his first 263 days in office according to the "Fact Checker" political analysis column of The Washington Post,NEWS, Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, Kessler, Glenn, Kelly, Meg, President Trump has made 1,318 false or misleading claims over 263 days,weblink The Washington Post, October 10, 2017, November 5, 2017, which also wrote, "President Trump is the most fact-challenged politician that The Fact Checker has ever encountered ... the pace and volume of the president's misstatements means that we cannot possibly keep up." After 558 days in office, the tally was at 4,229 false or misleading claims, and it had risen to an average of 7.6 per day from 4.9 during Trump's first 100 days in office.NEWS, The Washington Post, August 1, 2018, Glenn, Kessler, Salvador, Rizzo, Meg, Kelly, President Trump has made 4,229 false or misleading claims in 558 days, August 11, 2018,weblink According to one study, the rate of false statements has increased, with the percentage of his words that are part of a false claim rising over the course of his presidency.NEWS, Dale, Daniel, Trump has said 1,340,330 words as president. They’re getting more dishonest, a Star study shows,weblink July 14, 2018, The Toronto Star, Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd, July 14, 2018, In general, news organizations have been hesitant to label these statements as "lies".NEWS,weblink Lies? False Claims? When Trump's Statements Aren't True, The New York Times, June 25, 2018, The New York Times, July 7, 2018, en, NEWS, Dale, Daniel, Donald Trump has spent a year lying shamelessly. It hasn’t worked,weblink July 14, 2018, The Toronto Star, Toronto Star Newspapers Ltd., December 22, 2017,

Racial views

Trump has a history of making racially controversial remarks and taking actions that are perceived as racially motivated.* NEWS,weblink A President Who Fans, Rather Than Douses, the Nation's Racial Fires, The New York Times, January 12, 2018, Peter, Baker, Peter Baker (author),
  • NEWS,weblink We Must Denounce Trump's Racist Actions, Not Just His Racist Words, The Nation, January 11, 2018, January 12, 2018, Warren, Dorian,
  • NEWS,weblink Is Donald Trump Racist? Here's What the Record Shows, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, June 7, 2016, January 12, 2018, D'Antonio, Michael, Michael D'Antonio,
  • NEWS,weblink Trump's Long History of Racism, Rolling Stone, August 15, 2017, January 12, 2018, Berney, Jesse, In 1975, he settled a 1973 Department of Justice lawsuit that alleged housing discrimination against black renters.NEWS,weblink 'No Vacancies' for Blacks: How Donald Trump Got His Start, and Was First Accused of Bias, The New York Times, August 27, 2016, January 13, 2018, Mahler, Jonathan, Eder, Steve, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's long history of racism, from the 1970s to 2018, Vox, He was accused of racism for insisting that a group of black and Latino teenagers were guilty of raping a white woman in the 1989 Central Park jogger attack, even after they were exonerated by DNA evidence in 2002. He continued to maintain this position as late as 2016.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Says Central Park Five Are Guilty, Despite DNA Evidence, Sarlin, Benjy, October 7, 2016, NBC News, January 13, 2018,
Starting in 2011, Trump was a major proponent of "birther" conspiracy theories alleging that Barack Obama was born in Kenya, and questioned his eligibility to serve as president.NEWS, Parker, Ashley, Eder, Steve,weblink Inside the Six Weeks Donald Trump Was a Nonstop 'Birther', The New York Times, July 2, 2016, NEWS,weblink How Donald Trump Perpetuated the 'Birther' Movement for Years, ABC News, September 16, 2016, Alana, Abramson, Trump later took credit for pushing the White House to release the "long-form" birth certificate from Hawaii,NEWS,weblink With Document, Obama Seeks to End 'Birther' Issue, The New York Times, Shear, Michael D., April 27, 2011, August 27, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump takes credit for Obama birth certificate release, but wonders 'is it real?', Lucy, Madison, CBS News, April 27, 2011, May 9, 2011, WEB,weblink Donald J. Trump â€“ Biography, The Trump Organization, August 27, 2016, August 28, 2016,weblink no, In 2011, after failed attempts by both Senator McCain and Hillary Clinton, Mr. Trump single handedly forced President Obama to release his birth certificate, which was lauded by large segments of the political community., and he stated during his presidential campaign that his stance had made him "very popular".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's History of Raising Birther Questions About President Obama, ABC News, Keneally, Meghan, September 18, 2015, August 27, 2016, In September 2016, he publicly acknowledged that Obama was born in the United States,NEWS,weblink Trump finally admits it: 'President Barack Obama was born in the United States', CNN, September 16, 2016, Stephen, Collinson, Jeremy, Diamond, and falsely claimed that the rumors had been started by Hillary Clinton during her 2008 campaign.NEWS, The New York Times, Trump Drops False 'Birther' Theory, but Floats a New One: Clinton Started It, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, Alan, Rappeport, September 16, 2016,weblink File:President Trump Gives a Statement on the Infrastructure Discussion.webm|thumb|start=07:19|Trump makes a statement (begins at 07:20 into the video) on the Unite the Right rallyUnite the Right rallyTrump launched his 2016 presidential campaign with a speech in which he stated: "When Mexico sends its people, they're not sending their best. ... They're bringing drugs, they're bringing crime, they're rapists, and some, I assume, are good people."NEWS, Here Are All the Times Donald Trump Insulted Mexico,weblink January 13, 2018, Time, August 31, 2016, NEWS, Five Insults Donald Trump Has Fired At Mexicans In The Presidential Race,weblink January 13, 2018, Sky, September 1, 2016, Later, his attacks on a Mexican-American judge were criticized as racist.NEWS,weblink Paul Ryan Calls Donald Trump's Attack on Judge 'Racist,' but Still Backs Him, June 7, 2016, The New York Times, January 13, 2018, His comments following a 2017 far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, were seen as implying a moral equivalence between white supremacist marchers and those who protested them.NEWS,weblink Trump: 'Both sides' to blame for Charlottesville, Merica, Dan, August 26, 2017, CNN, January 13, 2018, In a January 2018 Oval Office meeting to discuss immigration legislation with Congressional leaders, Trump reportedly referred to El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, and African countries as "shitholes".WEB,weblink What Did Trump Say at Immigration Meeting?, FactCheck.org, Eugene, Kiely, January 16, 2018, February 19, 2018, Durbin quoted the president as saying of African nations, 'Those shitholes send us the people that they don't want.', His remarks were condemned as racist worldwide, as well as by many members of Congress.NEWS, Beauchamp, Zack, Trump's "shithole countries" comment exposes the core of Trumpism, Vox, January 11, 2018,weblink January 11, 2018, no,weblink January 12, 2018, NEWS, Dawsey, Josh, Trump's history of making offensive comments about nonwhite immigrants, The Washington Post, January 11, 2018,weblink January 11, 2018, no,weblink January 11, 2018, NEWS, Trump's 'shithole' comment denounced across the globe,weblink January 13, 2018, Politico, January 12, 2018, Trump has denied accusations of racism multiple times, saying he is the "least racist person".NEWS, Trump's own words revive debate over whether he's racist,weblink AP News, NEWS, Donald Trump denies being a racist after 'shithole' row,weblink BBC News, January 15, 2018, Trump's racially insensitive statementsNEWS,weblink Every moment in Trump's charged relationship with race, January 12, 2018, PBS News, January 13, 2018, have been condemned by many observers in the U.S. and around the world,NEWS,weblink 'There's no other word but racist': Trump's global rebuke for 'shithole' remark, January 13, 2018, The Guardian, January 13, 2018, NEWS,weblink British MPs Condemn 'Racist,' 'Incompetent' Trump for Endorsing 'Vile Fascist' Group, Raymond, Adam K., November 30, 2017, New York Magazine, January 13, 2018, but accepted by his supporters either as a rejection of political correctnessNEWS,weblink Trump's history of breaking decorum with remarks on race, ethnicity, Salama, Vivian, January 12, 2018, NBC News, January 13, 2018, NEWS,weblink Poll: Majority of Trump Voters Say His Political Correctness Is 'About Right', Nichols, Laura, June 29, 2017, Morning Consult, January 13, 2018, or because they harbor similar racial sentiments.NEWS, Trump's 'shithole' comment is his new rock bottom,weblink January 13, 2018, CNN, January 12, 2018, NEWS, Economic Anxiety Didn't Make People Vote Trump, Racism Did,weblink January 13, 2018, The Nation, May 8, 2017, Several studies and surveys have stated that racist attitudes and racial resentment have fueled Trump's political ascendance, and have become more significant than economic factors in determining party allegiance of voters.NEWS, The past year of research has made it very clear: Trump won because of racial resentment,weblink January 14, 2018, Vox, December 15, 2017, According to an October 2017 Politico/Morning Consult poll, 45 percent of American voters viewed Trump as racist and 40 percent did not.NEWS, Poll: Voters see Trump as reckless, not honest,weblink Politico, October 25, 2017, In a June 2018 Quinnipiac University poll, 49 percent of respondents believed that Trump is racist while 47 percent believed he is not. Additionally, 55 percent said he "has emboldened people who hold racist beliefs to express those beliefs publicly."WEB,weblink Harsh Words For U.S. Family Separation Policy, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds; Voters Have Dim View Of Trump, Dems On Immigration, Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, July 3, 2018, July 5, 2018, WEB,weblink 44 Percent Of White Americans Think Donald Trump Is Racist, New Poll Finds, Newsweek, July 5, 2018, July 5, 2018, Tim, Marcin,

Relationship with the press

(File:President Trump's First 100 Days- 45 (33573172373).jpg|thumb|President Trump talking to the press, March 2017)Throughout his career, Trump has sought media attention. His interactions with the press turned into what some sources called a "love-hate" relationship.WEB,weblink Trump's love-hate relationship with the press, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, April 28, 2018, July 4, 2018, Parnes, Amy, WEB,weblink Love and Hate: The Media's Co-Dependent Relationship With Donald Trump, Fortune (magazine), Fortune, March 1, 2016, July 4, 2018, Ingram, Mathew, WEB,weblink Trump's love-hate relationship with media intensifies, Arab News, January 24, 2017, July 4, 2018, According to biographer Michael D'Antonio, Trump began promoting himself in the press in the 1970s.INTERVIEW, Who is Donald Trump?, July 10, 2016, July 4, 2018, D'Antonio, Michael, CNN, During his 2016 presidential campaign, Trump accused the press of intentionally misinterpreting his words and of being biased, although he benefited from a record amount of free media coverage, elevating his standing in the Republican primaries. According to journalist Lesley Stahl, after Trump won the 2016 presidential election, he had told her that he kept attacking the media to "demean" and "discredit", "so when you write negative stories about me no one will believe you".WEB, Thomsen, Jacqueline, '60 Minutes' correspondent: Trump said he attacks the press so no one believes negative coverage,weblink The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, May 23, 2018, Into his presidency, much of the press coverage of Trump and his administration was negative.WEB, Trump makes it explicit: Negative coverage of him is fake coverage, Washington Post, May 9, 2018,weblink Bump, Philip, May 9, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Calls Media 'Enemy Of The American People' In Latest Attack, Associated Press, KPIX, February 17, 2017, February 17, 2017, Trump has often referred to the press as "fake news media" and "the enemy of the people".NEWS, Bondarenko, Veronika, Trump keeps saying 'enemy of the people' — but the phrase has a very ugly history,weblink Business Insider, October 25, 2017, He has privately and publicly mused about taking away critical reporters' White House press credentials (despite, during his campaign, promising not to do so once he became president).NEWS,weblink Trump's latest shot at the press corps: 'Take away credentials?', Collins, Brian Stelter and Kaitlan, CNNMoney, May 9, 2018, On his first day in office, Trump falsely accused journalists of understating the size of the crowd at his inauguration, and called the media "among the most dishonest human beings on earth".The relationship between Trump, the media, and fake news has been studied. One study found that between October 7 and November 14, 2016, while 1 in 4 Americans visited a fake news website, "Trump supporters visited the most fake news websites, which were overwhelmingly pro-Trump" and "almost 6 in 10 visits to fake news websites came from the 10 percent of people with the most conservative online information diets".WEB, Guess, Andrew, Nyhan, Brendan, Reifler, Jason, January 9, 2018, Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, Dartmouth.edu,weblink February 4, 2018, JOURNAL, H. Allcott, M.Gentzkow, 2017, Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 election, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31, 2, 211–236, May 3, 2017,weblink 10.1257/jep.31.2.211, Brendan Nyhan, one of the authors of the study by researchers from Princeton University, Dartmouth College, and the University of Exeter, stated in an interview on NBC News: "People got vastly more misinformation from Donald Trump than they did from fake news websites".WEB, Sarlin, Benjy, 'Fake news' went viral in 2016. This professor studied who clicked., NBC News, January 14, 2018,weblink February 4, 2018,

Popular culture

Trump has been the subject of comedians, flash cartoon artists, and online caricature artists. He has been parodied regularly on Saturday Night Live by Phil Hartman, Darrell Hammond, and Alec Baldwin, and in South Park as Mr. Garrison. The Simpsons episode "Bart to the Future", written during his 2000 campaign for the Reform party, anticipated a future Trump presidency. A dedicated parody series called The President Show debuted in April 2017 on Comedy Central, while another one called Our Cartoon President debuted on Showtime in February 2018.NEWS,weblink 'Donald Trump' Gets a Comedy Central Series, Megan, Garber, The Atlantic, April 3, 2017, April 4, 2017, Starting in the 1990s, Trump was a guest about 24 times on the nationally syndicated Howard Stern Show on talk radio.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=166}} Trump also had his own daily talk radio program called Trumped!, from 2004 to 2008.{{sfn|Payment|2007|p=85}}NEWS,weblink The Donald to Get New Wife, Radio Show, People (magazine), People, April 29, 2004, November 19, 2013, Stephen M., Silverman, WEB,weblink Donald Trump Biography, trump.com, March 17, 2009,weblink March 17, 2009, Trump's wealth and lifestyle had been a fixture of hip hop lyrics since the 1980s, as he was named in hundreds of songs, most often in a positive tone.VIDEO,weblink 25 years of Donald Trump mentions in hip hop, YouTube, mantolius, February 25, 2016, November 15, 2016, Mentions of Trump turned negative and pejorative after he ran for office in 2015.WEB,weblink Hip-Hop Is Turning On Donald Trump, Allison, McCann,

Social media

Trump's presence on social media has attracted attention worldwide since he joined Twitter in March 2009. He communicated heavily on Twitter during the 2016 election campaign, and has continued to use this channel during his presidency. The attention on Trump's Twitter activity has significantly increased since he was sworn in as president. He uses Twitter as a direct means of communication with the public, sidelining the press.WEB,weblink Donald Trump's Social Media Use Is Key To Sidelining The Press, Dustin, Steeve, January 23, 2017, The Federalist (website), The Federalist, May 31, 2017, Many of the assertions he tweeted have been proven false.NEWS, Qui, Linda, Fact-Checking President Trump Through His First 100 Days,weblink The New York Times, April 27, 2017, June 25, 2017, no,weblink June 22, 2017, NEWS, Kessler, Glenn, Lee, Michelle Ye Hee, Fact Checker Analysis – President Trump's first 100 days: The fact check tally,weblink The Washington Post, May 1, 2017, June 25, 2017, no,weblink June 24, 2017, NEWS, Drinkard, Jim, Woodward, Calvin, Fact check: Trump's missions unaccomplished despite his claims,weblink Chicago Tribune, June 24, 2017, June 25, 2017, no,weblink June 25, 2017, Two-thirds of Americans dislike his "use of Twitter", according to a July 2017 ABC News/Washington Post poll.NEWS, Langer, Gary, Public to Trump: Lay off Twitter,weblink ABC News, July 17, 2017,

Recognitions

{{further|List of honors and awards received by Donald Trump}}In December 2016, Time named Trump as its "Person of the Year".NEWS, Gibbs, Nancy, Why Donald Trump is TIME's Person of the Year,weblink December 7, 2016, Time (magazine), Time, December 7, 2016, In an interview on The Today Show, he said he was honored by the award, but he took issue with the magazine for referring to him as the "President of the Divided States of America."NEWS, Kim, Eun Kyung, Donald Trump: Mitt Romney is still in the running for secretary of state,weblink December 7, 2016, TODAY.com, December 7, 2016, NEWS, Davis, Julie Hirschfeld, Mitt Romney Still in the Running for Secretary of State, Trump Says,weblink December 7, 2016, The New York Times, December 7, 2016, In the same month, he was named Financial Times Person of the Year.NEWS, Luce, Edward, FT Person of the Year: Donald Trump,weblink December 17, 2017, Financial Times, December 12, 2016, In December 2016, Forbes ranked Trump the second most powerful person in the world, after Vladimir Putin and before Angela Merkel.NEWS, The World's Most Powerful People,weblink Forbes, December 2016, December 14, 2016, In 2015, Robert Gordon University revoked the honorary Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) it had granted Trump in 2010, stating that "Mr. Trump has made a number of statements that are wholly incompatible with the ethos and values of the university."NEWS, Donald Trump: Robert Gordon University strips honorary degree,weblink BBC News, December 9, 2015, May 3, 2018,

Political career

Political activities up to 2015

Trump's political party affiliation has changed numerous times over the years. He was a Democrat prior to 1987, when he registered as a Republican in Manhattan. He switched to Independent in 1999, Democrat in 2001, and back to Republican in 2009.NEWS, Gillin, Joshua, Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade',weblink March 18, 2017, PolitiFact, August 24, 2015, In 1987 Trump spent almost $100,000 to place full-page advertisements in three major newspapers, proclaiming that "America should stop paying to defend countries that can afford to defend themselves".NEWS,weblink Trump Gives a Vague Hint of Candidacy, The New York Times, Michael, Oreskes, September 2, 1987, February 17, 2016, The advertisements also advocated for "reducing the budget deficit, working for peace in Central America, and speeding up nuclear disarmament negotiations with the Soviet Union."NEWS,weblink Trump Urged To Head Gala Of Democrats, The New York Times, November 18, 1987, After rumors of a presidential run, Trump was invited by Democratic senators Jim Wright and John Kerry, and Arkansas congressman Beryl Anthony Jr., to host a fundraising dinner for Democratic Congressional candidates and to switch parties. Anthony told The New York Times that "the message Trump has been preaching is a Democratic message". Asked whether the rumors were true, Trump denied being a candidate, but said, "I believe that if I did run for President, I'd win." According to a Gallup poll in December 1988, Trump was the tenth most admired man in America, behind Ted Kennedy and Bill Cosby.{{sfn|Kranish|Fisher|2017|p=3}}{{sfn|Gallup|1990|p=3}}

2000 presidential campaign

{{See also|Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2000}}In 1999, Trump filed an exploratory committee to seek the nomination of the Reform Party for the 2000 presidential election.NEWS, Richard, Winger, Richard Winger, Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries, December 25, 2011, Ballot Access News,weblink A July 1999 poll matching him against likely Republican nominee George W. Bush and likely Democratic nominee Al Gore showed Trump with seven percent support.NEWS, Donald Trump eyeing a run at the White House, Johnson, Glen, Standard-Speaker, Hazelton, Pennsylvania, Trump eventually dropped out of the race, but still went on to win the Reform Party primaries in California and Michigan.WEB,weblink Ballot Access News â€“ Donald Trump Ran For President in 2000 in Several Reform Party Presidential Primaries, ballot-access.org, July 1, 2015, WEB,weblink CA Secretary of State â€“ Primary 2000 â€“ Statewide Totals, ca.gov, July 1, 2015, yes,weblink February 16, 2015, After his run, Trump left the party due to the involvement of David Duke, Pat Buchanan, and Lenora Fulani.NEWS, Donald J., Trump, What I Saw at the Revolution, February 19, 2000, The New York Times,weblink Trump also considered running for president in 2004.NEWS, Travis, Shannon, Was he ever serious? How Trump strung the country along, again,weblink CNN, June 7, 2015, May 17, 2011, In 2005, Trump said that he voted for George W. Bush.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump in the No Spin Zone, Fox News, January 20, 2005, June 17, 2018, In 2008, he endorsed Republican John McCain for president.NEWS,weblink Trump endorses McCain, CNN, September 18, 2008, July 12, 2016,

2012 presidential speculation

File:Donald Trump (5440995138).jpg|thumb|left|Trump speaking at the Conservative Political Action ConferenceConservative Political Action ConferenceTrump publicly speculated about running for president in the 2012 election, and made his first speaking appearance at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in February 2011. The speech is credited for helping kick-start his political career within the Republican Party.NEWS,weblink GOProud Leads 'Trump in 2012' Movement at CPAC, Towleroad.com, February 10, 2011, On May 16, 2011, Trump announced he would not run for president in the 2012 election.NEWS, CNN Political Unit, Trump not running for president,weblink May 16, 2011, CNN, May 16, 2011, In February 2012, Trump endorsed Mitt Romney for president.NEWS, Trump endorses Romney, cites tough China position and electability, February 2, 2012, Fox News Channel,weblink yes,weblink January 28, 2017, Trump's presidential ambitions were generally not taken seriously at the time.WEB, MacAskill, Ewen, Donald Trump bows out of 2012 US presidential election race,weblink The Guardian, en, May 16, 2011, "Few US political commentators took his campaign seriously and many suggested he was only in it for the publicity.", Trump's moves were interpreted by some media as possible promotional tools for his reality show The Apprentice.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump says he might run for president. Three reasons he won't., The Christian Science Monitor, February 10, 2011, April 21, 2011, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Brings His 'Pretend To Run For President' Act To CPAC, HuffPost, April 21, 2011, Jason, Linkins, February 11, 2011, Before the 2016 election, The New York Times speculated that Trump "accelerated his ferocious efforts to gain stature within the political world" after Obama lampooned him at the White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner in April 2011.Haberman, Maggie and Alexander Burns. "Donald Trump’s Presidential Run Began in an Effort to Gain Stature." New York Times. March 12, 2016. April 13, 2018.

2013–2015

In 2013, Trump was a featured CPAC speaker.NEWS, Donald Trump to address CPAC,weblink Yahoo! News, March 6, 2013, In a sparsely-attended speech, he railed against illegal immigration while seeming to encourage immigration from Europe, bemoaned Obama's "unprecedented media protection", advised against harming Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security, and suggested that the government "take" Iraq's oil and use the proceeds to pay a million dollars each to families of dead soldiers.NEWS, Lucy, Madison, Trump: Immigration reform a "suicide mission" for GOP, March 15, 2013, CBS News,weblink NEWS, Dan, Amira, Photos of Donald Trump Delivering His Self-Aggrandizing CPAC Speech to a Half-Empty Ballroom, March 15, 2013, New York (magazine), New York (magazine),weblink He spent over $1 million that year to research a possible 2016 candidacy.NEWS, Trump researching 2016 run, May 27, 2013, Page Six,weblink In October 2013, New York Republicans circulated a memo suggesting Trump should run for governor of the state in 2014 against Andrew Cuomo. Trump responded that while New York had problems and its taxes were too high, he was not interested in the governorship.NEWS, Spector, Joseph, N.Y. Republicans want Donald Trump to run for governor,weblink USA Today, October 14, 2013, October 31, 2013, A February 2014 Quinnipiac poll had shown Trump losing to the more popular Cuomo by 37 points in a hypothetical election.NEWS, Miller, Jake,weblink Trump trumped by Cuomo in N.Y. governor race, poll finds, February 13, 2014, CBS News, February 9, 2017, In February 2015, Trump told NBC that he was not prepared to sign on for another season of The Apprentice, as he mulled his political future.NEWS, Paul, Feely, Trump won't renew 'Apprentice' so that he might focus on a presidential run, February 27, 2015, New Hampshire Union Leader,weblink July 22, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180712222329weblink">weblink July 12, 2018, yes,

2016 Republican presidential primaries

File:Donald Trump Laconia Rally, Laconia, NH 4 by Michael Vadon July 16 2015 19.jpg|thumb|alt=Trump speaking behind a brown wooden podium, wearing a dark blue suit and a red tie. The podium sports a blue "TRUMP" sign.|Trump campaigning in Laconia, New HampshireLaconia, New HampshireOn June 16, 2015, Trump announced his candidacy for President of the United States at Trump Tower in Manhattan. In the speech, Trump discussed illegal immigration, offshoring of American jobs, the U.S. national debt, and Islamic terrorism, which all remained large priorities during the campaign. He also announced his campaign slogan: "Make America Great Again".SPEECH,weblink Here's Donald Trump's Presidential Announcement Speech, Time (magazine), Time, Donald, Trump, Donald Trump, June 16, 2015, Trump Tower, New York City, Transcript of full speechWEB, Donald Trump Presidential Campaign Announcement Full Speech (C-SPAN),weblink YouTube, C-SPAN, June 2, 2018, Video, June 16, 2015, Trump said his wealth would make him immune to pressure from campaign donors.NEWS,weblink Adam B., Lerner, The 10 best lines from Donald Trump's announcement speech, Politico, June 16, 2015, June 7, 2018, He declared that he was funding his own campaign,TWEET, realDonaldTrump, Donald Trump, 640280850182090752, By self-funding my campaign, I am not controlled by my donors, special interests or lobbyists. I am only working for the people of the U.S.!, September 5, 2015, June 7, 2018, but according to The Atlantic, "Trump's claims of self-funding have always been dubious at best and actively misleading at worst."NEWS,weblink The Lie of Trump's 'Self-Funding' Campaign, The Atlantic, David A., Graham, May 13, 2016, June 7, 2018, In the 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, Trump entered a field of 17 major candidates who were vying for the 2016 Republican nomination; this was the largest presidential field in American history.NEWS,weblink More People Are Running for Presidential Nomination Than Ever, Linshi, Jack, July 7, 2015, February 14, 2016, Time, Trump's campaign was initially not taken seriously by political analysts, but he quickly rose to the top of opinion polls.NEWS,weblink How Donald Trump Evolved From a Joke to an Almost Serious Candidate, The New Republic, July 23, 2018, en-US, On (Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016#March 1, 2016: Super Tuesday|Super Tuesday), Trump won the plurality of the vote, and he remained the front-runner throughout the remainder of the primaries. By March 2016, Trump became poised to win the Republican nomination.NEWS,weblink Why Donald Trump is poised to win the nomination and lose the general election, in one poll, Bump, Philip, March 23, 2016, The Washington Post, After a landslide win in Indiana on May 3, 2016—which prompted the remaining candidates Cruz and John Kasich to suspend their presidential campaigns—RNC Chairman Reince Priebus declared Trump the presumptive Republican nominee.NEWS,weblink RNC Chairman: Trump is our nominee, Nussbaum, Matthew, May 3, 2016, May 4, 2016, Politico.com,

2016 general election campaign

After becoming the presumptive Republican nominee, Trump shifted his focus to the general election. Trump began campaigning against Hillary Clinton, who became the presumptive Democratic nominee on June 6, 2016.Clinton had established a significant lead over Trump in national polls throughout most of 2016. In early July, Clinton's lead narrowed in national polling averages following the FBI's re-opening of its investigation into her ongoing email controversy.NEWS,weblink Poll: Clinton and Trump Now Tied as GOP Convention Kicks Off, Hartig, Hannah, July 19, 2016, NBC News, Lapinski, John, Psyllos, Stephanie, NEWS,weblink 2016 General Election: Trump vs. Clinton, October 3, 2016, HuffPost, NEWS,weblink General Election: Trump vs. Clinton, October 3, 2016, RealClearPolitics, File:Donald Trump and Mike Pence RNC July 2016.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Donald Trump and his running mate for vice president, Mike Pence. They appear to be standing in front of a huge screen with the colors of the American flag displayed on it. Trump is at left, facing toward the viewer and making "thumbs-up" gestures with both hands. Pence is at right, facing toward Trump and clapping.|Candidate Trump and running mate Mike Pence at the Republican National ConventionRepublican National ConventionOn July 15, 2016, Trump announced his selection of Indiana Governor Mike Pence as his running mate.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump officially names Mike Pence for VP, Levingston, Ivan, July 15, 2016, CNBC, Four days later on July 19, Trump and Pence were officially nominated by the Republican Party at the Republican National Convention.NEWS,weblink Trump closes the deal, becomes Republican nominee for president, July 19, 2016, Fox News Channel, The list of convention speakers and attendees included former presidential nominee Bob Dole, but the other prior nominees did not attend.NEWS,weblink 9 Elephants in the Room at RNC: Who's Missing From the Speakers List, Timm, Jane C., July 17, 2016, August 16, 2016, NBC News, NEWS,weblink Flake, McCain split over backing Trump, Raju, Manu, May 5, 2016, May 7, 2016, CNN, Two days later, Trump officially accepted the nomination in a 76-minute speech. The historically long speech received mixed reviews, with net negative viewer reactions according to CNN and Gallup polls.NEWS,weblink 35 million TV viewers watch Donald Trump's acceptance speech at GOP convention, Battaglio, Stephen, July 22, 2016, Los Angeles Times, July 23, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump bounces into the lead, Agiesta, Jennifer, August 3, 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink For First Time, Trump's Image on Par With Clinton's, Newport, Frank, July 26, 2016, August 3, 2016, Gallup (company), Gallup News, On September 26, 2016, Trump and Clinton faced off in their first presidential debate, which was held at Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, and moderated by NBC News anchor Lester Holt.WEB,weblink 2016 Presidential Debate Schedule, Central, 2016 Election, September 23, 2015, September 30, 2016, The TV broadcast was the most watched presidential debate in United States history.NEWS,weblink Debate breaks record as most-watched in U.S. history, Stelter, Brian, September 27, 2016, September 30, 2016, CNNMoney, The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in Saint Louis, Missouri. The beginning of that debate was dominated by references to a recently leaked tape of Trump making sexually explicit comments, which Trump countered by referring to alleged sexual misconduct on the part of Bill Clinton. Prior to the debate, Trump had invited four women who had accused Clinton of impropriety to a press conference. The final presidential debate was held on October 19 at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Trump's refusal to say whether he would accept the result of the election, regardless of the outcome, drew particular attention, with some saying it undermined democracy.NEWS,weblink US presidential debate: Trump won't commit to accept election result, October 20, 2016, October 27, 2016, BBC News, NEWS,weblink How US media reacted to the third presidential debate, October 20, 2016, October 27, 2016, ABC News,

Political positions

Trump's campaign platform emphasized renegotiating U.S.–China relations and free trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Trans-Pacific Partnership, strongly enforcing immigration laws, and building a new wall along the U.S.–Mexico border. His other campaign positions included pursuing energy independence while opposing climate change regulations such as the Clean Power Plan and the Paris Agreement, modernizing and expediting services for veterans, repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act, abolishing Common Core education standards, investing in infrastructure, simplifying the tax code while reducing taxes for all economic classes, and imposing tariffs on imports by companies that offshore jobs. During the campaign, he also advocated a largely non-interventionist approach to foreign policy while increasing military spending, extreme vetting or banning immigrants from Muslim-majority countriesWEB,weblink Trump's promises before and after election, September 19, 2017, BBC, to pre-empt domestic Islamic terrorism, and aggressive military action against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.The media has described Trump's political positions as populist,NEWS,weblink How Can Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Both Be 'Populist'?, Kazin, Michael, March 22, 2016, The New York Times Magazine, NEWS,weblink Trump's 6 populist positions, Becker, Bernie, February 13, 2016, Politico, and some of his views cross party lines. For example, his economic campaign plan calls for large reductions in income taxes and deregulation,WEB,weblink Tax Reform | Donald J Trump for President, Donaldjtrump.com,weblink January 4, 2016, yes, January 6, 2016, consistent with Republican Party policies, along with significant infrastructure investment,NEWS,weblink Liberals will love something Donald Trump said last night, Ehrenfreund, Max, December 16, 2015, The Washington Post, usually considered a Democratic Party policy.NEWS,weblink Democrats can finally agree with Donald Trump on something, Sharman, Jon, December 21, 2016, December 21, 2016, The Independent, NEWS,weblink Would Trump's Infrastructure Plan Fix America's Cities?, Williams, Mason B., January 7, 2017, The Atlantic, According to political writer Jack Shafer, Trump may be a "fairly conventional American populist when it comes to his policy views", but he attracts free media attention, sometimes by making outrageous comments.NEWS,weblink Did We Create Trump?, Shafer, Jack, May 2016, ... Trump's outrageous comments about John McCain, Muslims, the 14th Amendment and all the rest ..., Politico, {{sfn|Trump|Schwartz|2009|p=56}}Trump has supported or leaned toward varying political positions over time.NEWS,weblink 20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June, Fahrenthold, David A., August 17, 2015, The Washington Post, NEWS,weblink 'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops, Hensch, Mark, July 12, 2015, The Hill, NEWS,weblink Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?, Noah, Timothy, July 26, 2015, Politico, Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory", while NBC News counted "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues" during his campaign.NEWS,weblink A Full List of Donald Trump's Rapidly Changing Policy Positions, Timm, Jane C., July 12, 2016, NBC News,

Campaign rhetoric

In his campaign, Trump said that he disdained political correctness; he also stated that the media had intentionally misinterpreted his words, and he made other claims of adverse media bias.NEWS, Kenneth T., Walsh, Trump: Media Is 'Dishonest and Corrupt', August 15, 2016, U.S. News & World Report,weblink 'If the disgusting and corrupt media covered me honestly and didn't put false meaning into the words I say, I would be beating Hillary by 20 percent,' Trump also tweeted Sunday., yes,weblink September 16, 2016, NEWS, Ted, Koppel, Trump: "I feel I'm an honest person", July 24, 2016, CBS News,weblink 'Well, I think that I'm an honest person,' Trump said. 'I feel I'm an honest person. And I don't mind being criticized at all by the media, but I do wanna â€“ you know, I do want them to be straight about it.', NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is waging war on political correctness. And he's losing., Aaron, Blake, July 6, 2015, The Washington Post, In part due to his fame, and due to his willingness to say things other candidates would not, and because a candidate who is gaining ground automatically provides a compelling news story, Trump received an unprecedented amount of free media coverage during his run for the presidency, which elevated his standing in the Republican primaries.NEWS,weblink This Harvard study is a powerful indictment of the media's role in Donald Trump's rise, Chris, Cillizza, June 14, 2016, The Washington Post, Fact-checking organizations have denounced Trump for making a record number of false statements compared to other candidates.NEWS,weblink The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump, FactCheck.org, December 21, 2015, WEB,weblink 2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump, PolitiFact.com, December 21, 2015, Angie Drobnic, Holan, Linda, Qiu, NEWS, Paul, Farhi, Think Trump's wrong? Fact checkers can tell you how often. (Hint: A lot.), February 26, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink At least four major publications—Politico, The Washington Post, The New York Times, and the Los Angeles Times—have pointed out lies or falsehoods in his campaign statements, with the Los Angeles Times saying that "Never in modern presidential politics has a major candidate made false statements as routinely as Trump has".NEWS, CNN,weblink The weekend America's newspapers called Donald Trump a liar, Brian, Stelter, September 26, 2016, NPR said that Trump's campaign statements were often opaque or suggestive.NEWS, McCammon, Sarah, Donald Trump's controversial speech often walks the line, NPR, August 10, 2016, Many of Trump's opaque statements seem to rely on suggestion and innuendo., Trump's penchant for hyperbole is believed to have roots in the New York real estate scene, where Trump established his wealth and where puffery abounds. Trump has called his public speaking style "truthful hyperbole", an effective political tactic that may, however, backfire for overpromising.NEWS, Emily, Flitter, James, Oliphant, Best president ever! How Trump's love of hyperbole could backfire, August 28, 2015, Reuters,weblink Trump's penchant for exaggeration could backfire â€“ he risks promising voters more than he can deliver ... Optimistic exaggeration ... is a hallmark of the cutthroat New York real estate world where many developers, accustomed to ramming their way into deals, puff up their portfolios. 'A little hyperbole never hurts,' he wrote ... For Trump, exaggerating has always been a frequent impulse, especially when the value of his Trump brand is disputed.,

White supremacist support

During the campaign, Trump was accused of pandering to white supremacists.NEWS, Lopez, German, We need to stop acting like Trump isn't pandering to white supremacists,weblink January 2, 2018, Vox, August 14, 2017, NEWS, Blow, Charles M., Is Trump a White Supremacist?,weblink The New York Times, September 18, 2017, NEWS, Kharakh, Ben, Primack, Dan, Donald Trump's Social Media Ties to White Supremacists,weblink Fortune, March 22, 2016, He retweeted open racists,NEWS, White, Daniel, Trump Criticized for Retweeting Racist Account,weblink Time, January 26, 2016, WEB, White Nationalists and the Alt-Right Celebrate Trump's Victory,weblink Southern Poverty Law Center, November 10, 2016, and repeatedly refused to condemn David Duke, the Ku Klux Klan or white supremacists, in an interview on CNN's State of the Union, saying that he would first need to "do research" because he knew nothing about Duke or white supremacists.NEWS, Donald Trump Refuses to Condemn KKK, Disavow David Duke Endorsement,weblink January 20, 2018, Time, February 28, 2016, NEWS, Lozada, Carlos, Donald Trump and the alt-right: A marriage of convenience,weblink March 18, 2017, The Washington Post, December 30, 2016, The alt-right movement coalesced around Trump's candidacy,NEWS, Ohlheiser, Abby, Anti-Semitic Trump supporters made a giant list of people to target with a racist meme,weblink The Washington Post, June 3, 2016, due in part to its opposition to multiculturalism and immigration.NEWS, Weigel, David,weblink 'Racialists' are cheered by Trump's latest strategy, The Washington Post, August 20, 2016, June 23, 2018, NEWS,weblink Clinton is attacking the 'Alt-Right' â€“ What is it?, Gregory, Krieg, August 25, 2016, August 25, 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink 'Alt-right' movement makes mark on US presidential election, Demetri, Sevastopulo, Financial Times, Members of the alt-right enthusiastically supported Trump's campaign.BOOK, Hawley, George, Making Sense of the Alt-Right, 2017, Columbia University Press, 0-231-54600-9, In August 2016, he appointed Steve Bannon—the executive chairman of Breitbart News—as his campaign CEO; Bannon described Breitbart News as "the platform for the alt-right."NEWS, Clickbait scoops and an engaged alt-right: everything to know about Breitbart News,weblink November 18, 2016, The Guardian, November 15, 2016, Trump personally condemned the alt-right in an interview after the election.NEWS, Trump disavows 'alt-right' supporters,weblink BBC News, November 22, 2016, October 25, 2017, According to Michael Barkun, the Trump campaign was remarkable for bringing fringe ideas, beliefs, and organizations into the mainstream.JOURNAL, President Trump and the Fringe, Barkun, Michael, Michael Barkun, 10.1080/09546553.2017.1313649, Terrorism and Political Violence, 29, 3, 437, 2017, Routledge, 1556-1836,

Financial disclosures

As a presidential candidate, Trump disclosed details of his companies, assets, and revenue sources to the extent required by the FEC. His 2015 report listed assets above $1.4 billion and outstanding debts of at least $265 million.NEWS,weblink Yahoo News, Donald Trump wealth details released by federal regulators, August 9, 2015, yes,weblink August 1, 2015, Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304075146weblink |date=March 4, 2016 }} (U.S. OGE Form 278e). Bloomberg Businessweek. July 15, 2015. The 2016 form showed little change.Trump did not release his tax returns during his presidential campaign or afterward,NEWS,weblink Romney calls decision by Trump not to release tax returns 'disqualifying', May 11, 2016, July 18, 2016, Fox News Channel, NEWS, Cillizza, Chris,weblink Happy Tax Day! Donald Trump still has never released his tax returns!, CNN, April 17, 2018, June 9, 2018, contrary to usual practice by every candidate since Gerald Ford in 1976 and to his promise in 2014 to do so if he ran for office.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Breaks With Recent History by Not Releasing Tax Returns, Rappeport, Alan, May 11, 2016, The New York Times, July 19, 2016, NEWS, Disis, Jill,weblink Presidential tax returns: It started with Nixon. Will it end with Trump?, CNN, January 26, 2017, June 9, 2018, NEWS, Erb, Kelly Phillip,weblink Trump Won't Release Tax Returns, Citing IRS Audit: Is It A Legitimate Excuse?, Forbes, August 12, 2016, June 9, 2018, Trump's refusal led to speculation that he was hiding something.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump rejects Mitt Romney's ironic tax attack, Collinson, Stephen, February 25, 2016, February 25, 2016, CNN, Diamond, Jeremy, Khan, Hasan, He said that his tax returns were being audited, and his lawyers had advised him against releasing them.NEWS,weblink Trump says he can't release tax returns because of audits, Isidore, Chris, February 26, 2016, February 26, 2016, Sahadi, Jeanne, CNN, NEWS,weblink Trump's 12 Years of Audits 'Very Unusual,' Ex-IRS Agent Says, Browning, Lynnley, February 26, 2016, Bloomberg, February 26, 2016, Trump has told the press that his tax rate was none of their business, and that he tries to pay "as little tax as possible".NEWS,weblink Trump on his tax rate: 'None of your business', Kopan, Tal, May 13, 2016, CNN, NEWS,weblink Trump vows to release his tax returns, Wilhelm, Colin, January 24, 2016, Politico, February 22, 2016, It's a little tax, NEWS,weblink Fact-Check: Donald Trump Can't Release His Taxes While Being Audited?, Zarroli, Jim, February 26, 2016, NPR, In October 2016, portions of Trump's state filings for 1995 were leaked to a reporter from The New York Times. They show that Trump declared a loss of $916 million that year, which could have let him avoid taxes for up to 18 years. During the second presidential debate, Trump acknowledged using the deduction, but declined to provide details such as the specific years it was applied.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Acknowledges Not Paying Federal Income Taxes for Years, Eder, Steve, October 10, 2016, The New York Times, Twohey, Megan, He said that he did use the tax code to avoid paying taxes.NEWS,weblink Full transcript: Second 2016 presidential debate, Politico Staff, NEWS,weblink Pages From Donald Trump's 1995 Income Tax Records, October 1, 2016, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Tax Records Show He Could Have Avoided Taxes for Nearly Two Decades, The Times Found, David, Barstow, Susanne, Craig, Russ, Buettner, Megan, Twohey, October 1, 2016, The New York Times, On March 14, 2017, the first two pages of Trump's 2005 federal income tax returns were leaked to Rachel Maddow and shown on MSNBC. The document states that Trump had a gross adjusted income of $150 million and paid $38 million in federal taxes. The White House confirmed the authenticity of these documents and stated: "Despite this substantial income figure and tax paid, it is totally illegal to steal and publish tax returns."NEWS,weblink Trump Wrote Off $100 Million in Business Losses in 2005, Baker, Peter, March 15, 2017, The New York Times, March 15, 2017, Drucker, Jesse, A1, Craig, Susanne, Barstow, David, NEWS,weblink WH releases Trump tax info ahead of MSNBC report: He paid $38M in federal taxes in '05, Jagoda, Naomi, March 15, 2017, The Hill,

Sexual misconduct allegations

A total of 19 women have accused Trump of sexual misconduct {{as of|2017|12|lc=y}}.NEWS,weblink What About the 19 Women Who Accused Trump of Sexual Misconduct?, Ford, Matt, The Atlantic, December 7, 2017, Trump and his campaign have denied {{as of|2016|10|lc=y}} all of the sexual misconduct accusations, which Trump has called "false smears", and alleged a conspiracy against him.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump threatens to sue New York Times over sexual harassment report, Byers, Dylan, October 12, 2016, October 13, 2016, CNNMoney, NEWS,weblink Trump demands NYT retracts 'libelous article' about alleged assault as new claims emerge, October 13, 2016, October 13, 2016, Fox News Channel, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Calls Allegations by Women 'False Smears', Healy, Patrick, October 13, 2016, The New York Times, October 13, 2016, Rappeport, Alan, Two days before the second presidential debate, a 2005 recording surfaced in which Trump was heard bragging about forcibly kissing and groping women.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Surrogates Have Their Own Baggage With Women Voters, Sakuma, Amanda, October 26, 2016, NBC News, ... newly unearthed audio recordings showed Trump bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals., NEWS,weblink More women accuse Trump of aggressive sexual behavior, Jan, Tracy, October 14, 2016, Trump has been confronted with a slew of allegations of sexual misconduct over the past week, starting with a report in The Washington Post of a 2005 tape featuring him bragging about forcibly kissing women and grabbing them by the genitals., Boston Globe, NEWS,weblink US presidential debate recap: Polls split on whether Donald Trump or Hillary Clinton won poisonous argument, Lawler, David, October 13, 2016, Henderson, Barney, ... it was a matter of minutes before the lewd tape, in which Mr Trump brags about 'grabbing p----' and forcibly kissing women, was brought up., Allen, Nick, Sherlock, Ruth, The Daily Telegraph, The hot mic recording was captured on a studio bus in which Trump and Billy Bush were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood. In the tape, Trump said: "I just start kissing them ... I don't even wait. And when you're a star, they let you do it, you can do anything ... grab 'em by the pussy."NEWS, Timm, Jane C., Trump caught on hot mic making lewd comments about women in 2005,weblink NBC News, October 7, 2016, June 10, 2018, During the recording, Trump also spoke of his efforts to seduce a married woman, saying he "moved on her very heavily".Trump's language on the tape was described by the media as "vulgar", "sexist", and descriptive of sexual assault. The incident prompted him to make his first public apology during the campaign,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Apology Caps Day of Outrage Over Lewd Tape, Burns, Alexander, October 7, 2016, The New York Times, October 8, 2016, Haberman, Maggie, Martin, Jonathan, Maggie Haberman, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's vulgar conversation about women caught on hot mic, Jensen, Salvatore, October 8, 2016, Cosumnes Connection, October 8, 2016,weblink October 9, 2016, and caused outrage across the political spectrum,NEWS,weblink Kaine on lewd Trump tapes: 'Makes me sick to my stomach', Hagen, Lisa, October 7, 2016, The New York Times, October 8, 2016, NEWS,weblink Pence to fill in for Donald Trump Saturday following video leak, Stacey, Madison, October 8, 2016, October 8, 2016, WXIN-TV, Indianapolis, Indiana, with many Republicans withdrawing their endorsements of his candidacy and some urging him to quit the race.NEWS,weblink Here's the fast-growing list of Republicans calling for Donald Trump to drop out, Blake, Aaron, October 8, 2016, The Washington Post, October 8, 2016, Subsequently, at least 15 womenNEWS,weblink A brief guide to the 17 women Trump has allegedly assaulted, groped or harassed, Nelson, Libby, October 20, 2016, October 21, 2016, Vox, Frostenson, Sarah, came forward with new accusations of sexual misconduct, including unwanted kissing and groping, resulting in widespread media coverage.NEWS,weblink The growing list of women who have stepped forward to accuse Trump of touching them inappropriately, Helderman, Rosiland, The Washington Post, October 16, 2016, NEWS,weblink The women who have accused Donald Trump, Stableford, Dylan, October 17, 2016, Yahoo News, October 18, 2016, In his two public statements in response to the controversy, Trump alleged that former president Bill Clinton had "abused women" and that Hillary had bullied her husband's victims.NEWS,weblink "I never said I'm a perfect person," Trump says about lewd comments, October 7, 2016, December 11, 2016, CBS News, Associated Press,

Election to the presidency

(File:ElectoralCollege2016.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|2016 electoral vote results)On November 8, 2016, Trump received 306 pledged electoral votes versus 232 for Clinton. The official counts were 304 and 227 respectively, after defections on both sides.NEWS, Kiersten, Schmidt, Wilson, Andrews, A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton, December 19, 2016, January 31, 2017, The New York Times,weblink Trump received a smaller share of the popular vote than Clinton, which made him the fifth person to be elected president while losing the popular vote.WEB, Desilver, Drew.,weblink Trump's victory another example of how Electoral College wins are bigger than popular vote ones, Pew Research Center, December 20, 2017, {{refn|group=nb|Records on this matter date from the year 1824. The number "five" includes the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016. Despite their similarities, some of these five elections had peculiar results; e.g. John Quincy Adams trailed in both the national popular vote and the electoral college in 1824 (since no-one had a majority in the electoral college, Adams was chosen by the House of Representatives), and Samuel Tilden in 1876 remains the only losing candidate to win an actual majority of the popular vote (rather than just a plurality).BOOK, Thomas, G. Scott, Counting the Votes: A New Way to Analyze America's Presidential Elections,weblink 125, ABC-CLIO, 2015, 978-1-4408-3883-5, WEB, Cheney, Kyle,weblink Trump lawyer cites 1876 crisis to rebuke Electoral College suit, Politico, December 14, 2016, }} Clinton was ahead nationwide by 2.1 percentage points, with 65,853,514 votes ({{percent| 65,853,514| 136,669,276|2|pad=yes}}) to 62,984,828 votes ({{percent| 62,984,828| 136,669,276|2|pad=yes}}); neither candidate reached a majority.WEB, Official 2016 Presidential General Election Results,weblink Federal Election Commission, December 2017, February 12, 2018, Trump's victory was considered a stunning political upset by most observers, as polls had consistently showed Hillary Clinton with a nationwide—though diminishing—lead, as well as a favorable advantage in most of the competitive states. Trump's support had been modestly underestimated throughout his campaign,NEWS,weblink Trump pulls off biggest upset in U.S. history, Politico, November 9, 2016, Maxwell, Tani, November 9, 2016, and many observers blamed errors in polls, partially attributed to pollsters overestimating Clinton's support among well-educated and nonwhite voters, while underestimating Trump's support among white working-class voters.NEWS,weblink Why Trump Won: Working-Class Whites, The New York Times, November 9, 2016, Nate, Cohn, November 9, 2016, Actually, the polls were relatively accurate,NEWS,weblink Can You Trust Trump's Approval Rating Polls?, but media outlets and pundits alike showed overconfidence in a Clinton victory despite a large number of undecided voters and a favorable concentration of Trump's core constituencies in competitive states.NEWS,weblink The Media Has A Probability Problem, Trump won 30 states, including Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, which had been called a blue wall of Democratic strongholds since the 1990s. Clinton won 20 states and the District of Columbia.Trump's victory marked the return of a Republican White House combined with control of both chambers of Congress.Trump is the wealthiest president in U.S. history, even after adjusting for inflation.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump is officially the richest US president in history, Martin, Emmie, January 23, 2017, Business Insider, September 9, 2017, He is also the first president without prior government or military service.NEWS, Peter, Weber, Donald Trump will be the first U.S. president with no government or military experience, November 9, 2016, The Week,weblink NEWS, Jesse, Yomtov, Where Trump ranks among least experienced presidents, November 8, 2016, USA Today,weblink NEWS,weblink Donald Trump will be the only US president ever with no political or military experience, Crockett, Zachary, November 11, 2016, Vox, January 3, 2017, Of the 43{{refn|group=nb|Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president.NEWS, Will Trump Be The 44th Or 45th President? Yes And Yes NPR Ethics Handbook,weblink npr ethics handbook, June 4, 2017,weblink June 4, 2017, yes, November 10, 2016, }} previous presidents, 38 had held prior elective office, two had not held elective office but had served in the Cabinet, and three had never held public office but had been commanding generals.

Protests

(File:Women's March on Washington (32593123745).jpg|thumb|Women's March in Washington on January 21, 2017, a day after the inauguration)Some rallies during the primary season were accompanied by protests or violence, including attacks on Trump supporters and vice versa both inside and outside the venues.NEWS,weblink Trump supporter charged after sucker-punching protester at North Carolina rally, Moyer, Justin Wm., March 11, 2016, The Washington Post, August 31, 2016, Starrs, Jenny, Larimer, Sarah, NEWS,weblink Ugly, bloody scenes in San Jose as protesters attack Trump supporters outside rally, Sullivan, Sean, June 3, 2016, The Washington Post, August 31, 2016, Miller, Michael E., NEWS,weblink Pro-Trump, anti-Trump groups clash in San Diego, Diamond, Jeremy, May 28, 2016, August 31, 2016, CNN, Trump's election victory sparked protests across the United States, in opposition to his policies and his inflammatory statements. Trump initially said on Twitter that these were "professional protesters, incited by the media", and were "unfair", but he later tweeted, "Love the fact that the small groups of protesters last night have passion for our great country."NEWS,weblink Trump calls protests 'unfair' in first controversial tweet as president-elect, Cummings, William, November 11, 2016, USA Today, November 27, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump says protesters have 'passion for our great country' after calling demonstrations 'very unfair', Colson, Thomas, November 11, 2016, Business Insider, November 14, 2016, In the weeks following Trump's inauguration, massive anti-Trump demonstrations took place, such as the Women Marches, which gathered 2,600,000 people worldwide,NEWS,weblink At 2.6 million strong, Women's Marches crush expectations, Przybyla, Heidi M., January 22, 2017, USA Today, January 22, 2017, Schouten, Fredreka, online, including 500,000 in Washington alone.NEWS,weblink We asked ten people why they felt empowered wearing a pink 'pussy' hat, Buncombe, Andrew, January 22, 2017, The Independent, January 15, 2017, Moreover, marches against his travel ban began across the country on January 29, 2017, just 9 days after his inauguration.thinkprogress.org/muslim-ban-protests-344f6e66022e/

Presidency

{{for timeline|Timeline of the presidency of Donald Trump}}

Early actions

{{See also|Presidential transition of Donald Trump|First 100 days of Donald Trump's presidency}}Trump was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on January 20, 2017. During his first week in office, he signed six executive orders: interim procedures in anticipation of repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare), withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, re-instatement of the Mexico City Policy, unlocking the Keystone XL and Dakota Access Pipeline construction projects, reinforcing border security and beginning the planning and design process to construct a wall along the U.S. border with Mexico.NEWS, Quigley, Aidan, All of Trump's executive actions so far,weblink January 28, 2017, Politico, January 25, 2017, On January 31, Trump nominated U.S. Appeals Court judge Neil Gorsuch to fill the seat on the Supreme Court held by Justice Antonin Scalia who died in 2016.NEWS,weblink Trump picks Colo. appeals court judge Neil Gorsuch for Supreme Court, Barnes, Robert, January 31, 2017, The Washington Post, February 1, 2017,

Domestic policy

Trade tariffs

Trump has been described as a protectionistNEWS,weblink Lawrence Solomon: Donald Trump's protectionism fits right in with Republicans, July 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Lays Out Protectionist Views in Trade Speech, Epstein, Reid J., June 28, 2016, Nelson, Colleen McCain, The Wall Street Journal {{subscription required, |issn=0099-9660|access-date=July 22, 2016}}NEWS,weblink On Trade, Donald Trump Breaks With 200 Years of Economic Orthodoxy, Appelbaum, Binyamin, March 10, 2016, The New York Times, July 22, 2016, because of his steel and aluminum tariffs,NEWS,weblink 'Straight up stupid,' 'incompetent' and 'misguided': Economist Adam Posen rips Trump's tariffs, CNBC, March 2, 2018, March 15, 2018, Turak, Natasha, NEWS,weblink The war over steel: Trump tips global trade into new turmoil, The Guardian, March 10, 2018, March 15, 2018, Inman, Phillip, criticism of NAFTA,NEWS,weblink Trump calls NAFTA a "disaster", September 25, 2015, 60 Minutes, CBS, NEWS,weblink Election 2016: Your money, your vote. Yes, 'President Trump' really could kill NAFTA â€“ but it wouldn't be pretty, July 6, 2016, September 1, 2016, CNN, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP),NEWS,weblink President Trump? Among U.S. allies, Japan may be one of the most anxious about that idea, June 26, 2016, Los Angeles Times, July 12, 2016, and his proposal to significantly raise tariffs on Chinese and Mexican exports to the United States.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's contempt for the free market, Lane, Charles, October 21, 2015, The Washington Post, July 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Says He Favors Big Tariffs on Chinese Exports, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, January 7, 2016, The New York Times â€“ First Draft, July 22, 2016, He has also been critical of the World Trade Organization, threatening to leave unless his proposed tariffs are accepted.NEWS,weblink Trump: I'm Running Against Clinton, Not 'Rest of the World', July 31, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump suggests leaving WTO over import tax proposal, Needham, Vicki, July 24, 2016, July 31, 2016, On January 23, 2017, he signed an order withdrawing the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership.NEWS,weblink Trump's TPP withdrawal: 5 things to know, Bradner, Eric, January 23, 2017, CNN, March 12, 2018, On March 8, 2018, Trump signed an order imposing import tariffs of 25 percent on steel and 10 percent on aluminum, with exemptions for Canada, Mexico, and possibly other countries.NEWS,weblink Trump tariffs: US President imposes levy on steel and aluminium, March 8, 2018, BBC News, March 9, 2018, In response, the EU imposed retaliatory tariffs targeting $3.4 billion in U.S. exports.WEB,weblink EU's retaliatory tariffs on US products come into effect, Deutsche Welle, June 22, 2018, June 24, 2018, WEB,weblink Europe Retaliates Against Trump Tariffs, The New York Times, June 21, 2018, June 24, 2018, Ewing, Jack, In July, China retaliated with a $34{{nbsp}}billion in tariffs on U.S. goods.WEB,weblink Trump country hit hard by Chinese tariffs, Politico, July 6, 2018, July 6, 2018, Catherine, Boudreau, WEB,weblink Trump launches $34 billion trade war and China 'immediately' fires back, USA Today, July 6, 2018, July 6, 2018, Kim, Hjelmgaard, Trump had signaled that he might impose an additional $200{{nbsp}}billion in tariffs if China imposed their own tariffs, with the potential for a further $200{{nbsp}}billion, in an escalating trade warWEB,weblink How trade war with US can hurt China and economies including Australia, Sydney Morning Herald, July 6, 2018, July 6, 2018, Marius, Zaharia, that analysts say could impact $2{{nbsp}}trillion in global trade.WEB,weblink Analysis: Tariffs from China, US have potential for $2 trillion trade war fallout, USA Today, July 6, 2018, July 6, 2018, Tom, Kool, WEB,weblink Fitch warns President Trump's trade fight could cost the world $2 trillion in global trade, Market Watch, July 3, 2018, July 6, 2018, Sue, Chang,

Economy

(File:Donald Trump in Ypsilanti (33998674940) (cropped2).jpg|thumb|Trump speaking to automobile workers in Michigan, March 2017)In December 2017, Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which cut the corporate tax rate to 21 percent, lowered personal tax brackets, increased child tax credit, doubled the estate tax threshold to $11.2 million, and limited the state and local tax deduction to $10,000.NEWS,weblink What's in the Final Republican Tax Bill, The New York Times, Wilson, Andrews, Alicia, Parlapiano, December 15, 2017, December 22, 2017, The reduction in individual tax rates ends in 2025. While people would generally get a tax cut, those with higher incomes would see the most benefit.NEWS, Sherman, Natalie, Palumbo, Daniele, Can Trump claim credit for bonus rush?,weblink BBC News, January 26, 2018, NEWS, Kurtzleben, Danielle, CHARTS: See How Much Of GOP Tax Cuts Will Go To The Middle Class,weblink NPR, Households in the lower or middle class would also see a small tax increase after the tax cuts expire. The bill is estimated to increase deficits by $1.5 trillion over 10 years.NEWS, Seipel, Arnie, Kurtzleben, Danielle, Trump Celebrates Legislative Win After Congress Passes $1.5 Trillion Tax Cut Bill,weblink NPR, December 20, 2017, NEWS, Berman, Russell, What's in—and Out of—the Final Republican Tax Bill,weblink The Atlantic, December 12, 2017,

Energy and climate

While campaigning Trump's energy policy advocated domestic support for both fossil and renewable energy sources in order to curb reliance on Middle-Eastern oil and possibly turn the U.S. into a net energy exporter.PRESS RELEASE,weblink An America first energy plan, May 26, 2016, December 3, 2016, yes,weblink December 3, 2016, However following his election his "America First Energy Plan" did not mention renewable energy and instead focused on fossil fuels.NEWS,weblink Trump Got Nearly $1 Million in Energy-Efficiency Subsidies in 2012, Tabuchi, Hiroko, March 3, 2017, The New York Times, May 27, 2018, 0362-4331, Environmentalists have expressed concerns because he has announced plans to make large budget cuts in programs that research renewable energy and to roll back Obama-era policies directed at curbing climate change and limiting environmental pollution.WEB, TRUMP PROPOSES CUTS TO CLIMATE AND CLEAN-ENERGY PROGRAMS,weblink National Geographic, May 27, 2018, Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate changeNEWS, Ashley, Parker, Coral, Davenport, Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules, May 26, 2016, The New York Times,weblink NEWS, Jason, Samenow, Donald Trump's unsettling nonsense on weather and climate, March 22, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink and his Environmental Protection Agency chief, Scott Pruitt, does not believe that carbon emissions are the main cause of global warming. While admitting that the climate is warming, Pruitt believes that warming is not necessarily harmful and could be beneficial.NEWS, Embury-Dennis, Tom, Trump's environment chief Scott Pruitt suggests climate change could be good for humanity,weblink Independent, February 27, 2018, Based on numerous studies, climate experts disagree with his position.WEB, Bacon, John, Scientists rebuff EPA chief's claim that global warming may be good,weblink USA Today, May 28, 2018, On June 1, 2017, Trump announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement, making the U.S. the only nation in the world to not ratify the agreement.WEB,weblinkweblink October 18, 2016, In Their Own Words: 2016 Presidential Candidates on Climate Change, PDF, July 12, 2016, NEWS,weblink Trump on Paris accord: 'We're getting out', Liptak, Kevin, Acosta, Jim, June 1, 2017, CNN, June 1, 2017, WEB, Dennis, Brandy, As Syria embraces Paris climate deal, it's the United States against the world,weblink The Washington Post, May 28, 2018,

Government size and deregulation

Trump's early policies have favored rollback and dismantling of government regulations. He signed a Congressional Review Act disapproval resolution, the first in 16 years and second overall.WEB, Adriance, Sam, President Trump Signs First Congressional Review Act Disapproval Resolution in 16 Years,weblink February 16, 2017, The National Law Review, March 8, 2017, During his first six weeks in office, he abolished ninety federal regulations.NEWS, Farand, Chloe, Donald Trump Disassembles 90 Federal State Regulations in Just Over a Month in White House,weblink March 6, 2017, The Independent, March 7, 2017, WEB, Trump-Era Trend: Industries Protest. Regulations Rolled Back. A Dozen Examples,weblink The New York Times (via DocumentCloud), March 7, 2017, March 5, 2017, More than 90 Obama-era federal regulations have been revoked or delayed or enforcement has been suspended, in many cases based on requests from the industries the rules target., On January 23, 2017, Trump ordered a temporary government-wide hiring freeze, except for those working in certain areas.NEWS,weblink Trump Orders Broad Hiring Freeze for Federal Government, Michael D. Shear, January 23, 2017, January 23, 2017, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Fox News Channel, Trump Orders Hiring Freeze for Much of Federal Government, January 24, 2017, March 6, 2017, The Comptroller General of the Government Accountability Office told a House committee that hiring freezes have not proven to be effective in reducing costs.NEWS, Yoder, Eric, Hiring freeze could add to government's risk, GAO chief warns, The Washington Post, February 16, 2017,weblink 'We've looked at hiring freezes in the past by prior administrations and they haven't proven to be effective in reducing costs and they cause some problems if they're in effect for a long period of time,' Comptroller General Gene Dodaro told a House Oversight and Government Reform Committee hearing., Unlike some past freezes, the current freeze bars agencies from adding contractors to make up for employees leaving. A week later Trump signed Executive Order 13771, which directed administrative agencies to repeal two existing regulations for every new regulation they issue.NEWS, Trump Signs Executive Order to Drastically Cut Federal Regs,weblink January 30, 2017, Fox News Channel, March 6, 2017, WEB, The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, White House Office of the Press Secretary, Presidential Executive Order on Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs,weblink May 16, 2017, January 30, 2017, Agency defenders expressed opposition to Trump's criticisms, saying that the bureaucracy exists to protect people against well-organized, well-funded interest groups.NEWS, Calabresi, Massimo, Inside Donald Trump's War against the State, Time (magazine), Time, March 9, 2017,weblink Staffed by experts who oversee an open governmental process, they say, the federal bureaucracy exists to protect those who would otherwise be at the mercy of better-organized, better-funded interests.,

Health care

In 1999, Trump told Larry King Live that "I believe in universal healthcare."NEWS, Kertscher, Tom, Donald Trump wants to replace Obamacare with a single-payer health care system, GOP congressman says,weblink Politifact Wisconsin, January 12, 2017, September 11, 2015, Trump's 2000 book, The America We Deserve, argued strongly for a single-payer healthcare system based on the Canadian model,BOOK, Trump, Donald, The America We Deserve, 2000, Renaissance Books, Los Angeles, 978-1-58063-131-0, 258–278,weblink January 12, 2017, and he has voiced admiration for the Scottish National Health Service.NEWS, Millward, David, Trump under attack as he praises NHS care,weblink January 25, 2017, The Daily Telegraph, August 7, 2015, NEWS, Learmonth, Andrew, US presidential hope Donald Trump hails the NHS in Scotland,weblink January 25, 2017, The National, August 8, 2015, During his campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to repeal and replace Obamacare.NEWS, Kodjak, Alison, Trump Can Kill Obamacare With Or Without Help From Congress,weblink January 12, 2017, All Things Considered, NPR, November 9, 2016, NEWS, Walsh, Deirdre, Lee, MJ, Trump wants Obamacare repeal 'quickly,' but Republicans aren't ready,weblink January 12, 2017, CNN, January 10, 2017, Shortly after taking office, he urged Congress to repeal and replace it. In May of that year, the United States House of Representatives voted to repeal the ACA.NEWS,weblink House passes Obamacare repeal, Sullivan, Peter, May 4, 2017, The Hill, July 31, 2017, Over the course of several months' effort, however, theSenate was unable to pass any version of a repeal bill.NEWS,weblink GOP Obamacare repeal bill fails in dramatic late-night vote, July 28, 2017, CNN, July 31, 2017, Trump has expressed a desire to "let Obamacare fail", and the Trump administration has cut the ACA enrollment period in half and drastically reduced funding for advertising and other ways to encourage enrollment.NEWS,weblink Trump says he plans to 'let Obamacare fail', Nelson, Louis, July 18, 2017, Politico, September 29, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump Ramps Up Obamacare Sabotage With Huge Cuts To Enrollment Programs, Young, Jeffrey, August 31, 2017, HuffPost, September 29, 2017, NEWS,weblink Trump administration slashes Obamacare outreach, Pradhan, Rachana, August 31, 2017, Politico, September 29, 2017, The tax reform Trump signed into law at the end of his first year in office effectively repealed the individual health insurance mandate that was a major element of the Obamacare health insurance system; this repeal is scheduled to be implemented in 2019.NEWS, Robert, Pear,weblink Without the Insurance Mandate, Health Care's Future May Be in Doubt, The New York Times, December 18, 2017, NEWS, Peter, Sullivan,weblink Senate GOP repeals ObamaCare mandate, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, December 2, 2017, Jost, Timothy. "The Tax Bill And The Individual Mandate: What Happened, And What Does It Mean?", Health Affairs (December 20, 2017).

Social issues

Trump favored changing the 2016 Republican platform to affirm women's right to abortion in the three exceptional cases of rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother.NEWS,weblink Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion, Wright, David, April 21, 2016, CNN, He has said that he is committed to appointing justices who would try to overturn the ruling in Roe v. Wade. He personally supports "traditional marriage"NEWS, Max, Ehrenfreund, Here's what Donald Trump really believes, July 22, 2015, The Washington Post,weblink but considers the nationwide legality of same-sex marriage a "settled" issue.NEWS,weblink Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled,' but Roe v Wade can be changed, 60 Minutes, CBS, Ariane, de Vogue, November 15, 2016, November 30, 2016, Trump supports a broad interpretation of the Second Amendment and says he is opposed to gun control in general,NEWS,weblink A brief history of Donald Trump's stance on gun rights, Newsweek, Gorman, Michele, May 20, 2016, WEB, Second Amendment Rights,weblink Donald J. Trump for President, May 22, 2017,weblink January 7, 2016, There has been a national background check system in place since 1998 ... Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system ... What we need to do is fix the system we have and make it work as intended., although his views have shifted over time.NEWS,weblink The times Trump changed his positions on guns, CNN, June 20, 2016, Gregory, Krieg, Trump opposes legalizing recreational marijuana but supports legalizing medical marijuana.February 27, 2015. (Excerpt from Donald Trump Remarks at CPAC). Donald Trump on Marijuana. C-Span. Retrieved October 21, 2015. He favors capital punishment,NEWS,weblink Trump: Death penalty for cop killers, December 11, 2015, CNN, Diamond, Jeremy, March 15, 2016, NEWS,weblink Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return of the Death Penalty, May 1, 1989, The New York Times, Foderaro, Lisa, March 15, 2016, as well as the use of waterboarding and "a hell of a lot worse" methods of torture.NEWS, McCarthy, Tom, Donald Trump: I'd bring back 'a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding',weblink The Guardian, February 8, 2016, NEWS, Ted Cruz, Donald Trump Advocate Bringing Back Waterboarding,weblink ABC News, February 6, 2016, February 9, 2016,

Immigration

File:POTUS visits DHS (31741970743).jpg|thumb|Trump conferring with Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of Homeland Security John F. KellyJohn F. KellyTrump's proposed immigration policies were a topic of bitter and contentious debate during the campaign. He promised to build a more substantial wall on the Mexico–United States border to keep out illegal immigrants and vowed that Mexico would pay for it.NEWS,weblink Who pays for Donald Trump's wall?, February 6, 2017, BBC News, December 9, 2017, He pledged to massively deport illegal immigrants residing in the United States,NEWS, Donald Trump emphasizes plans to build 'real' wall at Mexico border,weblink Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, September 29, 2015, August 19, 2015, and criticized birthright citizenship for creating "anchor babies".NEWS,weblink Donald Trump: The 14th Amendment is Unconstitutional, Mother Jones (magazine), Mother Jones, August 19, 2015, November 22, 2015, Inae, Oh, He said that deportation would focus on criminals, visa overstays, and security threats.NEWS,weblink Trump retreats on deportations, vows no amnesty, September 1, 2016, Associated Press, September 2, 2016,

Travel ban

Following the November 2015 Paris attacks, Trump had made a controversial proposal to ban Muslim foreigners from entering the United States until stronger vetting systems could be implemented.NEWS, Eugene, Scott, Trump: My Muslim friends don't support my immigration ban, December 13, 2015, CNN,weblink NEWS, Josh, Barro, How Unpopular Is Trump's Muslim Ban? Depends How You Ask, December 15, 2015, The New York Times,weblink Donald J. Trump's proposal to bar Muslim noncitizens from entering the United States ..., NEWS, Jill, Colvin, Bill, Barrow, Donald Trump's supporters see plenty of sense in views that his critics denounce, December 14, 2015, U.S. News & World Report,weblink He said American citizens, including Muslim members of the military, would be exempt, as would certain world leaders and athletes coming to the U.S. to compete., yes,weblink June 5, 2016, He later reframed the proposed ban to apply to countries with a "proven history of terrorism".Johnson, Jenna. "Trump now says Muslim ban only applies to those from terrorism-heavy countries", Chicago Tribune (June 25, 2016): "[A] reporter asked Trump if [he] would be OK with a Muslim from Scotland coming into the United States and he said it 'wouldn't bother me.' Afterward, [spokeswoman] Hicks said in an email that Trump's ban would now just apply to Muslims in terror states ..."Detrow, Scott. Trump Calls To Ban Immigration From Countries With 'Proven History Of Terrorism', NPR (June 13, 2016): "I will suspend immigration from areas of the world where there's a proven history of terrorism against the United States, Europe or our allies until we fully understand how to end these threats."NEWS,weblink Trump Vows to Stop Immigration From Nations 'Compromised' by Terrorism. How Could It Work?, Park, Haeyoun, July 22, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, July 25, 2016, File:Trump signing order January 27.jpg|thumb|left|Trump signing Executive Order 13769 at the Pentagon as Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of Defense James MattisJames MattisOn January 27, 2017, Trump signed Executive Order 13769, which suspended admission of refugees for 120 days and denied entry to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days, citing security concerns. The order was imposed without warning and took effect immediately.NEWS, Trump signs new travel ban directive,weblink March 18, 2017, BBC News, March 6, 2017, Confusion and protests caused chaos at airports.NEWS, Grinberg, Emanuella, Park, Madison, 2nd day of protests over Trump's immigration policies,weblink March 18, 2017, CNN, January 30, 2017, NEWS,weblink US airports on frontline as Donald Trump's travel ban causes chaos and protests, January 28, 2017, The Guardian, July 19, 2017, The administration then clarified that visitors with a green card were exempt from the ban.NEWS, D. Shear, Michael, Cooper, Helene, Trump Bars Refugees and Citizens of 7 Muslim Countries,weblink January 28, 2017, The New York Times, January 27, 2017, Shear, Michael. "White House Official, in Reversal, Says Green Card Holders Won't Be Barred", The New York Times (January 29, 2017).On January 30, Sally Yates, the acting Attorney General, directed Justice Department lawyers not to defend the executive order, which she deemed unenforceable and unconstitutional;NEWS,weblink Trump fires acting AG after she declines to defend travel ban, Evan, Perez, Jeremy, Diamond, CNN, January 30, 2017, March 12, 2018, Trump immediately dismissed her.WEB, Statement on the Appointment of Dana Boente as Acting Attorney General,weblink The White House, August 29, 2017, January 30, 2017, NEWS, Trump Fires Acting Attorney General Who Defied Him,weblink The New York Times, August 29, 2017, January 30, 2017, Multiple legal challenges were filed against the order, and on February 5 a federal judge in Seattle blocked its implementation.Devlin Barrett & Dan Frosch Federal Judge Temporarily Halts Trump Order on Immigration, Refugees: Ruling applies nationwide to tens of thousands, The Wall Street Journal (February 5, 2017).Adam Liptak, Where Trump's Travel Ban Stands, The New York Times (February 5, 2017). On March 6, Trump issued a revised order, which excluded Iraq, gave specific exemptions for permanent residents, and removed priorities for Christian minorities.NEWS, Chakraborty, Barnini, Trump Signs New Immigration Order, Narrows Scope of Travel Ban,weblink March 6, 2017, Fox News Channel, March 6, 2017, Again federal judges in three states blocked its implementation.Dan Levine & Mica Rosenberg, Hawaii judge halts Trump's new travel ban before it can go into effect, Reuters (March 15, 2017). On June 26, 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban could be enforced on visitors who lack a "credible claim of a bona fide relationship with a person or entity in the United States."NEWS,weblink Trump says Supreme Court decision on travel ban a 'clear victory for our national security', Chicago Tribune, Mark, Sherman, Associated Press, June 26, 2017, June 27, 2017, The temporary order was replaced by Presidential Proclamation 9645 on September 24, 2017, which permanently restricts travel from the originally targeted countries except Iraq and Sudan, and further bans travelers from North Korea and Chad, and certain Venezuelan officials.NEWS, Laughland, Oliver, September 25, 2017, Trump travel ban extended to blocks on North Korea, Venezuela and Chad,weblink The Guardian, October 13, 2017, After lower courts partially blocked the new restrictions with injunctions, the Supreme Court allowed the September version to go into full effect on December 4.NEWS, Supreme Court lets Trump's latest travel ban go into full effect,weblink Lawrence, Hurley, December 4, 2017, Reuters, In January 2018, the Supreme Court announced that it would hear a challenge to the travel ban.NEWS, Liptak, Adam, Supreme Court to Consider Challenge to Trump's Latest Travel Ban,weblink January 26, 2017, The New York Times, January 19, 2018, The Court heard oral arguments on April 25,NEWS, Key moments from the Supreme Court travel ban hearing,weblink Joan, Biskupic, CNN, April 25, 2018, May 24, 2018, and ultimately upheld the travel ban in a June ruling.WEB,weblink Supreme Court upholds Trump's travel ban, CNN, June 26, 2018, June 26, 2018, Wagner, Meg, Ries, Brian,

DACA

While running for president, Trump said that he intended to repeal the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) on "day one" of his presidency. The program, introduced in 2012, allowed people who had either entered or remained in the United States illegally as minors to receive a renewable two-year period of deferred action from deportation and be eligible for a work permit.WEB,weblink The White House has found ways to end protection for 'Dreamers' while shielding Trump from blowback, Brian Bennett, Michael A. MemoliContact Reporters, February 16, 2017, Los Angeles Times, February 22, 2017, In September 2017, Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the DACA program would be repealed after six months.NEWS,weblink Trump Moves to End DACA and Calls on Congress to Act, Shear, Michael D., Hirschfeld Davis, Julie, September 5, 2017, The New York Times, September 6, 2017, Trump argued that "top legal experts" believed that DACA was unconstitutional, and called on Congress to use the six-month delay to pass legislation solving the "Dreamers" issue permanently.NEWS,weblink Trump ends DACA, but gives Congress window to save it, Kopan, Tal, CNN, September 5, 2017, {{As of|2018|3}}, when the delay expired, no legislation had been agreed on DACA.NEWS, Tal, Kopan, DACA's March 5 'deadline' marks only inaction,weblink CNN, March 5, 2018, Several states immediately challenged the DACA rescission in court.NEWS, Kopan, Tal, Blue states sue Trump over DACA,weblink CNN, September 6, 2017, September 6, 2017, Two injunctions in January and February 2018 allowed renewals of applications and stopped the rolling back of DACA, and in April 2018 a federal judge ordered the acceptance of new applications; this would go into effect in 90 days.NEWS, Jordan, Miriam, U.S. Must Resume DACA and Accept New Applications, Federal Judge Rules,weblink The New York Times, April 24, 2018,

Family separation at border

In April 2018, Trump enacted a "zero tolerance" immigration policy that took adults irregularly entering the U.S. into custody for criminal prosecution and forcibly separated children from parents, eliminating the policy of previous administrations that made exceptions for families with children.NEWS,weblink Immigrant Children Who Are Forcibly Separated From Their Parents Face Long-Term Trauma, Vergano, Dan, June 20, 2018, June 15, 2018, BuzzFeed News, {{Citation | last =Bachega | first =Hugo | title =Separation of migrant families: What other countries do | newspaper =BBC News | year =2018 | date =June 7, 2018 | url =https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-44374756}} By mid-June, more than 2,300 children had been placed in shelters, including "tender age" shelters for babies and toddlers,{{Citation | last =Burke | first =Garance | last2 =Mendoza | first2 =Martha | title=Toddlers Separated From Parents at the Border Are Being Detained in 'Tender Age' Shelters | newspaper =Time | date =June 20, 2018 | url =https://web.archive.org/web/20180620044511weblink | archive-url =https://web.archive.org/web/20180620044511weblink | archive-date =June 20, 2018 | access-date =July 24, 2018 }} culminating in demands from Democrats, Republicans, Trump allies, and religious groups that the policy be rescinded.WEB,weblink President Trump's Family Separation Policy Is Dividing Republicans, Time (magazine), Time, June 18, 2018, June 18, 2018, Colvin, Jill, Trump falsely asserted that his administration was merely following the law.WEB,weblink Separated at the Border From Their Parents: In Six Weeks, 1,995 Children, The New York Times, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, Davis, Julie, WEB,weblink White House Blames Democrats for Separation of Families at Border, National Review, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, Mcardle, Maiead, WEB,weblink Despite claims, GOP immigration bill would not end family separation, experts say, NBC News, June 15, 2018, June 18, 2018, Sarlin, Benjy, On June 20, Trump signed an executive order to end family separations at the U.S. border.NEWS,weblink Trump Retreats on Separating Families, Signing Order to Detain Them Together, June 20, 2018, en, On June 26 a federal judge in San Diego issued a preliminary injunction requiring the Trump administration to stop detaining immigrants parents separately from their minor children, and to reunite family groups that had been separated at the border.NEWS,weblink Federal judge orders reunification of parents and children, end to most family separations at border, Jarrett, Laura, June 27, 2018, CNN, June 28, 2018,

Foreign policy

File:G7 Taormina family photo 2017-05-26.jpg|thumb|President Trump together with other leaders at the 43rd G7 summit43rd G7 summitFile:Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, Melania Trump, and Donald Trump, May 2017.jpg|thumb|Trump, King Salman of Saudi Arabia, and Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi at the 2017 Riyadh summit2017 Riyadh summitTrump identifies as non-interventionistMAGAZINE,weblink Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party, Cassidy, John, The New Yorker, February 29, 2016, March 5, 2016, NEWS, Philip, Rucker, Robert, Costa, Trump questions need for NATO, outlines noninterventionist foreign policy, March 21, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink and has been described as an American Nationalist.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump, American Nationalist, The National Interest, November 3, 2015, He has repeatedly stated that he supports his foreign policy "America First".NEWS, Christiane, Amanpour, Donald Trump's speech: 'America first,' but an America absent from the world, July 22, 2016, CNN,weblink He supports increasing United States military defense spending, but favors decreasing United States spending on NATO and in the Pacific region.NEWS, Donald Trump reveals his isolationist foreign-policy instincts, May 22, 2016, The Economist,weblink He says America should look inward, stop "nation building", and re-orient its resources toward domestic needs.In order to confront the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Trump in 2015 called for seizing the oil in ISIS-occupied areas, using U.S. air power and ground troops.NEWS,weblink Trump once called for sending US ground troops to fight ISIS and 'take that oil', Mother Jones, In 2016, Trump advocated sending 20,000 to 30,000 U.S. troops to the region,NEWS,weblink Trump wants 30,000 troops. Would that defeat ISIS?, Gaouette, Nicole, March 11, 2016, CNN, July 12, 2016, a position he later retracted.NEWS,weblink The Latest: Trump backtracks on US forces to fight militants, March 21, 2016, U.S. News & World Report, Associated Press, July 12, 2016, yes,weblink August 14, 2016, Trump has praised China's President Xi Jinping,"US President Donald Trump praises China's Xi Jinping for consolidating grip on power". Deutsche Welle. March 4, 2018. Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte,WEB,weblink Donald Trump repeatedly praises Philippines' President Duterte during Asia trip, Global News, November 13, 2017, Jonathan Lemire, Jill Colvin, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi,"Donald Trump praises Egypt President al-Sisi and plans trip to Cairo". The Independent. May 21, 2017. Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan,"Trump Praises Erdogan for 'High Marks' Amid Crackdown Concerns". Bloomberg. September 21, 2017. King Salman of Saudi Arabia"Trump praises Saudi king after crackdown". CNBC.com. November 6, 2017. and Italy's Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte.WEB,weblink Donal Trump elogia il premier italiano Giuseppe Conte: "È fantastico" – Video, June 15, 2018, On April 7, 2017, Trump ordered a missile strike against a Syrian airfield in retaliation for the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack.NEWS, Syria war: Trump's missile strike attracts US praise – and barbs,weblink April 8, 2017, BBC News, April 7, 2017, On April 13, 2018, he announced missile strikes against the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, following a suspected chemical attack near Damascus.NEWS,weblink Trump announces U.S. military strikes in Syria, April 13, 2018, Fox News, April 14, 2018, en-US, Trump actively supported the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Iran-backed Houthis and signed a $110{{nbsp}}billion agreement to sell arms to Saudi Arabia.NEWS, Trump praises arms sales as he meets Saudi crown prince,weblink Financial Times, March 20, 2018, NEWS, Senate Votes Down Ending Trump's Support for Saudi-led War in Yemen,weblink Haaretz, May 21, 2018, WEB, Trump signs $110 billion arms deal with Saudi Arabia on 'a tremendous day',weblink ABC News, May 20, 2017, July 6, 2018, Jordyn, Phelps, Ryan, Struyk, In November 2017, the Trump administration tightened the rules on trade with Cuba and individual visits to the county, undoing the Obama administration's loosening of restrictions. According to an administration official, the new rules were intended to hinder trade with businesses with ties to the Cuban military, intelligence and security services.NEWS, DeYoung, Karen, White House implements new Cuba policy restricting travel and trade,weblink Washington Post, November 8, 2017, U.S. troop numbers in Afghanistan increased from 8,500 to 14,000, {{as of|2017|1|lc=y}}.NEWS, Jaffe, Greg, Ryan, Missy, Up to 1,000 more U.S. troops could be headed to Afghanistan this spring,weblink The Washington Post, January 21, 2018, reversing Trump's pre-election position critical of further involvement in Afghanistan.NEWS, Gordon, Michael R., Schmitt, Eric, Haberman, Maggie, Trump Settles on Afghan Strategy Expected to Raise Troop Levels,weblink The New York Times, August 20, 2017, U.S. officials said then that they aimed to "force the Taliban to negotiate a political settlement"; in January 2018, however, Trump spoke against talks with the Taliban.NEWS, Rampton, Roberta, Landay, Jonathan, Trump rejects peace talks with Taliban in departure from Afghan strategy,weblink Reuters, January 29, 2018,

Iran

During the campaign Trump maintained that "Iran is now the dominant Islamic power in the Middle East and on the road to nuclear weapons."NEWS,weblink Trump targets Clinton on tenure at State Dept., JacobK, June 22, 2016, Jewish Journal, March 25, 2017, He opposed the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA or "Iran nuclear deal") that was negotiated with the United States, Iran, and five other world powers in 2015, calling it "terrible" and saying that the Obama administration negotiated the agreement "from desperation."Donald Trump Weighs in on Iran Deal (interview with Katy Tur), NBC News (July 14, 2015). At one point he said that despite opposing the content of the deal, he would attempt to enforce it rather than abrogate it.WEB, Igor Bobic,weblink Donald Trump Would Not Rip Up The Iran Deal, Huffington Post, August 16, 2015, However, in a speech to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) in March 2016, Trump said that his "number-one priority is to dismantle the disastrous deal with Iran."NEWS,weblink Read Donald Trump's Speech to AIPAC, Begley, Sarah, Time, May 16, 2016, File:Demonstrations and protests against United States recognition of Jerusalem in Tehran 032.jpg|thumb|Protest against Trump's recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel, Tehran, December 11, 2017]]Shortly after taking office, Trump put Iran 'on notice' following their ballistic missile tests on January 29, 2017.{{nl}} WEB,weblink Archived copy, September 21, 2017, yes,weblink August 11, 2017, In February 2018, the Trump administration imposed sanctions on Iran′s 25 individuals and entities, which it said were but "initial steps", with Trump′s National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn adding that ″the days of turning a blind eye to Iran's hostile and belligerent actions toward the United States and the world community are over.″WEB,weblink Statement by National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn on Iran, Whitehouse.gov, February 3, 2017, June 12, 2018, WEB,weblink Treasury Sanctions Supporters of Iran's Ballistic Missile Program and Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps – Qods Force, Treasury.gov, February 13, 2017, June 12, 2018, NEWS, Trump administration tightens Iran sanctions, Tehran hits back,weblink Reuters, February 3, 2016, Trump reportedly lobbied "dozens" of European officials against doing business with Iran during the May 2017 Brussels summit; this likely violated the terms of the JCPOA, under which the U.S. may not pursue "any policy specifically intended to directly and adversely affect the normalization of trade and economic relations with Iran." The Trump administration certified in July 2017 that Iran had upheld its end of the agreement.WEB, Aleem, Zeeshan,weblink Iran says the US is violating the nuclear deal. It has a point., Vox (website), Vox, July 21, 2017, July 22, 2017, On May 18, 2018, Trump announced the United States' unilateral departure from the JCPOA.NEWS,weblink Trump declares US leaving 'horrible' Iran nuclear accord, Lederman, Josh, May 8, 2018, Associated Press, May 8, 2018,

Israel

File:President Trump visit to Israel May 22-23, 2017 DSC 3982F (34847749905).jpg|thumb|Trump and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Yad VashemYad VashemRegarding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Trump has stated the importance of being a neutral party during potential negotiations, while also having stated that he is "a big fan of Israel".Sherman, Amy (March 1, 2016). Would Donald Trump be 'neutral' between Israel and its enemies? Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 10, 2016. During the campaign he said he would relocate the U.S. embassy in Israel to Jerusalem from its current location, Tel Aviv.NEWS, Moving US embassy to Jerusalem may be slipping down Trump's agenda,weblink February 4, 2017, The Guardian, Reuters, January 23, 2017, On May 22, 2017, Trump was the first U.S. president to visit the Western Wall in Jerusalem, during his first foreign trip, which included Israel, Italy, the Vatican, and Belgium.NEWS, The New York Times, May 24, 2017, Mark, Landler, Jason, Horowitz, With Gift and in Conversation, Vatican Presses Trump on Climate Change, May 14, 2018,weblink NEWS, Rafferty, Andrew, May 23, 2017, Trump Becomes First Sitting U.S. President to Visit Western Wall,weblink NBC News, New York City, May 24, 2017, NEWS, Baker, Luke, Holland, Steve, May 23, 2017, In U.S. presidential first, Trump prays at Jerusalem's Western Wall,weblink Reuters, London, England, May 24, 2017, NEWS, Diamond, Jeremy, May 23, 2017, Trump makes historic visit to Western Wall,weblink CNN, Atlanta, Georgia, May 24, 2017, Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel on December 6, 2017, despite criticism and warnings from world leaders. Trump added that he would initiate the process of establishing a new U.S. embassy in Jerusalem,WEB,weblink Nelson, Louis, Nussbaum, Matthew, Trump says U.S. recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital, despite global condemnation, Politico, December 6, 2017, December 6, 2017, which was later opened on May 14, 2018.WEB, US Embassy opens in Jerusalem: 'When Trump makes a promise, he keeps it',weblink July 25, 2018, May 14, 2018, The United Nations General Assembly condemned the move, adopting a resolution that "calls upon all States to refrain from the establishment of diplomatic missions in the Holy City of Jerusalem" in an emergency session on December 21, 2017.WEB,weblink Illegal Israeli actions in Occupied East Jerusalem and the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory – Turkey and Yemen: draft resolution – Status of Jerusalem, United Nations General Assembly, December 19, 2017, December 21, 2017, NEWS,weblink Defying Trump, U.N. General Assembly Condemns U.S. Decree on Jerusalem, Rick, Gladstone, The New York Times, December 21, 2017, December 21, 2017,

NATO

As a candidate Trump questioned whether he, as president, would automatically extend security guarantees to NATO members,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump Sets Conditions for Defending NATO Allies Against Attack, Sanger, David E., July 20, 2016, Haberman, Maggie, Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, 0362-4331, July 31, 2016, and suggested that he might leave NATO unless changes are made to the alliance.NEWS,weblink What's Trump's Position on NATO?, factcheck.org, July 31, 2016, As president, he reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO in March 2017.NEWS,weblink Trump supports NATO, but Senate holds up expansion, March 1, 2017, Reuters, Newsweek, May 2, 2017, However, he has repeatedly accused fellow NATO members of paying less than their fair share of the expenses of the alliance.NEWS, Baker, Peter, Trump Says NATO Allies Don’t Pay Their Share. Is That True?,weblink July 12, 2018, The New York Times, May 26, 2018,

North Korea

File:Kim and Trump shaking hands at the red carpet during the DPRK–USA Singapore Summit.jpg|thumb|Trump meets Kim Jong-un at the Singapore summit in June 2018]]During the campaign and the early months of his presidency, Trump said he hoped that China would help to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions and missile tests. However, North Korea accelerated their missile and nuclear tests leading to increased tension.NEWS,weblink Pence Tells North Korea: 'The Era Of Strategic Patience Is Over', Kennedy, Merrit, April 17, 2017, NPR, April 19, 2017, In July, the country tested two long-range missiles identified by Western observers as intercontinental ballistic missiles, potentially capable of reaching Alaska, Hawaii, and the U.S. mainland.NEWS,weblink US slams North Korea missile test as Kim claims 'whole US mainland' in reach, Lendon, Brad, July 30, 2017, CNN, August 11, 2017, WEB, Wright, David, North Korean ICBM Appears Able to Reach Major US Cities,weblink All Things Nuclear, Union of Concerned Scientists, July 28, 2017, July 28, 2017, In August, Trump dramatically escalated his rhetoric against North Korea, warning that further provocation against the U.S. would be met with "fire and fury like the world has never seen."NEWS,weblink Trump escalates rhetoric on threat from North Korea, Rucker, Philip, Deyoung, Karen, August 10, 2017, The Washington Post, August 11, 2017, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un then threatened to direct the country's next missile test toward Guam.NEWS,weblink Trump doubles down on 'fire and fury' vow as wargames near, Talmadge, Eric, Lemire, Jonathan, August 11, 2017, Associated Press, U.S. News & World Report, September 30, 2017, On June 12. 2018, after several rounds of preliminary staff-level meetings, Trump and Kim held a bilateral summit in Singapore.WEB, Trump-Kim summit: Kim Jong Un gave unwavering commitment to denuclearisation, says Trump,weblink The Straits Times, June 13, 2018, en, June 12, 2018, In a joint declaration, both countries vowed to "join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula", while North Korea repeated its April 2018 promise to "work towards the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula."WEB, Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit,weblink The White House, June 12, 2018, WEB, Rosenfeld, Everett, Document signed by Trump and Kim includes four main elements related to 'peace regime',weblink CNBC, June 12, 2018, June 12, 2018,

Russia

File:Vladimir Putin and Donald Trump at the 2017 G-20 Hamburg Summit (4).jpg|thumb|Putin and Trump at the G20 Hamburg summit, July 2017]]During his campaign and as president, Trump repeatedly said that he wants better relations with Russia,NEWS,weblink Donald Trump urges 'good relationship' with Russia in tweets, Flores, Reena, January 7, 2017, CBS News, May 2, 2017, NEWS,weblink GOP warns Trump not to lift Russia sanctions after call with Putin, Berry, Lynn, January 29, 2017, Associated Press, PBS, May 2, 2017, and he has praised Russian President Vladimir Putin as a strong leader.NEWS,weblink Trump, Putin agree in phone call to improve 'unsatisfactory' relations between their countries, Kremlin says, Viebeck, Elise, November 14, 2016, The Washington Post, March 14, 2017, Markon, Jerry, DeYoung, Karen, NEWS,weblink Trump and Putin's Bromance Could Change the World, Conrad, Peter, January 13, 2017, GQ, May 29, 2017, Trump had pledged to hold a summit meeting with Putin,NEWS, Oliphant, Roland, Millward, David, Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin ready to hold summit following historic phone call,weblink May 31, 2017, The Daily Telegraph, January 28, 2017, stating that Russia could help the U.S. in fighting ISIS.NEWS,weblink Trump suggests U.S. accept Russia's annexation of Crimea, August 1, 2016, PBS, Associated Press, February 19, 2017, According to Putin and some political experts and diplomats, the U.S.–Russian relations, which were already at the lowest level since the end of the Cold War, have further deteriorated since Trump took office in January 2017.NEWS, US-Russia relations fail to improve in Trump's first year and they are likely to get worse,weblink The Independent, January 19, 2018, NEWS, Vladimir Putin says US-Russia relations are worse since Donald Trump took office,weblink The Independent, April 12, 2017, NEWS, U.S.-Russian relations worst Ambassador Antonov can remember,weblink NBC News, March 30, 2018, Trump and Putin met in a 2018 Russia–United States summit in Helsinki on July 16, 2018. Trump drew harsh bipartisan criticism in the United States for appearing to side with Putin's denial of Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election, rather than accepting the findings of the United States intelligence community.NEWS, Zurcher, Anthony, Trump-Putin summit: After Helsinki, the fallout at home,weblink July 18, 2018, BBC News, BBC News Services, July 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump Sides With the Kremlin, Against the U.S. Government, Calamur, Krishnadev, July 16, 2018, The Atlantic, July 18, 2018, His comments were strongly criticized by many congressional Republicans and most media commentators, even those who normally support him.NEWS,weblink Top Republicans in Congress break with Trump over Putin comments, Fox, Lauren, July 16, 2018, CNN, July 18, 2018, NEWS,weblink Trump's staunchest media allies are facing their biggest test yet — and some of them are finally abandoning him, Relman, Eliza, July 18, 2018, Business Insider, July 18, 2018,

Personnel

The Trump administration has been characterized by high turnover, particularly among White House staff. By the end of Trump's first year in office, 34 percent of his original staff had resigned, been fired, or been reassigned.NEWS,weblink Trump White House Has Highest Turnover in 40 Years, Trimble, Megan, December 28, 2017, U.S. News, March 16, 2018, {{As of|2018|7|pre=early}}, 61 percent of Trump's senior aides had leftWEB,weblink AP: Trump admin sets record for White House turnover, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Wise, Justin, and 141 staffers had left in the past year.WEB,weblink Trump White House sets turnover records, analysis shows, NBC News, July 2, 2018, July 3, 2018, Associated Press, Both figures set a record for recent presidents{{emdash}}more change in the first 13 months than his four immediate predecessors saw in their first two years.NEWS,weblink White House Staff Turnover Was Already Record-Setting. Then More Advisers Left, Keith, Tamara, NPR, March 16, 2018, Notable early departures included National Security Advisor Mike Flynn (after just 25 days in office), Chief of Staff Reince Priebus, replaced by retired Marine General John F. Kelly on July 28, 2017,NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Reince Priebus Pushed Out After Rocky Tenure as Trump Chief of Staff, Peter, Baker, Maggie, Haberman, no,weblink July 29, 2017, and Press Secretary Sean Spicer. Close personal aides to Trump such as Steve Bannon, Hope Hicks, John McEntee and Keith Schiller, have quit or been forced out.Trump has been slow to appoint second-tier officials in the executive branch, saying that many of the positions are unnecessary. {{As of|2017|10}}, there were hundreds of sub-cabinet positions vacant.NEWS,weblink Trump Leaves Top Administration Positions Unfilled, Says Hollow Government By Design, Keith, Tamara, October 12, 2017, NPR, March 16, 2018, At the end of his first year in office, "Of the roughly 600 key executive branch positions, just 241 have been filled, 135 nominated candidates await confirmation while 244 slots have no nominee at all."NEWS,weblink One year into Trump's presidency, hundreds of key executive branch positions remain unfilled, January 19, 2018, CBS News, March 16, 2018, {{needs update|date=June 2018}}

Cabinet

(File:Donald Trump Cabinet meeting 2017-03-13 04.jpg|thumb|Cabinet meeting, March 2017)Trump's cabinet nominations included U.S. Senator from Alabama Jeff Sessions as Attorney General,PR,weblink President Donald J. Trump Selects U.S. Senator Jeff Sessions for Attorney General, Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn as Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and U.S. Rep. Mike Pompeo as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, New York City, Office of the President Elect and of the Vice President Elect, November 18, 2016, November 18, 2016, financier Steve Mnuchin as Secretary of the Treasury,NEWS,weblink Former US banker Steve Mnuchin confirms he will be US treasury secretary, November 30, 2016, BBC News, November 30, 2016, retired Marine Corps General James Mattis as Secretary of Defense,NEWS, Lamothe, Dan,weblink Trump has chosen retired Marine Gen. James Mattis for secretary of defense, The Washington Post, December 1, 2016, and ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson as Secretary of State.NEWS,weblink Rex Tillerson, Exxon C.E.O., chosen as Secretary of State, December 12, 2016, December 26, 2016, Trump also brought on board politicians who had opposed him during the presidential campaign, such as neurosurgeon Ben Carson as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development,NEWS, Trip, Gabriel, Trump Chooses Ben Carson to Lead HUD, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, The New York Times,weblink and South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley as Ambassador to the United Nations.NEWS,weblink The Washington Post, Gov. Nikki Haley tapped to be Trump's U.N. ambassador, November 23, 2016, November 23, 2016, Robert, Costa, While most of Trump's nominees were approved by the GOP majority in the Senate, the confirmation of education reform activist Betsy DeVos as Secretary of EducationNEWS, Smith, David, Betsy Devos, billionaire philanthropist, picked as Trump education secretary,weblink November 23, 2016, The Guardian, November 23, 2016, required Vice President Pence to cast a rare tie-breaking vote, the first in a Cabinet nominee's Senate confirmation.NEWS, DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary, Pence Casts Historic Tie-Breaking Vote,weblink February 7, 2017, Fox News Channel, February 8, 2017, Two of Trump's 15 original cabinet members were gone within 15 months: Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price was forced to resign in September 2017 due to excessive use of private charter jets and military aircraft, and Trump replaced Secretary of State Rex Tillerson with Mike Pompeo in March 2018 over disagreements on foreign policy.NEWS,weblink The Incredibly And Historically Unstable First Year Of Trump's Cabinet, Jones-Rooy, Andrea, November 29, 2017, FiveThirtyEight, March 16, 2018, NEWS,weblink Tracking Turnover in the Trump Administration, March 16, 2018, Brookings Institute, March 16, 2018, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt resigned in July 2018 amidst multiple investigations into his conduct.WEB,weblink Scott Pruitt Out At EPA, NPR, July 5, 2018, July 5, 2018, Rebecca, Hersher, Brett, Neelyin,

Investigations

Russian interference

In January 2017, American intelligence agencies—the CIA, the FBI, and the NSA, represented by the Director of National Intelligence—jointly stated with "high confidence" that the Russian government interfered in the 2016 presidential election to favor the election of Trump.NEWS,weblink Trump Misleads on Russian Meddling: Why 17 Intelligence Agencies Don't Need to Agree, Rosenberg, Matthew, July 6, 2017, The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Intelligence Report on Russian Hacking, January 6, 2017, The New York Times, January 8, 2017, ii, We assess Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an influence campaign in 2016 aimed at the US presidential election. Russia's goals were to undermine public faith in the US democratic process, denigrate Secretary Clinton, and harm her electability and potential presidency. We further assess Putin and the Russian Government developed a clear preference for President-elect Trump. We have high confidence in these judgments., In March 2017, FBI Director James Comey told Congress that "the FBI, as part of our counterintelligence mission, is investigating the Russian government's efforts to interfere in the 2016 presidential election. That includes investigating the nature of any links between individuals associated with the Trump campaign and the Russian government, and whether there was any coordination between the campaign and Russia's efforts."NEWS,weblink It's Official: The FBI Is Investigating Trump's Links to Russia, Berman, Russell, March 20, 2017, The Atlantic, June 7, 2017, Later, in testimony to the Senate Intelligence Committee on June 8, he affirmed he has "no doubt" that Russia interfered in the 2016 election, adding "they did it with purpose and sophistication".NEWS,weblink James Comey: "No doubt" Russia interfered in 2016 election, June 8, 2017, June 8, 2017, CBS News, Trump's connections to Russia have been widely reported by the press.NEWS,weblink Trump's relationship with Russia – what we know and what comes next, McCarthy, Tom, December 13, 2016, The Guardian, March 11, 2017, NEWS,weblink The web of relationships between Team Trump and Russia, Bump, Philip, March 3, 2017, The Washington Post, March 11, 2017, One of Trump's campaign managers, Paul Manafort, had worked for several years to help pro-Russian politician Viktor Yanukovich win the Ukrainian presidency.NEWS,weblink Paul Manafort's complicated ties to Ukraine, explained, Phillips, Amber, August 19, 2016, The Washington Post, June 14, 2017, Other Trump associates, including former National Security Advisor Michael T. Flynn and political consultant Roger Stone, have been connected to Russian officials.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump's Many, Many, Many, Many Ties to Russia, Nesbit, Jeff, August 15, 2016, Time, February 28, 2017, NEWS,weblink Roger Stone, the 'Trickster' on Trump's Side, Is Under F.B.I. Scrutiny, Haberman, Maggie, March 21, 2017, Maggie Haberman, The New York Times, Russian agents were overheard during the campaign saying they could use Manafort and Flynn to influence Trump.NEWS,weblink NYT: Russians discussed using Manafort, Flynn to influence Trump, Williams, Katie Bo, May 24, 2017, The Hill, May 28, 2017, Members of Trump's campaign and later his White House staff, particularly Flynn, were in contact with Russian officials both before and after the November election.NEWS,weblink Exclusive: Trump campaign had at least 18 undisclosed contacts with Russians: sources, Parker, Ned, May 18, 2017, May 19, 2017, Reuters, Landay, Jonathan, Strobel, Warren, On December 29, 2016, Flynn talked with Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions that had been imposed the same day; Trump later fired Flynn for falsely claiming he had not discussed the sanctions.NEWS,weblink Flynn resigns amid controversy over Russia contacts, Murray, Sara, February 14, 2017, March 2, 2017, CNN, Borger, Gloria, Diamond, Jeremy,

Dismissal of James Comey

On May 9, 2017, Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey. He attributed the action to recommendations from Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Deputy AG Rod Rosenstein,NEWS, Michael D. Shear, Matt Apuzzo, TRUMP FIRES COMEY AMID RUSSIA INQUIRY – Clinton Email Investigation Cited – Democrats Seek Special Counsel,weblink May 10, 2017, The New York Times, May 10, 2017, A1, which criticized Comey's conduct in the investigation about Hillary Clinton's emails.NEWS,weblink Donald Trump fires FBI director Comey over handling of Clinton investigation, Smith, David, May 9, 2017, The Guardian, May 9, 2017, On May 11, Trump stated that he was concerned with the ongoing "Russia thing"NEWS, Barrett, Devlin, Rucker, Philip, Trump said he was thinking of Russia controversy when he decided to fire Comey,weblink The Washington Post, May 11, 2017, May 12, 2017, and that he had intended to fire Comey earlier.NEWS,weblink President Trump just completely contradicted the official White House account of the Comey firing, May 11, 2017, The Week, May 11, 2017, According to a Comey memo of a private conversation on February 14, 2017, Trump said he "hoped" Comey would drop the investigation into Michael Flynn.NEWS, Wilber, Del Quentin, Viswanatha, Aruna, Trump Asked Comey to Drop Flynn Investigation, According to Memo Written by Former FBI Director,weblink The Wall Street Journal {{subscription required, |date=May 16, 2017 |access-date=May 16, 2017}}In March and April, Trump had told Comey that the ongoing suspicions formed a "cloud" impairing his presidency,WEB, Comey, James, Statement for the Record Senate Select Committee on Intelligence,weblink United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Government, June 7, 2017, 7, PDF, June 8, 2017, and asked him to publicly state that he was not personally under investigation.NEWS, Schmidt, Michael S., Goldman, Adam, Comey to Testify Trump Pressured Him to Say He Wasn't Under Investigation,weblink June 7, 2017, The New York Times, June 7, 2017, He also asked intelligence chiefs Dan Coats and Michael Rogers to issue statements saying there was no evidence that his campaign colluded with Russia during the 2016 election.NEWS, Sciutto, Jim, Watkins, Eli, Trump asked DNI, NSA to deny evidence of Russia collusion,weblink CNN, May 23, 2017, Both refused, considering this an inappropriate request, although not illegal.NEWS, Dilanian, Ken, Windrem, Robert, Trump Asked Top Intel Officials to Push Back Publicly on Russia Probe,weblink NBC News, May 22, 2017, Comey eventually testified on June 8 that while he was director, the FBI investigations did not target Trump himself.NEWS,weblink 'I Was Right': As Trump Watches Comey on TV, Anxiety Yields to Relief, The New York Times, Glenn, Thrush, Glenn Thrush, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman, June 8, 2017, June 9, 2017, In a statement on Twitter Trump implied that he had "tapes" of conversations with Comey, before later stating that he did not in fact have such tapes.NEWS, Mark, Landler, Maggie, Haberman, Maggie Haberman,weblink Trump Says He Did Not Tape Comey Conversations, The New York Times, June 22, 2017,

Special counsel

On May 17, 2017, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller, a former Director of the FBI, to serve as special counsel for the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). In this capacity, Mueller oversees the investigation into "any links and/or coordination between Russian government and individuals associated with the campaign of President Donald Trump, and any matters that arose or may arise directly from the investigation".NEWS,weblink Rod Rosenstein's Letter Appointing Mueller Special Counsel, Rosenstein, Rod, May 17, 2017, The New York Times, no, May 18, 2017,weblink May 18, 2017, Trump has repeatedly denied any collusion between the Trump campaign and the Russian government.NEWS, Bump, Philip, Analysis {{!, Trump and the White House have denied Russian collusion more than 140 times|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/politics/wp/2018/01/11/trump-and-the-white-house-have-denied-russian-collusion-more-than-140-times/|work=Washington Post|date=January 11, 2018}} Mueller is also investigating the Trump campaign's possible ties to Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Qatar, Israel, and China.NEWS, Trump Jr. and Other Aides Met With Gulf Emissary Offering Help to Win Election,weblink The New York Times, May 9, 2018, NEWS, It's Not Just a "Russia" Investigation Anymore,weblink Slate, March 8, 2018, The Washington Post reported that days after Comey's dismissal the special counsel started investigating whether Trump had obstructed justice.NEWS,weblink Trump Is Officially under Investigation. How Did We Get Here?, The Washington Post, Vitkovskaya, Julie, June 16, 2017, June 16, 2017, Trump is officially under investigation... Special counsel investigating Trump for possible obstruction of justice... The president is being investigated..., Trump's lawyer Jay Sekulow stated that he had not been notified of any such investigation.INTERVIEW, Sekulow, Jay, Jay Sekulow, John Dickerson (journalist), John Dickerson, Transcript: Jay Sekulow on "Face the Nation," June 18, 2017, Face the Nation, CBS News, June 18, 2017,weblink June 19, 2017, SEKULOW: The president is not and has not been under investigation. DICKERSON: How do you know? SEKULOW: Because we've received no notice of investigation. There has been no notification from the special counsel's office that the president is under investigation., WEB,weblink Trump Not Under Investigation for Obstruction, Lawyer Says, June 18, 2017, Bloomberg L.P., ABC News later reported that the special counsel was gathering preliminary information about possible obstruction of justice but had not launched a full-scale investigation.NEWS, Thomas, Pierre, June 19, 2017, Where things stand with special counsel Mueller's Russia probe,weblink ABC News, According to sources familiar with the process ... [a]n assessment of evidence and circumstances will be completed before a final decision is made to launch an investigation of the president of the United States regarding potential obstruction of justice., In January 2018, The New York Times reported that Trump had ordered Mueller to be fired in June, after learning that Mueller was investigating possible obstruction of justice, but backed down after White House Counsel Don McGahn said he would quit;NEWS, Michael S., Schmidt, Maggie, Haberman, Trump Ordered Mueller Fired, but Backed Off When White House Counsel Threatened to Quit,weblink The New York Times, January 25, 2018, 0362-4331, NYTimes.com, Trump called the report "fake news".WEB, Trump denies trying to fire Mueller,weblink BBC News, January 26, 2018, January 25, 2018, WEB,weblink Trump moved to fire Mueller in June, bringing White House counsel to the brink of leaving, The Washington Post, January 26, 2018, January 26, 2018, Helderman, Rosalind, Dawsey, Josh, limited, The New York Times reported in April 2018 that Trump had again wanted the investigation shut down in early December 2017, but stopped after learning the news reports he based his decision on were incorrect.NEWS, Haberman, Maggie, Schmidt, Michael S., Trump Sought to Fire Mueller in December,weblink The New York Times, April 10, 2018, In April 2018, following an FBI raid on the office and home of Trump's private attorney Michael Cohen, Trump mused aloud about firing Mueller.NEWS,weblink White House: President Trump 'certainly believes he has the power' to fire Mueller, Salama, Vivian, April 10, 2018, NBC News, April 11, 2018, In January 2018, The Washington Post reported that Mueller wants to interview Trump about the removal of Michael Flynn and James Comey.NEWS, Leonnig, Carol D., Horwitz, Sari, Dawsey, Josh, Mueller seeks to question Trump about Flynn and Comey departures,weblink The Washington Post, January 23, 2018, Trump has expressed a willingness to do the interview; according to The New York Times, some of his lawyers have warned against doing so. Mueller can subpoena Trump to testify if Trump refuses.NEWS, Trump's lawyers want him to refuse Mueller interview request: NY Times,weblink Reuters, February 6, 2018, {{As of|March 2018}}, Trump is reportedly a "subject" of the investigation, meaning his conduct is being looked at, but not a "target" which would indicate the likelihood of criminal charges.NEWS,weblink Mueller told Trump's attorneys the president remains under investigation but is not currently a criminal target, Carol D., Leonnig, Robert, Costa, April 3, 2018, The Washington Post, In August 2018, Trump wrote that Attorney General Jeff Sessions “should stop” the special counsel investigation “right now”; he also referred to it as a “rigged witch hunt”.WEB,weblink Trump calls on Sessions to stop Mueller probe, Politico, August 1, 2018, August 1, 2018, Rebecca, Morin, WEB,weblink Trump says attorney general should stop Mueller probe 'right now', Reuters, August 1, 2018, August 1, 2018, Doina, Chiacu, WEB,weblink Trump to Sessions: Shut down Russia probe, Keneally, Meghan, Mallin, Alexander, August 1, 2018, ABC News, August 1, 2018,

Impeachment efforts

In July 2017, Congressman Brad Sherman (D-CA) introduced an article of impeachment.NEWS, H Res 438 Article of Impeachment,weblink July 13, 2017, NEWS,weblink Rep. Brad Sherman introduces articles of impeachment against Trump, Christine, Mai-Duc, July 12, 2017, December 11, 2017, Los Angeles Times, In November 2017, six other Democratic representatives introduced five articles of impeachment citing "obstruction of justice", "violation of the foreign emoluments clause", "violation of the domestic emoluments clause", "undermining the independence of the federal judiciary," and "undermining the freedom of the press".WEB,weblink Trump impeachment articles introduces by six Democrats calling for hearings to begin immediately, Jason le Miere, Newsweek, November 15, 2017, November 17, 2017, In December 2017, an impeachment resolution was put to a vote. Introduced by Congressman Al Green (D-TX), it comprised two articles of impeachment titled "Associating the Presidency with White Nationalism, Neo-Nazism and Hatred" and "Inciting Hatred and Hostility".NEWS,weblink Trump Impeachment? Texas Democrat Forces Vote Against Party's Wishes, Detrow, Scott, December 6, 2017, NPR, December 7, 2017, It was defeated 364 to 58.NEWS, Mike, DeBonis,weblink House votes to kill Texas lawmaker's Trump impeachment effort, The Washington Post, December 6, 2017,

2020 presidential campaign

Trump signaled his intention to run for a second term by filing with the FEC within hours of assuming the presidency.NEWS,weblink Trump hints at re-election bid, vowing 'eight years' of 'great things', Westwood, Sarah, Washington Examiner, January 22, 2017, February 19, 2017, This transformed his 2016 election committee into a 2020 reelection one.NEWS,weblink Trump breaks precedent, files as candidate for re-election on first day, Azfamily.com, January 31, 2017, February 19, 2017, Trump marked the official start of the campaign with a rally in Melbourne, Florida, on February 18, 2017, less than a month after taking office.NEWS,weblink Trump Kicks Off His 2020 Reelection Campaign on Saturday, Graham, David A., The Atlantic, February 15, 2017, February 19, 2017, By January 2018, Trump's reelection committee had raised $22.1 million.WEB,weblink Trump's 2020 Re-Election Committee Has $22.1 Million in the Bank, McCormick, John, Jacobs, Jennifer, January 31, 2018, Bloomberg, March 24, 2018,

Notes

{{Reflist|group="nb"}}

References

{{reflist|colwidth=25em}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Bibliography of Donald Trump}}
  • BOOK,weblink Donald Trump: Master Apprentice, Blair, Gwenda, Simon & Schuster, 2005, 978-0-7432-7510-1, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Donald Trump: The Candidate, Blair, Gwenda, Simon & Schuster, 2015a, 978-1-4391-2937-1, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink The Trumps: Three Generations That Built an Empire, Blair, Gwenda, Simon & Schuster, 2015b, First published 2001, 978-1-5011-3936-9, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1989, Gallup, George, Jr., George Gallup Jr., Rowman & Littlefield, 1990, 978-0-8420-2344-3, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Empire: A Tale of Obsession, Betrayal, and the Battle for an American Icon, Pacelle, Mitchell, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, 978-0-471-23865-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Trump Revealed: The Definitive Biography of the 45th President, Kranish, Michael, Michael Kranish, Fisher, Marc, Marc Fisher, Simon & Schuster, 2017, First published 2016, 978-1-5011-5652-6, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Taming the Beast: Wall Street's Imperfect Answers to Making Money, Light, Larry, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, 978-1-118-08420-5, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Donald Trump: Profile of a Real Estate Tycoon, Payment, Simone, Rosen Publishing, 2007, 978-1-4042-1909-0, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Trump: The Art of the Deal, Donald J., Trump, Tony, Schwartz, Tony Schwartz (author), Random House, 2009, First published 1987, 978-0-446-35325-0, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Donald Trump: From Real Estate to Reality TV, Wooten, Sara, Enslow Publishers, 2009, 978-0-7660-2890-6, harv,

External links

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