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Arizona
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{{About|the U.S. state of Arizona}}{{short description|state of the United States of America}}{{Use mdy dates|date=May 2017}}







factoids
|OfficialLang = English|Languages = As of 2010 Phoenix, Arizona>Phoenix|LargestCity = capitalPhoenix metropolitan area>Greater PhoenixDoug Ducey (Republican Party (United States)>R)Katie Hobbs (Democratic Party (United States)>D)|Lieutenant Governor_alt = Secretary of State|Legislature = Arizona LegislatureArizona Senate>SenateArizona House of Representatives>House of Representatives|Senators = Kyrsten Sinema (D) Martha McSally (R)|Representative = 5 Democrats4 Republicans|TradAbbreviation = Ariz.|PostalAbbreviation = AZ|AreaRank = 6th|TotalArea = 295,234|TotalAreaUS = 113,990weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110309024756weblink">"2010 Census State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved February 14, 2012.|PCWater = 0.35|PopRank = 14th|2010Pop = 7,171,646 (2018)|DensityRank = 33rd|2000Density = 22|2000DensityUS = 57TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, |IncomeRank=29th|Former = Arizona Territory|AdmittanceOrder = 48th|AdmittanceDate = February 14, 1912Mountain Time Zone>Mountain: Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−07:00>−7) (no DST)|TZ1Where = most of stateMountain Time Zone>Mountain: Coordinated Universal Time Mountain Standard Time>−7/(UTC−06:00|−6)|TZ2Where = Navajo Nation|Latitude = 31°  20′ N to 37° N|Longitude = 109°  03′ W to 114°  49′ W|Width = 500|WidthUS = 310|Length = 645|LengthUS = 400Humphreys PeakFQ0624ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 20, 2011, HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, mdy, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.|HighestElev = 3852|HighestElevUS = 12,637|MeanElev = 1250|MeanElevUS = 4,100Colorado River at the {{nobreak>Sonora border}}|LowestElev = 22|LowestElevUS = 72|ISOCode = US-AZ|ElectoralVotes = 10|Website = www.az.gov}}







factoids
File:Carnegiea gigantea (3).jpg|thumb|SaguaroSaguaroArizona ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Arizona.ogg|ˌ|ær|ᵻ|ˈ|z|oʊ|n|ə}}; {{IPA-nv|xòːztò xɑ̀xòːtsò}}; {{IPA-azc|ˡaɺi ˡʂonak}}) is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase.Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, and spruce trees; the Colorado Plateau; mountain ranges (such as the San Francisco Mountains); as well as large, deep canyons, with much more moderate summer temperatures and significant winter snowfalls. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.About one-quarter of the stateAll about Arizona. sheppardsoftware.com. Retrieved September 21, 2010. is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley (1948).Dr. Dean Chavers, "History of Indian voting rights and why it's important" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160707201026weblink |date=July 7, 2016 }}, Indian Country Today, October 29, 2012; accessed July 17, 2016. See Trujillo v. Garley (1948)

Etymology

The state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, , derived from the O'odham name , meaning "small spring", which initially applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora.BOOK, Bright, William, 2004, Native American Place Names of the United States, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 47, JOURNAL, Kitt, E. O., Pearce, T. M., Arizona Place Name Records, Western Folklore, 11, 4, 284–287, 10.2307/1496233, 1952, 1496233, WEB,weblink Arizona, Harper, Douglas, Online Etymology Dictionary, December 28, 2011, BOOK, McClintock, James, 1916, Arizona, Prehistoric, Aboriginal, Pioneer, Modern: The Nation's Youngest Commonwealth within a Land of Ancient Culture, Chicago, The S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona. The area is still known as in the O'odham language.BOOK, Saxton, Dean, Saxton, Lucille, Enos, Susie, 1983, Dictionary: Tohono O'odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'odham/Pima, Tucson, University of Arizona Press, Another possible origin is the Basque phrase ('the good oak'), as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area.WEB,weblink A sorry state of affairs when views change, The Arizona Republic, March 3, 2007, Thompson, Clay, February 25, 2007,weblink August 1, 2007, no, WEB,weblink How Arizona did NOT Get its Name, Arizona Historical Society, March 3, 2007, Jim, Turner,weblink August 2, 2007, yes, JOURNAL, Donald, Garate, 2005, Arizonac, a twentieth-century myth, Journal of Arizona History, 46, 2, 161–184, A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the (village) of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, {{circa|1737}}.WEB, The Meaning of Arizona,weblink Arizona State Library Archives & Public Records, Arizona Almanac, 20 March 2019, There is a misconception that the state's name originated from the Spanish term ("Arid Zone").WEB,weblink No, 'arid zone' not the basis of state's name, The Arizona Republic, December 29, 2014, Thompson, Clay, February 11, 2007,

History

{{more citations needed|section|date=February 2018}}File:North Rim of Grand Canyon, Arizona 2005.jpg|thumb|The North Rim of the Grand CanyonGrand Canyon(File:Grand Canyon South Rim 2013 2.jpg|thumb|The South Rim of the Grand Canyon)For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to many Native American tribes. Hohokam, Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among those that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived and attract thousands of tourists each year.File:La conquista del Colorado.jpg|thumb|left|La conquista del Colorado, by Augusto Ferrer-DalmauAugusto Ferrer-DalmauIn 1539, Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, became the first European to contact Native Americans. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants, probably the Sobaipuri. The expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar.Martínez Laínez, Fernando and Canales Torres, Carlos. Banderas lejanas: La exploración, conquista y defensa por parte de España del Territorio de los actuales Estados Unidos (in Spanish: Far flags. The exploration, conquest and defense by Spain of the Territory of the present United States). Page 145-46. Fourth edition: September 2009.Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus ("Jesuits"), he led the development of a chain of missions in the region. He converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta (now southern Arizona and northern Sonora) in the 1690s and early 18th century. Spain founded presidios ("fortified towns") at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775.When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California, ("New California"), also known as Alta California ("Upper California").Timothy Anna et al., Historia de México. Barcelona: Critica, 2001, p. 10. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of later European-American migrants from the United States.File:Mexico 1824 (equirectangular projection).png|left|thumb|Mexico in 1824. Alta CaliforniaAlta CaliforniaDuring the Mexican–American War (1847–1848), the U.S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what later became Arizona Territory in 1863 and later the State of Arizona in 1912. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation ({{inflation|US|15000000|1848|fmt=eq|r=2}}.) be paid to the Republic of Mexico.Mexican–American War as accessed on March 16, 2007, at 7:33 MST AM In 1853, the U.S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.What is now known as the state of Arizona was initially administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona.WEB,weblink Arizona Ordinance of secession presented by the Col. Sherod Hunter Camp 1525, SCV, Phoenix, Arizona, Members.tripod.com, July 23, 2007, July 25, 2010,weblink January 17, 2010, yes, mdy-all, This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona,BOOK, United States. Cong. Senate, 1904, 1st pub. Confederate States. Cong.:1861–1862, Journal of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. Volume I,weblink 58th Cong. 2d sess. S. Doc. 234, Washington, United States Government Publishing Office, Government Printing Office, 691, 05012700, Internet Archive, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona". The Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men, horses, and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Arizona has the westernmost military engagement on record during the Civil War with the Battle of Picacho Pass.File:Apache chieff Geronimo (right) and his warriors in 1886.jpg|thumb|Geronimo (far right) and his ApacheApacheThe Federal government declared a new U.S. Arizona Territory, consisting of the western half of earlier New Mexico Territory, in Washington, D.C., on February 24, 1863. These new boundaries would later form the basis of the state. The first territorial capital, Prescott, was founded in 1864 following a gold rush to central Arizona.BOOK, Henson, Pauline, Founding a Wilderness Capital, Prescott, A. T., 1864, 1965, Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona, passim, Library of Congress Catalog No. 65-17578, The capital was later moved to Tucson, back to Prescott, and then to its final location in Phoenix in a series of controversial moves as different regions of the territory gained and lost political influence with the growth and development of the territory.WEB, Arroyo Rodriguez, Nadine, Did You Know: Capital Of Arizona Moved 4 Times Before Settling In Phoenix,weblink kjzz, January 9, 2019, September 26, 2014, Although names including "Gadsonia," "Pimeria," "Montezuma" and "Arizuma" had been considered for the territory,WEB, Preserving Cultural and Historic Resources – A Conservation Objective of the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan,weblink pima.gov, November 13, 2016, yes,weblink January 17, 2010, mdy-all, when 16th President Abraham Lincoln signed the final bill, it read "Arizona," and that name was adopted. (Montezuma was not derived from the Aztec emperor, but was the sacred name of a divine hero to the Pima people of the Gila River Valley. It was probably considered—and rejected—for its sentimental value before Congress settled on the name "Arizona.")Brigham Young, patriarchal leader of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City in Utah, sent Mormons to Arizona in the mid- to late 19th century. They founded Mesa, Snowflake, Heber, Safford, and other towns. They also settled in the Phoenix Valley (or "Valley of the Sun"), Tempe, Prescott, and other areas. The Mormons settled what became northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. At the time these areas were in a part of the former New Mexico Territory.During the nineteenth century, a series of gold and silver rushes occurred in the territory, the best known being the 1870s stampede to the silver bonanzas of Tombstone, Arizona in southeast Arizona, also known for its legendary outlaws and lawmen.BOOK, Shillingberg, William, Tombstone, A. T., A History of Early Mining, Milling and Mayhem, 1999, Arthur Clark, Spokane, Washington, 0-87062-273-0, passim, By the late 1880s, copper production eclipsed the precious metals with the rise of copper camps like Bisbee, Arizona and Jerome, Arizona.BOOK, Bailey, Lynn, Bisbee, Queen of the Copper Camps, 2002, Westernlore Press, Tucson, Arizona, 0-87026-058-8, passim, BOOK, Clements, Eric, After the Boom in Tombstone and Jerome, Arizona, 2003, University of Nevada Press, Reno, Nevada, 0-87417-571-2, passim., The boom and bust economy of mining also left hundreds of ghost towns across the territory, but copper mining continued to prosper with the territory producing more copper than any other state by 1907, which earned Arizona the nickname "the Copper State" at the time of statehood.BOOK, Varney, Philip, Arizona Ghost Towns and Mining Camps, 1994, Arizona Highways, DOT, Phoenix, Arizona, 0-916179-44-3, passim, BOOK, Ascarza, William, In Search of Fortunes, a Look at the History of Arizona Mining, 2015, M. T. Publishing, Evansville, Indiana, 978-1-938730-69-6, Passim, During the first years of statehood the industry experienced growing pains and labor disputes with the Bisbee Deportation of 1917 the result of a copper miners’ strike.BOOK, Byrkit, James, Forging the Copper Collar, Arizona's Labor-Management War, 1901-1921, 1982, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 0-8165-0745-7, passim, The state continues to produce half of the nation's newly mined copper.File:DorotheaLangeMigrantWorkersChildren.jpg|thumb|Children of Depression-era migrant workers, Pinal County, 1937]]

20th century to present

During the Mexican Revolution from 1910 to 1920, several battles were fought in the Mexican towns just across the border from Arizona settlements. Throughout the revolution, many Arizonans enlisted in one of the several armies fighting in Mexico. Only two significant engagements took place on U.S. soil between U.S. and Mexican forces: Pancho Villa's 1916 Columbus Raid in New Mexico, and the Battle of Ambos Nogales in 1918 in Arizona. The Americans won the latter.After Mexican federal troops fired on U.S. soldiers, the American garrison launched an assault into Nogales, Mexico. The Mexicans eventually surrendered after both sides sustained heavy casualties. A few months earlier, just west of Nogales, an Indian War battle had occurred, considered the last engagement in the American Indian Wars, which lasted from 1775 to 1918. U.S. soldiers stationed on the border confronted Yaqui Indians who were using Arizona as a base to raid the nearby Mexican settlements, as part of their wars against Mexico.Arizona became a U.S. state on February 14, 1912. Arizona was the 48th state admitted to the U.S. and the last of the contiguous states to be admitted.File:Eleanor Roosevelt at Gila River, Arizona at Japanese-American Internment Center - NARA - 197094.jpg|thumb|Eleanor RooseveltEleanor RooseveltCotton farming and copper mining, two of Arizona's most important statewide industries, suffered heavily during the Great Depression. But during the 1920s and even the 1930s, tourism began to develop as the important Arizonan industry it is today. Dude ranches, such as the K L Bar and Remuda in Wickenburg, along with the Flying V and Tanque Verde in Tucson, gave tourists the chance to take part in the flavor and activities of the "Old West." Several upscale hotels and resorts opened during this period, some of which are still top tourist draws. They include the Arizona Biltmore Hotel in central Phoenix (opened 1929) and the Wigwam Resort on the west side of the Phoenix area (opened 1936).Arizona was the site of German POW camps during World War II and Japanese-American internment camps. Because of wartime fears of a Japanese invasion of the West Coast, the government authorized the removal of all Japanese-American residents from western Washington, western Oregon, all of California, and western Arizona. From 1942 to 1945, they were forced to reside in internment camps built in the interior of the country. Many lost their homes and businesses. The camps were abolished after World War II.The Phoenix-area German P.O.W. site was purchased after the war by the Maytag family (of major home appliance fame). It was developed as the site of the Phoenix Zoo. A Japanese-American internment camp was on Mount Lemmon, just outside the state's southeastern city of Tucson. Another POW camp was near the Gila River in eastern Yuma County.Arizona was also home to the Phoenix Indian School, one of several federal Indian boarding schools designed to assimilate Native American children into mainstream European-American culture. Children were often enrolled into these schools against the wishes of their parents and families. Attempts to suppress native identities included forcing the children to cut their hair, to take and use English names, to speak only English, and to practice Christianity rather than their native religions.WEB,weblink Archaeology of the Phoenix Indian School, Archaeology.org, March 27, 1998, July 25, 2010,weblink January 17, 2010, no, mdy, Numerous Native Americans from Arizona fought for the United States during World War II. Their experiences resulted in a rising activism in the postwar years to achieve better treatment and civil rights after their return to the state. After Maricopa County did not allow them to register to vote, in 1948 veteran Frank Harrison and Harry Austin, of the Mojave-Apache Tribe at Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, brought a legal suit, Harrison and Austin v. Laveen, to challenge this exclusion. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled in their favor.Harrison v. Laveen, July 1948, Arizona Supreme CourtArizona's population grew tremendously with residential and business development after World War II, aided by the widespread use of air conditioning, which made the intensely hot summers more comfortable. According to the Arizona Blue Book (published by the Arizona Secretary of State's office each year), the state population in 1910 was 294,353. By 1970, it was 1,752,122. The percentage growth each decade averaged about 20% in the earlier decades, and about 60% each decade thereafter.In the 1960s, retirement communities were developed. These age-restricted subdivisions catered exclusively to the needs of senior citizens and attracted many retirees who wanted to escape the harsh winters of the Midwest and the Northeast. Sun City, established by developer Del Webb and opened in 1960, was one of the first such communities. Green Valley, south of Tucson, was another such community, designed as a retirement subdivision for Arizona's teachers. Many senior citizens from across the U.S. and Canada come to Arizona each winter and stay only during the winter months; they are referred to as snowbirds.In March 2000, Arizona was the site of the first legally binding election ever held over the internet to nominate a candidate for public office."Arizona Democrats authorize Internet Voting for March 11 Advisory Primary", The Green Papers In the 2000 Arizona Democratic Primary, under worldwide attention, Al Gore defeated Bill Bradley. Voter turnout in this state primary increased more than 500% over the 1996 primary.Three ships named USS Arizona have been christened in honor of the state, although only USS Arizona (BB-39) was so named after statehood was achieved.

Geography and geology

File:Arizona Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Arizona]]File:Grand Canyon Horseshoe Bend (crop 2).jpg|thumb|The Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado RiverColorado RiverFile:Monument Valley 01.jpg|thumb|West Mitten at Monument ValleyMonument ValleyFile:Blue Mesa Painted Desert.jpg|thumb| Blue Mesa at Petrified Forest National ParkPetrified Forest National ParkFile:USA 09847 Grand Canyon Luca Galuzzi 2007.jpg|thumb|The Grand CanyonGrand CanyonFile:Bellemont Arizona View.jpg|thumb|The San Francisco Peaks seen from Bellemont ]]File:Saguaro National Park - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg|thumb|Sonoran Desert at Saguaro National ParkSaguaro National ParkFile:Cathedral Rock Water-27527-1.jpg|thumb|Cathedral Rock near Red Rock Crossing in Sedona ]] Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico and before Nevada. Of the state's {{convert|113998|sqmi|km2|-3}}, approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land and Native American reservations.Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the state's southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This region's topography was shaped by prehistoric volcanism, followed by the cooling-off and related subsidence. Its climate has exceptionally hot summers and mild winters. The state is less well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau (see Arizona Mountains forests).Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains and plateaus. Despite the state's aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest,WEB,weblink Urban and Community Forestry Division, Arizona State Forestry Division, July 6, 2014, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany {{citation needed|date=June 2017}}. The world's largest stand of ponderosa pine trees is in Arizona.WEB,weblink Prescott Overview, Ncsu.edu, May 15, 2002, July 25, 2010,weblink January 17, 2010, no, mdy, The Mogollon Rim, a {{convert|1998|ft|adj=on}} escarpment, cuts across the state's central section and marks the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. In 2002, this was an area of the Rodeo–Chediski Fire, the worst fire in state history.Located in northern Arizona, the Grand Canyon is a colorful, deep, steep-sided gorge, carved by the Colorado River. The canyon is one of the seven natural wonders of the world and is largely contained in the Grand Canyon National Park—one of the first national parks in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of designating the Grand Canyon area as a National Park, often visiting to hunt mountain lion and enjoy the scenery. The canyon was created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over millions of years, and is about {{convert|277|mi}} long, ranges in width from {{convert|4|to|18|mi|0}} and attains a depth of more than {{convert|1|mi}}. Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateau uplifted.Arizona is home to one of the most well-preserved meteorite impact sites in the world. Created around 50,000 years ago, the Barringer Meteorite Crater (better known simply as "Meteor Crater") is a gigantic hole in the middle of the high plains of the Colorado Plateau, about {{convert|25|mi|km}} west of Winslow. A rim of smashed and jumbled boulders, some of them the size of small houses, rises {{convert|150|ft|m}} above the level of the surrounding plain. The crater itself is nearly {{convert|1|mi|abbr=off|sp=us}} wide, and {{convert|570|ft|m}} deep.Arizona is one of two U.S. states that does not observe Daylight Saving Time (the other being Hawaii). The exception is within the large Navajo Nation (which observes Daylight Saving Time), in the state's northeastern region.

Earthquakes

Generally, Arizona is at low risk of earthquakes, except for the southwestern portion which is at moderate risk due to its proximity to southern California. On the other hand, northern Arizona is at moderate risk due to numerous faults in the area. The regions near and west of Phoenix have the lowest risk.WEB,weblink Arizona, USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Earthquake.Usgs.Gov, October 12, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130106024533weblink">weblink January 6, 2013, The earliest Arizona earthquakes were recorded at Fort Yuma, on the California side of the Colorado River. They were centered near the Imperial Valley, or Mexico, back in the 1800s. Residents in Douglas felt the 1887 Sonora earthquake with its epicenter 40 miles to the south in the Mexican state of Sonora.WEB,weblink Arizona, USGS Earthquake Hazards Program Earthquake.Usgs.Gov, October 12, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120901050344weblink">weblink September 1, 2012, The first damaging earthquake known to be centered within Arizona occurred on January 25, 1906, also including a series of other earthquakes centered near Socorro, New Mexico. The shock was violent in Flagstaff.In September 1910, a series of 52 earthquakes caused a construction crew near Flagstaff to leave the area. In 1912, the year Arizona achieved statehood, on August 18, an earthquake caused a 50-mile crack in the San Francisco Range. In early January 1935, the state experienced a series of earthquakes, in the Yuma area and near the Grand Canyon. Arizona experienced its largest earthquake in 1959, with a tremor of a magnitude 5.6. It was centered near Fredonia, in the state's northwest near the border with Utah. The tremor was felt across the border in Nevada and Utah.

Adjacent states

Climate

Due to its large area and variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. Typically, from late fall to early spring, the weather is mild, averaging a minimum of {{convert|60|°F}}. November through February are the coldest months, with temperatures typically ranging from {{convert|40 to 75|°F}}, with occasional frosts.WEB,weblink Arizona Climate, December 7, 2001, December 28, 2011, Desert Research Institute, Western Regional Climate Center, Reno, Nevada, About midway through February, the temperatures start to rise, with warm days, and cool, breezy nights. The summer months of June through September bring a dry heat from {{convert|90 to 120|°F}}, with occasional high temperatures exceeding {{convert|125|°F}} having been observed in the desert area. Arizona's all-time record high is {{convert|128|°F}} recorded at Lake Havasu City on June 29, 1994, and July 5, 2007; the all-time record low of {{convert|-40|°F}} was recorded at Hawley Lake on January 7, 1971.Due to the primarily dry climate, large diurnal temperature variations occur in less-developed areas of the desert above {{convert|2500|feet|abbr=on}}. The swings can be as large as 83 Â°F (46 Â°C) in the summer months. In the state's urban centers, the effects of local warming result in much higher measured night-time lows than in the recent past.Arizona has an average annual rainfall of {{convert|12.7|in|mm|sigfig=3|abbr=on}},WEB
, Climate Assessment for the Southwest
, The Climate of the Southwest
, University of Arizona
, December 1999
, March 21, 2006
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071012202434weblink">weblink
, October 12, 2007
, yes
, mdy
, which comes during two rainy seasons, with cold fronts coming from the Pacific Ocean during the winter and a monsoon in the summer.WEB, Hydrologic Conditions in Arizona During 1999–2004: A Historical Perspective, United States Geological Survey, December 28, 2011, September 2005,weblink
dewpoint rises dramatically for a brief period. During this time, the air contains large amounts of water vapor. Dewpoints as high as 81 Â°F (27 Â°C)HTTP://WWW.WUNDERGROUND.COM/HISTORY/AIRPORT/KPHX/2011/7/1/CUSTOMHISTORY.HTML?DAYEND=31&MONTHEND=8&YEAREND=2011&REQ_CITY=NA&REQ_STATE=NA&REQ_STATENAME=NAPUBLISHER=WEATHER UNDERGROUND (WEATHER SERVICE)>DATE=AUGUST 31, 2006, have been recorded during the Phoenix, Arizona monsoon season. This hot moisture brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential, if usually brief, downpours. These downpours often cause flash floods, which can turn deadly. In an attempt to deter drivers from crossing flooding streams, the Arizona Legislature enacted the Stupid Motorist Law. It is rare for tornadoes or List of Arizona hurricanes>hurricanes to occur in Arizona.Arizona's northern third is a plateau at significantly higher altitudes than the lower desert, and has an appreciably cooler climate, with cold winters and mild summers, though the climate remains semiarid to arid. Extremely cold temperatures are not unknown; cold air systems from the northern states and Canada occasionally push into the state, bringing temperatures below {{convert|0|°F}} to the state's northern parts.Indicative of the variation in climate, Arizona is the state which has both the metropolitan area with the most days over {{convert|100|°F}} (Phoenix), and the metropolitan area in the lower 48 states with the most days with a low temperature below freezing (Flagstaff).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011217185325weblink">weblink yes, December 17, 2001, Mean number of Days with Minimum Temperature Below 32F National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Retrieved March 24, 2007, Lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov, August 20, 2008, December 28, 2011, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!July (°F)!July (°C)!December (°F)!December (°C)Phoenix, Arizona>Phoenix 106/83 41/28 66/45 19/7Tucson, Arizona>Tucson 100/74 38/23 65/39 18/4Yuma, Arizona>Yuma 107/82 42/28 68/46 20/8Flagstaff, Arizona>Flagstaff 81/51 27/11 42/17 6/–8Prescott, Arizona>Prescott 89/60 32/16 51/23 11/–5Kingman, Arizona>Kingman 98/66 37/19 56/32 13/0

Demographics

(File:Arizona population map.png|thumb|upright=1.6|A population density map of Arizona){{US Census population|1860= 6482|1870= 9658|1880= 40440|1890= 88243|1900= 122931|1910= 204354|1920= 334162|1930= 435573|1940= 499261|1950= 749587|1960= 1302161|1970= 1745944|1980= 2718215|1990= 3665228|2000= 5130632|2010= 6392017|estimate= 7171646|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerResident Population Data – 2010 Census {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131019160532weblink FORMAT=PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISIONACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 2, 2019, Note that early censusesmay not includeNative Americans in Arizona}}The United States Census Bureau estimates Arizona's population was 7,171,646 on July 1, 2018, a 12.20% increase since the 2010 United States Census.Arizona remained sparsely settled for most of the 19th century.Arizona (state, United States). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. The 1860 census reported the population of "Arizona County" to be 6,482, of whom 4,040 were listed as "Indians", 21 as "free colored", and 2,421 as "white"."Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990." (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180209063255weblink |date=February 9, 2018 }}.Census.gov Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120112102601weblink |date=January 12, 2012 }} Arizona's continued population growth puts an enormous stress on the state's water supply."Arizona at a crossroads over water and growth". The Arizona Republic. March 9, 2008. {{as of|2011}}, 61.3% of Arizona's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups."Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012.The population of metropolitan Phoenix increased by 45.3% from 1991 through 2001, helping to make Arizona the second fastest-growing state in the U.S. in the 1990s (the fastest was Nevada)."Ranking Tables for Metropolitan Areas: 1990 and 2000." United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved on July 8, 2006. {{as of|2017|July}}, the population of the Phoenix area is estimated to be over 4.7 million.According to the 2010 United States Census, Arizona had a population of 6,392,017. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7.9% of the population. This was the second highest percentage of any state in the U.S.NEWS, Peter, Slevin, New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot,weblink Washington Post, Washington, DC, A4, April 30, 2010, December 28, 2011, second to Nevada with 8.8% in 2010Metropolitan Phoenix (4.7 million) and Tucson (1 million) are home to about five-sixths of Arizona's people (as of the 2010 census). Metro Phoenix alone accounts for two-thirds of the state's population.

Race and ethnicity

In 1980, the Census Bureau reported Arizona's population as 16.2% Hispanic, 5.6% Native American, and 74.5% non-Hispanic white.WEB, Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725044857weblink">weblink yes, July 25, 2008, In 2010, the racial makeup of the state was: Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 29.6% of the state's population. Non-Hispanic whites formed 57.8% of the total population.American FactFinder – Results {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110520164400weblink |date=May 20, 2011 }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"|+ Arizona racial breakdown of population! Racial composition !! 1970!! 1990Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141224151538weblink |date=December 24, 2014 }}"Table 17. Arizona – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1860 to 1990". (PDF) !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Arizona – Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts – CensusViewer, censusviewer.com, !! 2010WEB,weblink 2010 Census Data, White American>White 90.6% 80.8% 75.5% 73.0%Native Americans in the United States>Native 5.4% 5.5% 5.0% 4.6%African American>Black 3.0% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1%Asian American>Asian 0.5% 1.5% 1.8% 2.8%Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.2%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.5% 9.1% 11.6% 11.9%Multiracial American>Two or more races – – 2.9% 3.4%Arizona's five largest ancestry groups, {{as of|2009|lc=y}}, were:WEB, American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau,weblink Arizona – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2007–2009, Factfinder.census.gov, December 28, 2011,
  1. Mexican (27.4%);
  2. German (16.0%);
  3. Irish (10.8%);
  4. English (10.1%);
  5. Italian (4.6%).

Languages

(File:Extension spanish arizona.png|thumb|left|Extent of the Spanish language in the state of Arizona){| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin-left:1em; float:center"|+ Top 10 non-English languages spoken in Arizona! Language !! Percentage of population{{small|(as of 2010)}}Spanish language>Spanish 20.80%Navajo language>Navajo 1.48%German language>German 0.39%Chinese language>Chinese (including Standard Chinese) >| 0.39%Tagalog language>Tagalog 0.33%Vietnamese language>Vietnamese 0.30%Indigenous languages of North America>Other North American indigenous languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona) 0.27%French language>French 0.26%Arabic language>Arabic 0.24%Apache language>Apache 0.18%Korean language>Korean 0.17%File:Navajo Cowboy-1.jpg|thumb|right|A Navajo man on horseback in Monument ValleyMonument Valley{{as of|2010}}, 72.90% (4,215,749) of Arizona residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 20.80% (1,202,638) spoke Spanish, 1.48% (85,602) Navajo, 0.39% (22,592) German, 0.39% (22,426) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), 0.33% (19,015) Tagalog, 0.30% (17,603) Vietnamese, 0.27% (15,707) Other North American Indigenous Languages (especially indigenous languages of Arizona), and French was spoken as a main language by 0.26% (15,062) of the population over the age of five. In total, 27.10% (1,567,548) of Arizona's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.WEB,weblink Arizona, Modern Language Association, October 15, 2013, Arizona is home to the largest number of speakers of Native American languages in the 48 contiguous states, as over 85,000 individuals reported speaking Navajo,2005 American Community Survey. Retrieved from the data of the MLA, July 13, 2010 and 10,403 people reported Apache, as a language spoken at home in 2005. Arizona's Apache County has the highest concentration of speakers of Native American Indian languages in the United States.Arizona has most Indian language speakers. upi.com Accessed December 12, 2011.

Cities and towns

File:Scottsdale cityscape4.jpg|thumb|right|View of suburban development in Scottsdale, 2006]]{{See also|List of places in Arizona|List of cities and towns in Arizona|List of Arizona counties}}Phoenix, in Maricopa County, is Arizona's capital and largest city. Other prominent cities in the Phoenix metro area include Mesa (Arizona's third largest city), Chandler (Arizona's fourth largest city), Glendale, Peoria, Buckeye, Sun City, Sun City West, Fountain Hills, Surprise, Gilbert, El Mirage, Avondale, Tempe, Tolleson and Scottsdale, with a total metropolitan population of just over 4.7 million.MAGAZINE, Phoenix Business Journal, September 2, 2011, 4, The average high temperature in July, {{convert|106|°F|°C}}, is one of the highest of any metropolitan area in the United States, offset by an average January high temperature of {{convert|67|°F|°C}}, the basis of its winter appeal.Tucson, with a metro population of just over one million, is the state's second-largest city. Located in Pima County, approximately {{convert|110|mi}} southeast of Phoenix, it was incorporated in 1877, making it the oldest incorporated city in Arizona. It is home to the University of Arizona. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. It has an average July temperature of 100 Â°F (38 Â°C) and winter temperatures averaging 65 Â°F (18 Â°C). Saguaro National Park, just west of the city in the Tucson Mountains, is the site of the world's largest collection of Saguaro cacti.The Prescott metropolitan area includes the cities of Prescott, Cottonwood, Camp Verde and many other towns in the {{convert|8123|sqmi|km2|sigfig=3}} of Yavapai County area. With 212,635 residents, this cluster of towns is the state's third largest metropolitan area. The city of Prescott (population 41,528) lies approximately {{convert|100|mi}} northwest of the Phoenix metropolitan area. Situated in pine tree forests at an elevation of about {{convert|5500|ft}}, Prescott enjoys a much cooler climate than Phoenix, with average summer highs around {{convert|88|°F|°C}} and winter temperatures averaging {{convert|50|°F|°C}}.Yuma is center of the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Arizona. Located in Yuma County, it is near the borders of California and Mexico. It is one of the hottest cities in the United States, with an average July high of {{convert|107|F}}. (The same month's average in Death Valley is {{convert|115|F}}.) The city features sunny days about 90% of the year. The Yuma Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population of 160,000. Yuma attracts many winter visitors from all over the United States.Flagstaff, in Coconino County, is the largest city in northern Arizona, and is at an elevation of nearly {{convert|7000|ft}}. With its large Ponderosa pine forests, snowy winter weather and picturesque mountains, it is a stark contrast to the desert regions typically associated with Arizona. It is sited at the base of the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountain range in the state of Arizona, which contain Humphreys Peak, the highest point in Arizona at {{convert|12633|ft}}. Flagstaff has a strong tourism sector, due to its proximity to numerous tourist attractions including: Grand Canyon National Park, Sedona, and Oak Creek Canyon. Historic U.S. Route 66 is the main east-west street in the town. The Flagstaff metropolitan area is home to 134,421 residents and the main campus of Northern Arizona University.Lake Havasu City, in Mohave County, known as "Arizona's playground," was developed on the Colorado River and is named after Lake Havasu. Lake Havasu City has a population of about 53,000 people. It is famous for huge spring break parties, sunsets and the London Bridge, relocated from London, England. Lake Havasu City was founded by real estate developer Robert P. McCulloch in 1963.WEB,weblink Welcome to Lake Havasu City, July 5, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150823014835weblink">weblink August 23, 2015, Lake Havasu City, mdy, It has two colleges, Mohave Community College and ASU Colleges in Lake Havasu City.WEB,weblink ASU@Lake Havasu, Arizona Board of Regents, March 20, 2019, {{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = ArizonaACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 2, 2019, United States Census Bureau, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Arizona{{!}}County| city_1 = Phoenix, Arizona{{!}}Phoenix| div_1 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_1 = 1,626,078| img_1 = Phoenix_skyline_Arizona_USA.jpg| city_2 = Tucson, Arizona{{!}}Tucson| div_2 = Pima County, Arizona{{!}}Pima| pop_2 = 535,677| img_2 = Tucson_skyline.JPG| city_3 = Mesa, Arizona{{!}}Mesa| div_3 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_3 = 496,401| img_3 = Downtown_Mesa_Arizona.jpg| city_4 = Chandler, Arizona{{!}}Chandler| div_4 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_4 = 253,458| img_4 = Chandler_Arizona_High_School_1921.jpg| city_5 = Scottsdale, Arizona{{!}}Scottsdale| div_5 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_5 = 249,950| img_5 =| city_6 = Glendale, Arizona{{!}}Glendale| div_6 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_6 = 246,709| img_6 =| city_7 = Gilbert, Arizona{{!}}Gilbert| div_7 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_7 = 242,354| img_7 =| city_8 = Tempe, Arizona{{!}}Tempe| div_8 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_8 = 185,038| img_8 =| city_9 = Peoria, Arizona{{!}}Peoria| div_9 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_9 = 168,181| img_9 =| city_10 = Surprise, Arizona{{!}}Surprise| div_10 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_10 = 134,085| img_10 =| city_11 = Yuma, Arizona{{!}}Yuma| div_11 = Yuma County, Arizona{{!}}Yuma| pop_11 = 95,502| img_11 =| city_12 = San Tan Valley, Arizona{{!}}San Tan Valley| div_12 = Pinal County, Arizona{{!}}Pinal| pop_12 = 93,000| img_12 =| city_13 = Avondale, Arizona{{!}}Avondale| div_13 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_13 = 84,025| img_13 =| city_14 = Goodyear, Arizona{{!}}Goodyear| div_14 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_14 = 79,858| img_14 =| city_15 = Casas Adobes, Arizona{{!}}Casas Adobes| div_15 = Pima County, Arizona{{!}}Pima| pop_15 = 74,000| img_15 =| city_16 = Flagstaff, Arizona{{!}}Flagstaff| div_16 = Coconino County, Arizona{{!}}Coconino| pop_16 = 71,975| img_16 =| city_17 = Buckeye, Arizona{{!}}Buckeye| div_17 = Maricopa County, Arizona{{!}}Maricopa| pop_17 = 68,453| img_17 =| city_18 = Casa Grande, Arizona{{!}}Casa Grande| div_18 = Pinal County, Arizona{{!}}Pinal| pop_18 = 55,477| img_18 =| city_19 = Lake Havasu City, Arizona{{!}}Lake Havasu City| div_19 = Mohave County, Arizona{{!}}Mohave| pop_19 = 54,411| img_19 =| city_20 = Catalina Foothills, Arizona{{!}}Catalina Foothills| div_20 = Pima County, Arizona{{!}}Pima| pop_20 = 54,000| img_20 =}}

Religion

File:Exterior of the Mission Xavier del Bac.jpg|thumb|The Spanish mission of San Xavier del Bac, founded in 1700]]{{bar boxDATE=MAY 11, 2015, left1=Religion float=right|bars ={{bar percent|Protestant|purple|39}}{{bar percent|None|black|27}}{{bar percent|Catholic|dodgerblue|21}}{{bar percent|Mormon|pink|5}}{{bar percent|Jewish|blue|2}}{{bar percent|Jehovah's Witness|yellow|1}}{{bar percent|Hindu|Orange|1}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|green|1}}{{bar percent|Muslim|darkgreen|1}}{{bar percent|Other|grey|2}}}}In 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives reported that the three largest denominational groups in Arizona were the Catholic Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and non-denominational Evangelical Protestants. The Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Arizona (at 930,001), followed by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 410,263 members reportedWEB, LDS Facts and Statistics USA-Arizona,weblink Mormon Newsroom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, November 30, 2014, and then non-denominational Evangelical Protestants, reporting 281,105 adherents.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State membership Report, www.Thearda.com, November 7, 2013, The religious body with the largest number of congregations is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (with 836 congregationsWEB,weblink Facts and Statistics USA-Arizona, lds.org, April 30, 2012, ) followed by the Southern Baptist Convention (with 323 congregations).According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the fifteen largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 and 2000 were:WEB,weblink Association of Religion Data Archives, Arizona – Religious Traditions, 2010, August 2, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Association of Religion Data Archives, Arizona – Religious Traditions, 2010, August 2, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, yes, mdy-all, {| class="wikitable"! Religion! 2010 Population! 2000 PopulationRoman Catholic Church>Catholic Church| 930,001| 974,884| The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints| 410,263| 251,974| Non-denominational Christian| 281,105group=nb|In 2000, this designation was broken into two groups: Independent, Non-Charismatic Churches (34,130 adherents) and Independent, Charismatic Churches (29,755 adherents)}}| Southern Baptist Convention| 126,830| 138,516| Assemblies of God| 123,713| 82,802| United Methodist Church| 54,977| 53,232| Christian Churches and Churches of Christ| 48,386| 33,162| Evangelical Lutheran Church in America| 42,944| 69,393| Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod| 26,322| 24,977| Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)| 26,078| 33,554| Episcopal Church (United States)| 24,853| 31,104| Seventh-day Adventist Church| 20,924| 11,513| Church of the Nazarene| 16,991| 18,143| Lutheran Congregations in Mission for Christ| 14,350| 0| Churches of Christ| 14,151| 14,471Regarding non-Christian denominations, Hinduism became the largest non-Christian religion (when combining all denominations) in 2010, with over 32,000 adherents in several denominations, followed by Judaism with over 20,000 in three denominations, and Buddhism with over 19,000 adherents in several denominations.WEB,weblink NBC News, How Hindus Grew into Second-Largest Faith in Arizona & Delaware, June 24, 2014, August 2, 2017,weblink August 2, 2017, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies, U.S. Religion Census 2010: Summary Findings, May 1, 2012, August 2, 2017, 16,weblink August 2, 2017, yes, mdy-all,

Economy

File:Barringer Crater aerial photo by USGS.jpg|thumb|Arizona's Meteor CraterMeteor Crater{{See also|Arizona locations by per capita income}}The 2011 total gross state product was $259 billion. This figure gives Arizona a larger economy than such countries as Ireland, Finland, and New Zealand. {{Dubious|date=April 2019}} The composition of the state's economy is moderately diverse; although health care, transportation and the government remain the largest sectors.The state's per capita income is $40,828, ranking 39th in the U.S. The state had a median household income of $50,448, making it 22nd in the country and just below the U.S. national mean.WEB,weblink News Release, December 28, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120921200544weblink">weblink September 21, 2012, yes, mdy-all, Early in its history, Arizona's economy relied on the "five C's": copper (see Copper mining in Arizona), cotton, cattle, citrus, and climate (tourism). Copper is still extensively mined from many expansive open-pit and underground mines, accounting for two-thirds of the nation's output.

Employment

The state government is Arizona's largest employer, while Banner Health is the state's largest private employer, with over 39,000 employees (2016). {{As of|March 2016}}, the state's unemployment rate was 5.4%.WEB,weblink Arizona Economy at a Glance, Bls.gov, September 9, 2016, The top employment sectors in Arizona are (August 2014, excludes agriculture):{|class="wikitable sortable"! Sector !! Employees (thousands)| 488.6| 408.5| 392.1| 384.2| 286.4| 193.2| 156.0| 118.2| 88.2| 41.8| 13.7

Largest employers

According to The Arizona Republic, the largest private employers in the state {{as of|2016|lc=y}} were:"Arizona Republic 100: State's biggest employers". The Arizona Republic.{| class="wikitable"! Rank! Company! Employees! Industry| 1| Banner Health| 39,781Health care industry>Health care| 2Walmart>Walmart Stores, Inc.| 34,856| Discount retailer| 3Kroger>Kroger Co.| 16,856| Grocery stores| 4McDonald's>McDonald's Corp.| 15,781| Food service| 5Wells Fargo>Wells Fargo & Co.| 15,071| Financial services| 6| Albertsons Inc.| 14,490Grocery stores, retail Pharmacy>drugstores| 7| Intel Corp.| 11,300| Semiconductor manufacturing| 8| HonorHealth| 10,600Health care industry>Health care9 (tie)| American Airlines| 10,000| AirlineThe Home Depot>Home Depot Inc.| 10,000| Retail home improvementHoneywell>Honeywell International Inc.| 10,000| Aerospace manufacturing| 12Bank of America>Bank of America Corp.| 9,800| Financial services| 13Raytheon>Raytheon Co.| 9,600Defense industry>Defense (missile manufacturing)| 14JPMorgan Chase>JP Morgan Chase & Co.| 9,500| Financial services| 15| Bashas' Supermarkets| 8,525| Grocery stores| 16Target Corporation>Target Corp.| 8,241| Discount retailer| 17Freeport-McMoRan>Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.| 8,030| Mining| 18| Dignity Health| 8,000Health care industry>Health care| 19CVS Caremark>CVS Health| 7,200| Pharmaceutical services (including retail drugstores)| 20American Express>American Express Co.| 7,079| Financial services| 21Circle K>Circle K Corp.| 6,800| Convenience stores| 22| UnitedHealthcare| 6,000Health care industry>Health care| 23| Pinnacle West Capital Corp.| 6,407| Electric utility| 24| Mayo Foundation| 6,274Health care industry>Health care| 25| Amazon.com| 6,000| Online Shopping

Taxation

Arizona collects personal income taxes in five brackets: 2.59%, 2.88%, 3.36%, 4.24% and 4.54%.WEB,weblink Arizona Income Tax Rates for 2017, www.tax-rates.org, The state transaction privilege tax is 5.6%; however, county and municipal sales taxes generally add an additional 2%.The state rate on transient lodging (hotel/motel) is 7.27%. The state of Arizona does not levy a state tax on food for home consumption or on drugs prescribed by a licensed physician or dentist. However, some cities in Arizona do levy a tax on food for home consumption.All fifteen Arizona counties levy a tax. Incorporated municipalities also levy transaction privilege taxes which, with the exception of their hotel/motel tax, are generally in the range of 1-to-3%. These added assessments could push the combined sales tax rate to as high as 10.7%.{| class="wikitable"! Single! Tax rate! Joint! Tax rate|0 – $10,000|2.590%|0 – $20,000|2.590%|$10,000 – $25,000|2.880%|$20,001 – $50,000|2.880%|$25,000 – $50,000|3.360%|$50,001 – $100,000|3.360%|$50,000 – $150,001|4.240%|$100,000 – $300,001|4.240%|$150,001 +|4.540%|$300,001 +|4.540%

Transportation

File:Entering Arizona on I-10 Westbound.jpg|thumb|right|Entering Arizona on I-10 from New MexicoNew Mexico

Highways

Interstate highways

{{jct|state=AZ|I|8}} | {{jct|state=AZ|I|10}} | {{jct|state=AZ|Future|11}} | {{jct|state=AZ|I|15}} | {{jct|country=USA|I|17}} | {{jct|country=USA|I|19}} | {{jct|state=AZ|I|40}}

U.S. routes

{{jct|state=AZ|US|60}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|64}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|66}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|70}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|89}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|91}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|93}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|95}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|160}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|163}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|180}} | {{jct|state=AZ|US|191}}Main interstate routes include I-17, and I-19 traveling north-south, I-8, I-10, and I-40, traveling east-west, and a short stretch of I-15 traveling northeast–southwest through the extreme northwestern corner of the state. In addition, the various urban areas are served by complex networks of state routes and highways, such as the Loop 101, which is part of Phoenix's vast freeway system.

Public transportation, Amtrak, and intercity bus

The Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas are served by public bus transit systems. Yuma and Flagstaff also have public bus systems. Greyhound Lines serves Phoenix, Tucson, Flagstaff, Yuma, and several smaller communities statewide.A light rail system, called Valley Metro Rail, was completed in December 2008; it connects Central Phoenix with the nearby cities of Mesa and Tempe.In Tucson, the Sun Link streetcar system travels through the downtown area, connecting the main University of Arizona campus with Mercado San Agustin on the western edge of downtown Tucson. Sun Link, loosely based on the Portland Streetcar, launched in July 2014.WEB,weblink Tucson: Streetcar Plan Wins With 60% of Vote, Lightrailnow.org, December 28, 2011, Amtrak Southwest Chief route serves the northern part of the state, stopping at Winslow, Flagstaff, Williams and Kingman. The Texas Eagle and Sunset Limited routes serve South-Central Arizona, stopping at Tucson, Maricopa, Yuma and Benson. Phoenix lost Amtrak service in 1996 with the discontinuation of the Desert Wind, and now an Amtrak bus runs between Phoenix and the station in Maricopa.{{see also|List of passenger train stations in Arizona}}

Aviation

{{See also|List of airports in Arizona}}Airports with regularly scheduled commercial flights include: Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (IATA: PHX, ICAO: KPHX) in Phoenix (the state's largest airport and the major international airport); Tucson International Airport (IATA: TUS, ICAO: KTUS) in Tucson; Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport (IATA: AZA, ICAO: KIWA) in Mesa; Yuma International Airport (IATA: NYL, ICAO: KNYL) in Yuma; Prescott Municipal Airport (PRC) in Prescott; Flagstaff Pulliam Airport (IATA: FLG, ICAO: KFLG) in Flagstaff, and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (IATA: GCN, ICAO: KGCN, FAA: GCN), a small, but busy, single-runway facility providing tourist flights, mostly from Las Vegas. Phoenix Sky Harbor is the world's 7th busiest airport in terms of aircraft movements and 17th for passenger traffic.World's busiest airports by traffic movementsWorld's busiest airports by passenger trafficOther significant airports without regularly scheduled commercial flights include Scottsdale Municipal Airport (IATA: SCF, ICAO: KSDL) in Scottsdale, and Deer Valley Airport (IATA: DVT, ICAO: KDVT, FAA: DVT) home to two flight training academies and the nation's busiest general aviation airport.WEB,weblink Deer Valley Airport, Phoenix.gov, July 25, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110423090645weblink">weblink April 23, 2011,

Law and government

{{See also|Arizona Constitution|United States congressional delegations from Arizona|List of Arizona Governors|Political party strength in Arizona|Arizona Revised Statutes}}

Capitol complex

File:Azcap.jpg|thumb|The original Arizona State Capitol, Phoenix ]]The state capital of Arizona is Phoenix. The original Capitol building, with its distinctive copper dome, was dedicated in 1901 (construction was completed for $136,000 in 1900), when the area was a territory. Phoenix became the official state capital with Arizona's admission to the union in 1912.The House of Representatives and Senate buildings were dedicated in 1960, and an Executive Office Building was dedicated in 1974 (the ninth floor of this building is where the Office of the Governor is located). The original Capitol building was converted into a museum.The Capitol complex is fronted and highlighted by the richly landscaped Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, named after Wesley Bolin, a governor who died in office in the 1970s. The site also includes many monuments and memorials, including the anchor and signal mast from the USS Arizona (one of the U.S. Navy ships sunk in Pearl Harbor) and a granite version of the Ten Commandments.

State legislative branch

The Arizona Legislature is bicameral (like the legislature of every other state except Nebraska) and consists of a thirty-member Senate and a 60-member House of Representatives. Each of the thirty legislative districts has one senator and two representatives. Legislators are elected for two-year terms.Each Legislature covers a two-year period. The first session following the general election is known as the first regular session, and the session convening in the second year is known as the second regular session. Each regular session begins on the second Monday in January and adjourns sine die (terminates for the year) no later than Saturday of the week in which the 100th day from the beginning of the regular session falls. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, by rule, may extend the session up to seven additional days. Thereafter, the session can only be extended by a majority vote of members present of each house.The majority party is the Republican Party, which has held power in both houses since 1993.Arizona state senators and representatives are elected for two-year terms and are limited to four consecutive terms in a chamber, though there is no limit on the total number of terms. When a lawmaker is term-limited from office, it is not uncommon for him or her to run for election in the other chamber.The fiscal year 2006–07 general fund budget, approved by the Arizona Legislature in June 2006, is slightly less than $10 billion. Besides the money spent on state agencies, it also includes more than $500 million in income- and property tax cuts, pay raises for government employees, and additional funding for the K–12 education system. State of Arizona elected officials">

State executive branch{| class"wikitable" cellspacing"1" style"float:right; width:315px; margin:0 0 1em 1em; border:#c6c7c8 solid; font-size:90%;" State of Arizona elected officials

Governor| Doug Ducey (R)Secretary of State of Arizona>Secretary of State| Katie Hobbs (D)Arizona Attorney General>Attorney General| Mark Brnovich (R)State Treasurer of Arizona>State Treasurer| Kimberley Yee (R)Arizona Superintendent of Public Instruction>Superintendent of Public Instruction| Kathy Hoffman (D)Arizona State Mine Inspector>State Mine InspectorJoe Hart (politician)>Joe Hart (R)Arizona Corporation Commission>Corporation Commissioner| Arizona's executive branch is headed by a governor, who is elected to a four-year term. The governor may serve any number of terms, though no more than two in a row. Arizona is one of the few states that does not maintain a governor's mansion. During office the governors reside within their private residence, and all executive offices are housed in the executive tower at the state capitol. The governor of Arizona is Doug Ducey (R).Former Governor Jan Brewer assumed office after Janet Napolitano had her nomination by Barack Obama for Secretary of Homeland Security confirmed by the United States Senate.NEWS, Ariz. GOP would gain if Napolitano gets Obama post, Associated Press, KTAR-FM, KTAR, November 20, 2008,weblink December 28, 2011, Arizona has had four female governors, more than any other state.Other elected executive officials include the Secretary of State, State Treasurer, State Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, State Mine Inspector and a five-member Corporation Commission. All elected officials hold a term of four years, and are limited to two consecutive terms (except the office of the State Mine Inspector, which is limited to 4 termsWEB,weblink Format Document, Azleg.gov, January 1, 1993, September 9, 2016, ).Arizona is one of five states that do not have a specified lieutenant governor. The secretary of state is the first in line to succeed the governor in the event of death, disability, resignation, or removal from office. The line of succession also includes the attorney general, state treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Since 1977, four secretaries of state and one attorney general have risen to Arizona's governorship through these means.

State judicial branch

The Arizona Supreme Court is the highest court in Arizona. The court consists of one chief justice, a vice chief justice, and three associate justices. Justices are appointed by the governor from a list recommended by a bipartisan commission, and are re-elected after the initial two years following their appointment. Subsequent re-elections occur every six years. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in death penalty cases, but almost all other appellate cases go through the Arizona Court of Appeals beforehand. The court has original jurisdiction in a few other circumstances, as outlined in the state constitution. The court may also declare laws unconstitutional, but only while seated en banc. The court meets in the Arizona Supreme Court Building at the capitol complex (at the southern end of Wesley Bolin Plaza).The Arizona Court of Appeals, further divided into two divisions, is the intermediate court in the state. Division One is based in Phoenix, consists of sixteen judges, and has jurisdiction in the Western and Northern regions of the state, along with the greater Phoenix area. Division Two is based in Tucson, consists of six judges, and has jurisdiction over the Southern regions of the state, including the Tucson area. Judges are selected in a method similar to the one used for state supreme court justices.Each county of Arizona has a superior court, the size and organization of which are varied and generally depend on the size of the particular county.

Counties

Arizona is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. There are 15 counties in the state, ranging in size from {{convert|1238|sqmi|km2|sigfig=3}} to {{convert|18661|sqmi|km2|sigfig=4}}.File:Cochise County Courthouse Bisbee Arizona ArtDecoDoors.jpg|thumb|upright|Art Deco doors of the Cochise CountyCochise County{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="margin:lem; margin-top:0;"!colspan="7" style="white-space: nowrap;" |Arizona counties!County name !! County seat !! Year founded !! 2010 population"Table 1. The Counties and the Most Populous Incorporated Places in 2010 in Arizona: 2000 and 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved January 8, 2012. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111017151328weblink |date=October 17, 2011 }}!! Percent of total !! Area (sq. mi.) !! Percent of totalApache County, Arizona>ApacheSt. Johns, Arizona>|9.84 %Cochise County, Arizona>CochiseBisbee, Arizona>|5.46 %Coconino County, Arizona>CoconinoFlagstaff, Arizona>|16.37 %Gila County, Arizona>GilaGlobe, Arizona>|4.21 %Graham County, Arizona>GrahamSafford, Arizona>|4.07 %Greenlee County, Arizona>GreenleeClifton, Arizona>|1.62 %La Paz County, Arizona>La PazParker, Arizona>|3.96 %Maricopa County, Arizona>MaricopaPhoenix, Arizona>|8.09 %Mohave County, Arizona>MohaveKingman, Arizona>|11.82 %Navajo County, Arizona>NavajoHolbrook, Arizona>|8.74 %Pima County, Arizona>PimaTucson, Arizona>|8.06 %Pinal County, Arizona>PinalFlorence, Arizona>|4.71 %Santa Cruz County, Arizona>Santa CruzNogales, Arizona>|1.09 %Yavapai County, Arizona>YavapaiPrescott, Arizona>|7.13 %Yuma County, Arizona>YumaYuma, Arizona>|4.84 % Totals: 15||6,392,017||113,997|

Federal representation

Arizona's two United States Senators are Kyrsten Sinema (D) and Martha McSally (R). McSally was appointed by Governor Ducey to succeed acting senator Jon Kyl to fill the spot formerly occupied by the late six-term senior Senator John McCain, who died August 25, 2018. Senator McSally, will serve in office until a special election in 2020.As of the start of the 115th Congress, Arizona's representatives in the United States House of Representatives are Tom O'Halleran (D-1), Ann Kirkpatrick (D-2), Raul Grijalva (D-3), Paul Gosar (R-4), Andy Biggs (R-5), David Schweikert (R-6), Ruben Gallego (D-7), Debbie Lesko (R-8), and Greg Stanton (D-9). Arizona gained a ninth seat in the House of Representatives due to redistricting based on Census 2010.

Political culture

{{See also|:Category:Arizona elections|Political party strength in Arizona|United States presidential elections in Arizona|l1=Elections in Arizona}}{| class=wikitable! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment {{as of|lc=y|df=US|2016|10|28}}WEB, Voter Registration Statistics, Arizona Secretary of State Elections Bureau, PDF, November 7, 2016,weblink ! colspan = 2 | Party! Number of voters! Percentage{{party color|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 1,239,614 34.54%{{party color|Independent Party (United States)}}| Independent 1,219,297 33.98%{{party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 1,091,323 30.41%{{party color|Libertarian Party (United States)}}| Libertarian Party 31,358 0.87%{{party color|Green Party (United States)}}| Green Party 6,894 0.19%! colspan = 2 | Total! style="text-align:center;"| 3,588,466! style="text-align:center;"| 100%File:Arizona party registration by county.svg|thumb|Party registration by county:{{legend|#becbff|2=Democrat >= 30%}}{{legend|#a5b0ff|2=Democrat >= 40%}}{{legend|#7996e2|2=Democrat >= 50%}}{{legend|#ffc8cd|2=Republican >= 30%}}{{legend|#ffb2b2|2=Republican >= 40%}}{{legend|#aaffaa|2=Unaffiliated—

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