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Boston
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{{About|the city in the U.S. state of Massachusetts|the town in England|Boston, Lincolnshire|other uses}}{{short description|State capital of Massachusetts, U.S.}}{{Use American English|date=September 2013}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2018}}







factoids
Financial District, Boston>Financial District | photo2a = Fenway from Legend's Box.jpg{{!}}Fenway Park| photo2b = Massachusetts State House - panoramio (1).jpg{{!}}Massachusetts State House| photo3a = Boston skyline from Longfellow Bridge September 2017 panorama 2.jpg{{!}}Back Bay and the Charles River| spacing = 2| position = center| color_border = black| color = white| size = 300Downtown Boston>Downtown; Massachusetts State House; Back Bay and the Charles River; Fenway Park}}| imagesize = 300px| image_flag = Flag of Boston.svg| image_seal = Seal of Boston, Massachusetts.svg| nickname = See Nicknames of BostonSicut patribus sit Deus nobis {{smallerLatin)}}{{smaller>"As God was with our fathers, so may He be with us"}}}}frame=yeszoom=9type=shapestroke-color=#000000}}| map_caption = Interactive map outlining Boston| pushpin_map = Massachusetts#USA#North America| pushpin_map_caption = Location within MassachusettsLocation within the United StatesLocation within North America| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_label = Boston42297149region:US-MA|display=inline,title}}List of sovereign states>Country{{flagu|United States}}}}U.S. state>StateList of counties in Massachusetts>CountyList of regions of the United States>Region| subdivision_type4 = Historic countriesColony>Historic coloniesMassachusetts}}Suffolk County, Massachusetts>Suffolk| subdivision_name3 = New England----| subdivision_name4 = Kingdom of EnglandCommonwealth of EnglandKingdom of Great Britain| subdivision_name5 = Massachusetts Bay Colony in the Province of Massachusetts Bay| established_title = Settled (town)September 7, 1630{{smallerOld Style and New Style dates>Old Style)}}{{efnOld Style and New Style dates>New Style (modern) calendar, anniversaries fall on September 17.}}}}| established_title2 = Incorporated (city)| established_date2 = March 19, 1822| named_for = Boston, LincolnshireMayor–council government>Strong mayor / CouncilList of mayors of Boston>MayorMarty Walsh (politician)>Marty Walsh (D)City council>Council| leader_name1 = Boston City Council| unit_pref = Imperial| area_footnotes =| area_magnitude = 1 E+8| area_total_km2 = 232.14| area_total_sq_mi = 89.63 | area_land_km2 = 125.41| area_land_sq_mi = 48.42 | area_water_km2 = 106.73| area_water_sq_mi = 41.21 | area_urban_km2 = 4600| area_urban_sq_mi = 1770 | area_metro_km2 = 11700| area_metro_sq_mi = 4500 Combined statistical area>CSA| area_blank1_km2 = 27600| area_blank1_sq_mi = 10600| elevation_ft = 141| population_total = 617594List of United States cities by population>21st, U.S. {{As oflc=y}} incorporated places estimate | population_as_of = 2010PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAUDEAD-URL=YES TITLE=ALPHABETICALLY SORTED LIST OF CENSUS 2000 URBANIZED AREAS PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, GEOGRAPHY DIVISION DF=, HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPEST/DATA/METRO/TOTALS/2011/TABLES/CBSA-EST2011-01.CSV >TITLE=TABLE 1. ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF THE POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN AND MICROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS: APRIL 1, 2010 TO JULY 1, 2011 (CBSA-EST2011-01) PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION COMMA-SEPARATED VALUES>CSV ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120427231227/HTTP://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPEST/DATA/METRO/TOTALS/2011/TABLES/CBSA-EST2011-01.CSV ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 18, 2013 UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION >FORMAT=COMMA-SEPARATED VALUES >DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 17, 2013, | population_density_km2 = 5,538| population_density_sq_mi = 14,345|population_est = 694583|pop_est_as_of = 2018|pop_est_footnotes = List of United States urban areas>10th)List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>10th)THOMAS>FIRST1=G. SCOTTURL=HTTP://WWW.BIZJOURNALS.COM/BOSTON/BLOG/BBJ_RESEARCH_ALERT/2012/11/BOSTONS-POPULATION-STAYS-FLAT-BUT.HTMLACCESSDATE=MAY 4, 2015, Combined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>6th)| population_blank2_title = Demonym| population_blank2 = Bostonian| postal_code_type = ZIP Codestitle=53 ZIP codesHTTP://ZIP4.USPS.COM/ZIP4/CITYTOWN.JSP >TITLE=ZIP CODE LOOKUP – SEARCH BY CITY PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070903025217/HTTP://ZIP4.USPS.COM/ZIP4/CITYTOWN.JSP 02108–02137, 02163, 02196, 02199, 02201, 02203, 02204, 02205, 02206, 02210, 02211, 02212, 02215, 02217, 02222, 02126, 02228, 02241, 02266, 02283, 02284, 02293, 02295, 02297, 02298, 02467 (also includes parts of Newton and Brookline)}}Area codes 617 and 857>617 and 857Telephone numbering plan>Area codes| website = Boston.govEastern Time Zone>EST| utc_offset = −5Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset_DST = −4Federal Information Processing Standards>FIPS code| blank_info = 25-07000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID| blank1_info = 0617565| blank_name_sec2 = Primary Airport| blank_info_sec2 = Logan International AirportInterstate Highway System>Interstates25px25px|link=Interstate 93 in Massachusetts)| blank3_name_sec2 = Commuter Rail| blank3_info_sec2 = MBTA Commuter Rail | blank4_name_sec2 = Rapid Transit| blank4_info_sec2 = MBTA Subway}}Boston is the capital and most populous cityWEB, Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 – State – County Subdivision 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File,weblink United States Census Bureau, 2010, March 4, 2013, of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers {{convert|48|mi2|0|abbr=out}} with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018,WEB,weblink Population and Housing Unit Estimates, May 23, 2019, making it also the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999.WEB, List of intact or abandoned Massachusetts county governments,weblink sec.state.ma.us, Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, October 31, 2016, The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, June 3, 2017, As a combined statistical area (CSA), this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016 Population Estimates Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT CSA, United States Census Bureau, June 3, 2017, Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England.WEB, Banner, David, Boston History – The History of Boston, Massachusetts,weblink SearchBoston, April 20, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090315031352weblink">weblink March 15, 2009, {{sfn|Kennedy|1994|pp=11–12}} It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon gaining U.S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture.WEB,weblink About Boston, City of Boston, May 1, 2016, {{sfn|Morris|2005|p=8}} The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year.WEB,weblink Top 25 Most Visited Tourist Destinations in America, May 10, 2008, The Travelers Zone, February 14, 2013, Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park (Boston Common, 1634), first public or state school (Boston Latin School, 1635)WEB,weblink BPS at a Glance, Boston Public Schools, March 14, 2007, April 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403011648weblink">weblink April 3, 2007, and first subway system (Tremont Street Subway, 1897).{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=42}}Today, Boston is a thriving port cityweblink The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education,WEB,weblink World Reputation Rankings, April 21, 2016, May 12, 2016, including law, medicine, engineering, and business, and the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups.WEB,weblink Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data, National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers, April 22, 2016, NEWS,weblink Boston is #1 ... But will we hold on to the top spot? – Innovation Economy, The Boston Globe, July 20, 2010, August 30, 2010, Scott, Kirsner, REPORT, Innovation that Matters 2016, US Chamber of Commerce,weblink 2016, Boston's economic base also includes finance,weblink Accessed October 7, 2018. professional and business services, biotechnology, information technology, and government activities.WEB,weblink The Boston Economy in 2010, Boston Redevelopment Authority, January 2011, March 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120730182721weblink">weblinkTheBostonEconomyin2010.pdf, July 30, 2012, Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States;WEB, http:www.tbf.org/~/media/TBFOrg/Files/Reports/Wealth%20Transfer%20Report%202013.pdf, Transfer of Wealth in Boston, The Boston Foundation, March 2013, December 6, 2015, businesses and institutions rank among the top in the country for environmental sustainability and investment.WEB,weblink Boston Ranked Most Energy-Efficient City in the United States, City Government of Boston, September 18, 2013, December 6, 2015, The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United StatesWEB,weblink In the wake of the Ghost Ship fire, examining Oakland's 'staggering' rent hikes, December 10, 2016, December 12, 2016, WEB, Heudorfer, Bonnie, Bluestone, Barry,weblink The Greater Boston Housing Report Card, Center for Urban and Regional Policy (CURP), Northeastern University, 6, December 12, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061108003526weblink">weblink November 8, 2006, as it has undergone gentrification,WEB,weblink Which Boston neighborhoods will gentrify next?, Tom Acitelli, Vox Media, December 7, 2016, December 12, 2016, though it remains high on world livability rankings.WEB,weblink Quality of Living global city rankings 2010 – Mercer survey, Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer, May 26, 2010, August 20, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812003533weblink">weblink August 12, 2011,

History

Colonial

Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine (after its "three mountains," only traces of which remain today) but later renamed it Boston after Boston, Lincolnshire, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, (Old Style)BOOK, Drake, Samuel Adams, Old Landmarks and Historic Personages of Boston,weblink 1872, 6, {{efn|On the New Style (modern) calendar, anniversaries of the original Old Style date fall on September 17.}} was by Puritan colonists from England{{sfn|Kennedy|1994|pp=11–12}}WEB,weblink Archives Guide ~ Town of Boston, City of Boston, 2013, February 13, 2013, yes,weblink April 20, 2013, who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water. Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC.WEB,weblink Archaeology of the Central Artery Project: Highway to the Past, Commonwealth Museum – Massachusetts Historical Commission, 2007, April 6, 2007, In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history;{{sfn|Christopher|2006|p=46}} America's first public school, Boston Latin School, was founded in Boston in 1635. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.WEB,weblink "Growth" to Boston in its Heyday, 1640s to 1730s, Boston History & Innovation Collaborative, 2006, 2, March 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130723034439weblink">weblink July 23, 2013, yes, Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, and the city primarily engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties even as other cities in New England grew rapidly.BOOK, Smith, Robert W., Encyclopedia of the New American Nation, 2005, Charles Scribners & Sons, Detroit, MI, 978-0684313467, 214–219, 1st, BOOK, Bunker, Nick, An Empire on the Edge: How Britain Came to Fight America, 2014, Knopf, 978-0307594846,

Revolution and the Siege of Boston

{{See also|Boston campaign|Siege of Boston}}(File:A south east view of the great town of Boston in New England in America (NYPL Hades-250999-465401).jpg|thumb|left|200px|A south east view of the great town of Boston in New England in America (c. 1730))File:Boston Tea Party w.jpg|thumb|left|200px|upright=1.2|In 1773, a group of Boston rebels threw a shipment of tea by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor as a response to the Tea Act, in an event known as the Boston Tea PartyBoston Tea Party}}Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution{{sfn|Morris|2005|p=7}} occurred in or near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city. When the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, and Thomas Hutchinson, then the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts.JOURNAL, Morgan, Edmund S., Thomas Hutchinson and the Stamp Act, The New England Quarterly, 1946, 21, 4, 459–492, 10.2307/361566, 361566, The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists. This did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston. The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was widely publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America.In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts. The act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels. This angered the colonists further and led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Lexington and Concord.BOOK, Frothingham, Jr, Richard, History of the Siege of Boston and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill,weblink Little and Brown, 1851, (File:Boston, 1775bsmall1.png|thumb|right|upright|alt=Map of Boston in 1775|Map showing a British tactical evaluation of Boston in 1775)Boston itself was besieged for almost a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775. The New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, then the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege. On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Pyrrhic victory for the British because their army suffered devastating casualties. It was also a testament to the power and courage of the militia, as their stubborn defending made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without losing many troops.BOOK, French, Allen, Allen French, The Siege of Boston, Macmillan, 1911,weblink French, BOOK, McCullough, David, 1776, 2005, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 978-0-7432-2671-4, 1776 (book), Several weeks later, George Washington took over the militia after the Continental Congress established the Continental Army to unify the revolutionary effort. Both sides faced difficulties and supply shortages in the siege, and the fighting was limited to small-scale raids and skirmishes. On March 4, 1776, Washington commanded his army to fortify Dorchester Heights, an area of Boston. The army placed cannons there to repel a British invasion against their stake in Boston. Washington was confident the army could resist a small-scale invasion with their fortifications. Howe planned an invasion into Boston, but bad weather delayed their advance. Howe decided to withdraw, because the storm gave Washington's army more time to improve their fortifications. British troops evacuated Boston on March 17, which solidified the revolutionaries' control of the city.

Post-revolution and the War of 1812

(File:Old State House and State Street, Boston 1801.jpg|thumb|left|State Street (Boston)|State Street, 1801)After the Revolution, Boston's long seafaring tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the slave trade,NEWS,weblink New England's hidden history, Boston.com, May 22, 2016, Latour, Francie, rum, fish, salt, and tobacco being particularly important.WEB,weblink Colonial Boston, May 2, 2009, University Archives,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090207181331weblink">weblink February 7, 2009, Boston's harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (adopted during the Napoleonic Wars) and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries.WEB, Boston Economy, Advameg Inc., City-Data.com, 2007,weblink June 20, 2007, A network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a dense network of railroads furthered the region's industry and commerce.{{sfn|Kennedy|1994|p=46}}File:1800 beacon hill.jpg|thumb|Cutting down Beacon Hill in 1811; a view from the north toward the (Massachusetts State House]]BOOK, Whitehill, Walter Muir, Boston: A Topographical History, 1968, Second, 81–84, )During this period, Boston flourished culturally, as well, admired for its rarefied literary life and generous artistic patronage,WEB, Home page,weblink Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History, The Trustees of Boston College, May 22, 2012, Exhibition at Boston Public Library and Massachusetts Historical Society, March 28 – July 30, 2012, WEB, An Interactive Map of Literary Boston: 1794–1862,weblink Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History, The Trustees of Boston College, May 22, 2012, Exhibition, March 28 – July 30, 2012, with members of old Boston families—eventually dubbed Boston Brahmins—coming to be regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites.{{sfn|Kennedy|1994|p=44}}Boston was an early port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies, but was soon overtaken by Salem, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode Island.BOOK,weblink Cities in American Political History, Richardson, Dilworth, Sage Publications, 28, 9780872899117, 2011-09-13, Boston eventually became a center of the abolitionist movement.WEB,weblink Boston African American National Historic Site, April 28, 2007, National Park Service, May 8, 2007, The city reacted strongly to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850,WEB,weblink Fugitive Slave Law, May 2, 2009, The Massachusetts Historical Society, contributing to President Franklin Pierce's attempt to make an example of Boston after the Anthony Burns Fugitive Slave Case.WEB,weblink The "Trial" of Anthony Burns, May 2, 2009, The Massachusetts Historical Society, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080520121923weblink">weblink May 20, 2008, 150th Anniversary of Anthony Burns Fugitive Slave Case, May 2, 2009, April 24, 2004, Suffolk University, In 1822, the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from the "Town of Boston" to the "City of Boston", and on March 19, 1822, the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the City.BOOK,weblink Boston: one hundred years a city, April 20, 2009, TXT, State Street Trust Company, Walton Advertising, Printing Company, yes, State Street Trust Company, Boston, 2, 1922, At the time Boston was chartered as a city, the population was about 46,226, while the area of the city was only {{convert|4.7|sqmi}}.

19th century

File:Boston-view-1841-Havell.jpeg|thumbnail|left|alt=Painting with a body of water with sailing ships in the foreground and a city in the background|View of Boston from Dorchester HeightsDorchester HeightsFile:TremontSt ca1843 Boston byPhilipHarry MFABoston.png|thumbnail|left|Tremont StreetTremont StreetIn the 1820s, Boston's population grew rapidly, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.WEB,weblink People & Events: Boston's Immigrant Population, 2003, WGBH/PBS Online (American Experience), May 4, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011184015weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, In the latter half of the 19th century, the city saw increasing numbers of Irish, Germans, Lebanese, Syrians,WEB,weblink Immigration Records, The National Archives, January 7, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090114032711weblink">weblink January 14, 2009, French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city. By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Italians inhabited the North End,BOOK,weblink The Boston Italians, May 16, 2009, Puleo, Stephen, Epilogue: Today,weblink Beacon Press, 2007, illustrated, 978-0-8070-5036-1, Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End. Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,WEB,weblink Boston People, 2007, City-Data.com, Advameg Inc., May 5, 2007, and the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the Kennedys, Tip O'Neill, and John F. Fitzgerald.{{sfn|Bolino|2012|pp=285–286}}Between 1631 and 1890, the city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront.WEB,weblink The History of Land Fill in Boston, iBoston.org, 2006, January 9, 2006, . Also see WEB, Howe, Jeffery, 1996,weblink Boston: History of the Landfills, Boston College, April 30, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070410073014weblink">weblink April 10, 2007, yes, mdy-all, The largest reclamation efforts took place during the 19th century; beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a {{Convert|50|acre|adj=mid}} mill pond that later became the Haymarket Square area. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South End, the West End, the Financial District, and Chinatown.(File:Old City Hall (Boston).jpg|thumb|right|The {{w|Old City Hall (Boston)|Old City Hall}} was home to the Boston city council from 1865 to 1969.)File:General view of Boston, by J. J. Hawes.jpg|thumb|General view of Boston, by J. J. Hawes, c. 1860s-1880s]]File:Haymarket Square.JPG|thumb|right|alt=Colored print image of a city square in the 1900s|Haymarket Square, 1909]]After the Great Boston fire of 1872, workers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost {{convert|600|acres|km2|abbr=on}} of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Boston Common with gravel brought by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present-day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present-day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present-day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).BOOK, Historical Atlas of Massachusetts, 37, 1991, University of Massachusetts, BOOK, Holleran, Michael, Boston's Changeful Times: Origins of Preservation and Planning in America,weblink August 22, 2010, 2001, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0-8018-6644-9, 41, Problems with Change,weblink Other proposals were unsuccessful for the annexation of Brookline, Cambridge,NEWS, Boston's Annexation Schemes.; Proposal To Absorb Cambridge And Other Near-By Towns,weblink The New York Times, March 26, 1892, 11, August 21, 2010,weblink March 27, 1892, and Chelsea.NEWS, Has the time for Chelsea's annexation to Boston come? The Hub hasn't grown since 1912, and something has to follow that beleaguered community's receivership, Michael, Rezendes,weblink The Boston Globe, October 13, 1991, 80, August 22, 2010, NEWS, Flynn offers to annex Chelsea, Andrea, Estes, Cafasso, Ed,weblink Boston Herald, September 9, 1991, 1, August 22, 2010,

20th century

Boston went into decline by the early to mid-20th century, as factories became old and obsolete and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere.{{sfn|Bluestone|Stevenson|2002|p=13}} Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957. In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition.NEWS, Collins, Monica,weblink Born Again, The Boston Globe, August 7, 2005, May 8, 2007, The BRA subsequently re-evaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of the Government Center. In 1965, the Columbia Point Health Center opened in the Dorchester neighborhood, the first Community Health Center in the United States. It mostly served the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in 1953. The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in 1990 as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center.BOOK, Roessner, Jane, A Decent Place to Live: from Columbia Point to Harbor Point – A Community History, Northeastern University Press, Boston, 2000, 80, 978-1-55553-436-3, The Columbia Point complex itself was redeveloped and revitalized from 1984 to 1990 into a mixed-income residential development called Harbor Point Apartments.Cf. Roessner, p.293. "The HOPE VI housing program, inspired in part by the success of Harbor Point, was created by legislation passed by Congress in 1992."By the 1970s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high-rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this period.{{sfn|Kennedy|1994|p=195}} This boom continued into the mid-1980s and resumed after a few pauses. Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital lead the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Schools such as Boston College, Boston University, the Harvard Medical School, Tufts University School of Medicine, Northeastern University, Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Berklee College of Music, and the Boston Conservatory attract students to the area. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s.{{sfn|Kennedy|1994|pp=194–195}}

21st century

File:Boston Back Bay reflection.jpg|thumbnail|left|250px|Back Bay neighborhood ]]Boston is an intellectual, technological, and political center but has lost some important regional institutions,NEWS,weblink Atlantic, 148-year institution, leaving city, Feeney, Mark, Mehegan, David, April 15, 2005, The Boston Globe, March 31, 2007, including the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions such as FleetBoston Financial, which was acquired by Charlotte-based Bank of America in 2004.NEWS,weblink FleetBoston, Bank of America Merger Approved by Fed, March 9, 2004, The Boston Globe, March 5, 2013, Boston-based department stores Jordan Marsh and Filene's have both merged into the Cincinnati–based Macy's.NEWS,weblink Abelson, Jenn, Palmer, Jr., Thomas C., It's Official: Filene's Brand Will Be Gone, The Boston Globe, July 29, 2005, March 5, 2013, The 1993 acquisition of The Boston Globe by The New York TimesNEWS,weblink Largest Newspaper Deal in U.S. – N.Y. Times Buys Boston Globe for $1.1 Billion, Glaberson, William, June 11, 1993, B-12, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 5, 2013, was reversed in 2013 when it was re-sold to Boston businessman John W. Henry. In 2016, it was announced General Electric would be moving its corporate headquarters from Connecticut to the Innovation District in South Boston, joining many other companies in this rapidly developing neighborhood.Boston has experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,NEWS,weblink Studies: Gentrification a boost for everyone, May 2, 2009, Hampson, Rick, USA Today, April 19, 2005, with housing prices increasing sharply since the 1990s. Living expenses have risen; Boston has one of the highest costs of living in the United StatesWEB,weblink Cost of Living Index for Selected U.S. Cities, 2005, May 2, 2009, Information Please Database, Pearson Education, 2007, and was ranked the 129th-most expensive major city in the world in a 2011 survey of 214 cities.WEB,weblink Worldwide Cost of Living Survey 2011 – City Ranking, February 21, 2013, July 12, 2011, Mercer, Despite cost-of-living issues, Boston ranks high on livability ratings, ranking 36th worldwide in quality of living in 2011 in a survey of 221 major cities.WEB,weblink Mercer, 2011 Quality of Living worldwide city rankings – Mercer survey, November 29, 2011, January 29, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121128200352weblink">weblink November 28, 2012, On April 15, 2013, two Chechen Islamist brothers detonated a pair of bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three people and injuring roughly 264.In 2016, Boston briefly shouldered a bid as the US applicant for the 2024 Summer Olympics. The bid was supported by the mayor and a coalition of business leaders and local philanthropists, but was eventually dropped due to public opposition.WEB,weblink The life and death of Boston's Olympic bid, August 4, 2016, The USOC then selected Los Angeles to be the American candidate with Los Angeles ultimately securing the right to host the 2028 Summer Olympics.

Geography

(File:Boston Massachusetts 2007 satellite photo.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Aerial view of the Boston area from space|Boston as seen from the International Space Station (ISS))Boston has an area of {{convert|89.63|sqmi|1}}—{{convert|48.4|sqmi|1}} (54%) of land and {{convert|41.2|sqmi|1}} (46%) of water. The city's official elevation, as measured at Logan International Airport, is {{convert|19|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level.WEB, Elevation data – Boston617565, |year=2007Bellevue Hill, Boston>Bellevue Hill at {{convertft}} above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level.PEAKBAGGER, 6759Atlantic Ocean, Boston is the only state capital in the contiguous United States with an oceanic shoreline.UNITED STATES EMBASSYURL=HTTP://IIPDIGITAL.USEMBASSY.GOV/ST/ENGLISH/PAMPHLET/2013/08/20130829281955.HTML#AXZZ3VJ6MUW1S, December 29, 2015, {{Quotation|The geographical center of Boston is in Roxbury. Due north of the center we find the South End. This is not to be confused with South Boston which lies directly east from the South End. North of South Boston is East Boston and southwest of East Boston is the North End.|Author|Unknown – A common local colloquialism}}Boston is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region and is contiguously bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy. The Charles River separates Boston from Watertown and the majority of Cambridge, and the mass of Boston from its own Charlestown neighborhood. To the east lie Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (which includes part of the city's territory, specifically Calf Island, Gallops Island, Great Brewster Island, Green Island, Little Brewster Island, Little Calf Island, Long Island, Lovells Island, Middle Brewster Island, Nixes Mate, Outer Brewster Island, Rainsford Island, Shag Rocks, Spectacle Island, The Graves, and Thompson Island). The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town of Milton. The Mystic River separates Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett, and Chelsea Creek and Boston Harbor separate East Boston from Downtown, the North End, and the Seaport.WEB
,weblink
, Kings Chapel Burying Ground, USGS Boston South (MA) Topo Map
, TopoZone
, 2006
, January 6, 2016
, yes
,weblink" title="archive.today/20120629004700weblink">weblink
, June 29, 2012
,

Cityscapes

{{Wide image|Boston Skyline, SONY NEX-5 Panorama Mode (4765830049).jpg|1800px|3=Sailboats on the Charles River overlook the Boston skyline, as seen from Cambridge.|dir=rtl}}{{Wide image|2011 BostonMA 6273512600.jpg|1800px|3=From left to right: Boston City Hall, the West End, the North End, Charlestown, Boston Harbor, and East Boston|dir=rtl}}{{Wide image|Boston skyline from Cambridge November 2015 panorama 1.jpg|1800px|3=Sunset view of the Boston skyline and Charles River|dir=rtl}}{{spaces}}

Neighborhoods

File:John Hancock Tower.jpg|thumb|upright|200 Clarendon Street is the tallest building in Boston, with a roof heightroof heightBoston is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections; the city government's Office of Neighborhood Services has officially designated 23 neighborhoods.WEB,weblink Official list of Boston neighborhoods, Cityofboston.gov, March 24, 2011, September 1, 2012, More than two-thirds of inner Boston's modern land area did not exist when the city was founded. Instead, it was created via the gradual filling in of the surrounding tidal areas over the centuries, with earth from leveling or lowering Boston's three original hills (the "Trimountain", after which Tremont Street is named) and with gravel brought by train from Needham to fill the Back Bay.{{sfn|Morris|2005|p=8}}Downtown and its immediate surroundings consist largely of low-rise masonry buildings (often Federal style and Greek Revival) interspersed with modern highrises, in the Financial District, Government Center, and South Boston.BOOK, Built in Boston: City & Suburb, 1800–2000, Douglass, Shand-Tucci, 2, University of Massachusetts Press, 1999, 978-1-55849-201-1, 11, 294–299, Back Bay includes many prominent landmarks, such as the Boston Public Library, Christian Science Center, Copley Square, Newbury Street, and New England's two tallest buildings: the John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.WEB,weblink Boston Skyscrapers, Emporis.com, 2005, May 15, 2005, Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent illuminated beacon, the color of which forecasts the weather.{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=91}} Smaller commercial areas are interspersed among areas of single-family homes and wooden/brick multi-family row houses. The South End Historic District is the largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood in the US.WEB,weblink Our History, South End Historical Society, 2013Big Dig") which removed the unsightly elevated Central Artery and incorporated new green spaces and open areas.{{sfn>Morrispp=54, 102}}

Climate

File:USA Massachusetts Boston Foliage.jpg|thumb|275px|left|alt=Autumn foliage with a city skyline in the distant background|Boston's skyline in the background, with fall foliage in the foreground]]{{climate chart| Boston, MA35.8|3.3638.7|3.2545.4|4.3255.6|3.7466.0|3.4975.9|3.6881.4|3.4379.6|3.3572.4|3.4461.4|3.9451.5|3.9941.2|3.78|units = imperial|float = right|clear = both }}Under the Köppen climate classification, depending on the isotherm used, Boston has either a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) under the -3 C isotherm or a humid continental climate under the 0 C isotherm (Köppen Dfa).WEB,weblink World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated, November 6, 2008, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, May 5, 2018, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100906034159weblink">weblink September 6, 2010, The city is best described as being in a transitional zone between the two climates. Summers are typically warm and humid, while winters are cold and stormy, with occasional periods of heavy snow. Spring and fall are usually cool to mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. However, in winter areas near the immediate coast will often see more rain than snow as warm air is drawn off the Atlantic at times. The city lies at the transition between USDA plant hardiness zones 6b (most of the city) and 7a (Downtown, South Boston, and East Boston neighborhoods).WEB, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map,weblink United States Department of Agriculture, March 22, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140227032333weblink">weblink February 27, 2014, yes, mdy-all, The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of {{convert|73.4|F|1}}. The coldest month is January, with a mean of {{convert|29.0|F|1}}. Periods exceeding {{convert|90|F|0}} in summer and below freezing in winter are not uncommon but rarely extended, with about 13 and 25 days per year seeing each, respectively. The most recent sub-{{convert|0|F|0}} reading occurred on January 7, 2018, when the temperature dipped down to {{convert|−2|F|0}}. In addition, several decades may pass between {{convert|100|F|0}} readings, with the most recent such occurrence on July 22, 2011, when the temperature reached {{convert|103|F|0}}. The city's average window for freezing temperatures is November 9 through April 5.{{efn|The average number of days with a low at or below freezing is 94.}} Official temperature records have ranged from {{convert|−18|F|0}} on February 9, 1934, up to {{convert|104|F|0}} on July 4, 1911. The record cold daily maximum is {{convert|2|F|0}} on December 30, 1917 while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is {{convert|83|F|0}} on August 2, 1975.WEB,weblink Threaded Extremes, June 28, 2010, National Weather Service, File:Snowfall-Boston-NWS.jpg|{{largethumb}}|left|A graph of cumulative winter snowfall at Logan International Airport from 1938–2015. The four winters with the greatest amount of snowfall are highlighted. The snowfall data, which was collected by NOAA, is from the weather station at the airport.]]Boston's coastal location on the North Atlantic moderates its temperature but makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130201010317weblink">weblink February 1, 2013, Weather, 2007, City of Boston Film Bureau, April 29, 2007, The city averages {{convert|43.8|in|sigfig=3}} of precipitation a year, with {{convert|43.8|in|cm|0}} of snowfall per season. Snowfall increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city (especially north and west of the city)—away from the moderating influence of the ocean.WEB,weblink Massachusetts – Climate, 2005, City-Data.com, Advameg Inc., April 29, 2007, Most snowfall occurs from mid-November through early April, and snow is rare in May and October.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070429165729weblink">weblink April 29, 2007, May in the Northeast, 2003, Intellicast.com, April 29, 2007, NEWS,weblink Wangsness, Lisa, Snowstorm packs October surprise, October 30, 2005, The Boston Globe, April 29, 2007, There is also high year-to-year variability in snowfall; for instance, the winter of 2011–12 saw only {{convert|9.3|in|cm|1|abbr=on}} of accumulating snow, but the previous winter, the corresponding figure was {{convert|81.0|in|m|abbr=on}}.{{efn|Seasonal snowfall accumulation has ranged from {{convert|9.0|in|cm|1|abbr=on}} in 1936–37 to {{convert|110.6|in|m|abbr=on}} in 2014–15.}}Fog is fairly common, particularly in spring and early summer. Due to its location along the North Atlantic, the city often receives sea breezes, especially in the late spring, when water temperatures are still quite cold and temperatures at the coast can be more than {{convert|20|F-change|0|abbr=on}} colder than a few miles inland, sometimes dropping by that amount near midday.NEWS,weblink Ryan, Andrew, Sea breeze keeps Boston 25 degrees cooler while others swelter, July 11, 2007, The Boston Globe, March 31, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131107051159weblink">weblink November 7, 2013, NEWS,weblink Ryan, Andrew, Boston sea breeze drops temperature 20 degrees in 20 minutes, June 9, 2008, The Boston Globe, March 31, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140413184438weblink">weblink April 13, 2014, Thunderstorms occur from May to September, that are occasionally severe with large hail, damaging winds and heavy downpours. Although downtown Boston has never been struck by a violent tornado, the city itself has experienced many tornado warnings. Damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city.WEB,weblink Tornadoes in Massachusetts, Tornado History Project, 2013, February 24, 2013, Boston has a relatively sunny climate for a coastal city at its latitude, averaging over 2,600 hours of sunshine per annum.{{Clear}}{{Boston, MA weatherbox|collapsed=true}}

Demographics

{{Prose|section|date=November 2018}}{{see also|Chinese Americans in Boston|History of the Irish in Boston|Vietnamese in Boston|LGBT culture in Boston|Dominican-Americans in Boston}}{{Historical populations|type= USA1056715520183202493733787432986139293383136881177840250526362839448477560892670585748060781188770816801444697197641071562994574283589141617594|NaN= 667694583PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOVDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 26, 2015, AT=SECTION 6, PAGES 21–07 THROUGH 21-09, MASSACHUSETTS TABLE 4. POPULATION OF URBAN PLACES OF 10,000 OR MORE FROM EARLIEST CENSUS TO 1920ACCESSDATE=JULY 12, 2011URL=HTTP://WWW2.CENSUS.GOV/PROD2/DECENNIAL/DOCUMENTS/23761117V1CH06.PDF, HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPEST/DATA/CITIES/TOTALS/2011/TABLES/SUB-EST2011-03-25.CSV>TITLE=TABLE 3. ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF THE RESIDENT POPULATION FOR INCORPORATED PLACES IN MASSACHUSETTS: APRIL 1, 2010 TO JULY 1, 2011 (SUB-EST2011-03-25)UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU>ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 18, 2013ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130309152534/HTTP://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/POPEST/DATA/CITIES/TOTALS/2011/TABLES/SUB-EST2011-03-25.CSVDF=, }}File:Boston income donut.png|thumb|right|alt=Map of Boston and the surrounding area displaying per capita income distribution|Per capita incomePer capita income(File:Race and ethnicity 2010- Boston (5559894531).png|thumb|Map of racial distribution in Boston, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow))In 2016, Boston was estimated to have 673,184 residents (a density of 13,841 persons/sq mi, or 5,344/km2) living in 272,481 housing units—a 9% population increase over 2010. The city is the third-most densely populated large U.S. city of over half a million residents. Some 1.2 million persons may be within Boston's boundaries during work hours, and as many as 2 million during special events. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events.WEB,weblinkpdr96-1.pdf, Boston's Population Doubles – Every Day, Boston Redevelopment Authority – Insight Reports, December 1996, May 6, 2012, https:web.archive.org/web/20130723053618weblink July 23, 2013, In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% at age 19 and under, 14.3% from 20 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. There were 252,699 households, of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 25.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.0% were non-families. 37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 3.08.WEB,weblink Boston city, Massachusetts—DP02, Selected Social Characteristics in the United States 2007–2011 American Community Surver 5-Year Estimates, 2011, United States Census Bureau, February 13, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140815134909weblink">weblink August 15, 2014, Boston has one of the largest LGBT populations in the United States.The median household income in Boston was $51,739, while the median income for a family was $61,035. Full-time year-round male workers had a median income of $52,544 versus $46,540 for full-time year-round female workers. The per capita income for the city was $33,158. 21.4% of the population and 16.0% of families are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 28.8% of those under the age of 18 and 20.4% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.WEB,weblink Boston city, Massachusetts—DP03. Selected Economic Characteristics 2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2011, United States Census Bureau, February 13, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130916224703weblink">weblink September 16, 2013, In 1950, Whites represented 94.7% of Boston's population.WEB, Massachusetts – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink April 20, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120812191959weblink">weblink August 12, 2012, From the 1950s to the end of the 20th century, the proportion of non-Hispanic whites in the city declined. In 2000, non-Hispanic whites made up 49.5% of the city's population, making the city majority minority for the first time. However, in the 21st century, the city has experienced significant gentrification, during which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas. In 2006, the US Census Bureau estimated non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority but {{As of|2010|lc=y}}, in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available, the non-white population has rebounded. This may also have to do with increased Latin American and Asian populations and more clarity surrounding US Census statistics, which indicate a non-Hispanic white population of 47 percent (some reports give slightly lower figures).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080318095419weblink">weblink March 18, 2008, Boston, Massachusetts, Sperling's BestPlaces, 2008, April 6, 2008, NEWS,weblink The Boston Globe, Majority-minority no more?, November 30, 2009, Michael, Jonas, August 3, 2008, WEB,weblink Boston 2010 Census: Facts & Figures, Boston Redevelopment Authority News, March 23, 2011, February 13, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118161450weblink">weblink January 18, 2012, {|class="wikitable"|+ Historical racial/ethnic composition! Race/ethnicity !! 2015WEB,weblink QuickFacts, United States Census Bureau, !! 1990 !! 1970 !! 1940White Americans>White (includes White Latin Americans)>| 96.7%African Americans>Black 24.7% 25.6% 16.3% 3.1%Asian Americans>Asian 9.1% 5.3% 1.3% 0.2%Native Americans in the United States>Native American 0.8% 0.3% 0.2% –Multiracial Americans>Two or more races 3.1% – – –Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 22.1% 10.8% 2.8% From 15% sample 0.1%Non-Hispanic whites >| 96.6%{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"Boston Racial Breakdown of Population (2017)HTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/BOSTONCITYMASSACHUSETTS,US/PST045217, Boston city, Massachusetts QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, census.gov, WEB,weblink Massachusetts QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, census.gov, ! Race! Percentage of Bostonpopulation! Percentage ofMassachusettspopulation! Percentage ofUnited Statespopulation! City-to-StateDifference! City-to-USADifferenceWhite Americans>White 53.0% 81.3% 76.6% −28.3% −23.6%Non-Hispanic whites>White (Non-Hispanic) 45.3% 72.1% 60.7% −26.8% −15.4%African Americans>Black 25.4% 8.8% 13.4% +16.6% +12.0%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic 19.0% 11.9% 18.1% +7.1% +0.9%Asian Americans>Asian 9.3% 6.9% 5.8% +2.4% +3.5%Native Americans in the United States>Native Americans/Native Hawaiians >| −1.1%Multiracial Americans>Two or more races 4.9% 2.4% 2.7% +2.5% +2.2%File:Boston Chinatown Paifang.jpg|thumb|right|Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.]]File:US Navy 090315-N-8110K-011 A crowd along a parade route in South Boston cheers Sailors from the guided-missile frigate USS Taylor (FFG 50) as they march in the 108th Annual St. Patrick's Day Parade.jpg|thumb|right|U.S. Navy sailors march in Boston's annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Boston.]]File:Were_a_gay_and_happy_family_wagon.jpg|thumb|right|Boston gay pridegay pridePeople of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up 15.8% of the population, followed by Italians, accounting for 8.3% of the population. People of West Indian and Caribbean ancestry are another sizable group, at 6.0%,WEB,weblink Boston city, Massachusetts—DP02, Selected Social Characteristics in the United States 2007–2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, 2011, United States Census Bureau, February 13, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140815134909weblink">weblink August 15, 2014, mdy-all, about half of whom are of Haitian ancestry. Over 27,000 Chinese Americans made their home in Boston city proper in 2013,WEB,weblink SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2011–2013 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates – Chinese alone, Boston city, Massachusetts, United States Census Bureau, January 15, 2016, and the city hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan in New York City. Some neighborhoods, such as Dorchester, have received an influx of people of Vietnamese ancestry in recent decades. Neighborhoods such as Jamaica Plain and Roslindale have experienced a growing number of Dominican Americans.WEB,weblink New Bostonians 2009, October 2009, Boston Redevelopment Authority/Research Division, February 13, 2013, The city and greater area also has a growing immigrant population of South Asians, including the tenth-largest Indian population in the country.The city, especially the East Boston neighborhood, has a significant Hispanic population. In 2010, Hispanics in Boston were mostly of Puerto Rican (30,506 or 4.9% of total city population), Dominican (25,648 or 4.2% of total city population), Salvadoran (10,850 or 1.8% of city population), Colombian (6,649 or 1.1% of total city population), Mexican (5,961 or 1.0% of total city population), and Guatemalan (4,451 or 0.7% of total city population) ethnic origin. Hispanics of all national origins totaled 107,917 in 2010. In Greater Boston, these numbers grew significantly, with Puerto Ricans numbering 175,000+, Dominicans 95,000+, Salvadorans 40,000+, Guatemalans 31,000+, Mexicans 25,000+, and Colombians numbering 22,000+.WEB,weblink American FactFinder – Results, Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS), census.gov, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141218203429weblink">weblink December 18, 2014,

Ancestry

According to the 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, the largest ancestry groups in Boston, Massachusetts are:WEB,weblink PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, August 25, 2018, WEB,weblink ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau, August 25, 2018, {| class="wikitable sortable" valign=bottom! Ancestry! Percentage ofBostonpopulation! Percentage ofMassachusettspopulation! Percentage ofUnited Statespopulation! City-to-StateDifference! City-to-USADifferenceIrish Americans>Irish| 14.06%| 21.16%| 10.39%| −7.10%| +3.67%Italian Americans>Italian| 8.13%| 13.19%| 5.39%| −5.05%| +2.74%West Indian Americans>West Indian| 6.92%| 1.96%| 0.90%| +4.97%| +6.02%Puerto Ricans in the United States>Puerto Rican| 5.27%| 4.52%| 1.66%| +0.75%| +3.61%Chinese Americans>Chinese| 4.57%| 2.28%| 1.24%| +2.29%| +3.33%German Americans>German| 4.57%| 6.00%| 14.40%| −1.43%| −9.83%English Americans>English| 4.54%| 9.77%| 7.67%| −5.23%| −3.13%American ancestry>American| 4.13%| 4.26%| 6.89%| −0.13%| −2.76%African immigration to the United States>Sub-Saharan African| 4.09%| 2.00%| 1.01%| +2.09%| +3.08%Haitian Americans>Haitian| 3.58%| 1.15%| 0.31%| +2.43%| +3.27%Polish Americans>Polish| 2.48%| 4.67%| 2.93%| −2.19%| −0.45%Cape Verdean Americans>Cape Verdean| 2.21%| 0.97%| 0.03%| +1.24%| +2.18%French Americans>French| 1.93%| 6.82%| 2.56%| −4.89%| −0.63%Vietnamese Americans>Vietnamese| 1.76%| 0.69%| 0.54%| +1.07%| +1.22%Jamaican Americans>Jamaican| 1.70%| 0.44%| 0.34%| +1.26%| +1.36%Russian Americans>Russian| 1.62%| 1.65%| 0.88%| −0.03%| +0.74%Indian Americans>Asian Indian| 1.31%| 1.39%| 1.09%| −0.08%| +0.22%Scottish Americans>Scottish| 1.30%| 2.28%| 1.71%| −0.98%| −0.41%French Canadian Americans>French Canadian| 1.19%| 3.91%| 0.65%| −2.71%| +0.54%Mexican Americans>Mexican| 1.12%| 0.67%| 11.96%| +0.45%| −10.84%Arab Americans>Arab| 1.10%| 1.10%| 0.59%| +0.00%| +0.50%

Demographic breakdown by ZIP Code

Income

{{See also|List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income}}Data is from the 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.WEB,weblink SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, March 19, 2014, WEB,weblink ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, March 19, 2014, WEB,weblink HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES 2008–2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, March 19, 2014, {| class="wikitable sortable" valign=bottom! Rank! ZIP code (ZCTA)! Per capitaincome! Medianhouseholdincome! Medianfamilyincome! Population! Number ofhouseholds| 1Financial District, Boston>Financial District)| $152,007| $123,795| $196,518| 1,486| 981| 2Prudential Tower>Prudential Center)| $151,060| $107,159| $146,786| 1,290| 823| 3Fort Point, Boston>Fort Point)| $93,078| $111,061| $223,411| 1,905| 1,088| 4North End, Boston>North End)| $88,921| $128,022| $162,045| 4,277| 2,190| 5Back Bay, Boston>Back Bay/Bay Village)| $81,458| $87,630| $134,875| 21,318| 10,938| 6Beacon Hill, Boston>Beacon Hill/Financial District)| $78,569| $95,753| $153,618| 4,155| 2,337| 7West End, Boston>West End)| $65,865| $79,734| $169,107| 11,933| 6,752| 8Chinatown, Boston>Chinatown/Financial District/Leather District)| $56,716| $44,758| $88,333| 7,616| 3,390| 9Charlestown, Boston>Charlestown)| $56,267| $89,105| $98,445| 17,052| 8,083| 10Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts>Chestnut Hill)| $53,382| $113,952| $148,396| 22,796| 6,351| 11| 02113 (North End)| $52,905| $64,413| $112,589| 7,276| 4,329| 12| 02132 (West Roxbury)| $44,306| $82,421| $110,219| 27,163| 11,013| 13South End, Boston>South End)| $43,887| $50,000| $49,090| 26,779| 12,512| 14| 02130 (Jamaica Plain)| $42,916| $74,198| $95,426| 36,866| 15,306| 15| 02127 (South Boston)| $42,854| $67,012| $68,110| 32,547| 14,994|| Massachusetts| $35,485| $66,658| $84,380| 6,560,595| 2,525,694|| Boston| $33,589| $53,136| $63,230| 619,662| 248,704|Suffolk County, Massachusetts>Suffolk County| $32,429| $52,700| $61,796| 724,502| 287,442| 16Brighton, Boston>Brighton)| $31,773| $50,291| $62,602| 38,839| 18,336| 17| 02131 (Roslindale)| $29,486| $61,099| $70,598| 30,370| 11,282|| United States| $28,051| $53,046| $64,585| 309,138,711| 115,226,802| 18Hyde Park, Boston>Hyde Park)| $28,009| $57,080| $74,734| 29,219| 10,650| 19| 02134 (Allston)| $25,319| $37,638| $49,355| 20,478| 8,916| 20| 02128 (East Boston)| $23,450| $49,549| $49,470| 41,680| 14,965| 21Dorchester, Boston>Dorchester-Fields Corner)| $23,432| $51,798| $50,246| 25,437| 8,216| 22Codman Square District>Codman Square-Ashmont)| $23,115| $48,329| $55,031| 49,867| 17,275| 23| 02125 (Dorchester-Uphams Corner-Savin Hill)| $22,158| $42,298| $44,397| 31,996| 11,481| 24| 02163 (Allston-Harvard Business School)| $21,915| $43,889| $91,190| 1,842| 562| 25| 02115 (Back Bay/Fenway–Kenmore)| $21,654| $23,677| $50,303| 29,178| 9,958| 26| 02126 (Mattapan)| $20,649| $43,532| $52,774| 27,335| 9,510| 27| 02215 (Fenway-Kenmore)| $19,082| $30,823| $72,583| 23,719| 7,995| 28Roxbury, Boston>Roxbury)| $18,998| $27,051| $35,311| 24,237| 9,769| 29| 02121 (Dorchester-Mount Bowdoin)| $18,226| $30,419| $35,439| 26,801| 9,739| 30Mission Hill, Boston>Mission Hill)| $17,390| $32,367| $29,583| 13,217| 4,509

Religion

File:OldSouthChurchBoston.JPG|thumbnail|200px|Old South Church, a United Church of ChristUnited Church of ChristAccording to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 57% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 25% attending a variety Protestant churches and 29% professing Roman Catholic beliefs;Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research CenterWEB,weblink America's Changing Religious Landscape, Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life, May 12, 2015, 33% claim no religious affiliation, while the remaining 10% are made up of adherents of Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and other faiths.{{As of|2010}} the Catholic Church had the highest number of adherents as a single denomination in the Boston-Cambridge-Newton Metro area, with more than two million members and 339 churches, followed by the Episcopal Church with 58,000 adherents in 160 churches. The United Church of Christ had 55,000 members and 213 churches.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives – Maps & Reports, The UCC is the successor of the city's Puritan religious traditions. Old South Church in Boston is one of the oldest congregations in the United States. It was organized in 1669 by dissenters from the First Church in Boston (1630). Past members include Samuel Adams, William Dawes, Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Sewall, and Phillis Wheatley. In 1773, Adams gave the signals from the Old South Meeting House that started the Boston Tea Party.The city has a Jewish population with an estimated 248,000 Jews within the Boston metro area.WEB,weblink 2015 Greater Boston Jewish Community Study, Maurice and Marilyn Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies, Brandeis University, November 24, 2016, More than half of Jewish households in the Greater Boston area reside in the city itself, Brookline, Newton, Cambridge, Somerville, or adjacent towns.

Economy

{{See also|Greater Boston#Major companies|l1=Major companies in Greater Boston}}{|class="toc" style="float:left; font-size:90%; text-align:center; margin:1em;"Top publicly traded Boston companies for 2018(ranked by revenues)with City and U.S. ranksSource: Fortune 500HTTP://FORTUNE.COM/FORTUNE500/LIST/FILTERED?HQCITY=SPRINGFIELD>TITLE=FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES 2018: WHO MADE THE LISTPUBLISHER=MEREDITH CORPORATION, October 1, 2018, style="background:#ccc;" Bos. style="background:#ccc;"Corporation>US style="background:#ccc;"|Revenue(in millions)General Electric>|$122,274Liberty Mutual>|$42,687State Street Corporation>State Street259$11,774American Tower>|$6,663.9Top City EmployersSource: MA Executive Office of Labor and Workforce DevelopmentMA Executive Office of Labor and Workforce Development: Largest 200 Employers in Suffolk County (2017). Retrieved on May 10, 2017, updated on February 11, 2019.Rank colspan="5" style="background:#ccc;"Company/Organization>|| 1|Brigham and Women's Hospital| 2|Massachusetts General Hospital| 3|Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center| 4|Boston Children's Hospital| 5|Boston Medical Center| 6|Boston University School of Medicine| 7|Boston University| 8|Floating Hospital for Children| 9|John Hancock Life Insurance Co.| 10|Liberty Mutual Group Inc.{{Pie chart| thumb = rightDistribution of Greater Boston New England city and town area>NECTA Labor Force (2016)HTTPS://FACTFINDER.CENSUS.GOV/BKMK/TABLE/1.0/EN/ACS/16_5YR/C24050/360M300US2571650>TITLE=INDUSTRY BY OCCUPATION FOR THE CIVILIAN EMPLOYED POPULATION 16 YEARS AND OVER [BOSTON-CAMBRIDGE-NASHUA, MA-NH METROPOLITAN NECTA]YEAR=2016, | other = | label1 =Nat'l resources & mining| value1 =0| color1 =#fdfff7| label2 =Construction| value2 =5| color2 =#008d8c | label3 =Manufacturing| value3 =8| color3 =#42327c| label4 =Trade, transportation & utilities| value4 =15| color4 =#ff6600 | label5 =Information| value5 =3| color5 =#282f27| label6 =Finance & real estate| value6 =8| color6 =#981800| label7 =Professional & business services | value7 =15| color7 =#4d2906| label8 =Educational & health services| value8 =28| color8 =#006f47| label9 =Leisure & hospitality| value9 =9| color9 =#f3d827| label10 =Other services| value10 =4| color10 =#a3c409| label11 =Government| value11 =4| color11 =#c31074}}A global city, Boston is placed among the top 30 most economically powerful cities in the world.WEB,weblink What Is the World's Most Economically Powerful City?, Florida, Richard, The Atlantic Monthly Group, May 8, 2012, February 21, 2013, With a sturdy foundation of education and health care, and a jobless rate that’s frequently below the national average, Boston’s economy has been on solid ground for quite some time.WEB,weblink Metro Economic Outlook: Boston, SHRM Research Department, 2019-06-30, Encompassing $363 billion, the Greater Boston metropolitan area has the sixth-largest economy in the country and 12th-largest in the world.WEB,weblink Global city GDP rankings 2008–2025, Pricewaterhouse Coopers, November 20, 2009, yes,weblink May 13, 2011, Boston's colleges and universities exert a significant impact on the regional economy. Boston attracts more than 350,000 college students from around the world, who contribute more than US$4.8 billion annually to the city's economy.WEB,weblink The prominence of Boston area colleges and universities, McSweeney, Denis M., April 25, 2014, WEB,weblinkpdr_563.pdf, Leadership Through Innovation: The History of Boston's Economy, 2003, Boston Redevelopment Authority, May 6, 2012, https:web.archive.org/web/20101006105936weblinkpdr_563.pdf, October 6, 2010, The area's schools are major employers and attract industries to the city and surrounding region. The city is home to a number of technology companies and is a hub for biotechnology, with the Milken Institute rating Boston as the top life sciences cluster in the country.NEWS, http:www.boston.com/business/ticker/2009/05/milken_report_h.html, Milken report: The Hub is still tops in life sciences, August 25, 2009, The Boston Globe, May 19, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090523105412weblink">weblink May 23, 2009, Boston receives the highest absolute amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health of all cities in the United States.WEB,weblink Top 100 NIH Cities, 2004, SSTI.org, February 19, 2007, The city is considered highly innovative for a variety of reasons, including the presence of academia, access to venture capital, and the presence of many high-tech companies.WEB,weblink Boston: The City of Innovation, TalentCulture, August 2, 2010, August 30, 2010, The Route 128 corridor and Greater Boston continue to be a major center for venture capital investment,WEB,weblink Venture Investment – Regional Aggregate Data, National Venture Capital Association, January 17, 2016, and high technology remains an important sector.Tourism also composes a large part of Boston's economy, with 21.2 million domestic and international visitors spending $8.3 billion in 2011.WEB,weblink Tourism Statistics & Reports, 2009–2011, Greater Boston Convention and Visitors Bureau, February 20, 2013, Excluding visitors from Canada and Mexico, over 1.4 million international tourists visited Boston in 2014, with those from China and the United Kingdom leading the list.WEB,weblink GBCVB, Massport Celebrate Record Number of International Visitors in 2014, Greater Boston Convention and Visitors Bureau, August 21, 2015, January 17, 2016, Boston's status as a state capital as well as the regional home of federal agencies has rendered law and government to be another major component of the city's economy.CASE STUDY: City of Boston, Massachusetts;Cost Plans for Governments The city is a major seaport along the East Coast of the United States and the oldest continuously operated industrial and fishing port in the Western Hemisphere.WEB,weblink About the Port – History, 2007, Massport, April 28, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070702080554weblink">weblink July 2, 2007, The financial services industry is important to Boston, especially involving mutual funds and insurance. In the 2018 Global Financial Centres Index, Boston was ranked as having the thirteenth most competitive financial center in the world and the second most competitive in the United States.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 24, September 2018, Zyen, Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial centers in the United States.WEB, Yeandle, Mark,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 9, March 2011, Z/Yen, The Z/Yen Group, 4, January 31, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121128152601weblink">weblink November 28, 2012, yes, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Top 10 Cities For A Career In Finance, Investopedia.com, May 13, 2010, The city is home to the headquarters of Santander Bank, and Boston is a center for venture capital firms. State Street Corporation, which specializes in asset management and custody services, is based in the city. Boston is a printing and publishing centerWEB,weblink History of Boston's Economy – Growth and Transition 1970–1998, Boston Redevelopment Authority, November 1999, 9, March 12, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130723053431weblink">weblink July 23, 2013, —Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is headquartered within the city, along with Bedford-St. Martin's Press and Beacon Press. Pearson PLC publishing units also employ several hundred people in Boston. The city is home to three major convention centers—the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, and the Seaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront.BOOK, Frommer's Boston 2007, Morris, Marie, 2, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, 59, 978-0-470-08401-4, The General Electric Corporation announced in January 2016 its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Seaport District in Boston, from Fairfield, Connecticut, citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of higher education.WEB,weblink General Electric To Move Corporate Headquarters To Boston, CBS Local Media, January 13, 2016, January 15, 2016, Boston is home to the headquarters of several major athletic and footwear companies including Converse, New Balance, and Reebok. Rockport, Puma and Wolverine World Wide, Inc. headquarters or regional officesNEWS,weblink Top shoe brands, like Reebok and Converse, move headquarters to Boston, Omaha.com, en, January 19, 2017, are just outside the city.NEWS,weblink Reebok Is Moving to Boston, Boston Magazine, en-US, January 19, 2017, In 2019, a yearly ranking of time wasted in traffic listed Boston area drivers lost approximately 164 hours a year in lost productivity due to the area's traffic congestion. This amounted to $2,300 a year per driver in costs.NEWS, Staff, Writer,weblink Boston Has Worst Traffic In Nation, According To New Rankings, WBZ-TV, 2019-02-12, 2019-02-12,

Education

Primary and secondary education

File:Boston Latin School -.jpg|thumb|alt=Three-story brick building façade with three white columns surrounding a brown wooden door located on the ground floor|Boston Latin SchoolBoston Latin SchoolThe Boston Public Schools enroll 57,000 students attending 145 schools, including the renowned Boston Latin Academy, John D. O'Bryant School of Math & Science, and Boston Latin School. The Boston Latin School was established in 1635 and is the oldest public high school in the US. Boston also operates the United States' second-oldest public high school and its oldest public elementary school. The system's students are 40% Hispanic or Latino, 35% Black or African American, 13% White, and 9% Asian.WEB,weblink BPS at a glance, bostonpublicschools.org, There are private, parochial, and charter schools as well, and approximately 3,300 minority students attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council.WEB,weblink Metco Program, Massachusetts Department of Elementary & Secondary Education, June 16, 2011, February 20, 2013,

Higher education

{{See also|List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Boston}}(File:Boston college town map.png|thumbnail|left|Map of Boston-area universities)File:MIT Building 10 and the Great Dome, Cambridge MA.jpg|thumb|alt=MIT Building 10 and the Great Dome, Cambridge Massachusetts|Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyFile:Harvard business school baker library 2009a.JPG|thumb|upright|Harvard Business School, one of the country's top business schoolbusiness schoolSome of the most renowned and highly ranked universities in the world are near Boston.WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015, ShanghaiRanking Consultancy, January 16, 2016, WEB,weblink CWUR 2015 – World University Rankings, Center for World University Rankings, January 16, 2016, Three universities with a major presence in the city, Harvard, MIT, and Tufts, are just outside of Boston in the cities of Cambridge and Somerville, known as the Brainpower Triangle.NEWS,weblink Brainpower Triangle Cambridge Massachusetts – New Media Technology and Tech Clusters, the New Media, May 8, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160714170557weblink">weblink July 14, 2016, Harvard is the nation's oldest institute of higher education and is centered across the Charles River in Cambridge, though the majority of its land holdings and a substantial amount of its educational activities are in Boston. Its business, medical, dental, and public health schools are in Boston's Allston and Longwood neighborhoods, and Harvard plans to expand into Allston.NEWS, Kladko, Brian,weblink Crimson Tide, April 20, 2007, Boston Business Journal, April 28, 2007, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) originated in Boston and was long known as "Boston Tech"; it moved across the river to Cambridge in 1916.WEB,weblink The MIT Press: When MIT Was "Boston Tech", The MIT Press, 2013, March 5, 2013, Tufts University's main campus is north of the city in Somerville and Medford, though it locates its medical and dental schools in Boston's Chinatown at Tufts Medical Center, a 451-bed academic medical institution that is home to a full-service hospital for adults and the Floating Hospital for Children.WEB,weblink Boston Campus Map, Tufts University, 2013, February 13, 2013, Four members of the Association of American Universities are in Greater Boston (more than any other metropolitan area): Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University, and Brandeis University.WEB, MEMBER INSTITUTIONS AND YEARS OF ADMISSION,weblink Association of American Universities, July 17, 2014, Furthermore, Greater Boston contains seven (List of research universities in the United States#Universities classified as "R1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity"|Highest Research Activity (R1) Universities) as per the Carnegie Classification. This includes, in addition to the aforementioned four, Boston College, Northeastern University, and Tufts University. This is, by a large margin, the highest concentration of such institutions in a single metropolitan area.Hospitals, universities, and research institutions in Greater Boston received more than $1.77 billion in National Institutes of Health grants in 2013, more money than any other American metropolitan area.NEWS, Jan, Tracy, Rural states seek to sap research funds from Boston, The Boston Globe, April 2, 2014, Greater Boston has more than 100 colleges and universities, with 250,000 students enrolled in Boston and Cambridge alone.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222040537weblink">weblink February 22, 2014, City of Boston, 2014, Boston University, February 9, 2014, The city's largest private universities include Boston University (also the city's fourth-largest employer),WEB,weblinkpdr509.pdf, The Largest Employers in the City of Boston, Boston Redevelopment Authority, 1996–1997, May 6, 2012, https:web.archive.org/web/20130723052530weblinkpdr509.pdf, July 23, 2013, with its main campus along Commonwealth Avenue and a medical campus in the South End, Northeastern University in the Fenway area,NEWS, http:colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/northeastern-university-2199, Northeastern University, U.S. News and World Reports, 2013, February 5, 2013, Suffolk University near Beacon Hill, which includes law school and business school,NEWS,weblink Suffolk University, U.S. News and World Reports, 2013, February 13, 2013, and Boston College, which straddles the Boston (Brighton)–Newton border.NEWS, Laczkoski, Michelle,weblink BC outlines move into Allston-Brighton, February 27, 2006, The Daily Free Press, Boston University, May 6, 2012, Boston's only public university is the University of Massachusetts Boston on Columbia Point in Dorchester. Roxbury Community College and Bunker Hill Community College are the city's two public community colleges. Altogether, Boston's colleges and universities employ more than 42,600 people, accounting for nearly seven percent of the city's workforce.WEB,weblink Boston By The Numbers, City of Boston, June 9, 2014, Smaller private colleges include Babson College, Bentley University, Boston Architectural College, Emmanuel College, Fisher College, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Simmons College, Wellesley College, Wheelock College, Wentworth Institute of Technology, New England School of Law (originally established as America's first all female law school),WEB,weblink History of NESL, New England School of Law, 2010, October 17, 2010, and Emerson College.NEWS,weblink Emerson College, U.S. News and World Reports, 2013, February 6, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130130033857weblink">weblink January 30, 2013, Metropolitan Boston is home to several conservatories and art schools, including Lesley University College of Art and Design, Massachusetts College of Art, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, New England Institute of Art, New England School of Art and Design (Suffolk University), Longy School of Music of Bard College, and the New England Conservatory (the oldest independent conservatory in the United States).WEB,weblink A Brief History of New England Conservatory, 2007, New England Conservatory of Music, April 28, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081120101156weblink">weblink November 20, 2008, Other conservatories include the Boston Conservatory and Berklee College of Music, which has made Boston an important city for jazz music.BOOK, College Guide for Performing Arts Majors: The Real-World Admission Guide for Dance, Music, and Theater Majors, Everett, Carole J., Peterson's, 2009, 199–200, 978-0-7689-2698-9,

Public safety

(File:Boston Police cruiser on Beacon Street.jpg|thumb|left|alt=White Boston Police car with blue and gray stripes down the middle|A Boston Police cruiser on Beacon Street)Like many major American cities, Boston has seen a great reduction in violent crime since the early 1990s. Boston's low crime rate since the 1990s has been credited to the Boston Police Department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as involvement from the United States Attorney and District Attorney's offices. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle". Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000).WEB, Winship, Christopher, March 2002,weblink End of a Miracle?, Harvard University, February 19, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120522063733weblink">weblink May 22, 2012, In 2008, there were 62 reported homicides.WEB,weblink 2008 Crime Summary Report, The Boston Police Department Office Research and Development, 2008, 5, February 20, 2013, Through December 30, 2016, major crime was down seven percent and there were 46 homicides compared to 40 in 2015.NEWS, Ransom, Jan,weblink Boston's homicides up slightly, shootings down, Boston Globe, December 31, 2016, December 31, 2016,

Culture

{{See also|List of annual events in Boston|List of arts organizations in Boston|Sites of interest in Boston}}File:Old State House Boston Massachusetts2.jpg|thumb|left|upright|220px|right|alt=Colonial style red brick building with a white cupola in an urban setting|The Old State House, a museum on the Freedom Trail and the site of the Boston MassacreBoston MassacreFile:OldCornerBookstore08.JPG|thumbnail|left|In the nineteenth century, the Old Corner Bookstore became a gathering place for writers, including Emerson, Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller. Here James Russell Lowell printed the first editions of The Atlantic MonthlyThe Atlantic MonthlyBoston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the non-rhotic Eastern New England accent known as the Boston accent{{sfn|Vorhees|2009|p=52}} and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood, salt, and dairy products.{{sfn|Vorhees|2009|pp=148–151}} Boston also has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang and sardonic humor.NEWS,weblink Wicked good Bostonisms come, and mostly go, May 2, 2009, Baker, Billy, May 25, 2008, The Boston Globe, In the early 1800s, William Tudor wrote that Boston was "'perhaps the most perfect and certainly the best-regulated democracy that ever existed. There is something so impossible in the immortal fame of Athens, that the very name makes everything modern shrink from comparison; but since the days of that glorious city I know of none that has approached so near in some points, distant as it may still be from that illustrious model.'NEWS, Joan, Vennochi, NAACP report shows a side of Boston that Amazon isn't seeing, October 24, 2017, October 24, 2017, The Boston Globe,weblink From this, Boston has been called the "Athens of America" (also a nickname of PhiladelphiaWEB,weblink LCP Art & Artifacts, 2007, Library Company of Philadelphia, ) for its literary culture, earning a reputation as "the intellectual capital of the United States."BOOK, Bross, Tom, Harris, Patricia, Lyon, David, Boston, 2008, Dorling Kindersley, London, 22, In the nineteenth century, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, James Russell Lowell, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote in Boston. Some consider the Old Corner Bookstore to be the "cradle of American literature," the place where these writers met and where The Atlantic Monthly was first published.BOOK, Bross, Tom, Harris, Patricia, Lyon, David, Boston, 2008, Dorling Kindersley, London, 59, In 1852, the Boston Public Library was founded as the first free library in the United States. Boston's literary culture continues today thanks to the city's many universities and the Boston Book Festival.Music is afforded a high degree of civic support in Boston. The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the "Big Five," a group of the greatest American orchestras, and the classical music magazine Gramophone called it one of the "world's best" orchestras.WEB, The world's greatest orchestras,weblink Gramophone, Symphony Hall (west of Back Bay) is home to the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the related Boston Youth Symphony Orchestra, which is the largest youth orchestra in the nation, and to the Boston Pops Orchestra. The British newspaper The Guardian called Boston Symphony Hall "one of the top venues for classical music in the world," adding "Symphony Hall in Boston was where science became an essential part of concert hall design."NEWS, Cox, Trevor, 10 of the world's best concert halls,weblink The Guardian, March 5, 2015, Other concerts are held at the New England Conservatory's Jordan Hall. The Boston Ballet performs at the Boston Opera House. Other performing-arts organizations in the city include the Boston Lyric Opera Company, Opera Boston, Boston Baroque (the first permanent Baroque orchestra in the US),{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=175}} and the Handel and Haydn Society (one of the oldest choral companies in the United States).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070427052402weblink">weblink April 27, 2007, Who We Are, 2007, Handel and Haydn Society, April 28, 2007, The city is a center for contemporary classical music with a number of performing groups, several of which are associated with the city's conservatories and universities. These include the Boston Modern Orchestra Project and Boston Musica Viva.{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=175}} Several theaters are in or near the Theater District south of Boston Common, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Citi Performing Arts Center, the Colonial Theater, and the Orpheum Theatre.{{sfn|Hull|2011|pp=53–55}}File:Boston Symphony Hall from the south.jpg|thumb|Symphony Hall, home of the Boston Symphony OrchestraBoston Symphony OrchestraFile:Mfa boston af.jpg|thumb|alt=Gray stone classical building with columns and art banners on the central façade|Museum of Fine Arts ]]There are several major annual events, such as First Night which occurs on New Year's Eve, the Boston Early Music Festival, the annual Boston Arts Festival at Christopher Columbus Waterfront Park, the annual Boston gay pride parade and festival held in June, and Italian summer feasts in the North End honoring Catholic saints.{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=207}} The city is the site of several events during the Fourth of July period. They include the week-long Harborfest festivitiesWEB,weblink Boston Harborfest – About, Boston Harborfest Inc., 2013, March 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130506053501weblink">weblink May 6, 2013, and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River.WEB,weblink Our Story: About Us, Boston 4 Celebrations Foundation, 2010, March 5, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130223235809weblink">weblink February 23, 2013, Several historic sites relating to the American Revolution period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park because of the city's prominent role. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line of bricks embedded in the ground.The city is also home to several art museums and galleries, including the Museum of Fine Arts and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.{{sfn|Hull|2011|pp=104–108}} The Institute of Contemporary Art is housed in a contemporary building designed by Diller Scofidio + Renfro in the Seaport District.NEWS, Ouroussoff, Nicolai, December 8, 2006,weblink Expansive Vistas Both Inside and Out, The New York Times, March 5, 2013, Boston's South End Art and Design District (SoWa) and Newbury St. are both art gallery destinations.WEB,weblink Art Galleries, WEB,weblink Art Galleries on Newbury Street, Boston, Columbia Point is the location of the University of Massachusetts Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, and the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum. The Boston Athenæum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States),WEB,weblink History of The Boston Athenaeum, Boston Athenæum, 2012, March 5, 2013, Boston Children's Museum, Bull & Finch Pub (whose building is known from the television show Cheers),{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=164}} Museum of Science, and the New England Aquarium are within the city.Boston has been a noted religious center from its earliest days. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston serves nearly 300 parishes and is based in the Cathedral of the Holy Cross (1875) in the South End, while the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts serves just under 200 congregations, with the Cathedral Church of St. Paul (1819) as its episcopal seat. Unitarian Universalism has its headquarters on Beacon Hill. The Christian Scientists are headquartered in Back Bay at the Mother Church (1894). The oldest church in Boston is First Church in Boston, founded in 1630.WEB,weblink First Church in Boston History, First Church in Boston, November 12, 2013, King's Chapel was the city's first Anglican church, founded in 1686 and converted to Unitarianism in 1785. Other churches include Christ Church (better known as Old North Church, 1723), the oldest church building in the city, Trinity Church (1733), Park Street Church (1809), Old South Church (1874), Jubilee Christian Church, and Basilica and Shrine of Our Lady of Perpetual Help on Mission Hill (1878).BOOK, The Spiritual Traveler: Boston and New England: A Guide to Sacred Sites and Peaceful Places, Riess, Jana, Hidden Spring, 2002, 978-1-58768-008-3, 64–125,

Environment

Pollution control

Air quality in Boston is generally very good. Between 2004–2013, there were only four days in which the air was unhealthy for the general public, according to the EPA.WEB, EPA AirCompare Historical Profile,weblink Environmental Protection Agency, December 26, 2014, Some of the cleaner energy facilities in Boston include the Allston green district, with three ecologically compatible housing facilities.WEB,weblink The Green District Allston, Encore Realty, Boston is also breaking ground on multiple green affordable housing facilities to help reduce the carbon impact of the city while simultaneously making these initiatives financially available to a greater population. Boston's climate plan is updated every three years and was most recently modified in 2013. This legislature includes the Building Energy Reporting and Disclosure Ordinance, which requires the city's larger buildings to disclose their yearly energy and water use statistics and to partake in an energy assessment every five years. These statistics are made public by the city, thereby increasing incentives for buildings to be more environmentally conscious.WEB,weblink About Your Community, goodguide.com, Mayor Thomas Menino introduced the Renew Boston Whole Building Incentive which reduces the cost of living in buildings that are deemed energy efficient. This gives people an opportunity to find housing in neighborhoods that support the environment. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to enlist 500 Bostonians to participate in a free, in-home energy assessment.

Water purity and availability

Many older buildings in certain areas of Boston are supported by wooden piles driven into the area's fill; these piles remain sound if submerged in water, but are subject to dry rot if exposed to air for long periods.WEB,weblink Where Has All the Water Gone? Left Piles Rotting ..., bsces.org, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141128044635weblink">weblink November 28, 2014, Ground water levels have been dropping in many areas of the city, due in part to an increase in the amount of rainwater discharged directly into sewers rather than absorbed by the ground. The Boston Groundwater Trust coordinates monitoring ground water levels throughout the city via a network of public and private monitoring wells.Groundwater, CityofBoston.gov However, Boston's drinking water supply from the Quabbin and Wachusett ReservoirsPRESS RELEASE, Your Drinking Water: Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, 2006 Drinking Water Report, Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, June 19, 2007, is one of the very few in the country so pure as to satisfy the Federal Clean Water Act without filtration.NEWS,weblink Pure water, right on Tap, Abraham, Yvonne, The Boston Globe, July 22, 2007, June 7, 2011,

Sports

File:Fenway from Legend's Box.jpg|thumb|Fenway Park is the oldest professional baseball stadium still in use.]]Boston has teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues plus Major League Soccer, and has won 39 championships in these leagues, {{as of|2017}}. It is one of six cities (along with Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, New York and Philadelphia) to have won championships in all four major sports. It has been suggestedNEWS,weblink Long Memory or Short, Boston Fans Savor Success, Zezima, Katie, June 16, 2011, June 16, 2011, The New York Times, MAGAZINE,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120205013119weblink">weblink February 5, 2012, The New Title Town USA - Video - SI.com, February 4, 2012, February 4, 2012, Sports Illustrated, NEWS,weblink SPORTS CHART OF THE DAY: Boston Is The New "Title Town", June 16, 2011, Business Insider, January 22, 2013, that Boston is the new "TitleTown, USA", as the city's professional sports teams have won twelve championships since 2001: Patriots (2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, 2016 and 2018), Red Sox (2004, 2007, 2013, and 2018), Celtics (2008), and Bruins (2011). This love of sports made Boston the United States Olympic Committee's choice to bid to hold the 2024 Summer Olympic Games, but the city cited financial concerns when it withdrew its bid on July 27, 2015.WEB, Arsenault, Mark, Boston bidders hope time is right for frugal Games,weblink The Boston Globe, November 23, 2014, The Boston Red Sox, a founding member of the American League of Major League Baseball in 1901, play their home games at Fenway Park, near Kenmore Square in the city's Fenway section. Built in 1912, it is the oldest sports arena or stadium in active use in the United States among the four major professional American sports leagues, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and the National Hockey League.WEB,weblink Fenway Park, February 5, 2013, ESPN, 2013, Boston was the site of the first game of the first modern World Series, in 1903. The series was played between the AL Champion Boston Americans and the NL champion Pittsburgh Pirates.WEB,weblink Hall of Fame third baseman led Boston to first AL pennant, April 1, 2009, Abrams, Roger I., February 19, 2007, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070902113322weblink">weblink September 2, 2007, WEB,weblink 1903 World Series – Major League Baseball: World Series History, Major League Baseball at MLB.com, 2007, February 18, 2007, Please note: This source, like many others, uses the erroneous "Pilgrims" name that is debunked by the Nowlin reference following. Persistent reports the team was known in 1903 as the "Boston Pilgrims" appear to be unfounded.WEB,weblink The Boston Pilgrims Never Existed, Bill Nowlin, Baseball Almanac, 2008, April 3, 2008, Boston's first professional baseball team was the Red Stockings, one of the charter members of the National Association in 1871, and of the National League in 1876. The team played under that name until 1883, under the name Beaneaters until 1911, and under the name Braves from 1912 until they moved to Milwaukee after the 1952 season. Since 1966 they have played in Atlanta as the Atlanta Braves.WEB,weblink Braves History, February 5, 2013, Atlanta Brave (MLB), 2013, File:Celtics game versus the Timberwolves, February, 1 2009.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Professional basketball game between the Celtics and Timberwolves in a crowded arena|The Celtics play at the TD GardenTD GardenThe TD Garden, formerly called the FleetCenter and built to replace the old, since-demolished Boston Garden, is adjoined to North Station and is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League and the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association. The arena seats 18,624 for basketball games and 17,565 for ice hockey games. The Bruins were the first American member of the National Hockey League and an Original Six franchise.WEB,weblink National Hockey League (NHL) Expansion History, 2004, April 1, 2009, Rauzulu's Street, The Boston Celtics were founding members of the Basketball Association of America, one of the two leagues that merged to form the NBA.WEB,weblink NBA History – NBA Growth Timetable, April 1, 2009, Basketball.com, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090331225200weblink">weblink March 31, 2009, The Celtics have the distinction of having won more championships than any other NBA team, with seventeen.WEB,weblink NBA Finals: All-Time Champions, NBA, 2007, February 20, 2007, While they have played in suburban Foxborough since 1971, the New England Patriots of the National Football League were founded in 1960 as the Boston Patriots, changing their name after relocating. The team won the Super Bowl after the 2001, 2003, 2004, 2014, 2016 and 2018 seasons.WEB,weblink The History of the New England Patriots, New England Patriots, 2007, April 29, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110519121830weblink">weblink May 19, 2011, They share Gillette Stadium with the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. The Boston Breakers of Women's Professional Soccer, which formed in 2009, play their home games at Dilboy Stadium in Somerville.NEWS,weblink Breakers shoot for foothold in local market, Springer, Shira, April 11, 2009, The Boston Globe, June 27, 2009, The Boston Storm of the United Women's Lacrosse League was formed in 2015.PRESS RELEASE, Play It Forward Sport and STX Announce Semi-Professional Women's Lacrosse League, Playitforwardsport.org, May 21, 2015,weblink June 1, 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160625093146weblink">weblink June 25, 2016, mdy-all, File:Harvard stadium 2009h.JPG|thumb|Harvard StadiumHarvard StadiumThe area's many colleges and universities are active in college athletics. Four NCAA Division I members play in the area—Boston College, Boston University, Harvard University, and Northeastern University. Of the four, only Boston College participates in college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision. Harvard participates in the second-highest level, the Football Championship Subdivision. The Boston Cannons of the MLL play at Harvard Stadium.One of the best known sporting events in the city is the Boston Marathon, the {{convert|26.2|mi|adj=on}} race which is the world's oldest annual marathon,WEB,weblink B.A.A. Boston Marathon Race Facts, 2007, Boston Athletic Association, April 29, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070418015010weblink">weblink April 18, 2007, yes, mdy-all, run on Patriots' Day in April. On April 15, 2013, two explosions killed three people and injured hundreds at the marathon.NEWS,weblink Marathon injury toll jumps to 260, McConville, Christine, April 23, 2013, Boston Herald, April 24, 2013, Another major annual event is the Head of the Charles Regatta, held in October.WEB,weblink Crimson Rules College Lightweights at Head of the Charles, October 23, 2011, Harvard Athletic Communications, May 6, 2012,

Parks and recreation

File:Boston common 20060619.jpg|thumb|left|alt=City skyline with a body of water in the background and a green park in the foreground|Boston Common seen from the Prudential TowerPrudential TowerBoston Common, near the Financial District and Beacon Hill, is the oldest public park in the United States.{{sfn|Morris|2005|p=61}} Along with the adjacent Boston Public Garden, it is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted to encircle the city. The Emerald Necklace includes Jamaica Pond, Boston's largest body of freshwater, and Franklin Park, the city's largest park and home of the Franklin Park Zoo.WEB,weblink Franklin Park, 2007, City of BostonHatch Shell, an outdoor concert venue, is adjacent to the Charles River Esplanade. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with major parks and beaches near Castle Island (Massachusetts)>Castle Island, in Charlestown and along the Dorchester, South Boston, and East Boston shorelines.HTTP://WWW.CITYOFBOSTON.GOV/PARKS/PDFS/OSP2010/OSP0814_3_COMMUNITYSETTING.PDF > TITLE=OPEN SPACE PLAN 2008–2014: SECTION 3 COMMUNITY SETTING DATE=JANUARY 2008, February 21, 2013, Boston's park system is well-reputed nationally. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported Boston was tied with Sacramento and San Francisco for having the third-best park system among the 50 most populous US cities.Randall, Eric. "Boston has one of the best park systems in the country". June 5, 2013. Boston Magazine. Retrieved on July 15, 2013. ParkScore ranks city park systems by a formula that analyzes the city's median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.

Government and politics

{{See also|Boston City Hall|Boston Emergency Medical Services|Boston Finance Commission|Boston Fire Department|Boston Police Department|List of mayors of Boston|List of members of Boston City Council}}File:MA State House 11-13-2015.jpg|thumb|alt=Red brick building with white columns on the façade and a gold dome on the top|The Massachusetts State House, seat of the Government of Massachusetts, on Beacon Hill ]]Boston has a strong mayor – council government system in which the mayor (elected every fourth year) has extensive executive power. Marty Walsh became Mayor in January 2014, his predecessor Thomas Menino's twenty-year tenure having been the longest in the city's history.NEWS,weblink The Boss of Boston: Mayor Thomas Menino, Patton, Zach, Governing, January 2012, February 5, 2013, The Boston City Council is elected every two years; there are nine district seats, and four citywide "at-large" seats.WEB,weblink Boston City Charter, City of Boston, July 2007, 59, February 5, 2013, The School Committee, which oversees the Boston Public Schools, is appointed by the mayor.WEB,weblink The Boston Public Schools at a Glance: School Committee, Boston Public Schools, March 14, 2007, April 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070403011648weblink">weblink April 3, 2007, In addition to city government, numerous commissions and state authorities—including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, the Boston Public Health Commission, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA), and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport)—play a role in the life of Bostonians. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics.The city has several federal facilities, including the John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, the Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Federal Building,WEB,weblink Massachusetts Real Estate Portfolio, United States General Services Administration, March 11, 2014, the John W. McCormack Post Office and Courthouse, the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, and the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Both courts are housed in the John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse.Federally, Boston is split between two congressional districts. The northern three-fourths of the city is in the 7th district, represented by Ayanna Pressley. The southern fourth is in the 8th district, represented by Stephen Lynch.WEB,weblink Massachusetts's Representatives – Congressional District Maps, 2007, GovTrack.us, April 28, 2007, Both are Democrats; a Republican has not represented a significant portion of Boston in over a century. The state's senior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Elizabeth Warren, first elected in 2012. The state's junior member of the United States Senate is Democrat Ed Markey, who was elected in 2013 to succeed John Kerry after Kerry's appointment and confirmation as the United States Secretary of State.The city uses an algorithm created by the Walsh administration, called CityScore, to measure the effectiveness of various city services. This score is available on a public online dashboard and allows city managers in police, fire, schools, emergency management services, and 3-1-1 to take action and make adjustments in areas of concern.NEWS, Irons, Meghan E.,weblink City Hall is always above average – if you ask City Hall, The Boston Globe, August 17, 2016, August 18, 2016, {| class="wikitable" margin:0 0 1em 1em; font-size:95%;"weblink style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican style="text-align:center;"201680.6% 221,09313.9% 38,087 style="text-align:center;"201278.8% 200,19019.3% 48,985 style="text-align:center;"200879.0% 185,97619.4% 45,548 style="text-align:center;"200477.3% 160,88421.4% 44,518 style="text-align:center;"200071.7% 132,39319.7% 36,389 style="text-align:center;"199673.8% 125,52919.6% 33,366 style="text-align:center;"199262.4% 114,26022.9% 41,868 style="text-align:center;"198865.2% 122,34933.2% 62,202 style="text-align:center;"198463.4% 131,74536.2% 75,311 style="text-align:center;"198053.3% 95,13332.9% 58,656 style="text-align:center;"{| class=wikitable! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment {{as of|2018|10|17|df=US}}WEB, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Enrollment Breakdown as of 10/17/2018, Massachusetts Elections Division, October 17, 2018, January 23, 2019, 16,weblink ! colspan = 2 | Party! Number of voters! Percentage{{party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 210,730 50.94%{{party color|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 24,042 5.81%{{party color|Libertarian Party (United States)}}Libertarian Party (United States)>Libertarian 1,309 0.32%{{party color|Green Party (United States)}}Green Party (United States)>Green 3,849 0.93%{{party color|Independent Party (United States)}}| Unaffiliated 173,719 42.00%! colspan = 2 | Total! style="text-align:center;"| 413,649! style="text-align:center;"| 100%

Media

Newspapers

The Boston Globe and the Boston Herald are two of the city's major daily newspapers. The city is also served by other publications such as Boston magazine, DigBoston, and the Boston edition of Metro. The Christian Science Monitor, headquartered in Boston, was formerly a worldwide daily newspaper but ended publication of daily print editions in 2009, switching to continuous online and weekly magazine format publications.WEB,weblink Editor's message about changes at the Monitor, March 27, 2009, The Christian Science Monitor, July 13, 2009, The Boston Globe also releases a teen publication to the city's public high schools, called Teens in Print or T.i.P., which is written by the city's teens and delivered quarterly within the school year.WEB,weblink WriteBoston – T.i.P, City of Boston, 2007, April 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070207050847weblink">weblink February 7, 2007, The Improper Bostonian, a glossy lifestyle magazine, was published from 1991 through April 2019.The city's growing Latino population has given rise to a number of local and regional Spanish-language newspapers. These include El Planeta (owned by the former publisher of The Boston Phoenix), El Mundo, and La Semana. Siglo21, with its main offices in nearby Lawrence, is also widely distributed.NEWS,weblink A new day dawns for a Spanish-language publication, The Boston Globe, September 6, 2008, Diaz, Johnny, February 4, 2013, There are a number of weekly newspapers dedicated to Boston neighborhoods. Among them is South Boston Online, founded in 1999, which appears in print and online, and covers events in South Boston and the Seaport District.Various LGBT publications serve the city's large LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) population such as The Rainbow Times, the only minority and lesbian-owned LGBT news magazine. Founded in 2006, The Rainbow Times is now based out of Boston, but serves all of New England.NEWS,weblink Bay Windows acquires monthly paper, Diaz, Johnny, January 26, 2011, The Boston Globe, February 4, 2013,

Radio and television

Boston is the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the radio market being the 9th largest in the United States.WEB,weblink Arbitron – Market Ranks and Schedule, 1–50, Arbitron, Fall 2005, February 18, 2007, Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO, sports/talk station WEEI, and CBS Radio WBZ.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120430090244weblink">weblink April 30, 2012, AM Broadcast Classes; Clear, Regional, and Local Channels, January 20, 2012, Federal Communications Commission, February 20, 2013, WBZ (AM) broadcasts a news radio format and is a 50,000 watt "clear channel" station, whose nighttime broadcasts are heard hundreds of miles from Boston. A variety of commercial FM radio formats serve the area, as do NPR stations WBUR and WGBH. College and university radio stations include WERS (Emerson), WHRB (Harvard), WUMB (UMass Boston), WMBR (MIT), WZBC (Boston College), WMFO (Tufts University), WBRS (Brandeis University), WTBU (Boston University, campus and web only), WRBB (Northeastern University) and WMLN-FM (Curry College).The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the 8th largest in the United States.WEB,weblink Nielsen Survey, nielsen.com, The city is served by stations representing every major American network, including WBZ-TV 4 and its sister station WSBK-TV 38 (the former a CBS O&O, the latter a MyNetwork TV affiliate), WCVB-TV 5 and its sister station WMUR-TV 9 (both ABC), WHDH 7 and its sister station WLVI 56 (the former an independent station, the latter a CW affiliate), WBTS-LD 8 (a NBC O&O), and WFXT 25 (Fox). The city is also home to PBS member station WGBH-TV 2, a major producer of PBS programs,WEB,weblink About Us: From our President, WGBH, 2013, March 5, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130305145846weblink">weblink March 5, 2013, mdy-all, which also operates WGBX 44. Spanish-language television networks, including Azteca (WFXZ-CD 24), Univisión (WUNI 27), Telemundo (WNEU 60, a sister station to WBTS-LD), and UniMás (WUTF-DT 66), have a presence in the region, with WNEU and WUTF serving as network owned-and-operated stations. Most of the area's television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton along the Route 128 corridor.WEB,weblink The Route 128 tower complex, 2007, The Boston Radio Archives, April 28, 2007, Six Boston television stations are carried by Canadian satellite television provider Bell TV and by cable television providers in Canada.

Film

{{See also|Boston in fiction#Film|l1=List of movies filmed in Boston}}Films have been made in Boston since as early as 1903, and it continues to be both a popular setting and a popular site for filming location.WEB, Made In Mass,weblink MAFilm.org, MA Film Office, February 2, 2015, WEB, New England Film,weblink NewEnglandFilm.com, NewEnglandFilm, February 8, 2015,

Healthcare

{{See also|List of hospitals in Massachusetts#Boston|l1=List of hospitals in Boston}}File:HarvardMed2.JPG|thumb|upright|Harvard Medical SchoolHarvard Medical SchoolThe Longwood Medical and Academic Area, adjacent to the Fenway district, is home to a large number of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston Children's Hospital, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Joslin Diabetes Center, and the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences.WEB,weblink About MASCO, MASCO – Medical Academic and Scientific Community Organization, 2007, May 6, 2012, Prominent medical facilities, including Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital are in the Beacon Hill area. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center is in Brighton Center of the city's Brighton neighborhood. New England Baptist Hospital is in Mission Hill. The city has Veterans Affairs medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods.WEB,weblink Facility Listing Report, 2007, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, April 28, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070324083934weblink">weblink March 24, 2007, The Boston Public Health Commission, an agency of the Massachusetts government, oversees health concerns for city residents.WEB,weblink About BPHC – The Nation's First Health Department, Boston Public Health Commission, 2013, February 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417030443weblink">weblink April 17, 2009, Boston EMS provides pre-hospital emergency medical services to residents and visitors.Many of Boston's medical facilities are associated with universities. The facilities in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area and in Massachusetts General Hospital are affiliated with Harvard Medical School.WEB,weblink Hospital Overview, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2013, February 5, 2013, Tufts Medical Center (formerly Tufts-New England Medical Center), in the southern portion of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University School of Medicine. Boston Medical Center, in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area;WEB,weblink Boston Medical Center – Facts, Boston Medical Center, November 2006, February 21, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070203221200weblink">weblink February 3, 2007, it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital, which was the first municipal hospital in the United States.WEB,weblink Boston Medical Center, Children's Hospital Boston, 2007, November 14, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070815192727weblink">weblink August 15, 2007,

Infrastructure

Transportation

File:RedLineCharlesMGH.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A silver and red rapid transit train departing an above-ground station|An MBTA Red Line train departing Boston for Cambridge. Bostonians depend heavily on public transit, with over 1.3 million Bostonians riding the city's buses and trains daily (2013).WEB,weblink Statistics, apta.com, ]]Logan Airport, in East Boston and operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport), is Boston's principal airport.WEB,weblink About Logan, 2007, Massport, May 9, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070521101738weblink">weblink May 21, 2007, Nearby general aviation airports are Beverly Municipal Airport to the north, Hanscom Field to the west, and Norwood Memorial Airport to the south. Massport also operates several major facilities within the Port of Boston, including a cruise ship terminal and facilities to handle bulk and container cargo in South Boston, and other facilities in Charlestown and East Boston.WEB,weblink About Port of Boston, Massport, 2013, March 3, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130225202220weblink">weblink February 25, 2013, mdy-all, Downtown Boston's streets grew organically, so they do not form a planned grid,JOURNAL, Shurtleff, Arthur A., The Street Plan of the Metropolitan District of Boston, Landscape Architecture 1, January 1911, 71–83,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101029071305weblink">weblink October 29, 2010, unlike those in later-developed Back Bay, East Boston, the South End, and South Boston. Boston is the eastern terminus of I-90, which in Massachusetts runs along the Massachusetts Turnpike. The elevated portion of the Central Artery, which carried most of the through traffic in downtown Boston, was replaced with the O'Neill Tunnel during the Big Dig, substantially completed in early 2006. The former and current Central Artery follow I-93 as the primary north-south artery from the city. Other major highways include US 1, which carries traffic to the North Shore and areas south of Boston, US 3, which connects to the northwestern suburbs, Massachusetts Route 3, which connects to the South Shore and Cape Cod, and Massachusetts Route 2 which connects to the western suburbs. Surrounding the city is Massachusetts Route 128, a partial beltway which has been largely subsumed by other routes (mostly I-95 and I-93.With nearly a third of Bostonians using public transit for their commute to work, Boston has the fifth-highest rate of public transit usage in the country.WEB,weblink Census and You, US Census Bureau, 12, January 1996, February 19, 2007, The city of Boston has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 35.4 percent of Boston households lacked a car, which decreased slightly to 33.8 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Boston averaged 0.94 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.JOURNAL, Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map, Governing,weblink May 3, 2018, Boston's public transportation agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operates the oldest underground rapid transit system in the Americas, and is the fourth-busiest rapid transit system in the country,{{sfn|Hull|2011|p=42}} with {{convert|65.5|mi|0}} of track on four lines.WEB,weblink Boston: Light Rail Transit Overview, Light Rail Progress, May 2003, February 19, 2007, The MBTA also operates busy bus and commuter rail networks, and water shuttles.File:SouthStation.agr.JPG|thumb|right|South Station, the busiest rail hub in New England, is a terminus of Amtrak and numerous MBTA rail lines.]]File:Hubway bikes at rack.jpg|thumb|right|Hubway bikes in Boston]]Amtrak intercity rail to Boston is provided through four stations: South Station, North Station, Back Bay, and Route 128. South Station is a major intermodal transportation hub and is the terminus of Amtrak's Northeast Regional, Acela Express, and Lake Shore Limited routes, in addition to multiple MBTA services. Back Bay is also served by MBTA and those three Amtrak routes, while Route 128, in the southwestern suburbs of Boston, is only served by the Acela Express and Northeast Regional.WEB,weblink Westwood—Route 128 Station, MA (RTE), Amtrak, 2007, May 9, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822004651weblink">weblink August 22, 2008, Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster to Brunswick terminates in North Station, and is the only Amtrak route to do so.WEB,weblink Boston—South Station, MA (BOS), Amtrak, 2007, May 9, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080418170534weblink">weblink April 18, 2008, Nicknamed "The Walking City", Boston hosts more pedestrian commuters than do other comparably populated cities. Owing to factors such as necessity, the compactness of the city and large student population, 13 percent of the population commutes by foot, making it the highest percentage of pedestrian commuters in the country out of the major American cities.Of cities over 250,000 WEB,weblink Carfree Database Results – Highest percentage (Cities over 250,000), Bikes at Work Inc., 2007, February 26, 2007, In 2011, Walk Score ranked Boston the third most walkable city in the United States.NEWS,weblink S.F., Oakland in top 10 most walkable U.S. cities, San Francisco Chronicle, July 20, 2011, Carolyn, Said, July 20, 2011, WEB,weblink The 10 most walkable U.S. cities, MarketWatch, 2011, July 20, 2011, {{As of|2015}}, Walk Score still ranks Boston as the third most walkable US city, with a Walk Score of 80, a Transit Score of 75, and a Bike Score of 70.WEB, Boston,weblink Walk Score, Walk Score, June 3, 2015, Between 1999 and 2006, Bicycling magazine named Boston three times as one of the worst cities in the US for cycling;NEWS,weblink Boston Tries to Shed Longtime Reputation as Cyclists' Minefield, The New York Times, August 8, 2009, May 24, 2015, Zezima, Katie, regardless, it has one of the highest rates of bicycle commuting.WEB,weblink Dill bike facilities, Bicycle Commuting and Facilities in Major U.S. Cities: If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them – Another Look, 5, 2003, April 4, 2007, In 2008, as a consequence of improvements made to bicycling conditions within the city, the same magazine put Boston on its "Five for the Future" list as a "Future Best City" for biking,NEWS,weblink Boston Tries to Shed Longtime Reputation as Cyclists' Minefield, August 16, 2009, Katie Zezima, The New York Times, August 9, 2009, WEB,weblink A Future Best City: Boston, August 16, 2009, Rodale Inc,weblink February 11, 2010, yes, and Boston's bicycle commuting percentage increased from 1% in 2000 to 2.1% in 2009.WEB,weblink Is Bicycle Commuting Really Catching On? And if So, Where?, December 28, 2011, The Atlantic Media Company, The bikeshare program called Hubway launched in late July 2011,NEWS,weblink Hub set to launch bike-share program, The Boston Globe, Moskowitz, Eric, April 21, 2011, February 5, 2013, logging more than 140,000 rides before the close of its first season.NEWS,weblink Hubway bike system to be fully launched by April 1, Fox, Jeremy C., The Boston Globe, March 29, 2012, April 20, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120514180018weblink">weblink May 14, 2012, The neighboring municipalities of Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline joined the Hubway program in the summer of 2012.NEWS,weblink Hubway expands to Brookline, Somerville, Cambridge, Franzini, Laura E., The Boston Globe, August 8, 2012, March 15, 2013, In 2016, there are 1,461 bikes and 158 docking stations across the city.WEB,weblink Hubway Bikes Boston {{!, PBSC|language=en-US|access-date=August 3, 2016}} PBSC Urban Solutions provides bicycles and technology for this bike-sharing system.WEB,weblink Divvy may test-drive helmet vending machines at stations, RedEye, August 3, 2016, In 2013, the Boston-Cambridge-Newton metropolitan statistical area (Boston MSA) had the seventh-lowest percentage of workers who commuted by private automobile (75.6 percent), with 6.2 percent of area workers traveling via rail transit. During the period starting in 2006 and ending in 2013, the Boston MSA had the greatest percentage decline of workers commuting by automobile (3.3 percent) among MSAs with more than a half-million residents.WEB,weblink Who Drives to Work? Commuting by Automobile in the United States: 2013, American Survey Reports, December 26, 2017, August 2015, McKenzie, Brian,

Twin towns and sister cities

The City of Boston has eleven official sister cities:WEB,weblink Sister Cities, July 20, 2018, July 18, 2017, City of Boston, English,
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Kyoto, Japan (1959)
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Strasbourg, France (1960)
  • {{flagdeco|ESP}} Barcelona, Spain (1980)
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Hangzhou, People's Republic of China (1982)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Padua, Italy (1983)
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Melbourne, Australia (1985)
  • {{flagdeco|MOZ}} Beira, Mozambique (1990)
  • {{flagdeco|ROC}} Taipei, Taiwan (1996)
  • {{flagdeco|GHA}} Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana (2001)
  • {{flagdeco|IRE}} Belfast, Ireland (2014)
  • {{flagdeco|CPV}} Praia, Cape Verde (2015)
The City of Boston has formal partnership relationships through a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) with four additional cities or regions:
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Guangzhou, People's Republic of China (2014)WEB,weblink Friendly Cities, July 20, 2018, Guangzhou People's Government, English,
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Lyon, France (2016)WEB,weblink MAYOR WALSH SIGNS MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING WITH LYON, FRANCE VICE-MAYOR KARIN DOGNIN-SAUZE, July 20, 2018, February 10, 2016, City of Boston, City of Boston, English,
  • {{flagdeco|DEN}} Copenhagen, Denmark (2017)WEB,weblink CITY OF CAMBRIDGE JOINS BOSTON, COPENHAGEN IN CLIMATE MEMORANDUM OF COLLABORATION, City of Cambridge, July 20, 2017, English,
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Mexico City, Mexico (2017)WEB,weblink Memorandum of Understanding with Mexico City's Mayor Mancera – Promo, July 20, 2018, April 4, 2017, Boston City TV, City of Boston, English,
  • North West of Ireland, Ireland (2017)WEB,weblink Ireland North West and City of Boston sign MOU, July 20, 2018, November 17, 2017, Derry City & Strabane District Council, Derry City & Strabane District Council, English,
In 1900, Americans from Boston bought a piece of land in Bellville, Western Cape, South Africa and developed it for residential purposes. In memory of their hometown, they called it Boston.

See also

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Bluestone, Barry, Stevenson, Mary Huff, The Boston Renaissance: Race, Space, and Economic Change in an American Metropolis, Russell Sage Foundation, 2002, 978-1-61044-072-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Bolino, August C., Men of Massachusetts: Bay State Contributors to American Society, iUniverse, 2012, 978-1-4759-3376-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Christopher, Paul J., 50 Plus One Greatest Cities in the World You Should Visit, Encouragement Press, LLC., 2006, 978-1-933766-01-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Hull, Sarah, The Rough Guide to Boston, Penguin, 6, 2011, 978-1-4053-8247-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Kennedy, Lawrence W., Planning the City Upon a Hill: Boston Since 1630, University of Massachusetts Press, 1994, 978-0-87023-923-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Morris, Jerry, The Boston Globe Guide to Boston, Globe Pequot, 2005, 978-0-7627-3430-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Vorhees, Mara, Lonely Planet Boston City Guide, Lonely Planet, 4, 2009, 978-1-74179-178-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Wechter, Eric B., Fodor's Boston 2009, Random House Digital, Inc., 2009, 978-1-4000-0699-1, harv, etal,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Beagle, Jonathan M., Penn, Elan, Boston: A Pictorial Celebration, 2006, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 978-1-4027-1977-6,
  • BOOK, Brown, Robin, The Boston Globe, Boston's Secret Spaces: 50 Hidden Corners In and Around the Hub, 2009, Globe Pequot, 1, 978-0-7627-5062-7,
  • BOOK, Hantover, Jeffrey, King, Gilbert, City in Time: Boston, 2008, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 978-1-4027-3300-0,
  • BOOK, O'Connell, James C., The Hub's Metropolis: Greater Boston's Development from Railroad Suburbs to Smart Growth, MIT Press, 2013, 978-0-262-01875-3,weblink
  • BOOK, O'Connor, Thomas H., Boston: A to Z, 2000, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-00310-1,
  • BOOK,weblink Boston's immigrants, 1840–1925, 2000, Price, Michael, Sammarco, Anthony Mitchell, Arcadia Publishing, 978-0-7524-0921-4,
  • BOOK, Krieger, Alex, Cobb, David, Turner, Amy, Mapping Boston, 2001, MIT Press, 978-0-262-61173-2,
  • BOOK, Seasholes, Nancy S., Gaining Ground: A History of Landmaking in Boston, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press, 2003, 978-0-262-19494-5,
  • BOOK, Shand-Tucci, Douglass, Built in Boston: City & Suburb, 1800–2000, 2, University of Massachusetts Press, 1999, 978-1-55849-201-1,
  • BOOK, Southworth, Michael, Southworth, Susan, AIA Guide to Boston, 3rd Edition: Contemporary Landmarks, Urban Design, Parks, Historic Buildings and Neighborhoods, 2008, 3, Globe Pequot, 978-0-7627-4337-7,
  • BOOK, Vrabel, Jim, Bostonian Society, When in Boston: A Time Line & Almanac, 2004, Northeastern University Press, 978-1-55553-620-6,
  • BOOK, Whitehill, Walter Muir, Kennedy, Lawrence W., Boston: A Topographical History, 3, 2000, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-00268-5,

External links

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