Republican Party (United States)

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Republican Party (United States)
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{{redirect|GOP}}{{distinguish|American Republican Party (1843)|Democratic-Republican Party|National Republican Party}}{{pp-protected|small=yes}}{{short description|Major political party in the United States}}{{use mdy dates|date=January 2018}}

Ronna McDaniel (Michigan>MI)President of the United States>U.S. PresidentDonald Trump (New York (state)>NY)U.S. Vice President}}Mike Pence (Indiana>IN)Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives>House Minority LeaderKevin McCarthy (California politician)>Kevin McCarthy (CA)Party leaders of the United States Senate>Senate Majority LeaderMitch McConnell (Kentucky>KY)Whig Party (United States)>Whig PartyFree Soil Party| headquarters = 310 First Street SEWashington, D.C. 20003| student_wing = College Republicans| youth_wing = Young RepublicansTeen Age Republicans| womens_wing = National Federation of Republican Women| wing1_title = Overseas wing| wing1 = Republicans Overseas| membership_year = 2018ACCESSDATE=MAY 30, 2019ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190530042214/HTTP://BALLOT-ACCESS.ORG/2018/12/03/NOVEMBER-2018-BALLOT-ACCESS-NEWS-PRINT-EDITION/URL-STATUS=LIVE, | position = Republican Party (United States)#Positions>Majority:{{•}} Conservatism in the United StatesPaul Gottfried, Conservatism in America: Making Sense of the American Right, p. 9, "Postwar conservatives set about creating their own synthesis of free-market capitalism, Christian morality, and the global struggle against Communism." (2009); Gottfried, Theologies and moral concern (1995) p. 12.{{•}}Social conservatism in the United States>Social conservatismHTTP://WWW.THECRIMSON.COM/ARTICLE/2013/2/5/NAIR-CONSERVATISM/>TITLE=NO COUNTRY FOR OLD SOCIAL CONSERVATIVES?WEBSITE=THECRIMSON.COMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140819125727/HTTP://WWW.THECRIMSON.COM/ARTICLE/2013/2/5/NAIR-CONSERVATISM/URL-STATUS=LIVE, POLITICO>URL=HTTPS://WWW.POLITICO.COM/STORY/2016/07/GOP-PLATFORM-SOCIAL-CONSERVATIVES-225782TITLE=SOCIAL CONSERVATIVES WIN ON GOP PLATFORMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190329051759/HTTPS://WWW.POLITICO.COM/STORY/2016/07/GOP-PLATFORM-SOCIAL-CONSERVATIVES-225782URL-STATUS=LIVE, HISTORY (U.S. TV NETWORK)>HISTORYTITLE=REPUBLICAN PARTYARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190329074425/HTTPS://WWW.HISTORY.COM/TOPICS/US-POLITICS/REPUBLICAN-PARTYURL-STATUS=LIVE, Factions:{{•}} CentrismNEWS, Siegel, Josh, Centrist Republicans and Democrats meet to devise bipartisan healthcare plan,weblink The Washington Examiner, July 18, 2017, May 5, 2018,weblink May 5, 2018, live, {{•}} Fiscal conservatismBOOK, AuthorHouse, Kennneth L., Hill, 2012, 172, An Essential Guide To American Politics And The American Political System, {{•}} LibertarianismBOOK, William J., Miller, Lexington Books, The 2012 Nomination and the Future of the Republican Party, 2013, 39, {{•}} Neoconservatism{{•}}Right-wing populismWEB,weblink Donald Trump is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party, Cassidy, John, The New Yorker, February 29, 2016, July 22, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2016, live, WEB,weblink Why Is Populism Winning on the American Right?, The Atlantic, Gould, J.J., July 2, 2016, March 11, 2017,weblink March 12, 2017, live, International Democrat UnionHTTP://IDU.ORG/MEMBER-PARTIES/>TITLE=MEMBERSURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=JULY 16, 2015, mdy-all, }}European Conservatives and Reformists PartyHTTP://WWW.AECR.EU/MEMBERSPUBLISHER=AECRARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151016050413/HTTP://WWW.AECR.EU/MEMBERS/URL-STATUS=DEAD, (regional partner)| affiliation1_title = Regional affiliationAsia Pacific Democrat UnionHTTP://IDU.ORG/MEMBERS/REGIONAL-UNIONS/APDU/WORK=INTERNATIONAL DEMOCRAT UNIONARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150702053517/HTTPS://IDU.ORG/MEMBERS/REGIONAL-UNIONS/APDU/DF=MDY-ALL, May 22, 2018, {{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}Red states and blue states>RedUnited States Senate>Seats in the Senate53hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}United States House of Representatives>Seats in the House197hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Governor (United States)>State Governorships27hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>State Upper Chamber Seats1080hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>State Lower Chamber Seats2773hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}State legislature (United States)>Total State Legislature Seats3853hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Governor (United States)>Territorial Governorships1hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Territories of the United States>Territorial Upper Chamber Seats12hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}Territories of the United States>Territorial Lower Chamber Seats14hex={{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}}}| website =| country = United States}}The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party.The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of slavery into certain U.S. territories. The party supported classical liberalism, opposed the expansion of slavery, and supported economic reform.BOOK, Joseph R. Fornieri, Sara Vaughn Gabbard, Lincoln's America: 1809–1865,weblink 2008, SIU Press, 19, 9780809387137, February 4, 2018,weblink July 24, 2019, live, James G. Randall; Lincoln the Liberal Statesman (1947). Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president. Under the leadership of Lincoln and a Republican Congress, slavery was banned in the United States in 1865. The Party was generally dominant during the Third Party System and the Fourth Party System. After 1912, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right.JOURNAL,weblink The Ol' Switcheroo. Theodore Roosevelt, 1912., Time, April 29, 2009, February 3, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2018, live, Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics.JOURNAL, Zingher, Joshua N., 2018, Polarization, Demographic Change, and White Flight from the Democratic Party, The Journal of Politics, en, 80, 3, 860–72, 10.1086/696994, 0022-3816, Since the 1990s, the Party's support has chiefly come from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural and exurban areas in the Midwest.WEB,weblink Republicans Now Dominate State Government, Daily Kos, April 4, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2017, live, NEWS,weblink Presidential Election Results: Donald J. Trump Wins, The New York Times, September 10, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2017, live, The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism. The GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights, pro-life, deregulation and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. After the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party opposed abortion in its party platform and grew its support among evangelicals.BOOK,weblink The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics, Layman, Geoffrey, 2001, Columbia University Press, 978-0231120586, 115, 119–20, July 15, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink June 25, 2015, live, The GOP was strongly committed to protectionism and tariffs at its founding, but grew more supportive of free trade in the 20th century.There have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one political party (including current president Donald Trump, who was elected in 2016). As of 2019, the GOP controls the presidency, a majority in the U.S. Senate, a majority of state governorships, a majority (30) of state legislatures, and 22 state government trifectas (governorship and both legislative chambers). Five of the nine sitting U.S. Supreme Court justices were nominated by Republican presidents.


19th century

{{further|Third Party System}}File:Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Abraham LincolnAbraham LincolnFounded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party quickly became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the briefly popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states.WEB,weblink U.S. Senate: The Kansas-Nebraska Act,, March 28, 2019,weblink March 29, 2019, live, WEB,weblink The Wealthy Activist Who Helped Turn "Bleeding Kansas" Free, Smithsonian, March 28, 2019,weblink March 27, 2019, live, The Republicans called for economic and social modernization. They denounced the expansion of slavery as a great evil, but did not call for ending it in the Southern states. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was proposed, was held on March 20, 1854 in Ripon, Wisconsin.WEB,weblink The Origin of the Republican Party, A. F. Gilman, Ripon College, 1914,, January 17, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2012, live, The name was partly chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party.WEB,weblink History of the GOP, GOP, May 9, 2017,weblink January 29, 2018, live, The first official party convention was held on July 6, 1854 in Jackson, Michigan.NEWS,weblink Birth of Republicanism, NY Times, At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U.S. territories.WEB,weblink Republican National Political Conventions 1856-2008 (Library of Congress),, March 12, 2019,weblink February 20, 2019, live, While Republican candidate John C. Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states.WEB,weblink First Republican national convention ends, History com, Editors, HISTORY, March 22, 2019,weblink March 22, 2019, live, File:CharlesRJennison.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Charles R. Jennison, an anti-slavery militia leader associated with the Jayhawkers from KansasKansasThe Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket; Lincoln won re-election.WEB,weblink Lincoln reelected, History com, Editors, HISTORY, March 22, 2019,weblink March 22, 2019, live, Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; it was ratified in December 1865.WEB,weblink Congress Passes 13th Amendment, 150 Years Ago, Christopher, Klein, HISTORY, March 12, 2019,weblink March 30, 2019, live, File:Ulysses S. Grant 1870-1880.jpg|thumb|upright|Ulysses S. GrantUlysses S. GrantThe party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who believed that Reconstruction had been accomplished, and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872 on the Liberal Republican Party line. The Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service.WEB,weblink Donald Trump and Chris Christie are reportedly planning to purge the civil service, Dylan, Matthews, July 20, 2016, Vox, March 22, 2019,weblink March 22, 2019, live, The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883;WEB,weblink Pendleton Act inaugurates U.S. civil service system, Jan. 16, 1883, Andrew Glass, POLITICO, the bill was signed into law by Republican President Chester A. Arthurweblink Republican Party supported hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, and (after 1893) the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition. As the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, fast-growing cities, and prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}The GOP was usually dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System (1850s–1890s). However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. The high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections, even defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892. The election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted (except for 1912 and 1916) until 1932. McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Panic of 1893 and that Republicans would guarantee a sort of pluralism in which all groups would benefit.Walter Dean Burnham, "Periodization schemes and 'party systems': the 'system of 1896' as a case in point." Social Science History 10.3 (1986): 263–314.The Republican Civil War era program included free homestead farms, a federally subsidized transcontinental railroad, a national banking system, a large national debt, land grants for higher education, a new national banking system, a wartime income tax and permanent high tariffs to promote industrial growth and high wages. By the 1870s, they had adopted as well a hard money system based on the gold standard and fought off efforts to promote inflation through Free Silver.Lewis Gould, Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2007) ch 1–3. They created the foundations of the modern welfare state through an extensive program of pensions for Union veterans.Theda Skocpol, "America's first social security system: The expansion of benefits for Civil War veterans." Political Science Quarterly 108#1 (1993): 85– {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 30, 2019 }} Foreign-policy issues were rarely a matter of partisan dispute, but briefly in the 1893–1904 period the GOP supported imperialistic expansion regarding Hawaii, the Philippines and the Panama Canal.Thomas A. Bailey, "Was the Presidential Election of 1900 a Mandate on Imperialism?." Mississippi Valley Historical Review (online {{Webarchive|url= |date=November 13, 2017 }}) 24#1 (1937): 43–52.

20th century

{{further|Fourth Party System|Progressive Era}}File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Theodore RooseveltTheodore RooseveltFile:President Hoover portrait.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Herbert HooverHerbert HooverThe 1896 realignment cemented the Republicans as the party of big business while Theodore Roosevelt added more small business support by his embrace of trust busting. He handpicked his successor William Howard Taft in 1908, but they became enemies as the party split down the middle. Taft defeated Roosevelt for the 1912 nomination and Roosevelt ran on the ticket of his new Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party. He called for social reforms, many of which were later championed by New Deal Democrats in the 1930s. He lost and when most of his supporters returned to the GOP they found they did not agree with the new conservative economic thinking, leading to an ideological shift to the right in the Republican Party.JOURNAL,weblink The Ol' Switcheroo. Theodore Roosevelt, 1912., Time,, April 29, 2009, February 3, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2018, live, The Republicans returned to the White House throughout the 1920s, running on platforms of normalcy, business-oriented efficiency and high tariffs. The national party platform avoided mention of prohibition, instead issuing a vague commitment to law and order.David E. Kyvig, Repealing National Prohibition (2000) pp. 63–65.Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924 and 1928, respectively. The Teapot Dome scandal threatened to hurt the party, but Harding died and the opposition splintered in 1924. The pro-business policies of the decade seemed to produce an unprecedented prosperity until the Wall Street Crash of 1929 heralded the Great Depression.BOOK, James Ciment, ed., Encyclopedia of the Jazz Age: From the End of World War I to the Great Crash,weblink 2015, Routledge, 446, 9781317471653,

New Deal era

File:Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg|thumb|upright|Dwight EisenhowerDwight EisenhowerThe New Deal coalition of Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. Blacks moved into the Democratic Party during the New Deal era. After Roosevelt took office in 1933, New Deal legislation sailed through Congress and the economy moved sharply upward from its nadir in early 1933. However, long-term unemployment remained a drag until 1940. In the 1934 midterm elections, 10 Republican senators went down to defeat, leaving the GOP with only 25 senators against 71 Democrats. The House of Representatives likewise had overwhelming Democratic majorities.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}The Republican Party split into a majority "Old Right" (based in the Midwest) and a liberal wing based in the Northeast that supported much of the New Deal. The Old Right sharply attacked the "Second New Deal" and said it represented class warfare and socialism. Roosevelt was re-elected in a landslide in 1936; however, as his second term began, the economy declined, strikes soared, and he failed to take control of the Supreme Court or to purge the Southern conservatives from the Democratic Party. Republicans made a major comeback in the 1938 elections and had new rising stars such as Robert A. Taft of Ohio on the right and Thomas E. Dewey of New York on the left.WEB,weblink The Roots of Modern Conservatism {{!, Michael Bowen|website=University of North Carolina Press|language=en-US|access-date=2019-05-20|archive-url=|archive-date=May 22, 2017|url-status=live}} Southern conservatives joined with most Republicans to form the conservative coalition, which dominated domestic issues in Congress until 1964. Both parties split on foreign policy issues, with the anti-war isolationists dominant in the Republican Party and the interventionists who wanted to stop Adolf Hitler dominant in the Democratic Party. Roosevelt won a third and fourth term in 1940 and 1944, respectively. Conservatives abolished most of the New Deal during the war, but they did not attempt to reverse Social Security or the agencies that regulated business.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}Historian George H. Nash argues: Unlike the "moderate", internationalist, largely eastern bloc of Republicans who accepted (or at least acquiesced in) some of the "Roosevelt Revolution" and the essential premises of President Truman's foreign policy, the Republican Right at heart was counterrevolutionary. Anti-collectivist, anti-Communist, anti-New Deal, passionately committed to limited government, free market economics, and congressional (as opposed to executive) prerogatives, the G.O.P. conservatives were obliged from the start to wage a constant two-front war: against liberal Democrats from without and "me-too" Republicans from within.George H. Nash, "The Republican Right from Taft to Reagan", Reviews in American History (1984) 12#2 pp. 261–65 in JSTOR {{Webarchive|url= |date=February 18, 2017 }} quote on p. 261; Nash references David W. Reinhard, The Republican Right since 1945, (University Press of Kentucky, 1983)The Democrats elected majorities to Congress almost continuously after 1932 (the GOP won only in 1946 and 1952), but the conservative coalition blocked practically all major liberal proposals in domestic policy.{{clarify|date=October 2019}} After 1945, the internationalist wing of the GOP cooperated with Harry S. Truman's Cold War foreign policy, funded the Marshall Plan and supported NATO, despite the continued isolationism of the Old Right.BOOK,weblink The Betrayal of the American Right, Mises Institute, Murray Rothbard, 2007, 85, File:Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Richard NixonRichard NixonThe second half of the 20th century saw the election or succession of Republican presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. Eisenhower had defeated conservative leader Senator Robert A. Taft for the 1952 nomination, but conservatives dominated the domestic policies of the Eisenhower administration. Voters liked Eisenhower much more than they liked the GOP and he proved unable to shift the party to a more moderate position. Since 1976, liberalism has virtually faded out of the Republican Party, apart from a few Northeastern holdouts.Nicol C. Rae, The Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: From 1952 to the Present (1989)File:Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg|thumb|upright|Ronald ReaganRonald ReaganSince he left office in 1989, Reagan has been an iconic conservative Republican and Republican presidential candidates frequently claim to share his views and aim to establish themselves and their policies as the more appropriate heir to his legacy.BOOK,weblink American Culture Transformed: Dialing 9/11, Palgrave Macmillan, 9781137033499, July 31, 2012, June 17, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2015, live, In the Republican Revolution of 1994, the party—led by House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich, who campaigned on the "Contract with America"—won majorities in both Houses of Congress. However, as House Speaker, Gingrich was unable to deliver on many of its promises, including a balanced-budget amendment and term limits for members of Congress. During the impeachment and acquittal of President Bill Clinton, Republicans suffered surprise losses in the 1998 midterm elections. Gingrich's popularity sank to 17%; he resigned the speakership and later resigned from Congress altogether.BOOK, Alan R. Grant, Edward Ashbee, The Politics Today Companion to American Government,weblink 2002, Manchester UP, 64, 9780719058929,weblink

21st century

The Republican Senate majority lasted until 2001 when the Senate became split evenly, but it was regained in the 2002 elections. Both Republican majorities in the House and Senate were held until the Democrats regained control in the mid-term elections of 2006. The Republican Party has since been defined by social conservatism, a preemptive war foreign policy intended to defeat terrorism and promote global democracy, a more powerful executive branch, supply side economics, deregulation, and support for the Second Amendment.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}{{multiple image|caption_align=center|image1=George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait (cropped).jpg|width1=172|caption1=George H. W. Bush, 41st President of the United States (1989–1993)|image2=George-W-Bush.jpeg|width2=163|caption2=George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States (2001–2009)|footer_align=center|footer=Former president George H. W. Bush was the father of former president George W. Bush. (Only one other son of a president has been elected president, to wit John Quincy Adams.)}}A George W. Bush-Dick Cheney ticket won the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections. In the presidential election of 2008, the John McCain-Sarah Palin ticket was defeated by Senators Barack Obama and Joe Biden.The Republicans experienced electoral success in the wave election of 2010, which coincided with the ascendancy of the Tea Party movementweblink That success began with the upset win of Scott Brown in the Massachusetts special Senate election for a seat that had been held for decades by the Democratic Kennedy brothers. In the November elections, Republicans recaptured control of the House, increased their number of seats in the Senate and gained a majority of governorships.WEB,weblink Will Redistricting Be a Bloodbath for Democrats?, ABC News, April 13, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink April 12, 2012, live, Obama and Biden won re-election in 2012, defeating a Mitt Romney-Paul Ryan ticket. The campaign focused largely on the Affordable Care Act and President Obama's stewardship of the economy, as the country still faced high unemployment numbers and a rising national debt stemming from the Great Recession. While Republicans lost seven seats in the House in the November congressional elections, they still retained control. However, Republicans were not able to gain control of the Senate, continuing their minority status with a net loss of two seats.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} In the aftermath of the loss, some prominent Republicans spoke out against their own party.Olympia Snowe: Bob Dole is right about GOP – Kevin Robillard {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 5, 2013 }}. Politico.Com (May 29, 2013). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.Powell: GOP has 'a dark vein of intolerance' {{Webarchive|url= |date=May 20, 2013 }}. Politico.Com. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2013-06-10, Wayback Machine, June 10, 2013, A post-2012 post-mortem report by the Republican Party concluded that the party needed to do more on the national level to attract votes from minorities and young voters.WEB,weblink What You Need to Read in the RNC Election-Autopsy Report, Franke-Ruta, Garance, 2013-03-18, The Atlantic, en-US, 2019-07-05,weblink July 7, 2019, live, After the 2014 midterm elections, the Republican Party took control of the Senate by gaining nine seats.WEB,weblink Republicans keep edge in latest Senate midterm estimate, CBS News, September 7, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2014, live, With a final total of 247 seats (57%) in the House and 54 seats in the Senate, the Republicans ultimately achieved their largest majority in the Congress since the 71st Congress in 1929.WEB,weblink It's all but official: This will be the most dominant Republican Congress since 1929, The Washington Post, December 6, 2017,weblink December 13, 2017, live, File:Official Portrait of President Donald Trump (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|upright|Donald TrumpDonald TrumpAfter the 2016 elections, Republicans maintained a majority in the Senate, House, Governorships and elected Donald Trump as President. The Republican Party controlled 69 of 99 state legislative chambers in 2017, the most it had held in history;NEWS,weblink Republicans Expand Control in a Deeply Divided Nation, The New York Times, February 18, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink November 19, 2016, live, and at least 33 governorships, the most it had held since 1922.WEB,weblink Republicans Governorships Rise to Highest Mark Since 1922, U.S. News & World Report, September 10, 2017,weblink September 15, 2017, live, The party had total control of government (legislative chambers and governorship) in 25 states,NEWS, Republican governorships rise to highest mark since 1922,weblink U.S. News & World Report, November 6, 2016, David A. Lieb, Associated Press, NEWS, Phillips, Amber,weblink These 3 maps show just how dominant Republicans are in America after Tuesday, The Washington Post, November 12, 2016, November 14, 2016,weblink November 13, 2016, live, the most since 1952;NEWS, Lieb, David A., GOP-Controlled States Aim to Reshape Laws,weblink December 29, 2016, Associated Press, December 30, 2016,weblink December 31, 2016, live, the opposing Democratic Party had full control in only five states.WEB, Greenblatt, Alan, Republicans Add to Their Dominance of State Legislatures,weblink November 9, 2016, Governing (magazine), Governing, November 17, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2016, live, As of 2019, there have been a total of 19 Republican Presidents (the most from any one party in American history). Republicans have won 24 of the last 40 presidential elections.WEB,weblink Political Parties of the Presidents,, April 10, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink April 1, 2018, live, Following the results of the 2018 midterm elections, the Republican Party controls the bulk of the power in the United States as of 2019, holding the presidency (Donald Trump), a majority in the United States Senate, and a majority of governorships (27) and state legislatures (full control of 30/50 legislatures, split control of two).WEB,weblink GOP strongest it's been in 80 years,, April 10, 2018,weblink August 20, 2017, live, As of 2019, the GOP holds a "trifecta" (control of the executive branch and both chambers of the legislative branch) in a plurality of states (22 of 50).WEB,weblink State Govt Trifectas, Ballotpedia, April 10, 2018,weblink March 28, 2018, live, Five of the nine current justices of the Supreme Court were appointed by Republican presidents.WEB,weblink Current Members,, March 4, 2019,weblink July 21, 2011, live,

Recent trends

For most of the post-World War II era, Republicans had little presence at the state legislative level. This trend began to reverse in the late 1990s, with Republicans increasing their state legislative presence and taking control of state legislatures in the South. From 2004 to 2014, the Republican State Leadership Committee (RSLC) raised over $140 million targeted to state legislature races, while the Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee (DLSC) raised less than half that during that time period. Following the 2014 midterm elections, Republicans controlled 68 of 98 partisan state legislative houses (the most in the party's history) and controlled both the executive and legislative branches of government in 24 states (Democrats had control of only seven).NEWS,weblink The Other GOP Wave: State Legislatures, RealClearPolitics, April 29, 2015, November 11, 2014, David, Byler,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2015, live, With the inauguration of Republican George W. Bush as President, the Republican Party remained fairly cohesive for much of the 2000s as both strong economic libertarians and social conservatives opposed the Democrats, whom they saw as the party of bloated, secular, and liberal government.Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation (2004). The Bush-era rise of what were known as "pro-government conservatives"—a core part of the President's base—meant that a considerable group of the Republicans advocated for increased government spending and greater regulations covering both the economy and people's personal lives as well as for an activist, interventionist foreign policy.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} Survey groups such as the Pew Research Center found that social conservatives and free market advocates remained the other two main groups within the party's coalition of support, with all three being roughly equal in number.BOOK, In Search of Progressive America, 97, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013, 978-0812209099, Michael Kazin, WEB,weblink Profiles of the Typology Groups | Pew Research,, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2017, live, However, libertarians and libertarian-leaning conservatives increasingly found fault with what they saw as Republicans' restricting of vital civil liberties while corporate welfare and the national debt hiked considerably under Bush's tenure.NEWS,weblink Righteous Anger: The Conservative Case Against George W. Bush, The American Conservative (Cato Institute Re-printing), December 11, 2003, May 2, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2015, live, In contrast, some social conservatives expressed dissatisfaction with the party's support for economic policies that conflicted with their moral values."How Huckabee Scares the GOP" {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 18, 2008 }}. By E. J. Dionne. Real Clear Politics. Published December 21, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2008.In March 2013, National Committee Chairman Reince Priebus gave a stinging report on the party's electoral failures in 2012, calling on Republicans to reinvent themselves and officially endorse immigration reform. He said: "There's no one reason we lost. Our message was weak; our ground game was insufficient; we weren't inclusive; we were behind in both data and digital, and our primary and debate process needed improvement". He proposed 219 reforms that included a $10 million marketing campaign to reach women, minorities and gays as well as setting a shorter, more controlled primary season and creating better data collection facilities.Rachel Weiner, "Reince Priebus gives GOP prescription for future", The Washington Post March 18, 2013 {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2015 }}A March 2013 poll found that a majority of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents under the age of 49 supported legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Former House Speaker Newt Gingrich remarked that the "[p]arty is going to be torn on this issue".NEWS, Gay marriage support hits new high in Post-ABC poll,weblink The Washington Post, March 18, 2013, March 28, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2013, live, NEWS, Moody, Chris, Newt Gingrich: GOP will be 'torn' over same-sex marriage,weblink Yahoo!, January 15, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2016, live, A Reuters/Ipsos survey from April 2015 found that 68% of Americans overall would attend the same-sex wedding of a loved one, with 56% of Republicans agreeing. Reuters journalist Jeff Mason remarked that "Republicans who stake out strong opposition to gay marriage could be on shaky political ground if their ultimate goal is to win the White House" given the divide between the social conservative stalwarts and the rest of the United States that opposes them.WEB,weblink Same-sex marriage now a litmus test for Republican hopefuls, poll suggests, The Washington Times,weblink" title="">weblink May 3, 2015, live, In 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional, thus legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide.WEB,weblink How Obergefell Taught Me Marriage Is Far More Than A Piece Of Paper, Marriage, March 18, 2019, The Federalist, June 6, 2019,weblink June 6, 2019, live, In 2016, after being elected President, Republican Donald Trump stated that he was "fine" with same-sex marriage.WEB,weblink Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled,' but Roe v Wade can be changed, Ariane de Vogue, CNN Supreme Court, Reporter, CNN, May 11, 2019,weblink May 11, 2019, live,

Name and symbols

{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=220|image1=NastRepublicanElephant.jpg|caption1=1874 Nast cartoon featuring the first notable appearance of the Republican elephantWEB, The Third-Term Panic, Cartoon of the Day, November 7, 2003,weblink September 5, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2011, live, |image2=Republicanlogo.svg|caption2=The red, white and blue Republican elephant, still a primary logo for many state GOP committees|image3=GOP Logo1.svg|caption3=The circa 2013 GOP logo|200px}}The party's founding members chose the name Republican Party in the mid-1850s as homage to the values of republicanism promoted by Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party.BOOK, Rutland, RA, The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush, 1996, 2, 0-8262-1090-2, registration,weblink The idea for the name came from an editorial by the party's leading publicist, Horace Greeley, who called for "some simple name like 'Republican' [that] would more fitly designate those who had united to restore the Union to its true mission of champion and promulgator of Liberty rather than propagandist of slavery".WEB,,weblink The Origins of the Republican Party,, July 4, 1995, October 25, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2012, live, The name reflects the 1776 republican values of civic virtue and opposition to aristocracy and corruption.Gould, pp. 14–15 It is important to note that "republican" has a variety of meanings around the world and the Republican Party has evolved such that the meanings no longer always align.NEWS,weblink The Changing Definition of 'Conservative', Joyner, James, The Atlantic, May 9, 2017,weblink May 25, 2017, live, NEWS,weblink Republican Party {{!, political party, United States [1854–present]|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=May 9, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=May 5, 2017|url-status=live}}The term "Grand Old Party" is a traditional nickname for the Republican Party and the abbreviation "GOP" is a commonly used designation. The term originated in 1875 in the Congressional Record, referring to the party associated with the successful military defense of the Union as "this gallant old party". The following year in an article in the Cincinnati Commercial, the term was modified to "grand old party". The first use of the abbreviation is dated 1884."Grand Old Party", Oxford English Dictionary.The traditional mascot of the party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol.WEB,weblink Cartoon of the Day,, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2011, live, An alternate symbol of the Republican Party in states such as Indiana, New York and Ohio is the bald eagle as opposed to the Democratic rooster or the Democratic five-pointed star.WEB,weblink Ballots of United States: Indiana, University of North Carolina, February 6, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink May 25, 2017, live, WEB, Poor Ballot Design Hurts New York's Minor Parties{{nbsp, ... Again|publisher=Brennan Center for Justice|author=Tomas Lopez|date=October 23, 2014|url=|access-date=February 6, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=February 7, 2017|url-status=live}} In Kentucky, the log cabin is a symbol of the Republican Party (not related to the gay Log Cabin Republicans organization).WEB,weblink See Sample Ballots for Today's Primary Elections, West Kentucky Star, May 19, 2015, February 6, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2017, live, Traditionally the party had no consistent color identity.WEB,weblink Red vs. Blue: A history of how we use political colors, Bump, Philip, November 8, 2016, The Washington Post, October 30, 2017,weblink November 7, 2017, live, WEB,weblink Red State, Blue State, Drum, Kevin, November 13, 2004, Washington Monthly, October 30, 2017,weblink November 7, 2017, live, WEB,weblink Red States and Blue States{{nbsp, ... Explained!|last=Drum|first=Kevin|date=November 14, 2004|website=Washington Monthly|accessdate=October 30, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=November 7, 2017|url-status=live}} After the 2000 election, the color red became associated with Republicans. During and after the election, the major broadcast networks used the same color scheme for the electoral map: states won by Republican nominee George W. Bush were colored red and states won by Democratic nominee Al Gore were colored blue. Due to the weeks-long dispute over the election results, these color associations became firmly ingrained, persisting in subsequent years. Although the assignment of colors to political parties is unofficial and informal, the media has come to represent the respective political parties using these colors. The party and its candidates have also come to embrace the color red.WEB, Philip Bump, Red vs. Blue: A history of how we use political colors,weblink Washington Post, en,


{{conservatism US}}

Economic policies

File:Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|left|Calvin CoolidgeCalvin CoolidgeRepublicans believe that free markets and individual achievement are the primary factors behind economic prosperity. Republicans frequently advocate in favor of fiscal conservatism during Democratic administrations; however, they have shown themselves willing to increase federal debt when they are in charge of the government (the implementation of the Bush tax cuts, Medicare Part D and the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 are examples of this willingness).NEWS,weblink Debt Concerns, Once a Core Republican Tenet, Take a Back Seat to Tax Cuts, Appelbaum, Binyamin, December 1, 2017, The New York Times, December 2, 2017, 0362-4331,weblink December 2, 2017, live, NEWS,weblink Why Republicans who once fought budget debt now embrace it, ABC News, December 2, 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2017, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Is There a Fiscal Crisis in the United States?, Johnson, Simon, Economix Blog, December 2, 2017,weblink June 21, 2018, live, Despite pledges to roll back government spending, Republican administrations have since the late 1960s sustained previous levels of government spending.JOURNAL, Milkis, Sidney M., King, Desmond, Jacobs, Nicholas F., 2019, Building a Conservative State: Partisan Polarization and the Redeployment of Administrative Power, Perspectives on Politics, en, 17, 2, 453–469, 10.1017/S1537592718003511, 1537-5927, Modern Republicans advocate the theory of supply side economics, which holds that lower tax rates increase economic growth.NEWS,weblink The Economist, Diving into the rich pool, September 24, 2011, January 13, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink January 12, 2012, live, Many Republicans oppose higher tax rates for higher earners, which they believe are unfairly targeted at those who create jobs and wealth. They believe private spending is more efficient than government spending. Republican lawmakers have also sought to limit funding for tax enforcement and tax collection.WEB,weblink How the IRS Was Gutted, Paul Kiel, Jesse Eisinger, 2018-12-11, ProPublica, en, 2018-12-11,weblink December 11, 2018, live, Republicans believe individuals should take responsibility for their own circumstances. They also believe the private sector is more effective in helping the poor through charity than the government is through welfare programs and that social assistance programs often cause government dependency.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}Republicans believe corporations should be able to establish their own employment practices, including benefits and wages, with the free market deciding the price of work. Since the 1920s, Republicans have generally been opposed by labor union organizations and members. At the national level, Republicans supported the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, which gives workers the right not to participate in unions. Modern Republicans at the state level generally support various right-to-work laws, which prohibit union security agreements requiring all workers in a unionized workplace to pay dues or a fair-share fee, regardless of if they are members of the union or not.WEB, Employer/Union Rights and Obligations,weblink National Labor Relations Board, July 7, 2017,weblink July 11, 2017, live, Most Republicans tend to oppose increases in the minimum wage, believing that such increases hurt businesses by forcing them to cut and outsource jobs and pass costs along to consumers.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}The party opposes a single-payer health care system, describing it as socialized medicine. The Republican Party has a mixed record of supporting the historically popular Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid programs.Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007. Print.

Environmental policies

Historically, progressive leaders in the Republican Party supported environmental protection. Republican President Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent conservationist whose policies eventually led to the creation of the National Park Service.WEB, Filler, Daniel, Theodore Roosevelt: Conservation as the Guardian of Democracy,weblink November 9, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2003, mdy-all, While Republican President Richard Nixon was not an environmentalist, he signed legislation to create the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 and had a comprehensive environmental program.JOURNAL, Ewert, Sara Dant, July 3, 2003, Environmental Politics in the Nixon Era,weblink Journal of Policy History, 15, 3, 345–48, 1528-4190, 10.1353/jph.2003.0019, June 3, 2017,weblink August 9, 2017, live, However, this position has changed since the 1980s and the administration of President Ronald Reagan, who labeled environmental regulations a burden on the economy.JOURNAL, Dunlap, Riley E., McCright, Araon M., A Widening Gap: Republican and Democratic Views on Climate Change, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, August 7, 2010, 50, 5, 26–35, 10.3200/ENVT.50.5.26-35, Since then, Republicans have increasingly taken positions against environmental regulation, with some Republicans rejecting the scientific consensus on climate change.WEB,weblink The Republican Reversal: Conservatives and the Environment from Nixon to Trump, Turner, James Morton, Isenberg, Andrew C., 2018, Harvard University Press,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2019, live, JOURNAL, Ringquist, Evan J., Neshkova, Milena I., Aamidor, Joseph, Campaign Promises, Democratic Governance, and Environmental Policy in the U.S. Congress, The Policy Studies Journal, 2013, 41, 2, JOURNAL, Shipan, Charles R., Lowry, William R., Environmental Policy and Party Divergence in Congress, Political Research Quarterly, June 2001, 54, 2, 245–63, 449156, 10.1177/106591290105400201, File:A. Schwarzenegger.jpg|thumb|upright|Arnold Schwarzenegger, 38th Governor of CaliforniaGovernor of CaliforniaIn 2006, then-California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger broke from Republican orthodoxy to sign several bills imposing caps on carbon emissions in California. Then-President George W. Bush opposed mandatory caps at a national level. Bush's decision not to regulate carbon dioxide as a pollutant was challenged in the Supreme Court by 12 states,NEWS, Schwarzenegger takes center stage on warming,weblink July 3, 2014, MSNBC News, NBC News, September 27, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2014, live, with the court ruling against the Bush administration in 2007.[{{SCOTUS URL Slip|06|05-1120}} Text of Opinion] Bush also publicly opposed ratification of the Kyoto ProtocolsWEB, Bush, George W., Text of a Letter from the President, March 13, 2001,weblink November 9, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2009, which sought to limit greenhouse gas emissions and thereby combat climate change; his position was heavily criticized by climate scientists.JOURNAL, Schrope, Mark, Criticism mounts as Bush backs out of Kyoto accord, Nature, April 5, 2001, 410, 6829, 616, 10.1038/35070738, 11287908, 2001Natur.410..616S, File:John McCain official portrait lightened.jpg|thumb|left|upright|John McCain, United States senator from ArizonaArizonaThe Republican Party rejects cap-and-trade policy to limit carbon emissions.WEB, Our GOP: The Party of Opportunity,weblink December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2014, live, In the 2000s, Senator John McCain proposed bills (such as the McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act) that would have regulated carbon emissions, but his position on climate change was unusual among high-ranking party members. Some Republican candidates have supported the development of alternative fuels in order to achieve energy independence for the United States. Some Republicans support increased oil drilling in protected areas such as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a position that has drawn criticism from activists.NEWS, On Our Radar: Republicans Urge Opening of Arctic Refuge to Drilling, John Collins Rudolf, December 6, 2010,weblink The New York Times, December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 14, 2014, live, Many Republicans during the presidency of Barack Obama opposed his administration's new environmental regulations, such as those on carbon emissions from coal. In particular, many Republicans supported building the Keystone Pipeline; this position was supported by businesses, but opposed by indigenous peoples' groups and environmental activists.NEWS, Davenport, Coral, Republicans Vow to Fight E.P.A. and Approve Keystone Pipeline,weblink January 25, 2016, New York Times, November 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2016, live, NEWS, Levy, Gabrielle, Obama Vetoes Keystone XL, Republicans Vow to Continue Fight,weblink January 25, 2016, US News, February 24, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink February 1, 2016, live, NEWS, Keystone XL pipeline: Why is it so disputed?,weblink January 25, 2016, BBC, November 6, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2016, live, According to the Center for American Progress, a non-profit liberal advocacy group, more than 55% of congressional Republicans were climate change deniers.NEWS, Hardball With Chris Matthews, May 12, 2014, MSNBC, Matthews, Chris, Chris Matthews, According to a survey by the Center for American Progress' Action Fund, more than 55 percent of congressional Republicans are climate change deniers. And it gets worse from there. They found that 77 percent of Republicans on the House Science Committee say they don't believe it in either. And that number balloons to an astounding 90 percent for all the party's leadership in Congress., Hardball With Chris Matthews for May 12, 2014, NBC news, NEWS, Earth Talk: Still in denial about climate change, Charleston Gazette-Mail, The Charleston Gazette, Charleston, West Virginia, December 22, 2014, 10, [...] a recent survey by the non-profit Center for American Progress found that some 58 percent of Republicans in the U.S. Congress still "refuse to accept climate change. Meanwhile, still others acknowledge the existence of global warming but cling to the scientifically debunked notion that the cause is natural forces, not greenhouse gas pollution by humans., PolitiFact in May 2014 found "relatively few Republican members of Congress{{nbsp}}... accept the prevailing scientific conclusion that global warming is both real and man-made". The group found eight members who acknowledged it, although the group acknowledged there could be more and that not all members of Congress have taken a stance on the issue.NEWS, Jerry Brown says 'virtually no Republican' in Washington accepts climate change science, Julie, Kliegman, May 18, 2014, September 18, 2017, PolitiFact, Tampa Bay Times,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 13, 2017, live, NEWS, Meet the Republicans in Congress who don't believe climate change is real, Tom, McCarthy, November 17, 2014, The Guardian,weblink September 18, 2017,weblink September 19, 2017, live, From 2008 to 2017, the Republican Party went from "debating how to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist", according to The New York Times.NEWS,weblink How G.O.P. Leaders Came to View Climate Change as Fake Science, Davenport, Coral, June 3, 2017, The New York Times, September 22, 2017, Lipton, Eric, 0362-4331, The Republican Party's fast journey from debating how to combat human-caused climate change to arguing that it does not exist is a story of big political money, Democratic hubris in the Obama years and a partisan chasm that grew over nine years like a crack in the Antarctic shelf, favoring extreme positions and uncompromising rhetoric over cooperation and conciliation., Eric Lipton,weblink September 14, 2017, live, In January 2015, the Republican-led U.S. Senate voted 98–1 to pass a resolution acknowledging that "climate change is real and is not a hoax"; however, an amendment stating that "human activity significantly contributes to climate change" was supported by only five Republican senators.WEB,weblink Senate votes that climate change is real, Dustin, Weaver, January 21, 2015, TheHill, March 26, 2019,weblink March 27, 2019, live,


{{see also|Immigration to the United States|Illegal immigration to the United States}}In the period 1850–1870, the Republican Party was more opposed to immigration than Democrats, in part because the Republican Party relied on the support of anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant parties, such as the Know-Nothings, at the time. In the decades following the Civil War, the Republican Party grew more supportive of immigration, as it represented manufacturers in the Northeast (who wanted additional labor) whereas the Democratic Party came to be seen as the party of labor (which wanted fewer laborers to compete with). Starting in the 1970s, the parties switched places again, as the Democrats grew more supportive of immigration than Republicans.WEB,weblink Trading Barriers, Peters, Margaret, 2017, Princeton University Press, 154–55,weblink March 3, 2018, live, Republicans are divided on how to confront illegal immigration between a platform that allows for migrant workers and a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants (supported by establishment types), versus a position focused on securing the border and deporting illegal immigrants (supported by populists). In 2006, the White House supported and Republican-led Senate passed comprehensive immigration reform that would eventually allow millions of illegal immigrants to become citizens, but the House (also led by Republicans) did not advance the bill.NEWS, Blanton, Dana, National Exit Poll: Midterms Come Down to Iraq, Bush, Fox News, November 8, 2006,weblink January 6, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2007, After the defeat in the 2012 presidential election, particularly among Latinos, several Republicans advocated a friendlier approach to immigrants. However, in 2016 the field of candidates took a sharp position against illegal immigration, with leading candidate Donald Trump proposing building a wall along the southern border. Proposals calling for immigration reform with a path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants have attracted broad Republican support in some{{which|date=June 2016}} polls. In a 2013 poll, 60% of Republicans supported the pathway concept.NEWS, Frumin, Aliyah, Obama: 'Long past time' for immigration reform, November 25, 2013,weblink MSNBC, January 26, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink January 21, 2014, live,

Foreign policy and national defense

{{see also|History of foreign policy and national defense in the Republican Party}}File:Rumsfeld1.jpg|thumb|upright|Donald Rumsfeld, 21st United States Secretary of DefenseUnited States Secretary of DefenseSome{{who|date=February 2017}} in the Republican Party support unilateralism on issues of national security, believing in the ability and right of the United States to act without external support in matters of its national defense. In general, Republican thinking on defense and international relations is heavily influenced by the theories of neorealism and realism, characterizing conflicts between nations as struggles between faceless forces of international structure as opposed to being the result of the ideas and actions of individual leaders. The realist school's influence shows in Reagan's Evil Empire stance on the Soviet Union and George W. Bush's Axis of evil stance.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, many{{who|date=June 2016}} in the party have supported neoconservative policies with regard to the War on Terror, including the 2001 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The George W. Bush administration took the position that the Geneva Conventions do not apply to unlawful combatants, while other{{which|date=June 2016}} prominent Republicans strongly oppose the use of enhanced interrogation techniques, which they view as torture.NEWS,weblink Cruz: 'America Does Not Need Torture to Protect Ourselves', December 3, 2015, December 27, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2016, live, Republicans have frequently advocated for restricting foreign aid as a means of asserting the national security and immigration interests of the United States.NEWS, Erik Wasson, July 18, 2013,weblink House GOP unveils spending bill with $5.8B cut to foreign aid, The Hill, December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2014, live, NEWS, David Rogers, February 1, 2011, GOP seeks to slash foreign aid, Politico,weblink December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2015, live, NEWS, Mario Trujillo, July 1, 2014, Republicans propose halting foreign aid until border surge stops, The Hill,weblink December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2014, live, The Republican Party generally supports a strong alliance with Israel and efforts to secure peace in the Middle East between Israel and its Arab neighbors.NEWS, Lipton, Eric, G.O.P.'s Israel Support Deepens as Political Contributions Shift,weblink June 17, 2015, The New York Times, April 4, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2015, live, WEB,weblink Republican Platform: American Exceptionalism, Republican National Committee, June 22, 2015,weblink June 23, 2015, live, In recent years, Republicans have begun to move away from the two-state solution approach to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.WEB, O'Toole, Molly, Report How Donald Trump and the GOP Dropped the Two-State Solution for Mideast Peace,weblink Foreign Policy, March 18, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2017, live, WEB, Republicans possibly ready to reject two-state solution, Trump advisor says,weblink The Jerusalem Post, March 18, 2017,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2017, live, In a 2014 poll, 59% of Republicans favored doing less abroad and focusing on the country's own problems instead.See "July 3, 2014 – Iraq – Getting In Was Wrong; Getting Out Was Right, U.S. Voters Tell Quinnipiac University National Poll" Quinnipiac University Poll {{Webarchive|url= |date=April 2, 2016 }} item #51According to the 2016 platform,WEB,weblink[1]-ben_1468872234.pdf, Republican Platform 2016, July 20, 2016, the party's stance on the status of Taiwan is: "We oppose any unilateral steps by either side to alter the status quo in the Taiwan Straits on the principle that all issues regarding the island's future must be resolved peacefully, through dialogue, and be agreeable to the people of Taiwan". In addition, if "China were to violate those principles, the United States, in accord with the Taiwan Relations Act, will help Taiwan defend itself".

Social policies

The Republican Party is generally associated with social conservative policies, although it does have dissenting centrist and libertarian factions. The social conservatives want laws that uphold their traditional values, such as opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, and marijuana.BOOK, Zelizer, Julian E., The American Congress: The Building of Democracy,weblink 2004, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 704–05, 978-0547345505, June 17, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2015, live, Most conservative Republicans also oppose gun control, affirmative action, and illegal immigration.BOOK, Chapman, Roger, Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices,weblink 2010, M.E. Sharpe, passim, 978-0765622501, June 17, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2015, live,

Abortion and embryonic stem cell research

A majority of the party's national and state candidates are pro-life and oppose elective abortion on religious or moral grounds. While many advocate exceptions in the case of incest, rape or the mother's life being at risk, in 2012 the party approved a platform advocating banning abortions without exception.WEB, Alan Fram, Philip Elliot,weblink GOP OKs platform barring abortions, gay marriage,, August 29, 2012, December 27, 2016,weblink February 26, 2017, live, There were not highly polarized differences between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party prior to the Roe v. Wade 1973 Supreme Court ruling (which made prohibitions on abortion rights unconstitutional), but after the Supreme Court ruling, opposition to abortion became an increasingly key national platform for the Republican Party.WEB,weblink How race and religion have polarized American voters, Washington Post, en, 2018-07-15,weblink July 16, 2018, live, JOURNAL, Party hacks and true believers: The effect of party affiliation on political preferences, 2019, Journal of Comparative Economics, 10.1016/j.jce.2019.03.004, Gould, Eric D., Klor, Esteban F., As a result, Evangelicals gravitated towards the Republican Party.Most Republicans oppose government and tax-payer funding for abortion providers, notably Planned Parenthood.WEB, Bobby Jindal on the Issues,,weblink May 16, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2012, live, Until its dissolution in 2018, Republican Majority for Choice, a pro-choice PAC, advocated for amending the GOP platform to include pro-choice members.NEWS,weblink The Near-Extinction of Pro-Choice Republicans in Congress, Kilgore, Ed, Daily Intelligencer, 2018-10-10, en,weblink" title="">weblink September 20, 2018, live, Although Republicans have voted for increases in government funding of scientific research, members of the Republican Party actively oppose the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond the original lines because it involves the destruction of human embryos.Stem cells: What they are and what they do {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 6, 2013 }}. (March 23, 2013). Retrieved on July 15, 2013.Watson, Stephanie. (November 11, 2004) HowStuffWorks "Embryonic Stem Cells" {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 2, 2013 }}. Retrieved on July 15, 2013.{{Webarchive|url= |date=July 29, 2016 }} FAQs [Stem Cell Information]. Retrieved on July 15, 2013.WEB,weblink Americans and Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Newport, Frank, August 24, 2010,,weblink October 10, 2018, live,

Civil rights

Republicans are generally against affirmative action for women and some minorities, often describing it as a "quota system" and believing that it is not meritocratic and that it is counter-productive socially by only further promoting discrimination. Many{{who|date=June 2016}} Republicans support race-neutral admissions policies in universities, but support taking into account the socioeconomic status of the student.NEWS,weblink CNN, Bush criticizes university 'quota system', January 15, 2003, May 22, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 4, 2010, live, NEWS, Eilperin, Juliet, Watts Walks a Tightrope on Affirmative Action, The Washington Post, May 12, 1998,weblink January 22, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2010, live,

Gun ownership

Republicans generally support gun ownership rights and oppose laws regulating guns.{{expand section|date=March 2019}}


{{see also|Illegal drug trade in the United States}}Republicans have historically supported the War on Drugs and oppose the legalization of drugs.WEB,weblink Republican Views on Drugs {{!, Republican Views||language=en-US|access-date=May 1, 2017|archive-url=|archive-date=May 2, 2017|url-status=live}} More recently, several{{which|date=June 2016}} prominent Republicans have advocated for the reduction and reform of mandatory sentencing laws with regards to drugs.WEB, Greg Newburn, Top GOP Presidential Contenders Support Mandatory Minimum Reform, July 18, 2014,weblink Families Against Mandatory Minimums, December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink November 29, 2014, dead, mdy-all,

LGBT issues

Owing largely to the prominence of the religious right in conservative politics in the United States, the Republican Party had traditionally taken positions regarded as somewhat unwelcoming to the gay rights movement. However, President Donald Trump has expressed support for the LGBT community,WEB,weblink Trump tweets in support of LGBT people to mark Pride Month, May 31, 2019,weblink August 7, 2019, live, and the Republican party membership has begun shifting their views to express more support for same-sex marriage.WEB,weblink Republican Views on Gay Rights, March 5, 2016,weblink September 4, 2019, live, Republicans have historically opposed same-sex marriage, while being divided on civil unions and domestic partnerships, with the issue being one that many believe helped George W. Bush win re-election in 2004.NEWS,weblink Same-Sex Marriage Issue Key to Some G.O.P. Races, Dao, James, 2004-11-04, The New York Times, 2019-08-25, en-US, 0362-4331,weblink August 12, 2019, live, In both 2004NEWS,weblink Bush calls for ban on same-sex marriages, February 25, 2004,, February 3, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2009, live, and 2006,WEB,weblink Bush urges federal marriage amendment, June 6, 2006, NBC News, February 3, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink April 8, 2016, live, President Bush, Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, and House Majority Leader John Boehner promoted the Federal Marriage Amendment, a proposed constitutional amendment which would legally restrict the definition of marriage to heterosexual couples.NEWS,weblink Bush Backs Ban in Constitution on Gay Marriage, Stout, David, 2004-02-24, The New York Times, 2018-12-17, en-US, 0362-4331,weblink December 17, 2018, live, NEWS,weblink Gay Marriage Amendment Fails in Senate, The Washington Post and Times-Herald, Murray, Shailagh, 2006-06-08, 2018-12-17, en-US, 0190-8286,weblink" title="">weblink March 8, 2019, live, WEB,weblink Constitutional Amendment on Marriage Fails, 2015-03-25, Fox News, en-US, 2018-12-17,weblink December 17, 2018, live, In both attempts, the amendment failed to secure enough votes to invoke cloture and thus ultimately was never passed. As more states legalized same-sex marriage in the 2010s, Republicans increasingly supported allowing each state to decide its own marriage policy.WEB,weblink A Shifting Landscape, 2003,, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink April 17, 2016, live, As of 2014, most state GOP platforms expressed opposition to same-sex marriage.WEB,weblink Majority Of State GOP Platforms Still Anti-Gay, Amanda Terkel, 2014-05-05, HuffPost, en, 2019-08-24,weblink August 24, 2019, live, The 2016 GOP Platform included language supporting "traditional marriage" and condemning the Supreme Court's ruling legalizing same-sex marriages.WEB,weblink Read the Republican Platform on Hot-Button Issues, Time, en, 2019-08-24,weblink August 4, 2019, live, However, public opinion on this issue within the party has been changing.WEB,weblink Slowly but surely, Republicans are coming around to same-sex marriage, Lopez, German, June 26, 2017, Vox (website), Vox,weblink May 11, 2019, live, May 11, 2019, Following his election as President of the United States in 2016, President-elect Donald Trump stated that he had no objection to same-sex marriage or to the Supreme Court decision in Obergefell v. Hodges. As President, Donald Trump was the first sitting Republican president to recognize LGBT Pride Month.WEB,weblink Trump recognizes LGBTQ pride month in tweets, NBC News, en, 2019-08-25,weblink August 3, 2019, live, The Republican Party platform had opposed the inclusion of gay people in the military had opposed adding sexual orientation to the list of protected classes since 1992.NEWS,weblink A DELICATE BALANCE: The Gay Vote; Gay Rights and AIDS Emerging As Divisive Issues in Campaign, Schmalz, Jeffrey, 1992-08-20, The New York Times, 2019-08-24, en-US, 0362-4331,weblink August 24, 2019, live, WEB,weblink GOP platform through the years shows party's shift from moderate to conservative, Fisher, Marc, August 28, 2012, The Washington Post,weblink August 24, 2019, live, WEB,weblink What Republicans and Democrats have disagreed on, from 1856 to today, Mellnik, Ted, Alcantara, Chris, July 15, 2016, The Washington Post,weblink November 14, 2017, live, Uhrmacher, Kevin, The Republican Party opposed the inclusion of sexual preference in anti-discrimination statutes from 1992 to 2004.WEB,weblink Republican Party Platforms: Republican Party Platform of 1992,, August 17, 1992, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2017, live, The 2008 and 2012 Republican Party platform supported anti-discrimination statutes based on sex, race, age, religion, creed, disability, or national origin, but both platforms were silent on sexual orientation and gender identity.WEB,weblink Layout 1,, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink July 30, 2014, live, WEB,weblink Republican Party Platforms: 2008 Republican Party Platform,, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink January 28, 2017, live, A group of LGBT Republicans is the Log Cabin Republicans.WEB,weblink Jerri Ann Henry first woman ever named as Log Cabin executive director, November 13, 2018, May 11, 2019,weblink May 11, 2019, live,

Voting rights

Virtually all restrictions on voting have in recent years been implemented by Republicans. Republicans, mainly at the state level, argue that the restrictions (such as purging voter rolls, limiting voting locations and prosecuting double voting) are vital to prevent voter fraud, claiming that voter fraud is an underestimated issue in elections. However, research has indicated that voter fraud is very uncommon, as civil and voting rights organizations often accuse Republicans of enacting restrictions to influence elections in the party's favor. Many laws or regulations restricting voting enacted by Republicans have been successfully challenged in court, with court rulings striking down such regulations and accusing Republicans of establishing them with partisan purpose.NEWS,weblink 'They Don't Really Want Us to Vote': How Republicans Made it Harder, 2018-11-04, en,weblink November 4, 2018, live, MAGAZINE,weblink The big conservative lie on 'voter fraud', 23 October 2018, The Week, 27 December 2018,weblink December 28, 2018, live,


{{POV section|date=March 2019}}Towards the end of the 1990s and in the early 21st century, the Republican Party increasingly resorted to "constitutional hardball" practices.WEB,weblink The Wisconsin power grab is part of a bigger Republican attack on democracy, Beauchamp, Zack, 2018-12-06, Vox, 2018-12-11,weblink December 15, 2018, live, BOOK,weblink How to Save a Constitutional Democracy, Ginsburg, Tom, Huq, Aziz, University of Chicago Press, 2019, 126–27, December 13, 2018,weblink December 15, 2018, live, A number of scholars have asserted that the House speakership of Republican Newt Gingrich played a key role in undermining democratic norms in the United States, hastening political polarization, and increasing partisan prejudice.BOOK,weblink Uncivil Agreement, Mason, Lililana, University of Chicago Press, 2018, October 6, 2018,weblink October 18, 2018, live, BOOK,weblink The Polarizers, Rosenfeld, Sam, University of Chicago Press, 2017, December 11, 2018,weblink November 15, 2018, live, BOOK,weblink The Gingrich Senators: The Roots of Partisan Warfare in Congress, Theriault, Sean M., 2013-05-23, Oxford University Press, 978-0199307456, Oxford, New York, December 11, 2018,weblink November 22, 2018, live, BOOK,weblink It's Even Worse Than It Looks, Mann, Thomas, Ornstein, Norman, Basic Books, 2016, en-US, December 11, 2018,weblink October 6, 2018, live, WEB,weblink How Democracies Die,, en-US, 2018-10-06,weblink December 11, 2018, live, BOOK,weblink American Amnesia, Hacker, Jacob, Pierson, Paul, 2017-02-14, 978-1451667837, en, December 11, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink November 18, 2018, live, {{Citation|last=Buhl|first=Geoffrey W.|title=Appropriations to the Extreme: Partisanship and the Power of the Purse|date=2013|work=Politics to the Extreme|pages=3–21|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan US|language=en|doi=10.1057/9781137312761_1|isbn=978-1137361424|last2=Frisch|first2=Scott A.|last3=Kelly|first3=Sean Q.}}{{Citation|last=Dodd|first=Lawrence C.|title=Taking Incivility Seriously|date=2013|work=Politics to the Extreme|pages=71–91|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan US|language=en|doi=10.1057/9781137312761_4|isbn=978-1137361424|last2=Schraufnagel|first2=Scot}}{{Citation|last=Harris|first=Douglas B.|title=Let's Play Hardball|date=2013|work=Politics to the Extreme|pages=93–115|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan US|language=en|doi=10.1057/9781137312761_5|isbn=978-1137361424}}NEWS,weblink Asymmetrical Constitutional Hardball, Joseph Fishkin & David E. Pozen, Columbia Law Review, 2018-10-08, en-US,weblink January 19, 2019, live, BOOK, Red Fighting Blue, Hopkins, David A., 2017, Cambridge University Press, 978-1108123594, Cambridge, 156–57, 158–62, en, 10.1017/9781108123594, According to Harvard University political scientists Daniel Ziblatt and Steven Levitsky, Gingrich's speakership had a profound and lasting impact on American politics and health of American democracy. They argue that Gingrich instilled a "combative" approach in the Republican Party, where hateful language and hyper-partisanship became commonplace, and where democratic norms were abandoned. Gingrich frequently questioned the patriotism of Democrats, called them corrupt, compared them to fascists, and accused them of wanting to destroy the United States. Gingrich was also involved in several major government shutdowns.NEWS,weblink How a Democracy Dies, The New Republic, 2018-04-12, en-US,weblink December 11, 2018, live, NEWS,weblink 'How Democracies Die' Authors Say Trump Is A Symptom Of 'Deeper Problems',, 2018-04-12, en,weblink December 8, 2018, live, NEWS,weblink The rising pressures on American democracy, 2018-01-29, Harvard Gazette, 2018-04-12, en-US,weblink November 30, 2018, live, Scholars have also characterized Mitch McConnell's tenure as Senate Minority Leader and Senate Majority Leader during the Obama presidency as one where obstructionism reached all-time highs.BOOK, The Senate Syndrome: The Evolution of Procedural Warfare in the Modern U.S. Senate, Smith, Steven, University of Oklahoma Press, 2014, 287, Political scientists have referred to McConnell's use of the filibuster as "constitutional hardball", referring to the misuse of procedural tools in a way that undermines democracy.WEB,weblink Republicans in Wisconsin and Michigan want to weaken incoming Democratic governors. Here's what's the usual partisan politics – and what isn't., Glassman, Matt, 2018, Washington Post,weblink December 11, 2018, live, McConnell delayed and obstructed health care reform and banking reform, which were two landmark pieces of legislation that Democrats sought to pass (and in fact did passNEWS,weblink Obama Signs Overhaul of Financial System, Helene, Cooper, July 21, 2010,, March 29, 2019,weblink March 29, 2019, live, ) early in Obama's tenure.BOOK,weblink Party and Procedure in the United States Congress, Second Edition, Koger, Gregory, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 223, en-us, December 11, 2018,weblink October 11, 2018, live, JOURNAL, Schickler, Eric, Wawro, Gregory J., January 3, 2011, What the Filibuster Tells Us About the Senate,weblink The Forum, en, 9, 4, 10.2202/1540-8884.1483, 1540-8884, December 11, 2018,weblink October 12, 2018, live, By delaying Democratic priority legislation, McConnell stymied the output of Congress. Political scientists Eric Schickler and Gregory J. Wawro write, "by slowing action even on measures supported by many Republicans, McConnell capitalized on the scarcity of floor time, forcing Democratic leaders into difficult trade-offs concerning which measures were worth pursuing. That is, given that Democrats had just two years with sizeable majorities to enact as much of their agenda as possible, slowing the Senate's ability to process even routine measures limited the sheer volume of liberal bills that could be adopted."McConnell's refusal to hold hearings on Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland during the final year of Obama's presidency was described by political scientists and legal scholars as "unprecedented",BOOK,weblink The Trump Presidency: Outsider in the Oval Office, Rowman & Littlefield, 2017, 71, en-us, December 11, 2018,weblink October 11, 2018, live, WEB,weblink Constitutional Hardball vs. Beanball: Identifying Fundamentally Antidemocratic Tactics, Handelsman Shugerman, Jed, Columbia Law Review, en,weblink May 30, 2019, live, 2019-05-30, a "culmination of this confrontational style",BOOK,weblink The Obama Presidency and the Politics of Change, 55, 62, en, December 11, 2018,weblink November 30, 2018, live, a "blatant abuse of constitutional norms",WEB,weblink The People vs. Democracy, Mounk, Yascha,, Harvard University Press, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink November 27, 2018, live, and a "classic example of constitutional hardball." Senate Republicans justified this move by pointing to a 1992 speech from then-Senate Judiciary Committee Chair Joe Biden;NEWS, Hirschfeld Davis, Julie, Joe Biden Argued for Delaying Supreme Court Picks in 1992,weblink The New York Times, March 30, 2019,weblink March 30, 2019, live, WEB,weblink What Happened With Merrick Garland In 2016 And Why It Matters Now,, March 31, 2019,weblink April 2, 2019, live, in that speech, Biden argued that hearings on any potential Supreme Court nominee that year should be postponed until after Election Day.WEB, Wheaton, Sarah, Biden in '92: No election-season Supreme Court nominees,weblink Politico, March 30, 2019, February 22, 2016,weblink March 30, 2019, live, Biden contested this interpretation of his 1992 speech.


File:2004 Presidential Election by County.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|This map shows the vote in the 2004 presidential election by county.{{efn|group=upper-alpha|All major Republican geographic constituencies are visible: red dominates the map—showing Republican strength in the rural areas—while the denser areas (i.e. cities) are blue. Notable exceptions include the Pacific coast, New England, the Black Belt, areas with high Native American populations and the (:File:New 2000 hispanic percent.gif|heavily Hispanic) parts of the Southwest}}]]File:2016 Presidential Election by County.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.25|This map shows the vote in the 2016 presidential election by county.{{efn|group=upper-alpha|Similar to the 2004 map, Republicans dominate in rural areas, making improvements in the Appalachian states, namely Kentucky, where the party won all but two counties; and West Virginia, where every county in the state voted Republican. The party also improved in many rural counties in Iowa, Wisconsin and other Midwestern states. Contrarily, the party suffered substantial losses in urbanized areas such Dallas, Harris and Fort Bend counties in Texas and Orange and San Diego counties in CaliforniaCaliforniaIn the Party's infancy, its base consisted of Northern white Protestants and African Americans nationwide. Its first presidential candidate, John C. Frémont, received almost no votes in the South. This trend continued into the 20th century. Following the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Southern states became more reliably Republican in presidential politics, while Northeastern states became more reliably Democratic.WEB,weblink Race, Campaign Politics, and the Realignment in the South,, June 9, 2018,weblink June 5, 2019, live, JOURNAL, Bullock, Charles S., Hoffman, Donna R., Gaddie, Ronald Keith, 2006, Regional Variations in the Realignment of American Politics, 1944–2004, Social Science Quarterly, 87, 3, 494–518, 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2006.00393.x, 0038-4941, The events of 1964 laid open the divisions between the South and national Democrats and elicited distinctly different voter behavior in the two regions. The agitation for civil rights by southern blacks, continued white violence toward the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson's aggressive leadership all facilitated passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. [...] In the South, 1964 should be associated with GOP growth while in the Northeast this election contributed to the eradication of Republicans., JOURNAL, Gaddie, Ronald Keith, February 17, 2012, Realignment,weblink Oxford Handbooks Online, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195381948.013.0013, June 9, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2018, live, JOURNAL, Stanley, Harold W., 1988, Southern Partisan Changes: Dealignment, Realignment or Both?, The Journal of Politics, 50, 1, 64–88, 10.2307/2131041, 0022-3816, Events surrounding the presidential election of 1964 marked a watershed in terms of the parties and the South (Pomper, 1972). The Solid South was built around the identification of the Democratic party with the cause of white supremacy. Events before 1964 gave white southerners pause about the linkage between the Democratic party and white supremacy, but the 1964 election, passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 altered in the minds of most the positions of the national parties on racial issues., 2131041, JOURNAL, Miller, Gary, Schofield, Norman, 2008, The Transformation of the Republican and Democratic Party Coalitions in the U.S., Perspectives on Politics, 6, 3, 433–50, 10.1017/S1537592708081218, 1541-0986, 1964 was the last presidential election in which the Democrats earned more than 50 percent of the white vote in the United States., WEB,weblink The Rise of Southern Republicans – Earl Black, Merle Black,, Harvard University Press, June 9, 2018, When the Republican party nominated Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater—one of the few northern senators who had opposed the Civil Rights Act—as their presidential candidate in 1964, the party attracted many racist southern whites but permanently alienated African-American voters. Beginning with the Goldwater-versus-Johnson campaign more southern whites voted Republican than Democratic, a pattern that has recurred in every subsequent presidential election. [...] Before the 1964 presidential election the Republican party had not carried any Deep South state for eighty-eight years. Yet shortly after Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, hundreds of Deep South counties gave Barry Goldwater landslide majorities.,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2018, live, WEB,weblink Issue Evolution, Princeton University Press, June 9, 2018,weblink May 16, 2018, live, JOURNAL, Miller, Gary, Schofield, Norman, 2003, Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States, American Political Science Review, 97, 2, 245–60, 10.1017/S0003055403000650, 1537-5943, By 2000, however, the New Deal party alignment no longer captured patterns of partisan voting. In the intervening 40 years, the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts had triggered an increasingly race-driven distinction between the parties. [...] Goldwater won the electoral votes of five states of the Deep South in 1964, four of them states that had voted Democratic for 84 years (Califano 1991, 55). He forged a new identification of the Republican party with racial conservatism, reversing a century-long association of the GOP with racial liberalism. This in turn opened the door for Nixon's "Southern strategy" and the Reagan victories of the eighties., Studies show that Southern whites shifted to the Republican Party due to racial conservatism.JOURNAL, Valentino, Nicholas A., Sears, David O., David O. Sears, 2005, Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South, American Journal of Political Science, 49, 3, 672–88, 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00136.x, 0092-5853, Nicholas Valentino, JOURNAL, Ilyana, Kuziemko, Ebonya, Washington, Why Did the Democrats Lose the South? Bringing New Data to an Old Debate,weblink American Economic Review, 10.1257/aer.20161413&&from=f, 0002-8282, June 9, 2018, 2019-07-28,weblink June 12, 2018, live, The Party's 21st-century base consists of groups such as white, married Protestants, rural and suburban citizens and non-union workers without college degrees, with urban residents, ethnic minorities, the unmarried and union workers having shifted to the Democratic Party.NEWS,weblink The Evolution of the Republican Party Voter, Barone, Michael, August 26, 2012, April 17, 2013, The Wall Street Journal, Michael Barone (pundit),weblink" title="">weblink March 27, 2015, live, According to a 2015 Gallup poll, 25% of Americans identify as Republican and 16% identify as leaning Republican. In comparison, 30% identify as Democratic and 16% identify as leaning Democratic. The Democratic Party has typically held an overall edge in party identification since Gallup began polling on the issue in 1991.WEB,weblink Democrats Regain Edge in Party Affiliation, Gallup, Inc.,, July 3, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2015, live, In 2016, The New York Times noted that the Republican Party was strong in the South, the Great Plains, and the Mountain States.NEWS,weblink Opinion - The Divided States of America, Lee, Drutman, September 22, 2016,, March 7, 2019,weblink March 8, 2019, live, The 21st century Republican Party also draws strength from rural areas of the United States.WEB,weblink Can Democrats ever win back white, rural America?, Chris, McGreal, November 11, 2018,, March 7, 2019,weblink March 8, 2019, live,

Ideology and factions

In a 2015 Gallup poll, 42% of Republicans and Republican-leaning independents identified as economically and socially conservative, followed by 24% as socially and economically moderate or liberal, 20% as socially moderate or liberal and fiscally conservative and 10% as socially conservative and fiscally moderate or liberal.WEB,weblink Republican Conservative Base Shrinks, Gallup, Inc.,, July 3, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2015, live, When ideology is separated into social and economic issues, a 2015 Gallup poll found that 53% of Republicans called themselves "socially conservative", 34% chose the label "socially moderate", and 11% called themselves "socially liberal".NEWS,weblink On Social Ideology, the Left Catches Up to the Right, Inc., Gallup,, 2018-08-06, en-us,weblink August 6, 2018, live, On economic issues, the same 2015 poll revealed that 64% of Republicans chose the label "economic conservative" to describe their views on fiscal policy, while 27% selected the label "economic moderate" and 7% opted for the "economic liberal" label.The modern Republican Party includes conservatives, centrists, fiscal conservatives, libertarians, neoconservatives, paleoconservatives,BOOK, Gregory, Schneider, NYU Press, Conservatism in America Since 1930: A Reader, 2003, 387, right-wing populists,WEB,weblink Donald Trump is Transforming the G.O.P. Into a Populist, Nativist Party, Cassidy, John, The New Yorker, February 29, 2016, July 22, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2016, live, and social conservatives.WEB,weblink Social conservatives win on GOP platform, Bernie, Becker, POLITICO, March 13, 2019,weblink March 29, 2019, live, WEB,weblink Republican Party, History com, Editors, HISTORY, March 13, 2019,weblink March 29, 2019, live, In 2018, Gallup polling found that 69% of Republicans described themselves as "conservative", while 25% opted for the term "moderate" and another 5% self-identified as "liberal".NEWS,weblink Conservative Lead in U.S. Ideology Is Down to Single Digits, Inc., Gallup,, 2018-08-06, en-us,weblink August 6, 2018, live, File:Ron Paul, official Congressional photo portrait, 2007.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Ron Paul, United States Representative from TexasTexasIn addition to splits over ideology, the 21st-century Republican Party can be broadly divided into establishment and anti-establishment wings.WEB,weblink Limbaugh: GOP establishment 'can't afford' to have Trump succeed with agenda, Julia, Manchester, September 28, 2017, TheHill, March 16, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink August 20, 2018, live, WEB,weblink Trail Translator: Going after 'The Establishment', Nancy, Benac, AP NEWS, May 2, 2019,weblink May 2, 2019, live, Nationwide polls of Republican voters in 2014 by the Pew Center identified a growing split in the Republican coalition, between "business conservatives" or "establishment conservatives" on one side and "steadfast conservatives" or "populist conservatives" on the other.Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, "Beyond Red vs. Blue: The Political Typology" {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 29, 2014 }}, June 26, 2014.

Talk radio

In the 21st century, conservatives on talk radio and Fox News, as well as such outlets as the Drudge Report and Breitbart News, became a powerful influence on shaping the information received, and the judgments made both by rank-and-file Republicans and by President Trump.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} They include Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Larry Elder, Glenn Beck, Mark Levin, Dana Loesch, Hugh Hewitt, Mike Gallagher, Neal Boortz, Laura Ingraham, Dennis Prager, Michael Reagan, Howie Carr and Michael Savage, as well as many local commentators who support Republican causes while vocally opposing the left.BOOK, Robert E. Gutsche Jr., The Trump Presidency, Journalism, and Democracy,weblink 2018, Taylor & Francis, 167, 9781351392013, Kenneth J. Heineman, The Rise of Contemporary Conservatism in the United States (2019) pp 123-26.Jason Schwartz, "Fox adds another pro-Trump host: Mark Levin gives the network one more fierce defender of the president, protecting its flank from alt-right competitors" Politico Nov 21, 2017 {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 30, 2019 }}Jason Schwartz, "Rush Limbaugh roars back: He's been overshadowed by Sean Hannity and Fox News in the Trump era, but the legendary radio host is back to flexing major muscle" Politic Dec. 21, 2018 {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 30, 2019 }}

Business community

The Republican Party has traditionally been a pro-business party. It garners major support from a wide variety of industries from the financial sector to small businesses. Republicans are about 50 percent more likely to be self-employed and are more likely to work in management.Fried, pp. 104–05, 125.{{clarify|date=March 2019}}A survey cited by The Washington Post in 2012 stated that 61 percent of small business owners planned to vote for Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. Small business became a major theme of the 2012 Republican National Convention.NEWS,weblink Small business a common theme at Republican Convention, The Washington Post, J. D., Harrison, August 30, 2012, April 17, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 28, 2013, mdy-all,


The Democrats do better among younger Americans and Republicans among older Americans.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} In 2006, Republicans won 38% of the voters aged 18–29.Low-income voters tend to favor the DemocratsWEB,weblink Economic Demographics of Democrats & Liberals – Politics & Debt,, en-US, 2019-03-15,weblink March 30, 2019, live, while high-income voters tend to support the Republicans. In 2012, Obama won 60% of voters with income under $50,000 and 45% of those with incomes higher than that.WEB,weblink Election Results – 2012 Election Center, CNN, December 27, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 26, 2016, mdy-all, Bush won 41% of the poorest 20% of voters in 2004, 55% of the richest twenty percent and 53% of those in between. In the 2006 House races, the voters with incomes over $50,000 were 49% Republican while those with incomes under that amount were 38% Republican.


Since 1980, a "gender gap" has seen stronger support for the Republican Party among men than among women. In 2012, Obama won 55% of the women and 45% of the men—and more women voted than men. In the 2006 House races, 43% of women voted Republican while 47% of men did so.NEWS, Exit Polls, CNN,weblink November 7, 2006, November 18, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2007, live, In the 2010 midterms, the "gender gap" was reduced with women supporting Republican and Democratic candidates equally 49% to 49%.NEWS,weblink Exit Poll Analysis: Vote 2010 Elections Results, ABC News, November 2, 2010, January 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2011, live, NEWS, Weeks, Linton,weblink 10 Takeaways From The 2010 Midterms, NPR, November 3, 2010, January 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink February 3, 2011, live, Unmarried and divorced women were far more likely to vote for John Kerry in 2004."Unmarried Women in the 2004 Presidential Election" {{webarchive|url=|date=January 1, 2016}} (PDF). Report by Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research, January 2005. p. 3: "The marriage gap is one of the most important cleavages in electoral politics. Unmarried women voted for Kerry by a 25-point margin (62 to 37 percent), while married women voted for President Bush by an 11-point margin (55 percent to 44 percent). Indeed, the 25-point margin Kerry posted among unmarried women represented one of the high water marks for the Senator among all demographic groups." WEB,weblink Archived copy, November 23, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 1, 2016, mdy-all, The 2012 returns revealed a continued weakness among unmarried women for the GOP, a large and growing portion of the electorate.NEWS,weblink Republicans should worry that unmarried women shun them, December 14, 2013, The Economist, September 18, 2019,weblink January 15, 2018, live, Although women supported Obama over Mitt Romney by a margin of 55–44% in 2012, Romney prevailed amongst married women, 53–46%.NEWS, December 3, 2012, The Marriage Gap in the Women's Vote, Meg T. McDonnell,weblink Crisis Magazine, December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2014, live, Obama won unmarried women 67–31%.NEWS, Suzanne Goldenberg, November 9, 2012, Single women voted overwhelmingly in favour of Obama, researchers find, The Guardian,weblink December 11, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink December 31, 2014, live,


In 2012, the Pew Research Center conducted a study of registered voters with a 35–28, Democrat-to-Republican gap. They found that self-described Democrats had a +8 advantage over Republicans among college graduates, +14 of all post-graduates polled. Republicans were +11 among white men with college degrees, Democrats +10 among women with degrees. Democrats accounted for 36% of all respondents with an education of high school or less and Republicans were 28%. When isolating just white registered voters polled, Republicans had a +6 advantage overall and were +9 of those with a high school education or less.WEB,weblink Detailed Party Identification Tables, Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, October 25, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2012, live, Following the 2016 presidential election, exit polls indicated that "Donald Trump attracted a large share of the vote from whites without a college degree, receiving 72 percent of the white non-college male vote and 62 percent of the white non-college female vote". Overall, 52% of voters with college degrees voted for Hillary Clinton in 2016, while 52% of voters without college degrees voted for Trump.WEB,weblink The educational rift in the 2016 election, William A. Galston and Clara, Hendrickson, November 18, 2016, March 7, 2019,weblink March 8, 2019, live,


Republicans have been winning under 15% of the black vote in recent national elections (1980 to 2016). The party abolished slavery under Abraham Lincoln, defeated the Slave Power and gave blacks the legal right to vote during Reconstruction in the late 1860s. Until the New Deal of the 1930s, blacks supported the Republican Party by large margins.In the South, they were often not allowed to vote, but still received some Federal patronage appointments from the Republicans Black voters shifted to the Democratic Party beginning in the 1930s, when major Democratic figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt began to support civil rights and the New Deal offered them employment opportunities. They became one of the core components of the New Deal coalition. In the South, after the Voting Rights Act to prohibit racial discrimination in elections was passed by a bipartisan coalition in 1965, blacks were able to vote again and ever since have formed a significant portion (20–50%) of the Democratic vote in that region.Harvard Sitkoff, A New Deal for Blacks (1978).In the 2010 elections, two African-American Republicans--Tim Scott and Allen West—were elected to the House of Representatives.NEWS, L. A. Holmes,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, November 4, 2010, Black Republicans Win First Congress Seats Since 2003,, April 7, 2010, January 30, 2011, In recent decades, Republicans have been moderately successful in gaining support from Hispanic and Asian American voters. George W. Bush, who campaigned energetically for Hispanic votes, received 35% of their vote in 2000 and 44% in 2004.NEWS, Exit Polls, CNN,weblink November 2, 2004, November 18, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink April 21, 2006, live, The party's strong anti-communist stance has made it popular among some minority groups from current and former Communist states, in particular Cuban Americans, Korean Americans, Chinese Americans and Vietnamese Americans. The 2007 election of Bobby Jindal as Governor of Louisiana was hailed as pathbreaking.NEWS,weblink Americas | Profile: Bobby Jindal, BBC News, February 25, 2009, May 16, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink November 2, 2010, live, Jindal became the first elected minority governor in Louisiana and the first state governor of Indian descent.NEWS,weblink Bobby Jindal may become first Indian-American to be US prez, Deccan Herald, October 23, 2009, May 16, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 2010, live, According to John Avlon, in 2013, the Republican party was more ethnically diverse at the statewide elected official level than the Democratic Party was; GOP statewide elected officials included Latino Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and African-American U.S. senator Tim Scott of South Carolina.NEWS, GOP's surprising edge on diversity, John Avlon,weblink CNN, January 18, 2013, January 22, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2013, live, In 2012, 88% of Romney voters were white while 56% of Obama voters were white.Tom Scocca, "Eighty-Eight Percent of Romney Voters Were White", Slate November 7, 2012 {{Webarchive|url= |date=July 6, 2015 }} In the 2008 presidential election, John McCain won 55% of white votes, 35% of Asian votes, 31% of Hispanic votes and 4% of African American votes."Dissecting the 2008 Electorate: Most Diverse in U.S. History" {{webarchive|url=|date=June 18, 2012}}. Pew Research Center. April 30, 2009. In the 2010 House election, Republicans won 60% of the white votes, 38% of Hispanic votes and 9% of the African American vote.WEB, The Latino Vote in the 2010 Elections, Pew Research Center, November 3, 2010,weblink January 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink February 5, 2011, dead, mdy-all, As of 2019, Republican candidates had lost the popular vote in six out of the last seven presidential elections.WEB,weblink Archived copy, September 14, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink September 11, 2019, live, Demographers have pointed to the steady decline (as a percentage of the eligible voters) of its core base of older, less educated men.WEB,weblink Republicans And Democrats Should Be Worried About 2020, Perry Bacon, Jr, April 20, 2018, September 20, 2018,weblink September 20, 2018, live, NEWS,weblink Republicans try to save their deteriorating party with another push for a carbon tax, Dana, Nuccitelli, July 2, 2018,, The Guardian, September 20, 2018,weblink September 20, 2018, live, WEB,weblink The Democratic Party is facing a demographic crisis, Musa, al-Gharbi, The Conversation, March 4, 2019,weblink" title="">weblink March 30, 2019, live, WEB,weblink Why Voter Demographics in U.S. Elections Matter Now More Than Ever, Ronald, Brownstein, May 31, 2017, The Atlantic, September 20, 2018,weblink September 20, 2018, live,

Religious beliefs

Religion has always played a major role for both parties, but in the course of a century, the parties' religious compositions have changed. Religion was a major dividing line between the parties before 1960, with Catholics, Jews, and Southern Protestants heavily Democratic and Northeastern Protestants heavily Republican. Most of the old differences faded away after the realignment of the 1970s and 1980s that undercut the New Deal coalition.To some extent the United States Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade caused American Christians to blur their historical division along the line between Catholics and Protestants and instead to realign as conservatives or liberals, irrespective of the Reformation Era distinction. Voters who attend church weekly gave 61% of their votes to Bush in 2004 and those who attend occasionally gave him only 47% while those who never attend gave him 36%. Fifty-nine percent of Protestants voted for Bush, along with 52% of Catholics (even though John Kerry was Catholic). Since 1980, large majorities of evangelicals have voted Republican; 70–80% voted for Bush in 2000 and 2004 and 70% for Republican House candidates in 2006. Jews continue to vote 70–80% Democratic. Democrats have close links with the African American churches, especially the National Baptists, while their historic dominance among Catholic voters has eroded to 54–46 in the 2010 midterms.WEB,weblink Religion in the 2010 Elections, Pew Research Center, November 3, 2010, January 30, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2011, dead, mdy-all, The main line traditional Protestants (Methodists, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Disciples) have dropped to about 55% Republican (in contrast to 75% before 1968). The mainline denominations are rapidly shrinking in size. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Utah and neighboring states voted 75% or more for Bush in 2000.BOOK, Grover Norquist, Leave Us Alone: Getting the Government's Hands Off Our Money, Our Guns, Our Lives,weblink 2008, HarperCollins, 146–49, 978-0061133954, The Democratic Obama administration's support for requiring institutions related to the Roman Catholic Church to cover birth control and abortion in employee health insurance has further moved traditionalist Catholics toward the Republicans.While Catholic Republican leaders try to stay in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church on subjects such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem cell research and same-sex marriage, they differ on the death penalty and contraception.NEWS, Lee,weblink Pope hands GOP climate change dilemma, CNN, June 18, 2015, July 3, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2015, live, Pope Francis' 2015 encyclical Laudato si' sparked a discussion on the positions of Catholic Republicans in relation to the positions of the Church. The Pope's encyclical on behalf of the Catholic Church officially acknowledges a man-made climate change caused by burning fossil fuels., Thomas Reese, "A readers' guide to 'Laudato Si'" {{Webarchive|url= |date=June 30, 2015 }}, National Catholic Register, June 26, 2015. The Pope says the warming of the planet is rooted in a throwaway culture and the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet in pursuit of short-term economic gains. According to The New York Times, Laudato si' put pressure on the Catholic candidates in the 2016 election: Jeb Bush, Bobby Jindal, Marco Rubio and Rick Santorum.NEWS, Caral, Davenport,weblink Pope's Views on Climate Change Add Pressure to Catholic Candidates, The New York Times, June 16, 2015, February 18, 2017,weblink May 19, 2017, live, With leading Democrats praising the encyclical, James Bretzke, a professor of moral theology at Boston College, has said that both sides were being disingenuous: "I think it shows that both the Republicans and the Democrats{{nbsp}}... like to use religious authority and, in this case, the Pope to support positions they have arrived at independently{{nbsp}}... There is a certain insincerity, a hypocrisy I think, on both sides".WEB, Brian Fraga,weblink Political Role Reversal: Democrats Praise Encyclical, While GOP Remains Cautious,, June 26, 2015, December 27, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2017, live, While a Pew Research poll indicates Catholics are more likely to believe the Earth is warming than non-Catholics, 51% of Catholic Republicans believe in global warming (less than the general population) and only 24% of Catholic Republicans believe global warming is caused by human activity.NEWS, Catholics Divided Over Global Warming, Pew Research,weblink June 16, 2015, July 6, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink July 8, 2015, live,

Republican presidents

As of 2018, there have been a total of 19 Republican presidents.{|class="sortable wikitable"!style="text-align:center;"|#!style="text-align:center;"|President!style="text-align:center;"|Portrait!style="text-align:center;"|State!style="text-align:center;"|Presidencystart date!style="text-align:center;"|Presidencyend date!style="text-align:center;"|Time in office style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|1665px)|Illinois|March 4, 1861name=died|Died in office.}}186144|15}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|1865px)|Ohio|March 4, 1869|March 4, 1877186943|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|1965px)|Ohio|March 4, 1877|March 4, 1881187743|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2065px)|Ohio|March 4, 1881name=died|Died in office.}}188149|19}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2165px)New York (state)>New York|September 19, 1881|March 4, 18851881193|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2365px)|Indiana|March 4, 1889|March 4, 1893188943|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2565px)|Ohio|March 4, 1897name=died|Died in office.}}189749|14}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2665px)New York (state)>New York|September 14, 1901|March 4, 19091901143|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2765px)|Ohio|March 4, 1909|March 4, 1913190943|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|2965px)|Ohio|March 4, 1921name=died|Died in office.}}192148|2}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|3065px)|Massachusetts|August 2, 1923|March 4, 1929192323|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|3165px)|Iowa|March 4, 1929|March 4, 1933192943|4}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|3465px)|Kansas|January 20, 1953|January 20, 19611953201|20}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|3765px)|California|January 20, 1969Resigned from office.}}1969208|9}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|3865px)|Michigan|August 9, 1974|January 20, 1977197491|20}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|4065px)|California|January 20, 1981|January 20, 19891981201|20}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|4165px)|Texas|January 20, 1989|January 20, 19931989201|20}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|4365px)|Texas|January 20, 2001|January 20, 20092001201|20}} style="text-align:left; background:#fff;"|4565px)New York (state)>New York|January 20, 2017|Incumbent201720}}

Electoral history

In congressional elections: 1950–present

{{see also|Party divisions of United States Congresses}}{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}{|class=wikitable|+United StatesHouse of Representatives!Election year!No. ofoverall seats won!+/–!Presidency{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1950199hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 28|Harry S. Truman{{Party shading/Republican}}!1952221hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 22Dwight D. Eisenhower{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1954203hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 18{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1956201hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1958153hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 48{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1960175hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 22John F. Kennedy{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1962176hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1964140hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 36Lyndon B. Johnson{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1966187hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 47!1968 {{Composition bar435|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 5Richard Nixon{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1970180hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 12{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1972192hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 12!1974{{Composition bar435|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}} 48Gerald Ford{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1976143hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1Jimmy Carter{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1978158hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 15!1980 {{Composition bar435|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 34Ronald Reagan{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1982166hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 26{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1984182hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 16{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1986177hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5!1988 {{Composition bar435|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 2George H. W. Bush{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1990167hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 8{{Party shading/Democratic}}!1992176hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 9Bill Clinton{{Party shading/Republican}}!1994230hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 54{{Party shading/Republican}}!1996227hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 3{{Party shading/Republican}}!1998223hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 4{{Party shading/Republican}}!2000221hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2George W. Bush{{Party shading/Republican}}!2002229hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 8{{Party shading/Republican}}!2004232hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 3{{Party shading/Democratic}}!2006202hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 30{{Party shading/Democratic}}!2008178hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 21Barack Obama{{Party shading/Republican}}!2010242hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 63{{Party shading/Republican}}!2012234hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 8{{Party shading/Republican}}!2014247hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 13{{Party shading/Republican}}!2016241hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 6Donald Trump{{Party shading/Democratic}}!2018199hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 41{{col-2}}{|class=wikitable|+United StatesSenate!Election year!No. ofoverall seats won!+/–!Presidency{{Party shading/Democratic}}!195047hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 5|Harry S. Truman{{Party shading/Republican}}!195249hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2Dwight D. Eisenhower{{Party shading/Democratic}}!195447hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2{{Party shading/Democratic}}!195647hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0{{Party shading/Democratic}}!195834hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 13{{Party shading/Democratic}}!196035hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1John F. Kennedy{{Party shading/Democratic}}!196234hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 3{{Party shading/Democratic}}!196432hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2Lyndon B. Johnson{{Party shading/Democratic}}!196638hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 3!1968 {{Composition bar100|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}} {{increase}} 5Richard Nixon{{Party shading/Democratic}}!197044hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2{{Party shading/Democratic}}!197241hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2!1974{{Composition bar100|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}{{decrease}} 3Gerald Ford{{Party shading/Democratic}}!197638hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0Jimmy Carter{{Party shading/Democratic}}!197841hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 3{{Party shading/Republican}}!198053hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 12Ronald Reagan{{Party shading/Republican}}!198254hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1{{Party shading/Republican}}!198453hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2{{Party shading/Democratic}}!198646hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 8!1988 {{Composition bar100|hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}} {{decrease}} 1George H. W. Bush{{Party shading/Democratic}}!199044hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1{{Party shading/Democratic}}!199243hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 1Bill Clinton{{Party shading/Republican}}!199453hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 10{{Party shading/Republican}}!199655hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2{{Party shading/Republican}}!199855hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{steady}} 0{{Party shading/Republican}}!200050hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 5 Vice President Dick Cheney provided tie breaking vote, giving Republicans a majority.George W. Bush{{Party shading/Republican}}!200251hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 1{{Party shading/Republican}}!200455hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 4{{Party shading/Democratic}}!200649hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 6{{Party shading/Democratic}}!200841hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 8Barack Obama{{Party shading/Democratic}}!201047hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 6{{Party shading/Democratic}}!201245hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2{{Party shading/Republican}}!201454hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 9{{Party shading/Republican}}!201652hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{decrease}} 2Donald Trump{{Party shading/Republican}}!201853hex={{Republican Party (United States)/meta/color}}}}|{{increase}} 2{{col-end}}

In presidential elections: 1856–present

{{see also|List of United States Republican Party presidential tickets}}{|class="sortable wikitable"!Election!Candidate!Votes!Vote %!Electoral votes!+/–!Result1856|John C. Frémont1,342,34533.1{{Composition bar296|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}114|{{lost}}1860|Abraham Lincoln1,865,90839.8{{Composition bar303|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}66|{{won}}1864|Abraham Lincoln2,218,38855.0{{Composition bar233|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}32|{{won}}1868|Ulysses S. Grant3,013,42152.7{{Composition bar294|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}2|{{won}}1872|Ulysses S. Grant3,598,23555.6{{Composition bar352|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}72|{{won}}1876|Rutherford B. Hayes4,034,31147.9{{Composition bar369|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}134group=upper-alpha|Although Hayes won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Samuel J. Tilden won a majority of the popular vote.}}1880|James A. Garfield4,446,15848.3{{Composition bar369|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}29|{{won}}1884|James G. Blaine4,856,90548.3{{Composition bar401|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}32|{{lost}}1888|Benjamin Harrison5,443,89247.8{{Composition bar401|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}51group=upper-alpha|Although Harrison won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Grover Cleveland won a plurality of the popular vote.}}1892|Benjamin Harrison5,176,10843.0{{Composition bar444|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}88|{{lost}}1896|William McKinley7,111,60751.0{{Composition bar447|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}126|{{won}}1900|William McKinley7,228,86451.6{{Composition bar447|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}21|{{won}}1904|Theodore Roosevelt7,630,45756.4{{Composition bar476|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}44|{{won}}1908|William Howard Taft7,678,39551.6{{Composition bar483|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}15|{{won}}1912|William Howard Taft3,486,24223.2{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}313|{{lost}}1916Charles Evans Hughes>Charles E. Hughes8,548,72846.1{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}246|{{lost}}1920|Warren G. Harding16,144,09360.3{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}150|{{won}}1924|Calvin Coolidge15,723,78954.0{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}22|{{won}}1928|Herbert Hoover21,427,12358.2{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}62|{{won}}1932|Herbert Hoover15,761,25439.7{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}385|{{lost}}1936|Alf Landon16,679,54336.5{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}51|{{lost}}1940|Wendell Willkie22,347,74444.8{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}74|{{lost}}1944|Thomas E. Dewey22,017,92945.9{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}17|{{lost}}1948|Thomas E. Dewey21,991,29245.1{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}90|{{lost}}1952|Dwight D. Eisenhower34,075,52955.2{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}253|{{won}}1956|Dwight D. Eisenhower35,579,18057.4{{Composition bar531|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}15|{{won}}1960|Richard Nixon34,108,15749.6{{Composition bar537|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}238|{{lost}}1964|Barry Goldwater27,175,75438.5{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}167|{{lost}}1968|Richard Nixon31,783,78343.4{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}249|{{won}}1972|Richard Nixon47,168,71060.7{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}219|{{won}}1976|Gerald Ford38,148,63448.0{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}280|{{lost}}1980|Ronald Reagan43,903,23050.7{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}249|{{won}}1984|Ronald Reagan54,455,47258.8{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}36|{{won}}1988|George H. W. Bush48,886,09753.4{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}99|{{won}}1992|George H. W. Bush39,104,55037.4{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}258|{{lost}}1996|Bob Dole39,197,46940.7{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}9|{{lost}}2000|George W. Bush50,456,00247.9{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}112group=upper-alpha|Although Bush won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Al Gore won a plurality of the popular vote.}}2004|George W. Bush62,040,61050.7{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}15|{{won}}2008|John McCain59,948,32345.7{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{decrease}}113|{{lost}}2012|Mitt Romney60,933,50047.2{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}33|{{lost}}2016|Donald Trump62,984,82546.1{{Composition bar538|hex=#FF0000}}{{increase}}98group=upper-alpha|Although Trump won a majority of votes in the Electoral College, Democrat Hillary Clinton won a plurality of the popular vote.}}2020|TBATBATBATBATBATBA

See also

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Further reading

  • American National Biography (20 volumes, 1999) covers all politicians no longer alive; online at many academic libraries.
  • Aistrup, Joseph A. The Southern Strategy Revisited: Republican Top-Down Advancement in the South (1996).
  • Barone, Michael. The Almanac of American Politics 2014: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (2013); revised every two years since 1975.
  • Black, Earl and Merle Black. The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002).
  • Brennan, Mary C. Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP (1995).
  • Conger, Kimberly H. The Christian Right in Republican State Politics (2010) 202 pages; focuses on Arizona, Indiana, and Missouri.
  • Crane, Michael. The Political Junkie Handbook: The Definitive Reference Books on Politics (2004) covers all the major issues explaining the parties' positions.
  • Critchlow, Donald T. The Conservative Ascendancy: How the Republican Right Rose to Power in Modern America (2nd ed. 2011).
  • Ehrman, John, The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan (2005).
  • Fauntroy, Michael K. Republicans and the Black vote (2007).
  • BOOK, Fried, J, Democrats and Republicans – Rhetoric and Reality, Algora Publishing, New York, 2008,
  • Frank, Thomas. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (2005).
  • Frum, David. What's Right: The New Conservative Majority and the Remaking of America (1996).
  • BOOK, Gould, Lewis, Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans, 2003, 0375507418,weblink registration,
  • BOOK, Jensen, Richard, Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854–1983, 1983, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT,weblink 083716382X,
  • Judis, John B. and Ruy Teixeira. The Emerging Democratic Majority (2004), two Democrats project social trends.
  • Kabaservice, Geoffrey. Rule and Ruin: The Downfall of Moderation and the Destruction of the Republican Party, From Eisenhower to the Tea Party (2012) scholarly history {{ISBN|978-0199768400}}.
  • Kleppner, Paul, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983), applies party systems model.
  • Kurian, George Thomas ed. The Encyclopedia of the Republican Party (4 vol., 2002).
  • Lamis, Alexander P. ed. Southern Politics in the 1990s (1999).
  • Levendusky, Matthew. The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans (2009). Chicago Studies in American Politics.
  • Mason, Robert. The Republican Party and American Politics from Hoover to Reagan (2011).
  • Mason, Robert and Morgan, Iwan (eds.) Seeking a New Majority: The Republican Party and American Politics, 1960–1980. (2013) Nashville, TN. Vanderbilt University Press. 2013.
  • Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854–1966. 2d ed. (1967).
  • Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2002), broad account of 1964.
  • Perlstein, Rick. (Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America) (2009).
  • Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right since 1945 (1983).
  • Rutland, Robert Allen. The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush (1996).
  • Sabato, Larry J. Divided States of America: The Slash and Burn Politics of the 2004 Presidential Election (2005).
  • Sabato, Larry J. and Bruce Larson. The Party's Just Begun: Shaping Political Parties for America's Future (2001), textbook.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). Essays on the most important election are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972).
  • Shafer, Byron E. and Anthony J. Badger, eds. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000 (2001), long essays by specialists on each time period:
    • includes: "To One or Another of These Parties Every Man Belongs": 1820–1865 by Joel H. Silbey; "Change and Continuity in the Party Period: 1835–1885" by Michael F. Holt; "The Transformation of American Politics: 1865–1910" by Peter H. Argersinger; "Democracy, Republicanism, and Efficiency: 1885–1930" by Richard Jensen; "The Limits of Federal Power and Social Policy: 1910–1955" by Anthony J. Badger; "The Rise of Rights and Rights Consciousness: 1930–1980" by James T. Patterson; and "Economic Growth, Issue Evolution, and Divided Government: 1955–2000" by Byron E. Shafer.
  • Shafer, Byron and Richard Johnston. The End of Southern Exceptionalism (2006), uses statistical election data and polls to argue GOP growth was primarily a response to economic change.
  • Steely, Mel. The Gentleman from Georgia: The Biography of Newt Gingrich Mercer University Press, 2000. {{ISBN|0865546711}}.
  • Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States (1983).
  • Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America (2004).

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