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Joe Biden
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{{Redirect|Biden|other uses|Biden (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{short description|47th Vice President of the United States}}{{Good article}}{{pp-semi-blp|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2019}}







factoids
|birth_place = Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.|death_date =|death_place =Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic (1969–present)Independent politician>Independent (1968–1969)Neilia Hunter1972Jill Biden>1977}}Beau Biden>Hunter Biden>Naomi|Ashley}}University of Delaware (Bachelor of Arts>BA)Syracuse University (JD)borderPresidential Medal of Freedom>Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction (2017)|signature = Joe Biden Signature.svgjoebiden.com|Campaign website}}}}{{JoeBidenseries}}Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|r|ɒ|b|ᵻ|ˈ|n|ɛ|t|_|ˈ|b|aɪ|d|ən}};{{YouTube|olQT5g6UJJA|"Joe Biden takes the oath of Office of Vice President"}} born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. Biden also represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate from 1973 to 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, Biden is a candidate for President in the 2020 election.Biden was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and lived there for ten years before moving with his family to Delaware. He became a lawyer in 1969 and was elected to the New Castle County Council in 1970. He was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1972, when he became the sixth-youngest senator in American history. Biden was re-elected six times and was the fourth most senior senator when he resigned to assume the vice presidency in 2009. Biden was a long-time member and former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. He opposed the Gulf War in 1991, but advocated U.S. and NATO intervention in the Bosnian War in 1994 and 1995. He voted in favor of the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002 but opposed the surge of U.S. troops in 2007. He has also served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, and civil liberties. Biden led the efforts to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, and the Violence Against Women Act. He also chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U.S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and in 2008.In 2008, Biden was the running mate of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama. As vice president, Biden oversaw infrastructure spending aimed at counteracting the Great Recession and helped formulate U.S. policy toward Iraq through the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011. His ability to negotiate with congressional Republicans helped the Obama administration pass legislation such as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, which resolved a taxation deadlock; the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resolved that year's debt ceiling crisis; and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which addressed the impending fiscal cliff. Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012.In October 2015, after months of speculation, Biden announced he would not seek the presidency in the 2016 elections. In January 2017, Obama awarded Biden the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction.NEWS,weblink Obama Surprises Joe Biden With Presidential Medal of Freedom, Shear, Michael D., January 12, 2017, The New York Times, October 24, 2018, en, After completing his second term as vice president, Biden joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named the Benjamin Franklin Professor of Presidential Practice.WEB,weblink Here's what Joe Biden will do after 8 years as vice president, Berke, Jeremy, February 7, 2017, businessinsider.com, Business Insider, February 8, 2017, He announced his 2020 run for president on April 25, 2019.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden's 2020 Plan Is Almost Complete. Democrats Are Impatient., Jonathan, Martin, Alexander, Burns, March 7, 2019, NYTimes.com,

Early life (1942–1965)

Biden was born on November 20, 1942, at St. Mary's Hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania,Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 5. to Catherine Eugenia Biden (née Finnegan)NEWS,weblink Vice President Biden's mother, Jean, dies at 92, Chase, Randall, Associated Press, WITN-TV, January 9, 2010, and Joseph Robinette Biden Sr.NEWS,weblink Joseph Biden Sr., 86, father of the senator, The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 3, 2002, B4, fee required, He was the first of four siblings in a Catholic family, with a sister and two brothers.Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 9. His mother was of Irish descent, with roots variously attributed to County LouthNEWS,weblink Joe Biden's Irish Roots, Smolenyak, Megan, Megan Smolenyak, Huffington Post, July 2, 2012, December 6, 2012, or County Londonderry.NEWS,weblink Number two Biden has a history over Irish debate, The Belfast Telegraph, November 9, 2008, January 22, 2008, His paternal grandparents, Mary Elizabeth (Robinette) and Joseph H. Biden, an oil businessman from Baltimore, Maryland, were of English, French, and Irish ancestry.Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 8.NEWS,weblink Joey From Scranton – Vice President Biden's Irish Roots, Irish America (magazine), Irish America, April–May 2013, Smolenyak, Megan, Megan Smolenyak, His paternal third great-grandfather, William Biden, was born in Sussex, England, and immigrated to the United States. His maternal great-grandfather, Edward Francis Blewitt,NEWS,weblink Vice President Joe Biden Discusses American Innovation, Gehman, Geoff, Lafayette College, May 3, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140202110137weblink">weblink February 2, 2014, was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate.NEWS,weblink Remembering his roots, Krawczeniuk, Borys, The Times-Tribune (Scranton), The Times-Tribune, August 24, 2008, January 21, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090406014842weblink">weblink April 6, 2009, Biden's father had been wealthy earlier in his life but suffered several financial setbacks by the time his son was born. For several years, the family had to live with Biden's maternal grandparents, the Finnegans.NEWS,weblink Father's Tough Life an Inspiration for Biden, Broder, John M., The New York Times, October 23, 2008, October 24, 2008, When the Scranton area fell into economic decline during the 1950s, Biden's father could not find sustained work.NEWS,weblink Biden's Scranton childhood left lasting impression, Rubinkam, Michael, Associated Press, Fox News Channel, Fox News, August 27, 2008, September 7, 2008, In 1953, the Biden family moved into an apartment in Claymont, Delaware, where they lived for several years before again moving to a house in Wilmington, Delaware. Joe Biden Sr. became a successful used car salesman, and the family's circumstances were middle class.Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 364.File:Joe Biden at Archmere Academy (cropped).jpg|thumb|Biden while a student at alt=Biden attended the Archmere Academy in ClaymontWitcover, Joe Biden, pp. 27, 32. where he was a standout halfback/wide receiver on the high school football team; he helped lead a perennially losing team to an undefeated season in his senior year.NEWS, Biden was the stuttering kid who wanted the ball, Frank, Martin, The News Journal, September 28, 2008, D.1,weblink He played on the baseball team as well. During these years, he participated in an anti-segregation sit-in at a Wilmington theatre. Academically, he was an above-average student, was considered a natural leader among the students, and was elected class president during his junior and senior years. He graduated in 1961.Witcover, Joe Biden, pp. 40–41.He earned his bachelor's in 1965 from the University of Delaware, with a double major in history and political science, graduating with a class rank of 506 out of 688.Taylor, See How They Run, p. 98. His classmates were impressed by his cramming abilities,Current Biography Yearbook 1987, p. 43. and he played halfback with the Blue Hens freshman football team. In 1964, while on spring break in the Bahamas, he met and began dating Neilia Hunter, who was from an affluent background in Skaneateles, New York, and attended Syracuse University.NEWS,weblink Biden Campaigning With Ease After Hardships, Bumiller, Elisabeth, The New York Times, December 14, 2007, September 13, 2008, Elisabeth Bumiller, He told her that he aimed to become a senator by the age of 30 and then President. He dropped a junior year plan to play for the varsity football team as a defensive back, enabling him to spend more time visiting out of state with her.Biden, Promises to Keep, pp. 27, 32–33.He then entered Syracuse University College of Law, receiving a half scholarship based on financial need with some additional assistance based on academics.NEWS,weblink Biden Admits Errors and Criticizes Latest Report, Dionne Jr., E. J., The New York Times, September 22, 1987, E. J. Dionne, By his own description, he found law school to be "the biggest bore in the world" and pulled many all-nighters to get by. During his first year there, he was accused of having plagiarized five of 15 pages of a law review article. Biden said it was inadvertent due to his not knowing the proper rules of citation, and he was permitted to retake the course after receiving an "F" grade, which was subsequently dropped from his record. This incident would later attract attention when further plagiarism accusations emerged in 1987.NEWS,weblink Biden Admits Plagiarism in School But Says It Was Not 'Malevolent', Dionne Jr., E. J., The New York Times, September 18, 1987, E. J. Dionne, Greenberg, David. "The Write Stuff? Why Biden's plagiarism shouldn't be forgotten", Slate (August 25, 2008). He received his Juris Doctor in 1968, graduating 76th of 85 in his class. Biden was admitted to the Delaware bar in 1969.DICTIONARY, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress,weblink Biden, Joseph Robinette, Jr., August 19, 2008, Biden received student draft deferments during this period, at the peak of the Vietnam War,NEWS,weblink Biden got 5 draft deferments during Nam, as did Cheney, Chase, Randall, Associated Press, Newsday, September 1, 2008, and in 1968, he was reclassified by the Selective Service System as not available for service due to having had asthma as a teenager.NEWS,weblink fee required, Joe Biden & the Politics of Belief, Romano, Lois, The Washington Post, June 9, 1987, He never took part in anti-war demonstrations, later saying that at the time he was preoccupied with marriage and law school, and "wore sports coats ... not tie-dyed".Taylor, See How They Run, p. 96.Negative impressions of drinking alcohol in the Biden and Finnegan families and in the neighborhood led to Biden becoming a teetotaler.NEWS,weblink Riding the Rails With Amtrak Joe, Leibovich, Mark, The New York Times, September 16, 2008, September 17, 2008, He suffered from stuttering through much of his childhood and into his twenties,WEB, Biden, Joseph R., Jr.,weblink Letter to National Stuttering Association chairman, National Stuttering Association, July 9, 2009, December 9, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728173845weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, mdy-all, and says he overcame it by spending many hours reciting poetry in front of a mirror.Taylor, See How They Run, p. 99.

Early political career and family life (1966–1972)

On August 27, 1966, while Biden was still a law student, he married Neilia Hunter.NEWS,weblink A timeline of U.S. Sen. Joe Biden's life and career, Associated Press, San Francisco Chronicle, August 23, 2008, September 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080925021142weblink">weblink September 25, 2008, yes, They overcame her parents' initial reluctance for her to wed a Roman Catholic, and the ceremony was held in a Catholic church in Skaneateles.Biden, Promises to Keep, pp. 32, 36–37. They had three children, Joseph R. "Beau" Biden III in 1969, Robert Hunter in 1970, and Naomi Christina in 1971.During 1968, Biden clerked for six months at a Wilmington law firm headed by prominent local Republican William Prickett and, as he later said, "thought of myself as a Republican".NEWS,weblink Campaign Portrait, Joe Biden: Orator for the Next Generation, Barrett, Laurence I., Time (magazine), Time, June 22, 1987, He disliked the conservative racial politics of incumbent Democratic Governor of Delaware Charles L. Terry and supported a more liberal Republican, Russell W. Peterson, who defeated Terry in 1968. The local Republicans tried to recruit him, but he resisted due to his distaste for Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon, and registered as an Independent instead.In 1969, Biden resumed practicing law in Wilmington, first as a public defender and then at a firm headed by Sid Balick, a locally active Democrat. Balick named him to the Democratic Forum, a group trying to reform and revitalize the state party,Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 86. and Biden switched his registration to Democrat. He also started his own firm, Biden and Walsh. Corporate law, however, did not appeal to him and criminal law did not pay well. He supplemented his income by managing properties.NEWS, Doyle, Nancy Palmer,weblink February 4, 2009, Joe Biden: 'Everyone Calls Me Joe', Washingtonian (magazine), Washingtonian, February 1, 2009, Later in 1969, Biden ran as a Democrat for the New Castle County Council on a liberal platform that included support for public housing in the suburban area. He won by a solid, two-thousand vote margin in the usually Republican district and in a bad year for Democrats in the state.Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 59. Even before taking his seat, he was already talking about running for the U.S. Senate in a couple of years. He served on the County Council from 1970 to 1972 while continuing his private law practice.NEWS,weblink 2008 Presidential Candidates: Joe Biden, The Washington Post, October 24, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081022055510weblink">weblink October 22, 2008, Biden represented the 4th district on the county council.WEB,weblink Joe Biden--Hope for Democratic Party in '72?, Harriman, Jane, December 31, 1969, Newspapers.com, The News Journal, 3, en, 2019-05-01, Among issues he addressed on the council was his opposition to large highway projects that might disrupt Wilmington neighborhoods, including those related to Interstate 95.Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 62.

1972 U.S. Senate campaign

Biden's entry into the 1972 U.S. Senate election in Delaware presented a unique circumstance. Longtime Delaware political figure and Republican incumbent Senator J. Caleb Boggs was considering retirement, which would likely have left U.S. Representative Pete du Pont and Wilmington Mayor Harry G. Haskell Jr. in a divisive primary fight. To avoid that, U.S. President Richard Nixon helped convince Boggs to run again with full party support. No other Democrat wanted to run against Boggs. Biden's campaign had virtually no money and was given no chance of winning. It was managed by his sister Valerie Biden Owens (who would go on to manage his future campaigns) and staffed by other family members, and relied upon handed-out newsprint position papers and meeting voters face-to-face;NEWS, Naylor, Brian,weblink Biden's Road to Senate Took Tragic Turn, National Public Radio, October 8, 2007, September 12, 2008, the small size of the state and lack of a major media market made the approach feasible. He did receive some assistance from the AFL–CIO and Democratic pollster Patrick Caddell. His campaign issues focused on withdrawal from Vietnam, the environment, civil rights, mass transit, more equitable taxation, health care, the public's dissatisfaction with politics-as-usual, and "change". During the summer, he trailed by almost 30 percentage points, but his energy level, his attractive young family, and his ability to connect with voters' emotions gave the surging Biden an advantage over the ready-to-retire Boggs. He won the November 7, 1972 election in an upset by a margin of 3,162 votes.

Family deaths

On December 18, 1972, a few weeks after the election, Biden's wife and one-year-old daughter Naomi were killed in an automobile accident while Christmas shopping in Hockessin, Delaware. Neilia Biden's station wagon was hit by a tractor-trailer as she pulled out from an intersection; the truck driver was cleared of any wrongdoing.NEWS, No DUI in crash that killed Biden's 1st wife, but he's implied otherwise, Kipp, Rachel, The News Journal, September 4, 2008, A.1,weblink {{refn|group=nb| Biden has on at least two occasions alleged that the truck driver was under the influence of alcohol, but this was not the case.NEWS,weblink A Senator's Past: The Biden Car Crash, Inside Edition, August 27, 2008, May 28, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090601072408weblink">weblink June 1, 2009, }} Biden's sons Beau and Hunter survived the accident and were taken to the hospital in fair condition, Beau with a broken leg and other wounds, and Hunter with a minor skull fracture and other head injuries.Witcover, Joe Biden, pp. 93, 98. Doctors soon said both would make full recoveries.Witcover, Joe Biden, p. 96. Biden considered resigning to care for them, but was persuaded not to by Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield.NEWS,weblink In his home state, Biden is a regular Joe, Levey, Noam M., Los Angeles Times, August 24, 2008, September 7, 2008, Subsequent to the accident, Biden commented that the truck driver had been drinking alcohol before the collision, but these allegations were denied by the driver's family and were never substantiated by the police.NEWS, Orr, Bob, Driver In Biden Crash Wanted Name Cleared,weblink March 13, 2017, CBS News, NEWS, Hamilton, Carl, Daughter of man in '72 Biden crash seeks apology from widowed Senator,weblink March 13, 2017, Newark Post,

United States Senate (1973–2009)

Recovery and new family

File:20090120 Jill and Joe Biden at Homestates Ball.JPG|thumb|upright|Joe Biden met his second wife Jill, in 1975, and they married in 1977. (Here seen dancing together in 2009.)]]Biden was sworn into office on January 5, 1973, by Francis R. Valeo, the Secretary of the Senate in a small chapel at the Delaware Division of the Wilmington Medical Center. Beau was wheeled in with his leg still in traction; Hunter, who had already been released, was also there, as were other members of the extended family. Witnesses and television cameras were also present and the event received national attention.NEWS,weblink Oath Solemn, Associated Press, Spokane Daily Chronicle, January 6, 1973, 11, At age 30 (the minimum age required to hold the office), Biden became the sixth-youngest senator in U.S. history, and one of only 18 senators who took office before reaching the age of 31.WEB,weblink Youngest Senator, United States Senate, August 25, 2008, Byrd, Robert and Wolff, Wendy. Senate, 1789-1989: Historical Statistics, 1789-1992, Volume 4, p. 285 (Government Printing Office 1993). But the accident left him filled with both anger and religious doubt: "I liked to [walk around seedy neighborhoods] at night when I thought there was a better chance of finding a fight ... I had not known I was capable of such rage ... I felt God had played a horrible trick on me."Biden, Promises to Keep, p. 81. To be at home every day for his young sons,NEWS, Pride, Mike,weblink Biden a smart guy who has lived his family values, Concord Monitor, December 1, 2007, October 4, 2008, May 17, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130517105929weblink">weblink yes, Biden began the practice of commuting every day by Amtrak train for 90 minutes each way from his home in the Wilmington suburbs to Washington, D.C., which he continued to do throughout his Senate career. In the aftermath of the accident, he had trouble focusing on work and appeared to just go through the motions of being a senator. In his memoirs, Biden notes that staffers were taking bets on how long he would last.NEWS,weblink On Becoming Joe Biden, Morning Edition, NPR, August 1, 2007, September 12, 2008, A single father for five years, he left standing orders that he be interrupted in the Senate at any time if his sons called. In remembrance of his wife and daughter, Biden does not work on December 18, the anniversary of the accident.Biden's elder son, Beau, became Delaware Attorney General and an Army Judge Advocate who served in Iraq;NEWS, August 23, 2008,weblink Biden's Foreign Policy Background Carries Growing Cachet, Cooper, Christopher, The Wall Street Journal, August 20, 2008, A4, his younger son, Hunter, became a Washington attorney and lobbyist.NEWS,weblink From a blind date to second lady, Jill Biden's coming into her own, Evans, Heidi, Daily News, New York, December 28, 2008, January 3, 2009, On May 30, 2015, Beau died at the age of 46 after a two-year battle with brain cancer.NEWS,weblink Beau Biden, Son of Vice President Joe Biden, Dies After Battle With Brain Cancer, NBC News, May 31, 2015, NEWS, Joe Biden's lasting advice: 'Reality has a way of intruding',weblink June 1, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904124648weblink">weblink September 4, 2015, At the time of his death, Beau had been widely seen as the frontrunner to be the Democratic nominee for Governor of Delaware in 2016.NEWS, Delaware's 2016 speculation all about Biden,weblink November 9, 2014, Delaware Online, November 8, 2014, NEWS,weblink Beau Biden for governor?, Delaware Online, January 26, 2015, January 27, 2015, Jonathan Starkey, In 1975, Biden met Jill Tracy Jacobs, who grew up in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania, and would become a teacher in Delaware. They had met on a blind date arranged by Biden's brother, although it turned out that Biden had already noticed a photograph of her in an advertisement for a local park in Wilmington, Delaware.NEWS,weblink Jill Biden Heads Toward Life in the Spotlight, Seelye, Katharine Q., The New York Times, August 24, 2008, August 25, 2008, Biden would credit her with renewing his interest in both politics and life.Biden, Promises to Keep, p. 113. On June 17, 1977, Biden and Jacobs were married by a Catholic priest at the Chapel at the United Nations in New York.NEWS,weblink Bidens met, forged life together after tragedy, Dart, Bob, Cox News Service, Orlando Sentinel, October 24, 2008, Biden, Promises to Keep, p. 117. Jill Biden has a bachelor's degree from the University of Delaware; two master's degrees, one from West Chester University and the other from Villanova University; and a doctorate in education from the University of Delaware. They have one daughter together, Ashley Blazer (born 1981), who became a social worker and staffer at the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth, and Their Families.NEWS,weblink Ashley Biden and Howard Krein, The New York Times, June 3, 2012, ST15, Biden and his wife are Roman Catholics and regularly attend Mass at St. Joseph's on the Brandywine in Greenville, Delaware.NEWS, Parishioners not surprised to see Biden at usual Mass, Gibson, Ginger, The News Journal, August 25, 2008, A.12,weblink

Early Senate activities

File:Joe Biden and Jimmy Carter.jpg|thumb|right|Biden with President Jimmy Carter in the Oval OfficeOval OfficeDuring his first years in the Senate, Biden focused on legislation regarding consumer-protection and environmental issues and called for greater accountability on the part of government. In mid-1974, freshman Senator Biden was named one of the 200 Faces for the Future by Time magazine, in a profile that mentioned what had happened to his family and characterized Biden as "self-confident" and "compulsively ambitious".NEWS,weblink 200 Faces for the Future, Time (magazine), Time, July 15, 1974, August 23, 2008, In 1974, Biden was one of the Senate's leading opponents of desegregation busing, a then frequently court-ordered practice of racially integrating schools. Biden said that he supported the aim of school desegregation, but not the practice of busing, which his white constituents bitterly opposed.NEWS, Sokol, Jason, How a Young Joe Biden Turned Liberals Against Integration,weblink 25 April 2019, POLITICO Magazine, 25 April 2019, en, Such opposition would later lead his party to mostly abandon school desegregation policies.NEWS, Gadsden, Brett, Here's How Deep Biden's Busing Problem Runs,weblink 5 May 2019, POLITICO Magazine, 5 May 2019, en, Biden became ranking minority member of the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary in 1981. In 1984, he was Democratic floor manager for the successful passage of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act. Over time, the tough-on-crime provisions of the legislation became controversial on the left and among criminal justice reform proponents, and in 2019, Biden characterized his role in passing the legislation as a "big mistake".NEWS,weblink Biden Expresses Regret for Support of Crime Legislation in the 1990s, Herndon, Astead W., January 21, 2019, The New York Times, January 21, 2019, en-US, 0362-4331, "Biden in 2020? Allies Say He Sees Himself as Democrats' Best Hope", By Jonathan Martin and Alexander Burns. New York Times. January 6, 2019 Biden and his supporters praised him for modifying some of the Act's worst provisions, and it was his most important legislative accomplishment at that point in time. He first considered running for president in that year, after he gained notice for giving speeches to party audiences that simultaneously scolded and encouraged Democrats.Germond; Witcover, Whose Broad Stripes and Bright Stars?, p. 216File:Biden-Church-Sadat.jpg|thumb|right|Senator Biden, Senator Frank Church and President of Egypt Anwar el-Sadat after signing the Egyptian–Israeli Peace TreatyEgyptian–Israeli Peace TreatyRegarding foreign policy, during his first decade in the Senate, Biden focused on arms control issues. In response to the refusal of the U.S. Congress to ratify the SALT II Treaty signed in 1979 by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter, he took the initiative to meet the Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko, educated him about American concerns and interests, and secured several changes to address objections of the Foreign Relations Committee.BOOK, Salacuse, Jeswald W., Leading Leaders: How to Manage Smart, Talented, Rich and Powerful People, American Management Association, 2005, 0-8144-0855-9, p. 144. When the Reagan administration wanted to interpret the 1972 SALT I Treaty loosely in order to allow the Strategic Defense Initiative to proceed, Biden argued for strict adherence to the treaty's terms. He clashed again with the Reagan administration in 1986 over economic sanctions against South Africa;Current Biography Yearbook 1987, p. 45. he received considerable attention when he excoriated Secretary of State George P. Shultz at a Senate hearing because of the administration's support of that country, which continued to practice the apartheid system.NEWS, Biden Keeps Sights Set On White House, Leubsdorf, Carl P., The Dallas Morning News, September 6, 1987,weblink Reprinted in NEWS,weblink Lifelong ambition led Joe Biden to Senate, White House aspirations, The Dallas Morning News, August 23, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919060037weblink">weblink September 19, 2008, no,

1988 presidential campaign

Biden ran for the 1988 Democratic presidential nomination, formally declaring his candidacy at the Wilmington train station on June 9, 1987.NEWS,weblink Biden Joins Campaign for the Presidency, Dionne Jr., E. J., The New York Times, June 10, 1987, E. J. Dionne, He was attempting to become the youngest president since John F. Kennedy. When the campaign began, he was considered a potentially strong candidate because of his moderate image, his speaking ability on the stump, his appeal to Baby Boomers, his high-profile position as chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee at the upcoming Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination hearings, and his fundraising appeal. He raised $1.7 million in the first quarter of 1987, more than any other candidate.Taylor, See How They Run, p. 83.By August 1987, Biden's campaign, whose messaging was confused due to staff rivalries,Taylor, See How They Run, pp. 108–109. had begun to lag behind those of Michael Dukakis and Dick Gephardt,NEWS,weblink Biden, Once the Field's Hot Democrat, Is Being Overtaken by Cooler Rivals, Toner, Robin, The New York Times, August 31, 1987, although he had still raised more funds than all candidates but Dukakis, and was seeing an upturn in Iowa polls.BOOK, Cook, Rhodes, The Nominating Process, The Elections of 1988, Nelson, Michael, Congressional Quarterly, 1989, 0-87187-494-6, p. 46. In September 1987, the campaign ran into trouble when he was accused of plagiarizing a speech that had been made earlier that year by Neil Kinnock, leader of the British Labour Party.NEWS,weblink Biden's Debate Finale: An Echo From Abroad, Dowd, Maureen, The New York Times, September 12, 1987, Maureen Dowd, Kinnock's speech included the lines:Why am I the first Kinnock in a thousand generations to be able to get to university? [Then pointing to his wife in the audience] Why is Glenys the first woman in her family in a thousand generations to be able to get to university? Was it because all our predecessors were thick?While Biden's speech included the lines:I started thinking as I was coming over here, why is it that Joe Biden is the first in his family ever to go to a university? [Then pointing to his wife in the audience] Why is it that my wife who is sitting out there in the audience is the first in her family to ever go to college? Is it because our fathers and mothers were not bright? Is it because I'm the first Biden in a thousand generations to get a college and a graduate degree that I was smarter than the rest?Biden had in fact cited Kinnock as the source for the formulation on previous occasions.NEWS,weblink Plagiarism Suggestion Angers Biden's Aides, Eleanor, Randolph, The Washington Post, September 13, 1987, A6, {{subscription required}} But he made no reference to the original source at the August 23 Democratic debate at the Iowa State Fair being reported on,Germond and Witcover, Whose Broad Stripes and Bright Stars?, pp. 230–232. nor in an August 26 interview for the National Education Association.NEWS, Los Angeles Times,weblink Differing Versions Cited on Source of Passages: Biden Facing New Flap Over Speeches, September 16, 1987, James, Risen, James Risen, Robert, Shogan, Moreover, while political speeches often appropriate ideas and language from each other, Biden's use came under more scrutiny because he fabricated aspects of his own family's background in order to match Kinnock's.NEWS, The New York Times,weblink Biden Admits Plagiarism in School But Says It Was Not 'Malevolent', September 18, 1987, E. J., Dionne, Jr., E. J. Dionne, Biden was soon found to have earlier that year lifted passages from a 1967 speech by Robert F. Kennedy (for which his aides took the blame), and a short phrase from the 1961 inaugural address of John F. Kennedy; and in two prior years to have done the same with a 1976 passage from Hubert H. Humphrey.NEWS,weblink Biden Is Facing Growing Debate On His Speeches, Maureen, Dowd, The New York Times, September 16, 1987, Maureen Dowd, A few days later, Biden's plagiarism incident in law school came to public light. Video was also released showing that when earlier questioned by a New Hampshire resident about his grades in law school, he had stated that he had graduated in the "top half" of his class, that he had attended law school on a full scholarship, and that he had received three degrees in college,WEB,weblink C-SPAN via YouTube, 1988 Road to the White House with Sen. Biden, August 23, 2008, October 3, 2012, {{better source|date=May 2019}} each of which was untrue or exaggerations of his actual record. Advisers and reporters pointed out that he falsely claimed to have marched in the Civil Rights Movement.NEWS, New York Times,weblink Biden's First Run for President Was a Calamity. Some Missteps Still Resonate., June 3, 2019, Matt, Flegenheimer, June 3, 2019, The Kinnock and school revelations were magnified by the limited amount of other news about the nomination race at the time,BOOK, Pomper, Gerald M., The Presidential Nominations, The Election of 1988, Chatham House Publishers, 1989, 0-934540-77-2, p. 37. when most of the public were not yet paying attention to any of the campaigns; Biden thus fell into what The Washington Post writer Paul Taylor described as that year's trend, a "trial by media ordeal".Taylor, See How They Run, pp. 86, 88. He lacked a strong demographic or political group of support to help him survive the crisis.Taylor, See How They Run, pp. 88–89. He withdrew from the nomination race on September 23, 1987, saying his candidacy had been overrun by "the exaggerated shadow" of his past mistakes.NEWS,weblink Biden Withdraws Bid for President in Wake of Furor, Dionne Jr., E. J., The New York Times, September 24, 1987, E. J. Dionne, After Biden withdrew from the race, it was revealed that the Dukakis campaign had secretly made a video highlighting the Biden–Kinnock comparison and distributed it to news outlets.NEWS, Offers Briton His Talks 'Without Attribution' Biden Meets Kinnock, but He's Not Speechless, Los Angeles Times, January 12, 1988, See also: NEWS, Joseph Biden's Plagiarism; Michael Dukakis's 'Attack Video' – 1988,weblink The Washington Post, August 19, 2008, July 21, 1998, Later in 1987, the Delaware Supreme Court's Board of Professional Responsibility cleared Biden of the law school plagiarism charges regarding his standing as a lawyer, saying Biden had "not violated any rules".NEWS, Professional Board Clears Biden In Two Allegations of Plagiarism,weblink Associated Press, The New York Times, May 29, 1989, In February 1988, after suffering from several episodes of increasingly severe neck pain, Biden was taken by long-distance ambulance to Walter Reed Army Medical Center and given lifesaving surgery to correct an intracranial berry aneurysm that had begun leaking;NEWS,weblinkauthor=Altman, Lawrence, M.D. date=February 23, 1998AUTHOR=ALTMAN, LAWRENCE, M.D. DATE=OCTOBER 19, 2008last rites at the hospital.HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/WP-DYN/CONTENT/ARTICLE/2008/10/22/AR2008102203657.HTML AUTHOR=COPELAND, LIBBY DATE=OCTOBER 23, 2008 AUTHORLINK=LIBBY COPELAND, While recuperating, he suffered a pulmonary embolism, which represented a major complication. Another operation to repair a second aneurysm, which had caused no symptoms but was also at risk from bursting, was performed in May 1988.HTTPS://QUERY.NYTIMES.COM/GST/FULLPAGE.HTML?RES=940DE5D81739F937A35756C0A96E948260 >TITLE=BIDEN RESTING AFTER SURGERY FOR SECOND BRAIN ANEURYSM ASSOCIATED PRESS > NEWSPAPER=THE NEW YORK TIMES AGENCY=ASSOCIATED PRESS LAS VEGAS SUN >DATE=AUGUST 22, 2008 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20080828123915/HTTP://WWW.LASVEGASSUN.COM/NEWS/2008/AUG/22/BIDEN-SPEAKS-_-AND-SPEAKS-_-HIS-OWN-MIND/ DEADURL=YES, Biden has had no recurrences or effects from the aneurysms since then. In retrospect, Biden's family came to believe that the early end to his presidential campaign had been a blessing in disguise, for had he still been campaigning in the midst of the primaries in early 1988, he might well have not have stopped to seek medical attention and the condition might have become unsurvivable.Biden, Promises to Keep, p. 225.

Senate Judiciary Committee

(File:Joe Biden, official photo.jpg|thumb|upright|Joe Biden, U.S. Senate photo)Biden was a long-time member of the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. He chaired it from 1987 until 1995 and he served as ranking minority member on it from 1981 until 1987 and again from 1995 until 1997.While chairman, Biden presided over two of the most contentious U.S. Supreme Court confirmation hearings in history, those for Robert Bork in 1987 and Clarence Thomas in 1991. In the Bork hearings, he stated his opposition to Bork soon after the nomination, reversing an approval in an interview of a hypothetical Bork nomination he had made the previous year and angering conservatives who thought he could not conduct the hearings dispassionately.Bronner, Battle for Justice, pp. 138–139, 214, 305. At the close, he won praise for conducting the proceedings fairly and with good humor and courage, as his 1988 presidential campaign collapsed in the middle of the hearings.NEWS,weblink Washington Talk: The Bork Hearings; For Biden: Epoch of Belief, Epoch of Incredulity, Greenhouse, Linda, The New York Times, October 8, 1987, Linda Greenhouse, Rejecting some of the less intellectually honest arguments that other Bork opponents were making, Biden framed his discussion around the belief that the U.S. Constitution provides rights to liberty and privacy that extend beyond those explicitly enumerated in the text, and that Bork's strong originalism was ideologically incompatible with that view. Bork's nomination was rejected in the committee by a 9–5 vote, and then rejected in the full Senate by a 58–42 margin.NEWS,weblink Senate's Roll-Call On the Bork Vote, October 24, 1987, The New York Times, Associated Press, In the Thomas hearings, Biden's questions on constitutional issues were often long and convoluted, sometimes such that Thomas forgot the question being asked.Mayer; Abramson, Strange Justice, p. 213, 218, 336. Viewers of the high-profile hearings were often annoyed by Biden's style. Thomas later wrote that despite earlier private assurances from the senator, Biden's questions had been akin to a beanball.NEWS, Clarence Thomas: A Silent Justice Speaks Out: Part VI: Becoming a Judge – and perhaps a Justice, Greenburg, Jan Crawford, ABC News, September 30, 2007,weblink October 18, 2008, The nomination came out of the committee without a recommendation, with Biden opposed. In part due to his own bad experiences in 1987 with his presidential campaign, Biden was reluctant to let personal matters enter into the hearings. Biden initially shared with the committee, but not the public, Anita Hill's sexual harassment charges, on the grounds she was not yet willing to testify. After she did, Biden did not permit other witnesses to testify further on her behalf, such as Angela Wright (who made a similar charge) and experts on harassment.NEWS,weblink Biden and Anita Hill, Revisited, Phillips, Kate, The New York Times, August 23, 2008, September 12, 2008, Biden said he was striving to preserve Thomas's right to privacy and the decency of the hearings. The nomination was approved by a 52–48 vote in the full Senate, with Biden again opposed. During and afterward, Biden was strongly criticized by liberal legal groups and women's groups for having mishandled the hearings and having not done enough to support Hill. Biden subsequently sought out women to serve on the Judiciary Committee and emphasized women's issues in the committee's legislative agenda. In April 2019, Biden called Hill to express regret over his treatment of her; after the conversation, Hill said that she remained deeply unsatisfied.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Expresses Regret to Anita Hill, but She Says 'I'm Sorry' Is Not Enough, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, 2019-04-25, The New York Times, 2019-04-25, Martin, Jonathan, en-US, 0362-4331, Biden was involved in crafting many federal crime laws. He spearheaded the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, also known as the Biden Crime Law, which included the Federal Assault Weapons Ban, which expired in 2004 after its ten-year sunset period and was not renewed.NEWS,weblink Biden faces key role in second term, Fifield, Anna, Financial Times, January 4, 2013, It also included the landmark Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), which contains a broad array of measures to combat domestic violence.NEWS,weblink Biden: Men who don't stop violence against women are "cowards", Finley, Bruce, The Denver Post, September 19, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151013133013weblink">weblink October 13, 2015, In 2000, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Morrison that the section of VAWA allowing a federal civil remedy for victims of gender-motivated violence exceeded Congress's authority and therefore was unconstitutional.WEB, United States v. Morrison, 529 U.S. 598 (2000),weblink Cornell University, August 23, 2008, Congress reauthorized VAWA in 2000 and 2005.NEWS, Bash, Dana,weblink Senate votes to allow compensation for terror victims, re-authorizes Violence Against Women Act, CNN, October 11, 2000, August 24, 2008, See also: NEWS,weblink Deal Reached on Violence Against Women Act, Fox News, December 16, 2005, August 24, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090517064449weblink">weblink May 17, 2009, yes, Biden has said, "I consider the Violence Against Women Act the single most significant legislation that I've crafted during my 35-year tenure in the Senate."WEB,weblink Domestic Violence, United States Senate, Biden senate website,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080822144642weblink">weblink August 22, 2008, September 9, 2008, In 2004 and 2005, Biden enlisted major American technology companies in diagnosing the problems of the Austin, Texas-based National Domestic Violence Hotline, and to donate equipment and expertise to it in a successful effort to improve its services.WEB, Making connections to end Domestic Violence,weblink August 23, 2008, Microsoft, Cates, Sheryl,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080430104855weblink">weblink April 30, 2008, May 5, 2004, WEB,weblink History, National Domestic Violence Hotline, February 7, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070705193830weblink">weblink July 5, 2007, Biden was critical of the actions of Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr during the 1990s Whitewater controversy and Lewinsky scandal investigations, and said "it's going to be a cold day in hell" before another Independent Counsel is granted the same powers.Almanac of American Politics 2000, p. 372. Biden voted to acquit on both charges during the impeachment of President Clinton.NEWS,weblink How the senators voted on impeachment, CNN, February 12, 1999, As chairman of the International Narcotics Control Caucus, Biden wrote the laws that created the U.S. "Drug Czar", who oversees and coordinates national drug control policy. In April 2003, he introduced the controversial Reducing Americans' Vulnerability to Ecstasy Act, also known as the RAVE Act. He continued to work to stop the spread of "date rape drugs" such as flunitrazepam, and drugs such as Ecstasy and Ketamine. In 2004, he worked to pass a bill outlawing steroids like androstenedione, the drug used by many baseball players.Biden's "Kids 2000" legislation established a public/private partnership to provide computer centers, teachers, Internet access, and technical training to young people, particularly to low-income and at-risk youth.WEB,weblink Kids 2000 Program,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071223064751weblink">weblink December 23, 2007, August 23, 2008,

Senate Foreign Relations Committee

(File:Bill Clinton and officials on Air Force One.jpg|thumb|right|Senator Biden travels with President Clinton and other officials to Bosnia in 1997)Biden was a long-time member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. In 1997, he became the ranking minority member and chaired the committee in January 2001 and from June 2001 through 2003. When Democrats re-took control of the Senate following the 2006 elections, Biden again assumed the top spot on the committee in 2007. Biden was generally a liberal internationalist in foreign policy.NEWS,weblink In Biden, Obama chooses a foreign policy adherent of diplomacy before force, Gordon, Michael R., The New York Times, August 24, 2008, November 5, 2009, Michael R. Gordon, He collaborated effectively with important Republican Senate figures such as Richard Lugar and Jesse Helms and sometimes went against elements of his own party. Biden was also co-chairman of the NATO Observer Group in the Senate.NEWS,weblink Transatlantic relations: Stormy weather on the way to enlargement?, Sloan, Stanley, NATO Review, October 1997, August 29, 2008, A partial list covering this time showed Biden meeting with some 150 leaders from nearly 60 countries and international organizations.NEWS,weblink Meetings with Foreign Leaders? Biden's Been There, Done That, Kessler, Glenn, The Washington Post, September 23, 2008, November 5, 2009, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Biden held frequent hearings as chairman of the committee, as well as holding many subcommittee hearings during the three times he chaired the Subcommittee on European Affairs.File:Bidenpetraeus.jpg|thumb|right|Biden gives an opening statement and questions at a Senate Foreign Relations CommitteeSenate Foreign Relations CommitteeBiden became interested in the Yugoslav Wars after hearing about Serbian abuses during the Croatian War of Independence in 1991. Once the Bosnian War broke out, Biden was among the first to call for the "lift and strike" policy of lifting the arms embargo, training Bosnian Muslims and supporting them with NATO air strikes, and investigating war crimes. Both the George H. W. Bush administration and Clinton administration were reluctant to implement the policy, fearing Balkan entanglement. In April 1993, Biden spent a week in the Balkans and held a tense three-hour meeting with Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević.NEWS,weblink Biden Played Less Than Key Role in Bosnia Legislation, Kessler, Glenn, The Washington Post, October 7, 2008, November 5, 2009, Glenn Kessler (journalist), Biden related that he told Milošević, "I think you're a damn war criminal and you should be tried as one." Biden wrote an amendment in 1992 to compel the Bush administration to arm the Bosnians, but deferred in 1994 to a somewhat softer stance preferred by the Clinton administration, before signing on the following year to a stronger measure sponsored by Bob Dole and Joe Lieberman. The engagement led to a successful NATO peacekeeping effort. Biden has called his role in affecting Balkans policy in the mid-1990s his "proudest moment in public life" that related to foreign policy. In 1999, during the Kosovo War, Biden supported the NATO bombing campaign against Serbia and Montenegro, and co-sponsored with his friend John McCain the McCain-Biden Kosovo Resolution, which called on President Clinton to use all necessary force, including ground troops, to confront Milosevic over Serbian actions in Kosovo.NEWS,weblink Biden, McCain Have a Friendship – and More – in Common, Holmes, Elizabeth, The Wall Street Journal, August 25, 2008, November 5, 2009, In 1998, Congressional Quarterly named Biden one of "Twelve Who Made a Difference" for playing a lead role in several foreign policy matters, including NATO enlargement and the successful passage of bills to streamline foreign affairs agencies and punish religious persecution overseas.Biden had voted against authorization for the Gulf War in 1991,NEWS,weblink Joe Biden respected – if not always popular – for foreign policy record, Richter, Paul, Levey, Noam N., Los Angeles Times, August 24, 2008, November 5, 2009, siding with 45 of the 55 Democratic senators; he said the U.S. was bearing almost all the burden in the anti-Iraq coalition.NEWS,weblink Congress Acts to Authorize War in Gulf, Clymer, Adam, The New York Times, January 13, 1991, Adam Clymer, Biden was a strong supporter of the 2001 war in Afghanistan, saying "Whatever it takes, we should do it."MAGAZINE, Crowley, Michael, HawkDown,weblink The New Republic, Even before Obama announced his run for president, Biden was warning that Afghanistan, not Iraq, was the "central front" in the war against Al Qaeda, requiring a major U.S. commitment. "Whatever it takes, we should do it," Biden said in February 2002. ", Regarding Iraq, Biden stated in 2002 that Saddam Hussein was a threat to national security, and that there was no option but to eliminate that threat.NEWS,weblink MTP Transcript for April 29, 2007, Tim Russert, MSNBC, April 29, 2007, 2, In October 2002, Biden voted in favor of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq, justifying the Iraq War. While he soon became a critic of the war and viewed his vote as a "mistake", he did not push to require a U.S. withdrawal. He supported the appropriations to pay for the occupation, but argued repeatedly that the war should be internationalized, that more soldiers were needed, and that the Bush administration should "level with the American people" about the cost and length of the conflict.Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 365.By late 2006, Biden's stance had shifted, and he opposed the troop surge of 2007, saying General David Petraeus was "dead, flat wrong" in believing the surge could work. Biden was instead a leading advocate for dividing Iraq into a loose federation of three ethnic states.NEWS,weblink Divided They Stand, but on Graves, Thom Shanker, The New York Times, August 19, 2007, In November 2006, Biden and Leslie H. Gelb, President Emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, released a comprehensive strategy to end sectarian violence in Iraq.NEWS,weblink Ned Parker, Raheem Salman, U.S. vote unites Iraqis in anger, Los Angeles Times, October 1, 2007, Rather than continuing the present approach or withdrawing, the plan called for "a third way": federalizing Iraq and giving Kurds, Shiites, and Sunnis "breathing room" in their own regions.Witcover, Joe Biden, pp. 572–573. In September 2007, a non-binding resolution passed the Senate endorsing such a scheme. However, the idea was unfamiliar, had no political constituency, and failed to gain traction. Iraq's political leadership united in denouncing the resolution as a de facto partitioning of the country, and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad issued a statement distancing itself.In March 2004, Biden secured the brief release of Libyan democracy activist and political prisoner Fathi Eljahmi, after meeting with leader Muammar Gaddafi in Tripoli.NEWS,weblink For a Critic, Libya's Nascent Openness Doesn't Apply, Smith, Craig S., The New York Times, December 27, 2004, November 5, 2009, Craig S. Smith, NEWS,weblink Support Builds for Libyan Dissident, Boustany, Nora, The Washington Post, November 16, 2006, November 5, 2009, In May 2008, Biden sharply criticized President George W. Bush for his speech to Israel's Knesset in which he suggested that some Democrats were acting in the same way some Western leaders did when they appeased Hitler in the runup to World War II. Biden stated: "This is bullshit. This is malarkey. This is outrageous. Outrageous for the president of the United States to go to a foreign country, sit in the Knesset ... and make this kind of ridiculous statement." Biden later apologized for using the expletive. Biden further stated, "Since when does this administration think that if you sit down, you have to eliminate the word 'no' from your vocabulary?"NEWS,weblink Dems fire back at Bush on 'appeasement' statement, Henry, Ed, CNN, May 16, 2008, September 2, 2008,

Delaware matters

File:BidenDoverAFB1997.jpg|thumb|right|Biden receiving a 1997 tour of a new facility at Delaware's Dover Air Force BaseDover Air Force BaseBiden was a familiar figure to his Delaware constituency, by virtue of his daily train commuting from there, and generally sought to attend to state needs. Biden was a strong supporter of increased Amtrak funding and rail security; he hosted barbecues and an annual Christmas dinner for the Amtrak crews, and they would sometimes hold the last train of the night a few minutes so he could catch it. He earned the nickname "Amtrak Joe" as a result (and in 2011, Amtrak's Wilmington Station was named the Joseph R. Biden Jr. Railroad Station, in honor of the over 7,000 trips he made from there).NEWS,weblink 'Amtrak Joe' Biden Gets His Own Train Station, Travers, Karen, ABC News, March 16, 2011, March 16, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110319050955weblink">weblink March 19, 2011, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Vice President Biden Gets Wilmington Amtrak Station Named For Him, The Huffington Post, March 19, 2011, July 27, 2016, He was an advocate for Delaware military installations, including Dover Air Force Base and New Castle Air National Guard Base.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Senate Approves $24.4 Million for Guard, Dover Air Force Bases, United States Senate for Thomas R. Carper, September 23, 2005, July 10, 2009, In 1975, Biden broke from liberal orthodoxy when he took legislative action to limit desegregation busing. In doing so, he said busing was a "bankrupt idea [that violated] the cardinal rule of common sense," and that his opposition would make it easier for other liberals to follow suit. Three years later, Wilmington's federally mandated cross-district busing plan generated much turmoil, and in trying to legislate a compromise solution, Biden found himself alienating both black and white voters for a while.NEWS,weblink Biden's Record on Race Is Scuffed by 3 Episodes, Broder, John M., The New York Times, September 17, 2008, November 2, 2008, Beginning in 1991, Biden served as an adjunct professor at the Widener University School of Law, Delaware's only law school, teaching a seminar on constitutional law.WEB,weblink Faculty: Joseph R. Biden, Jr., Widener University School of Law, September 24, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081006123224weblink">weblink October 6, 2008, mdy-all, The seminar was one of Widener's most popular, often with a waiting list for enrollment. Biden typically co-taught the course with another professor, taking on at least half the course minutes and sometimes flying back from overseas to make one of the classes.NEWS,weblink For Widener Law students, a teacher aims high, Purchla, Matt, Metro International, Metro Philadelphia, August 26, 2008, September 25, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081004214751weblink">weblink October 4, 2008, yes, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919152356weblink">weblink yes, September 19, 2008, For Widener Law students, a teacher aims high, Carey, Kathleen E., Delaware County Daily and Sunday Times, August 27, 2008, September 25, 2008, Biden was a sponsor of bankruptcy legislation during the 2000s, which was sought by MBNA, one of Delaware's largest companies, and other credit card issuers. Biden allowed an amendment to the bill to increase the homestead exemption for homeowners declaring bankruptcy and fought for an amendment to forbid anti-abortion felons from using bankruptcy to discharge fines; the overall bill was vetoed by Bill Clinton in 2000 but then finally passed as the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act in 2005, with Biden supporting it.Biden held up trade agreements with Russia when that country stopped importing U.S. chickens. The downstate Sussex County region is the nation's top chicken-producing area.In 2007, Biden requested and gained $67 million worth of projects for his constituents through congressional earmarks.NEWS,weblink Clinton tops 2008 rivals, gets $530M in earmarks, November 9, 2007, August 24, 2008, The Hill (newspaper), The Hill, Bolton, Alexander,

Reputation

(File:Joe Biden, official photo portrait 2.jpg|thumb|upright|Biden's official Senate photo (2005))Following his initial election in 1972, Biden was re-elected to six additional terms, in the elections of 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008, usually getting about 60 percent of the vote. He did not face strong opposition; Pete du Pont, then governor, chose not to run against him in 1984.Current Biography Yearbook 1987, p. 44. Biden spent 28 years as a junior senator due to the two-year seniority of his Republican colleague William V. Roth Jr. After Roth was defeated for re-election by Tom Carper in 2000, Biden became Delaware's senior senator. He then became the longest-serving senator in Delaware historyNEWS,weblink Obama introduces Biden as running mate, CNN, August 23, 2008, September 18, 2008, and, {{as of|2018|lc=y}}, was the 18th longest serving senator in the history of the United States.WEB, Longest Serving Senators,weblink United States Senate, United States Senate, August 26, 2018, In May 1999, Biden became the youngest senator to cast 10,000 votes.WEB,weblink Senator Joseph Biden (Democrat, Delaware), U.S. State Department, March 2001, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080712124319weblink">weblink July 12, 2008, yes, With a net worth between $59,000 and $366,000, and almost no outside income or investment income, Biden was consistently ranked as one of the least wealthy members of the Senate.NEWS,weblink fee required, Demographics part of calculation: Biden adds experience, yes, but he could also help with Catholics, blue-collar whites and women, Wallsten, Peter, Los Angeles Times, August 24, 2008, August 25, 2008, NEWS,weblink Associated Press, Boston Globe, A look at Biden's net worth, August 24, 2008, February 6, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120725145844weblink">weblink July 25, 2012, NEWS,weblink Biden Releases Tax Returns, in Part to Pressure Rivals, Broder, John M., The New York Times, September 13, 2008, September 13, 2008, Biden stated that he was listed as the second-poorest member in Congress; he was not proud of the distinction, but attributed it to having been elected early in his career.NEWS,weblink Biden tax returns revealed, Mooney, Alexander, CNN, September 12, 2008, September 13, 2008, Biden realized early in his senatorial career how vulnerable poorer public officials are to offers of financial contributions in exchange for policy support, and he pushed campaign finance reform measures during his first term. Biden earned $15.6 million in 2017-2018.NEWS, Viser, Matt, Narayanswamy, Anu, Joe Biden earned $15.6 million in the two years after leaving the vice presidency, The Washington Post, July 9, 2019,weblink July 16, 2019, By 2019, Biden's middle class status was referred to as a "state of mind".NEWS, HOLLY OTTERBEIN, MARC CAPUTO, ‘Middle-Class Joe’ rakes in millions,weblink 15 April 2019, Politico, 18 March 2019, en, For Biden and his supporters, “middle class” isn’t so much a financial status as it is a state of mind, a sensibility that’s ingrained in his political DNA., Biden's assets increased to between $2.2 million and $8 million.NEWS, Eder, Steve, Glueck, Katie, Joe Biden's Tax Returns Show More Than $15 Million in Income After 2016, The New York Times, July 9, 2019,weblink July 16, 2019, During his years as a senator, Biden amassed a reputation for loquaciousness,NEWS,weblink Transcripts, The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer, The Situation Room, CNN, January 12, 2006, September 21, 2008, NEWS,weblink A Biden Problem: Foot in Mouth, Tapper, Jake, ABC News, January 31, 2007, September 21, 2008, Jake Tapper, with his questions and remarks during Senate hearings being known as long-winded.NEWS,weblink Senate Struggles to Pay Attention to the Remapping of NATO, Seelye, Katharine Q., The New York Times, March 19, 1998, September 21, 2008, NEWS,weblink Halperin on Biden: Pros and Cons, Halperin, Mark, Time, August 23, 2008, September 21, 2008, Mark Halperin, He has been a strong speaker and debater and a frequent and effective guest on Sunday morning talk shows. In public appearances, he is known to deviate from prepared remarks at will.NEWS,weblink Biden, enemy of the prepared remarks, Smith, Ben, Politico, December 2, 2008, December 2, 2008, According to political analyst Mark Halperin, he has shown "a persistent tendency to say silly, offensive, and off-putting things"; The New York Times writes that Biden's "weak filters make him capable of blurting out pretty much anything". Journalist James Traub has written that "Biden's vanity and his regard for his own gifts seem considerable even by the rarefied standards of the U.S. Senate."The political writer Howard Fineman has said, "Biden is not an academic, he's not a theoretical thinker, he's a great street pol. He comes from a long line of working people in Scranton—auto salesmen, car dealers, people who know how to make a sale. He has that great Irish gift." Political columnist David S. Broder has viewed Biden as having grown since he came to Washington and since his failed 1988 presidential bid: "He responds to real people—that's been consistent throughout. And his ability to understand himself and deal with other politicians has gotten much much better." Traub concludes that "Biden is the kind of fundamentally happy person who can be as generous toward others as he is to himself."

2008 presidential campaign

(File:Joe Biden Presidential Campaign Logo 08.svg|thumb|Biden's 2008 campaign logo)Biden had thought about running for president again ever since his failed 1988 bid.{{refn|group=nb| Biden chose not to run for president in 1992 in part because he had voted against the resolution authorizing the Gulf War. He considered joining the Democratic field of candidates for the 2004 presidential race but in August 2003 decided otherwise, saying he did not have enough time and any attempt would be too much of a long shot.NEWS,weblink Sen. Biden not running for president, CNN, August 12, 2003, September 18, 2008, Around 2004, Biden was also widely discussed as a possible Secretary of State in a Democratic administration.NEWS,weblink August 24, 2008, The Times, London, Kerry to opt for the senator who copied Kinnock, Baker, Gerard, October 29, 2004, }}Biden declared his candidacy for President on January 31, 2007, after having discussed running for months prior.NEWS,weblink Biden Stumbles at the Starting Gate, The Washington Post, August 23, 2008, January 1, 2007, Balz, Dan, Dan Balz, Biden made a formal announcement to Tim Russert on Meet the Press, stating he would "be the best Biden I can be".NEWS,weblink The 'Best Biden' for President?, Salon.com, Salon, August 23, 2008, Koppelman, Alex, January 8, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080724011704weblink">weblink July 24, 2008, In January 2006, Delaware newspaper columnist Harry F. Themal wrote that Biden "occupies the sensible center of the Democratic Party".NEWS, Biden says he's on track for 2008 run, Themal, Harry F., The News Journal, January 23, 2006, Themal concludes that this is the position Biden desires, and that in a campaign "he plans to stress the dangers to the security of the average American, not just from the terrorist threat, but from the lack of health assistance, crime, and energy dependence on unstable parts of the world".File:Sen. Joe Biden attends a Creston house party.jpg|thumb|right|Biden campaigning at a house party in Creston, IowaCreston, IowaDuring his campaign, Biden focused on the war in Iraq and his support for the implementation of the Biden-Gelb plan to achieve political success. He touted his record in the Senate as the head of major congressional committees and his experience on foreign policy. Despite speculation to the contrary,NEWS,weblink A Candidate For Secretary Of State, The New York Observer, June 12, 2007, August 23, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919053641weblink">weblink September 19, 2008, Biden rejected the notion of accepting the position of Secretary of State, focusing only on the presidency. At a 2007 campaign event, Biden said, "I know a lot of my opponents out there say I'd be a great Secretary of State. Seriously, every one of them. Do you watch any of the debates? 'Joe's right, Joe's right, Joe's right.{{'"}}NEWS,weblink Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Associated Press, Biden says he wouldn't be secretary of state, November 30, 2007, 12A, Other candidates' comments that "Joe is right" in the Democratic debates were converted into a Biden campaign theme and ad.WEB,weblink YouTube, Joe is Right, August 23, 2008,weblink July 2, 2008, no, In mid-2007, Biden stressed his foreign policy expertise compared to Obama's, saying of the latter, "I think he can be ready, but right now I don't believe he is. The presidency is not something that lends itself to on-the-job training."NEWS,weblink Transcript: The Democratic Debate, ABC News, August 19, 2007, September 24, 2008, Biden also said that Obama was copying some of his foreign policy ideas.NEWS,weblink After Cheney, Traub, James, The New York Times Magazine, November 24, 2009, MM34, James Traub, Biden was noted for his one-liners on the campaign trail, saying of Republican then-frontrunner Rudy Giuliani at the debate on October 30, 2007, in Philadelphia, "There's only three things he mentions in a sentence: a noun, and a verb and 9/11."NEWS,weblink Concord Monitor, A noun, a verb and 9/11, Farrell, Joelle, August 23, 2008, November 1, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080828010554weblink">weblink August 28, 2008, Overall, Biden's debate performances were an effective mixture of humor, and sharp and surprisingly disciplined comments.Biden made remarks during the campaign that attracted controversy. On the day of his January 2007 announcement, he spoke of fellow Democratic candidate and Senator Barack Obama: "I mean, you got the first mainstream African-American who is articulate and bright and clean and a nice-looking guy, I mean, that's a storybook, man."WEB,weblink Biden Unbound: Lays Into Clinton, Obama, Edwards, Horowitz, Jason, The New York Observer, February 4, 2007, {{refn|group=nb| Several linguists and political analysts stated that the correct transcription includes a comma after the word "African-American", which one said "would significantly change the meaning (and the degree of offensiveness) of Biden's comment".WEB,weblink Language Log: Biden's Comma, Liberman, Mark, February 1, 2007, Language Log, Mark Liberman, }} This comment undermined his campaign as soon as it began and significantly damaged his fund-raising capabilities;Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, p. 336. it later took second place on Time magazine's list of Top 10 Campaign Gaffes for 2007.NEWS,weblink Top 10 Campaign Gaffes, Lim, Christine, M. J. Stephey, Time, August 20, 2008, December 9, 2007, Biden had earlier been criticized in July 2006 for a remark he made about his support among Indian Americans: "I've had a great relationship. In Delaware, the largest growth in population is Indian-Americans moving from India. You cannot go to a 7-Eleven or a Dunkin' Donuts unless you have a slight Indian accent. I'm not joking."NEWS,weblink Biden's Comments Ruffle Feathers, Senator Forced To Explain His Remarks About Indian-Americans, July 7, 2006, August 24, 2008, CBS News, Biden later said the remark was not intended to be derogatory.{{refn|group=nb| The Indian-American activist who was on the receiving end of Biden's comment stated that he was "100 percent behind [Biden] because he did nothing wrong."NEWS, John, Distaso, Indian-American activist defends Sen. Biden,weblink New Hampshire Union Leader, July 10, 2006, February 1, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171011194037weblink">weblink October 11, 2017, yes, mdy-all, }}Overall, Biden had difficulty raising funds, struggled to draw people to his rallies, and failed to gain traction against the high-profile candidacies of Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton;WEB,weblink Conventions 2008: Sen. Joseph Biden (D), National Journal, August 25, 2008, September 16, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080906210353weblink">weblink September 6, 2008, no, he never rose above single digits in the national polls of the Democratic candidates. In the initial contest on January 3, 2008, Biden placed fifth in the Iowa caucuses, garnering slightly less than one percent of the state delegates.WEB,weblink Iowa Democratic Party Caucus Results, Iowa Democratic Party, August 29, 2008, Biden withdrew from the race that evening, saying "There is nothing sad about tonight. ... I feel no regret."NEWS,weblink Biden, Dodd Withdraw From Race, Murray, Shailagh, The Washington Post, January 4, 2008, August 29, 2008, Despite the lack of success, Biden's stature in the political world rose as the result of his 2008 campaign. In particular, it changed the relationship between Biden and Obama. Although the two had served together on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, they had not been close, with Biden having resented Obama's quick rise to political stardom,Wolffe, Renegade, p. 218. and Obama having viewed Biden as garrulous and patronizing.Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 28, 337–338. Now, having gotten to know each other during 2007, Obama appreciated Biden's campaigning style and appeal to working class voters, and Biden was convinced that Obama was "the real deal".

2008 vice presidential campaign

File:Biden Obama 3b.jpg|thumb|right|Joe Biden speaking at the August 23, 2008 vice presidential announcement in Springfield, Illinois, while presidential nominee Barack ObamaBarack ObamaSince shortly following Biden's withdrawal from the presidential race, Obama had been privately telling Biden that he was interested in finding an important place for him in a possible Obama administration.NEWS,weblink Biden's Brief, Lizza, Ryan, The New Yorker, October 20, 2008, November 24, 2008, Ryan Lizza, Biden declined Obama's first request to vet him for the vice presidential slot, fearing the vice presidency would represent a loss in status and voice from his Senate position, but subsequently changed his mind. In a June 22, 2008, interview on NBC's Meet the Press, Biden confirmed that, although he was not actively seeking a spot on the ticket, he would accept the vice presidential nomination if offered.NEWS,weblink Biden: I'd say yes to being VP, CNN, August 23, 2008, June 23, 2008, In early August, Obama and Biden met in secret to discuss a possible vice-presidential relationship, and the two developed a strong personal rapport. On August 22, 2008, Barack Obama announced that Biden would be his running mate.NEWS, Associated Press, Obama's veep message to supporters,weblink The Washington Post, August 23, 2008, August 23, 2008, WEB,weblink Text message is out and it's official, WEB, BarackObama.com,weblink Welcome the Next Vice President, August 24, 2008, The New York Times reported that the strategy behind the choice reflected a desire to fill out the ticket with someone who has foreign policy and national security experience—and not to help the ticket win a swing state or to emphasize Obama's "change" message.NEWS, Adam, Nagourney, Adam Nagourney, Jeff Zeleny, Obama Chooses Biden as Running Mate,weblink The New York Times, August 23, 2008, August 23, 2008, Other observers pointed out Biden's appeal to middle class and blue-collar voters, as well as his willingness to aggressively challenge Republican nominee John McCain in a way that Obama seemed uncomfortable doing at times.NEWS, E.J., Dionne, Tramps Like Us: How Joe Biden will reassure working class voters and change the tenor of this week's convention,weblink The New Republic, August 25, 2008, August 25, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080828210626weblink">weblink August 28, 2008, Wolffe, Renegade, p. 217. In accepting Obama's offer, Biden ruled out to him the possibility of running for president again in 2016 (although comments by Biden in subsequent years seemed to back off that stance, with Biden not wanting to diminish his political power by appearing uninterested in advancement).NEWS,weblink VP Biden Keeping the Door Open for 2016?, Travers, Karen, June 25, 2009, Political Punch, ABC News, October 14, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101017172435weblink">weblink October 17, 2010, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Biden in 2016?, CNN, October 21, 2011, October 29, 2011, Biden was officially nominated for vice president on August 27 by voice vote at the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.NEWS,weblink Democrats Formally Nominate Barack Obama for U.S. Presidency, Alan, Gray, NewsBlaze, August 29, 2008, After his selection as a vice presidential candidate, Biden was criticized by his own Roman Catholic Diocese of Wilmington Bishop Michael Saltarelli for not opposing abortion.WEB,weblink Scranton Bishop Says He will Refuse Communion to Joseph Biden, Lifesitenews.com, September 2, 2008, September 10, 2008, The diocese confirmed that even if elected vice president, Biden would not be allowed to speak at Catholic schools.NEWS,weblink Biden's Bishop Will not Permit Him, Even if Elected VP, to Speak at Catholic Schools, Westen, John-Henry, Catholic Exchange, August 28, 2008, October 2, 2008, Biden was soon barred from receiving Holy Communion by the bishop of his original hometown of Scranton, Pennsylvania, because of his support for abortion rights;NEWS, David, Kirkpatrick, Abortion Issue Again Dividing Catholic Votes,weblink The New York Times, September 16, 2008, September 19, 2008, however, Biden did continue to receive Communion at his local Delaware parish. Scranton became a flash point in the competition for swing state Catholic voters between the Democratic campaign and liberal Catholic groups, who stressed that other social issues should be considered as much or more than abortion, and many bishops and conservative Catholics, who maintained abortion was paramount.NEWS,weblink A Fight Among Catholics Over Which Party Best Reflects Church Teachings, Kirkpatrick, David D., The New York Times, October 4, 2008, October 5, 2008, Biden said he believed that life began at conception but that he would not impose his personal religious views on others.NEWS, Kate, Phillips, As a Matter of Faith, Biden Says Life Begins at Conception,weblink The New York Times, September 7, 2008, August 7, 2008, Bishop Saltarelli had previously stated regarding stances similar to Biden's: "No one today would accept this statement from any public servant: 'I am personally opposed to human slavery and racism but will not impose my personal conviction in the legislative arena.' Likewise, none of us should accept this statement from any public servant: 'I am personally opposed to abortion but will not impose my personal conviction in the legislative arena.{{'"}}File:Joe Biden nomination DNC 2008.jpg|thumb|right|Biden is nominated as the Democratic vice presidential candidate during the third night of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in DenverDenverBiden's vice presidential campaigning gained little media visibility, as far greater press attention was focused on the Republican running mate, Alaskan Governor Sarah Palin.NEWS,weblink Meanwhile, the Other No. 2 Keeps On Punching, Leibovich, Mark, The New York Times, September 19, 2008, September 20, 2008, NEWS,weblink Joe Who?, Tapper, Jake, ABC News, September 14, 2008, September 15, 2008, Jake Tapper, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915055913weblink">weblink September 15, 2008, mdy-all, During one week in September 2008, for instance, the Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism found that Biden was included in only five percent of the news coverage of the race, far less than for the other three candidates on the tickets.WEB,weblink Northern Exposure Still Dominates the News, Pew Research Center, Jurkowitz, Mark, September 14, 2008, November 24, 2008, Biden nevertheless focused on campaigning in economically challenged areas of swing states and trying to win over blue-collar Democrats, especially those who had supported Hillary Clinton. Biden attacked McCain heavily, despite a long-standing personal friendship;{{refn|group=nb| Biden admired McCain politically as well as personally; in May 2004, he had urged McCain to run as vice president with presumptive Democratic presidential nominee John Kerry, saying the cross-party ticket would help heal the "vicious rift" in U.S. politics.NEWS,weblink McCain Urged to Join Kerry Ticket,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040803085719weblink">weblink August 3, 2004, Reuters, MSNBC, May 16, 2004,
}} he would say, "That guy I used to know, he's gone. It literally saddens me." As the financial crisis of 2007–2010 reached a peak with the liquidity crisis of September 2008 and the proposed bailout of the United States financial system became a major factor in the campaign, Biden voted in favor of the $700 billion Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, which passed the Senate 74–25.NEWS,weblink Senate Passes Economic Rescue Package, NY1, October 1, 2008, October 2, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081005022401weblink">weblink October 5, 2008, mdy-all,
On October 2, 2008, Biden participated in the campaign's one vice presidential debate with Palin. Post-debate polls found that while Palin exceeded many voters' expectations, Biden had won the debate overall.Witcover, Joe Biden, pp. 655–661. On October 5, Biden suspended campaign events for a few days after the death of his mother-in-law.NEWS,weblink Biden's mother-in-law dies, Marquardt, Alexander, CNN, October 5, 2008, During the final days of the campaign, Biden focused on less-populated, older, less well-off areas of battleground states, especially in Florida, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, where polling indicated he was popular and where Obama had not campaigned or performed well in the Democratic primaries.NEWS,weblink Hitting the Backroads, and Having Less to Say, Broder, John M., The New York Times, October 30, 2008, October 31, 2008, NEWS,weblink Where have you gone, Joe Biden?, McGrane, Victoria, The Politico, November 3, 2008, November 3, 2008, He also campaigned in some normally Republican states, as well as in areas with large Catholic populations.Under instructions from the Obama campaign, Biden kept his speeches succinct and tried to avoid off-hand remarks, such as one about Obama's being tested by a foreign power soon after taking office, which had attracted negative attention.NEWS,weblink Hidin' Biden: Reining In a Voluble No. 2, Tumulty, Karen, Time, October 29, 2008, November 1, 2008, Privately, Obama was frustrated by Biden's remarks, saying "How many times is Biden gonna say something stupid?" Obama campaign staffers referred to Biden blunders as "Joe bombs" and kept Biden uninformed about strategy discussions, which in turn irked Biden. Relations between the two campaigns became strained for a month, until Biden apologized on a call to Obama and the two built a stronger partnership.Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 411–414, 419. Publicly, Obama strategist David Axelrod said that any unexpected comments had been outweighed by Biden's high popularity ratings.NEWS, Biden reliable running mate despite gaffes, Associated Press, Asbury Park Press, October 26, 2008, Nationally, Biden had a 60 percent favorability rating in a Pew Research Center poll, compared to Palin's 44 percent.On November 4, 2008, Obama was elected President and Biden was elected Vice President of the United States.NEWS,weblink Barack Obama wins presidential election, CNN, November 5, 2008, November 4, 2008, The Obama–Biden ticket won 365 Electoral College votes to McCain–Palin's 173,NEWS, Franke-Ruta, Garance,weblink McCain Takes Missouri, The Washington Post, November 19, 2008, November 19, 2008, and had a 53–46 percent edge in the nationwide popular vote.NEWS,weblink President – Election Center 2008, CNN, November 19, 2008, Biden had continued to run for his Senate seat as well as for Vice President,NEWS,weblink Biden Wages 2 Campaigns At Once, Associated Press, August 24, 2008, August 29, 2008, Randall, Chase, Fox News, as permitted by Delaware law.Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 366.{{refn|group=nb|Biden was the fourth person to run for Vice President and reelection to the Senate simultaneously after Lyndon Johnson, Lloyd Bentsen, and Joe Lieberman, and the second to have won both elections after Johnson.}} On November 4, Biden was also re-elected as senator, defeating Republican Christine O'Donnell.NEWS,weblink Biden wins 7th Senate term but may not serve, Nuckols, Ben, Associated Press, USA Today, November 4, 2008, February 6, 2009, Having won both races, Biden made a point of holding off his resignation from the Senate so that he could be sworn in for his seventh term on January 6, 2009.NEWS,weblink A bittersweet oath for Biden, Gaudiano, Nicole, The News Journal, January 7, 2009, February 7, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090212100305weblink">weblink February 12, 2009, He became the youngest senator ever to start a seventh full term, and said, "In all my life, the greatest honor bestowed upon me has been serving the people of Delaware as their United States senator." Biden cast his last Senate vote on January 15, supporting the release of the second $350 billion for the Troubled Asset Relief Program.NEWS,weblink Senate Releases $350 Billion in Bailout Funds to Obama, Fox News, January 15, 2009, January 25, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090119075630weblink">weblink January 19, 2009, yes, mdy-all, Biden resigned from the Senate later that day;{{refn|group=nb| Delaware's Democratic governor, Ruth Ann Minner, announced on November 24, 2008, that she would appoint Biden's longtime senior adviser Ted Kaufman to succeed Biden in the Senate. Kaufman said he would only serve two years, until Delaware's special Senate election in 2010.NEWS,weblink Kaufman Picked by Governor to Fill Biden Senate Seat (Update 3), Milford, Phil, Bloomberg News, November 24, 2008, November 24, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081116003829weblink">weblink November 16, 2008, mdy-all, Biden's son Beau ruled himself out of the 2008 selection process due to his impending tour in Iraq with the Delaware Army National Guard.NEWS,weblink Ted Kaufman to succeed Biden in Senate, Kraushaar, Josh, The Politico, November 24, 2008, November 24, 2008, He was a possible candidate for the 2010 special election, but in early 2010 said he would not run for the seat.NEWS,weblink Biden's Son Will Not Run for Delaware's Open Senate Seat, Hulse, Carl, The New York Times, January 25, 2010, January 25, 2010, }} in emotional farewell remarks on the Senate floor, where he had spent most of his adult life, Biden said, "Every good thing I have seen happen here, every bold step taken in the 36-plus years I have been here, came not from the application of pressure by interest groups, but through the maturation of personal relationships."NEWS,weblink Biden and Clinton Say Goodbye to Senate, Becker, Bernie, The New York Times, January 15, 2009, January 25, 2009,

Vice Presidency (2009–2017)

Post-election transition

File:Joe Biden and Dick Cheney at VP residence.jpg|thumb|right|Vice President-elect Biden meets with Vice President Dick Cheney at Number One Observatory CircleNumber One Observatory CircleOn November 4, 2008, Biden was elected Vice President of the United States as Obama's running mate.Soon after the election, he was appointed chairman of President-elect Obama's transition team. During the transition phase of the Obama administration, Biden said he was in daily meetings with Obama and that McCain was still his friend.NEWS,weblink Biden talks transition, says McCain's 'still my friend', Marquardt, Alexander, CNN, November 6, 2008, November 6, 2008, The U.S. Secret Service codename given to Biden is "Celtic", referencing his Irish roots.NEWS,weblink 'Secret' Obama code name revealed, BBC News, November 13, 2008, November 17, 2008, Biden chose veteran Democratic lawyer and aide Ron Klain to be his chief of staff,NEWS, Biden picks former Gore aide as chief of staff, Reuters, November 13, 2008,weblink November 13, 2008, Steve, Holland, and Time Washington bureau chief Jay Carney to be his director of communications.NEWS,weblink Report: Carney joins Biden team, Calderone, Michael, The Politico, December 15, 2008, December 15, 2008, Biden intended to eliminate some of the explicit roles assumed by the vice presidency of his predecessor, Dick Cheney,NEWS,weblink Biden to shrink VP role – big time, Lee, Carol E., The Politico, December 14, 2008, December 23, 2008, who had established himself as an autonomous power center. Otherwise, Biden said he would not emulate any previous vice presidency, but would instead seek to provide advice and counsel on every critical decision Obama would make.NEWS,weblink Biden says he'll be different vice president, CNN, December 22, 2008, December 22, 2008, Biden said he was closely involved in all the cabinet appointments that were made during the transition. Biden was also named to head the new White House Task Force on Working Families, an initiative aimed at improving the economic well being of the middle class.NEWS,weblink What Obama promised Biden, Hornick, Ed and Levs, Josh, CNN, December 21, 2008, December 23, 2008, In his last act as Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, Biden went on a trip to Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan during the second week of January 2009, meeting with the leadership of those countries.NEWS,weblink 'Senator' Biden's trip raises concerns, Lee, Carol E., The Politico, January 6, 2009, January 9, 2009,

First term (2009–2013)

File:Joe Biden sworn in 1-20-09 hires 090120-N-0696M-204a.jpg|thumb|right|Biden is sworn into office by Associate Justice John Paul StevensJohn Paul StevensOn January 20, 2009, at noon, Biden became the 47th Vice President of the United States, sworn into the office by Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens.NEWS,weblink In culminating moment, Biden is vice president, Associated Press, OregonLive.com, January 20, 2009, July 27, 2016, Biden is the first United States Vice President from DelawareNEWS,weblink Think you know your election trivia?, CNN, November 3, 2008, November 9, 2008, and the first Roman Catholic to attain that office.NEWS,weblink VP's home awaits if Biden chooses, Gaudiano, Nicole, The News Journal, November 6, 2008, November 8, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081109060406weblink">weblink November 9, 2008, File:Barack Obama Walking With Joe Biden.jpg|thumb|right|President Obama walking with Vice President Biden at the White HouseWhite HouseIn the early months of the Obama administration, Biden assumed the role of an important behind-the-scenes counselor.NEWS,weblink Speaking Freely, Biden Finds Influential Role, Leibovich, Mark, The New York Times, March 28, 2009, March 31, 2009, One role was to adjudicate disputes between Obama's "team of rivals". The president compared Biden's efforts to a basketball player "who does a bunch of things that don't show up in the stat sheet". Biden played a key role in gaining Senate support for several major pieces of Obama legislation, and was a main factor in convincing Senator Arlen Specter to switch from the Republican to the Democratic party.NEWS, Lee, Carol, Biden worked on Specter '100 days',weblink June 23, 2012, April 29, 2009, Biden lost an internal debate to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton regarding his opposition to sending 21,000 new troops to the war in Afghanistan.NEWS,weblink In a supporting role, Clinton takes a low-key approach at State Dept., Dilanian, Ken, USA Today, June 11, 2009, July 22, 2009, NEWS,weblink Hillary Clinton toils in the shadows, Smith, Ben, The Politico, June 23, 2009, July 22, 2009, His skeptical voice was still considered valuable within the administration, however, and later in 2009 Biden's views achieved more prominence within the White House as Obama reconsidered his Afghanistan strategy.NEWS,weblink An Inconvenient Truth Teller, Bailey, Holly, October 10, 2009, Newsweek, November 6, 2009, Thomas, Evan, Evan Thomas, Biden made visits to Iraq about once every two months, including trips to Baghdad in August and September 2009 to listen to Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki and reiterate U.S. stances on Iraq's future;NEWS,weblink Biden Pushes Iraqi Leaders On Vote Law, Oil-Bid Perks, Wilson, Scott, The Washington Post, September 17, 2009, September 17, 2009, by this time he had become the administration's point man in delivering messages to Iraqi leadership about expected progress in the country. More generally, overseeing Iraq policy became Biden's responsibility: the president is said to have put it as "Joe, you do Iraq".NEWS,weblink Breaking Up: Maliki and Biden, Osnos, Evan, The New Yorker, August 12, 2014, August 26, 2015, Biden said Iraq "could be one of the great achievements of this administration".NEWS,weblink Vice President Biden: Iraq "Could Be One of the Great Achievements of This Administration", ABC News, February 11, 2010, Biden's January 2010 visit to Iraq in the midst of turmoil over banned candidates from the upcoming Iraqi parliamentary election resulted in 59 of the several hundred candidates being reinstated by the Iraqi government two days later.NEWS,weblink Iraq reinstates 59 election candidates, Agence France-Presse, January 25, 2010, By 2012, Biden had made eight trips there, but his oversight of U.S. policy in Iraq receded with the exit in 2011 of U.S. troops.NEWS,weblink The war over President Obama's new war in Iraq, Crowley, Michael, Politico, November 9, 2014, August 26, 2015, Biden was also in charge of the oversight role for infrastructure spending from the Obama stimulus package intended to help counteract the ongoing recession, and stressed that only worthy projects should get funding.NEWS,weblink What Happened to the Stimulus?, Scherer, Michael, Time, July 1, 2009, July 8, 2009, He talked with hundreds of governors, mayors, and other local officials in this role. During this period, Biden was satisfied that no major instances of waste or corruption had occurred, and when he completed that role in February 2011, he said that the number of fraud incidents with stimulus monies had been less than one percent.NEWS,weblink 'Sheriff Joe' Biden Touts Recovery Act Success – and Hands Over His Badge, Travers, Karen, ABC News, February 17, 2011, March 19, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221153327weblink">weblink February 21, 2011, mdy-all, File:US Navy 090514-N-4451V-548 Vice President Joe Biden meets with Basic Underwater Demolition-SEAL (BUDS) students at Naval Amphibious Base Coronado.jpg|thumb|Biden speaks to Navy SEAL trainees, NAB Coronado, California, May 2009]]File:President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden shake hands in the Oval Office following a phone call with House Speaker John Boehner securing a bipartisan deal to reduce the nation's deficit and avoid default.jpg|thumb|right|President Obama congratulates Biden for his role in shaping the debt ceiling deal that led to the Budget Control Act of 2011Budget Control Act of 2011File:Obama and Biden await updates on bin Laden.jpg|thumb|right|Biden, Obama and the U.S. national security team gathered in the White House Situation Room to monitor the progress of the May 2011 U.S. mission to kill Osama bin Laden.]]It took some time for the cautious Obama and the blunt, rambling Biden to work out ways of dealing with each other. In late April 2009, Biden's off-message response to a question during the beginning of the swine flu outbreak, that he would advise family members against travelling on airplanes or subways, led to a swift retraction from the White House.NEWS,weblink White House adjusts Biden's swine flu advice, Silva, Mark, Parsons, Christi, Los Angeles Times, May 1, 2009, May 28, 2009, The remark revived Biden's reputation for gaffes,NEWS,weblink White House tempers Biden's swine flu advice, Boston Globe, May 1, 2009, May 28, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090505114058weblink">weblink May 5, 2009, and led to a spate of late-night television jokes themed on him being a loose-talking buffoon.NEWS,weblink The Week's Best Late-Night Jokes, Kurtzman, Daniel, About.com, May 8, 2009, May 28, 2009, NEWS,weblink The Week's Best Late-Night Jokes, Kurtzman, Daniel, About.com, May 22, 2009, May 28, 2009, In the face of persistently rising unemployment through July 2009, Biden acknowledged that the administration had "misread how bad the economy was" but maintained confidence that the stimulus package would create many more jobs once the pace of expenditures picked up.NEWS,weblink Biden: 'We misread how bad the economy was', Associated Press, MSNBC, July 5, 2009, July 9, 2009, The same month, Secretary of State Clinton quickly disavowed Biden's remarks disparaging Russia as a power, but despite any missteps, Biden still retained Obama's confidence and was increasingly influential within the administration.NEWS,weblink Despite fumbles, Biden's a player, Nicholas, Peter, Richter, Paul, Los Angeles Times, August 19, 2009, August 22, 2009, On March 23, 2010, a microphone picked up Biden telling the president that his signing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was "a big ... deal", using an adjective beginning with "f", during live national news telecasts. White House press secretary Robert Gibbs replied via Twitter "And yes Mr. Vice President, you're right ..."NEWS,weblink At White House, Biden's Expletive Caught on Open Mic, Herszenhorn, David M., The New York Times, March 23, 2010, March 23, 2010, Despite their different personalities, Obama and Biden formed a friendship, partly based around Obama's daughter Sasha and Biden's granddaughter Maisy, who attended Sidwell Friends School together.Biden's most important role within the administration was to question assumptions, playing a contrarian role. Obama said that "The best thing about Joe is that when we get everybody together, he really forces people to think and defend their positions, to look at things from every angle, and that is very valuable for me."NEWS,weblink Joe Biden, 'the skunk at the family picnic', Cummings, Jeanne, The Politico, September 16, 2009, September 17, 2009, Another senior Obama advisor said Biden "is always prepared to be the skunk at the family picnic to make sure we are as intellectually honest as possible". On June 11, 2010, Biden represented the United States at the opening ceremony of the World Cup, attended the England v. U.S. game which was tied 1–1, and visited Egypt, Kenya, and South Africa.NEWS,weblink Biden visits South Africa as World Cup begins, CNN, June 13, 2010, June 12, 2010, Throughout, Joe and Jill Biden maintained a relaxed atmosphere at their official residence in Washington, often entertaining some of their grandchildren, and regularly returned to their home in Delaware.NEWS,weblink Joe and Jill Biden's 'regular' lives, Parnes, Amie, Politico (newspaper), Politico, June 28, 2011, June 28, 2011, Biden campaigned heavily for Democrats in the 2010 midterm elections, maintaining an attitude of optimism in the face of general predictions of large-scale losses for the party. Following large-scale Republican gains in the elections and the departure of White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel, Biden's past relationships with Republicans in Congress became more important.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden expands role as White House link to Congress, Lee, Carol E., Bresnahan, John, Politico (newspaper), Politico, December 9, 2010, December 10, 2010, NEWS,weblink As the Ground Shifts, Biden Plays a Bigger Role, Cooper, Helene, The New York Times, December 11, 2010, December 13, 2010, He led the successful administration effort to gain Senate approval for the New START treaty. In December 2010, Biden's advocacy within the White House for a middle ground, followed by his direct negotiations with Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, were instrumental in producing the administration's compromise tax package that revolved around a temporary extension of the Bush tax cuts.NEWS,weblink Biden and G.O.P. Leader Helped Hammer Out Bipartisan Tax Accord, Hulse, Carl, Calmes, Jackie, The New York Times, December 7, 2010, December 8, 2010, Biden then took the lead in trying to sell the agreement to a reluctant Democratic caucus in Congress,NEWS,weblink Democrats Skeptical of Obama on New Tax Plan, Herszenhorn, David M., Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, The New York Times, December 7, 2010, December 8, 2010, which was passed as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010.In foreign policy, Biden supported the NATO-led military intervention in Libya in 2011.WEB,weblink Kadafi death: Joe Biden says 'NATO got it right' in Libya, Michael A., Memoli, October 20, 2011, LA Times, Biden has supported closer economic ties with Russia.NEWS, Biden backs Russia WTO bid, praises Medvedev,weblink Reuters, March 9, 2011, In March 2011, Obama detailed Biden to lead negotiations between both houses of Congress and the White House in resolving federal spending levels for the rest of the year, and avoiding a government shutdown.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120729195403weblink">weblink yes, July 29, 2012, Obama Welcomes Budget Deal; Biden to Lead Talks, Reuters, CNBC, March 2, 2011, March 9, 2011, By May 2011, a "Biden panel" with six congressional members was trying to reach a bipartisan deal on raising the U.S. debt ceiling as part of an overall deficit reduction plan.NEWS,weblink Q+A: Debt and deficit talks in early stages, Reid, Tim, Reuters, May 16, 2011, May 17, 2011, NEWS,weblink Biden tasked with achieving consensus on cutting deficit, Gaudiano, Nicole, The News Journal, May 4, 2011, May 17, 2011, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} The U.S. debt ceiling crisis developed over the next couple of months, but it was again Biden's relationship with McConnell that proved to be a key factor in breaking a deadlock and finally bringing about a bipartisan deal to resolve it, in the form of the Budget Control Act of 2011, signed on August 2, 2011, the same day that an unprecedented U.S. default had loomed.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden, Mitch McConnell and the making of a debt deal, Thrush, Glenn, Brown, Carrie Budoff, Raju, Manu, Bresnahan, John, Politico (newspaper), Politico, August 2, 2011, August 4, 2011, NEWS,weblink The real drama was in private as debt deal hatched, Associated Press, Boston Herald, August 3, 2011, August 4, 2011, {{Dead link|date=January 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}NEWS,weblink Special report: How Washington took the U.S. to the brink, Reuters, Bohan, Caren Bohan, Sullivan, Andy, Ferraro, Thomas, August 3, 2011, August 4, 2011, Biden had spent the most time bargaining with Congress on the debt question of anyone in the administration, and one Republican staffer said, "Biden's the only guy with real negotiating authority, and [McConnell] knows that his word is good. He was a key to the deal."It has been reported that Biden was opposed to going forward with the May 2011 U.S. mission to kill Osama bin Laden,NEWS,weblink 'Hillary Told the President That Her Opposition to the Surge in Iraq Had Been Political', Weigel, David, January 10, 2014, Slate, lest failure adversely affect Obama's chances for a second term.Marc A. Thiessen - "Biden's Bin Laden Hypocrisy," Washington Post, October 8, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2015WEB,weblink Hillary Clinton's 'ass-covering' on bin Laden raid 'rattled' Biden, Perks, Ashley, 2018-06-01, TheHill, en, 2019-04-29, He took the lead in notifying Congressional leaders of the successful outcome.NEWS,weblink Osama Bin Laden dead; President Obama addresses nation, NewsCore, Times Herald-Record, May 2, 2011, May 17, 2011,

2012 re-election campaign

In October 2010, Biden stated that Obama had asked him to remain as his running mate for the 2012 presidential election.NEWS, Vice President Tries to Energize Democrats, Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, The New York Times, October 12, 2010,weblink October 14, 2010, With Obama's popularity on the decline, however, in late 2011 White House Chief of Staff William M. Daley conducted some secret polling and focus group research into the idea of Secretary of State Clinton replacing Biden on the ticket. The notion was dropped when the results showed no appreciable improvement for Obama,NEWS,weblink Book Details Obama Aides' Talks About Replacing Biden on 2012 Ticket, Martin, Jonathan, The New York Times, October 31, 2013, and White House officials later said that Obama had never entertained the idea.NEWS,weblink W.H.: Obama never considered dropping Joe Biden, Allen, Jonathan, Politico, November 1, 2013, November 3, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131104143531weblink">weblink November 4, 2013, yes, mdy-all, Biden's May 2012 statement that he was "absolutely comfortable" with same-sex marriage gained considerable public attention in comparison to President Obama's position, which had been described as "evolving".NEWS,weblink Biden 'comfortable' with equal rights for gays who wed, May 6, 2012, Christi, Parsons, Los Angeles Times, May 8, 2012, Biden made his statement without administration consent, and Obama and his aides were quite irked, since Obama had planned to shift position several months later, in the build-up to the party convention, and since Biden had previously counseled the president to avoid the issue lest key Catholic voters be offended.NEWS,weblink Politico e-book: Obama campaign roiled by conflict, Thrush, Glenn, Politico, August 20, 2012, NEWS,weblink 6 hidden fault lines in President Obama's campaign, Thursh, Glenn, Politico, August 23, 2012, Gay rights advocates seized upon the Biden stance, and within days, Obama announced that he too supported same-sex marriage, an action in part forced by Biden's unexpected remarks.NEWS,weblink Obama Says Same-Sex Marriage Should Be Legal, Jackie, Calmes, Peter, Baker, The New York Times, May 9, 2012, May 10, 2012, Biden apologized to Obama in private for having spoken out,NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Reportedly Apologized To Obama Over Gay Marriage Comments, Associated Press, Huffington Post, May 10, 2012, May 11, 2013, while Obama acknowledged publicly it had been done from the heart.NEWS,weblink AP source: Biden apologizes to Obama over comments, Associated Press, Fox News, May 10, 2012, May 16, 2012, The incident showed that Biden still struggled at times with message discipline;NEWS,weblink For a Blunt Biden, an Uneasy Supporting Role, Leibovich, Mark, The New York Times, May 8, 2012, 1, as Time wrote, "everyone knows [that] Biden's greatest strength is also his greatest weakness." Relations were also strained between the campaigns when Biden appeared to use his to bolster fundraising contacts for a possible run on his own in the 2016 presidential election, and the vice president ended up being excluded from Obama campaign strategy meetings.(File:Official portrait of President Obama and Vice President Biden 2012.jpg|thumb|upright|right|Biden with President Barack Obama, July 2012)The Obama campaign nevertheless still valued Biden as a retail-level politician who could connect with disaffected, blue collar workers and rural residents, and he had a heavy schedule of appearances in swing states as the Obama re-election campaign began in earnest in spring 2012.NEWS, Mo Joe, Scherer, Michael, Time (magazine), Time, June 11, 2012, 26–30, An August 2012 remark before a mixed-race audience that proposed Republican relaxation of Wall Street regulations would "put y'all back in chains" led to a similar analysis of Biden's face-to-face campaigning abilities versus tendency to go off track.NEWS,weblink Mission Impossible: Managing Joe Biden, Martin, Jonathan, Politico, August 16, 2012, The Los Angeles Times wrote, "Most candidates give the same stump speech over and over, putting reporters if not the audience to sleep. But during any Biden speech, there might be a dozen moments to make press handlers cringe, and prompt reporters to turn to each other with amusement and confusion."NEWS,weblink Biden's unscripted moments keep campaign on its toes, Memoli, Michael A., Los Angeles Times, August 17, 2012, Time magazine wrote that Biden often goes too far and that "Along with the familiar Washington mix of neediness and overconfidence, Biden's brain is wired for more than the usual amount of goofiness."NEWS,weblink Let There Be Joe, David Von Drehle, Drehle, David Von, Time (magazine), Time, September 10, 2012, 41–43, Biden was officially nominated for a second term as vice president on September 6 by voice vote at the 2012 Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina.NEWS,weblink Beau Biden Speech Kicks Of Motion To Nominate Father Joe Biden For Vice President, Huffington Post, September 6, 2012, Elyse, Siegel, He faced his Republican counterpart, Representative Paul Ryan, in the lone 2012 vice presidential debate on October 11 in Danville, Kentucky. There he made a feisty, emotional defense of the Obama administration's record and energetically attacked the Republican ticket, in an effort to regain campaign momentum lost by Obama's unfocused debate performance against Republican nominee Mitt Romney the week before.NEWS,weblink Biden plays aggressor in debate as Ryan makes GOP case, O'Brien, Michael, NBC News, October 11, 2012, NEWS,weblink Sparks fly as Biden, Ryan face off in feisty vice presidential debate, Fox News, October 11, 2012, On November 6, 2012, the president and vice president were elected to second terms.NEWS,weblink Obama defeats Romney to win second term, vows he has 'more work to do', Fox News, November 7, 2012, The Obama–Biden ticket won 332 Electoral College votes to Romney–Ryan's 206 and had a 51–47 percent edge in the nationwide popular vote.NEWS,weblink It's official: Obama, Biden win second term, Memoli, Michael A., Los Angeles Times, January 4, 2013,

Post-election

File:Vice President Biden Delivers Remarks at the Joint Opening Session.jpg|thumb|Biden speaks during the U.S.–China Strategic and Economic DialogueU.S.–China Strategic and Economic DialogueIn December 2012, Biden was named by Obama to head the Gun Violence Task Force, created to address the causes of gun violence in the United States in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting.NEWS, Obama sets up gun violence task force, Leigh Ann, Caldwell,weblink CBS News, December 19, 2012, Later that month, during the final days before the country fell off the "fiscal cliff", Biden's relationship with McConnell once more proved important as the two negotiated a deal that led to the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 being passed at the start of 2013.NEWS,weblink It's over: House passes 'fiscal cliff' deal, Demirjian, Karoun, Las Vegas Sun, January 1, 2013, NEWS,weblink Congress' OK of fiscal cliff deal gives Obama a win, prevents GOP blame for tax boosts, Fram, Alan, Associated Press, Star Tribune, Minneapolis, January 2, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130105020524weblink">weblink January 5, 2013, It made permanent much of the Bush tax cuts but raised rates on upper income levels.

Second term (2013–2017)

Biden was inaugurated to a second term in the early morning of January 20, 2013, at a small ceremony in his official residence with Justice Sonia Sotomayor presiding (a public ceremony took place on January 21).NEWS,weblink Vice President Biden sworn into office for second term, Rampton, Roberta, Reuters, January 20, 2013, He continued to be in the forefront as, in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the Obama administration put forth executive orders and proposed legislation towards new gun control measuresNEWS,weblink The Next Gun Fight, Scherer, Michael, Time, January 28, 2013, Cover story. (the legislation failed to pass).NEWS, Weisman, Jonathan, April 17, 2013, Senate Blocks Drive for Gun Control,weblink The New York Times, During the discussions that led to the October 2013 passage of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, which resolved the U.S. federal government shutdown of 2013 and the U.S. debt-ceiling crisis of 2013, Biden played little role. This was due to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid and other Democratic leaders cutting the vice president out of any direct talks with Congress, feeling that Biden had given too much away during previous negotiations.NEWS,weblink Anatomy of a shutdown, Bresnahan, John, Manu, Raju, Sherman, Jake, Brown, Carrie Budoff, Politico, October 18, 2013, NEWS,weblink Biden mostly out of sight as shutdown drags on, Gaudiano, Nicole, USA Today, October 13, 2013, NEWS,weblink Biden takes a back seat during budget negotiations over shutdown, Bowman, Bridget, PBS NewsHour, PBS, October 14, 2013, File:Joe Biden & Ahmet DavutoÄŸlu.jpg|thumb|right|Biden meeting Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet DavutoÄŸlu, December 31, 2014. Biden said that Kurdish PKK is a "terrorist group"WEB,weblink Biden says Kurdish PKK is a 'terror group plain and simple', January 23, 2016, Deutsche WelleDeutsche WelleBiden's Violence Against Women Act was reauthorized again in 2013. The act led to further related developments in the creation of the White House Council on Women and Girls, begun in the first term, as well as the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, begun in January 2014 with Biden as co-chair along with Jarrett.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, August 24, 2016, Rape and sexual assault: A renewed call to action, The White House, January 2014, August 24, 2016, PRESS RELEASE,weblink Memorandum: Establishing White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, obamawhitehouse.archives.gov, January 22, 2014, June 10, 2014, Biden has a strong stance on sexual assault.NEWS, Joe Biden To Stanford Sexual Assault Victim: 'A Lot Of People Failed You, White, Daniel, 2016, For example, Biden stated to a victim of sexual assault at Stanford University, "you did it ... in the hope that your strength might prevent this crime from happening to someone else. Your bravery is breathtaking." He has also taken legality into the situation. Biden issued federal guidelines while presenting a speech at the University of New Hampshire. He stated that "No means no, if you're drunk or you're sober. No means no if you're in bed, in a dorm or on the street. No means no even if you said yes at first and you changed your mind. No means no."JOURNAL, Hayes, Dianne, 2012, Looking The Other Way?, Diverse: Issues In Higher Education, NEWS, Elaine Grant, Federal Effort Targets Sexual Assaults At Colleges,weblink April 5, 2019, National Public Radio NPR, April 5, 2011, BIDEN: Look, guys, no matter what a girl does, no matter how she's dressed, no matter how much she's had to drink, it's never, never, never, never, never OK to touch her without her consent., NEWS, Ashe Schow, Biden Reaps the #MeToo Whirlwind,weblink April 5, 2019, The Wall Street Journal, April 4, 2019, While speaking to students at the University of New Hampshire in 2011, then-Vice President Joe Biden told men in the audience that “no matter what a girl does, no matter how she's dressed, no matter how much she's had to drink—it's never, never, never, never, never OK to touch her without her consent.”, Biden favored arming Syria's rebel fighters.NEWS, Who to Blame If Arming the Syrian Rebels Goes Wrong,weblink The Atlantic, September 18, 2014, As Iraq fell apart during 2014, renewed attention was paid to the Biden-Gelb Iraqi federalization plan of 2006, with some observers suggesting that Biden had been right all along.NEWS,weblink Was Joe Biden right?, Gerstein, Josh, Politico, June 13, 2014, September 14, 2014, NEWS,weblink Turns Out, Joe Biden Was Right About Dividing Iraq, Kitfield, James, National Journal, January 30, 2014, September 14, 2014, Biden himself said that the U.S. would follow ISIL "to the gates of hell".NEWS,weblink Joe Biden vows to chase Islamic State to 'gates of hell'. Does he mean it?, Grier, Peter, The Christian Science Monitor, September 3, 2014, September 14, 2014, In October 2014, Biden said that Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates had "poured hundreds of millions of dollars and tens of thousands of tons of weapons into anyone who would fight against Al-Assad, except that the people who were being supplied were al-Nusra, and al Qaeda, and the extremist elements of jihadis coming from other parts of the world."NEWS, Joe Biden Is the Only Honest Man in Washington,weblink Foreign Policy, October 7, 2014, File:Vice President Joe Biden visit to Israel March 2016 (25554709411).jpg|thumb|Biden with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin NetanyahuBenjamin NetanyahuBy 2015, a series of swearings-in and other events where Biden placed his hands on women and girls and talked closely to them had attracted the attention of both the press and social media.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Takes being Biden to New Heights or to New Lows, Elizabeth Hagedorn, Newsy, February 17, 2015, NEWS,weblink Joe Biden takes 'being Biden' to new heights (or depths), Henderson, Nia-Malika, The Washington Post, February 17, 2015, NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Gets A Bit Too Close To New Secretary Of Defense's Wife, Peralta, Eyder, NPR, February 17, 2015, NEWS,weblink US Vice-President Joe Biden in new 'creepy' photo with wife of Defence Secretary Ashton Carter, Visentin, Lisa, The Sydney Morning Herald, February 18, 2015, In one case, a senator issued a statement afterward saying about his daughter, "No, she doesn't think the vice president is creepy."NEWS,weblink Coons: My daughter doesn't think Joe Biden is 'creepy', Henderson, Nia-Malika, The Washington Post, January 11, 2015, On January 17, 2015, Secret Service agents heard shots were fired as a vehicle drove near Biden's Delaware residence at 8:28 p.m. outside the security perimeter, but the vice president and his wife Jill were not home. A vehicle was observed by an agent speeding away.NEWS, Angie, Yack,weblink Delaware shooting occurs near unoccupied Biden home, January 18, 2015, CNN, On December 8, 2015, Biden spoke in Ukraine's parliament in KievAV MEDIA,weblink Joe Biden english speech in Ukraine's parliament in Kiev, YouTube, December 8, 2015, December 8, 2015, WEB,weblink U.S. Vice President Joe Biden's Dec. 8 speech to Ukraine's parliament (VIDEO, TRANSCRIPT), kyivpost.com, December 8, 2015, December 8, 2015, in one of his many visits to set USA aid and policy stance for Ukraine.NEWS,weblink How Ukraine's President Fooled Joe Biden, Bershidsky, Leonid, January 25, 2018, Bloomberg.com, January 30, 2018, en, On February 28, 2016, Biden gave a speech at the 88th Academy Awards to do with awareness for sexual assault; he also introduced Lady Gaga.On December 8, 2016, Biden went to Ottawa to meet with the Prime Minister of Canada, Justin Trudeau.NEWS, Hall, Chris, Joe Biden drops in for a visit without any gifts: Chris Hall,weblink cbcnews.ca, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBC, December 8, 2016, December 8, 2016, During his two full terms, Joe Biden never cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate, making him the longest serving Vice President with this distinction.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Death of Beau Biden

On May 30, 2015, Biden's son, Beau Biden, died at age 46 after having battled brain cancer for several years. In a statement, the Vice President's office said, "The entire Biden family is saddened beyond words."NEWS, Kane, Paul, Beau Biden, vice president's son, dies of brain cancer,weblink The Washington Post, May 30, 2015, The nature and seriousness of the illness had not been previously disclosed to the public, and Biden had quietly reduced his public schedule in order to spend more time with his son. At the time of his death, Beau Biden had been widely seen as the frontrunner to be the Democratic nominee for Governor of Delaware in 2016.

Role in the 2016 presidential campaign

During much of his second term, Biden was said to be preparing for a possible bid for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination. At age 74 on Inauguration Day in January 2017, he would have been the oldest president on inauguration in history.WEB,weblink Calculate duration between two dates – results, timeanddate.com, With his family, many friends, and donors encouraging him in mid-2015 to enter the race, and with Hillary Clinton's favorability ratings in decline at that time, Biden was reported to again be seriously considering the prospect and a "Draft Biden 2016" PAC was established.Colby Itkowitz - "There is a 'Draft Joe Biden' Super PAC Now; It's Even Hiring a Fundraiser", Washington Post, March 23, 2015.weblink Retrieved August 2, 2015Maureen Dowd - "Joe Biden in 2016: What Would Beau Do?", New York Times, August 1, 2015.Jeff Zeleny and Kevin Liptak, "Joe Biden Keeps Watchful Eye on 2016 Race", CNN, August 1, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2015{{as of|2015|September|11|df=US}}, Biden was still uncertain whether or not to run. Biden cited the recent death of his son being a large drain on his emotional energy, and that "nobody has a right ... to seek that office unless they're willing to give it 110% of who they are".WEB,weblink Joe Biden still undecided on presidential run, BBC News, On October 21, speaking from a podium in the Rose Garden with his wife and President Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to enter the race for the Democratic presidential nomination in the 2016 election.Jeff Mason - "Biden says he will not seek 2016 Democratic nomination", Thomson Reuters, October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2015NEWS, Comment Joe Biden Is Not Running For President In 2016,weblink Huffington Post, October 21, 2015, NEWS, Joe Biden Decides Not to Enter Presidential Race,weblink The Wall Street Journal, October 21, 2015, In January 2016, Biden affirmed that not running was the right decision, but admitted to regretting not running for President "every day."NEWS, Fabian, Jordan, Biden regrets not running for president 'every day',weblink January 12, 2017, TheHill, January 6, 2016, WEB,weblink Biden has made peace with not running for president, Sophia, Rosenbaum, May 11, 2016, New York Post, May 11, 2016, As of the end of January 2016, neither Biden nor President Barack Obama had endorsed any candidate in the 2016 presidential election. Biden did miss his annual Thanksgiving tradition of going to Nantucket, opting instead to travel abroad and meet with several European leaders. He took time to meet with Martin O'Malley, having previously met with Bernie Sanders, both 2016 candidates. Neither of these meetings was considered an endorsement, as Biden had said that he would meet with any candidate who asked.Peter Baker and Maggie Haberman - "Joe Biden Skips Thanksgiving in Nantucket; Meets With Martin O'Malley", The New York Times, November 24, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2015File:VP Biden with Pence.jpg|thumb|Biden meeting with Vice President–elect Mike PenceMike PenceAfter Obama endorsed Hillary Clinton on June 9, 2016, Biden endorsed her later the same day.WEB,weblink Joe Biden endorses Hillary Clinton, Politico, Though Biden and Clinton were scheduled to campaign together in Scranton on July 8, the appearance was canceled by Clinton in light of the shooting of Dallas police officers the previous day.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden-Hillary Clinton rally postponed after Dallas shooting, July 8, 2016, CNN, Following his endorsement of Clinton, Biden publicly displayed his disagreements with the policies of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump. On June 20, Biden critiqued Trump's proposal to temporarily ban Muslims from entering the country as well as his stated intent to build a wall between the United States and Mexico border, furthering that Trump's suggestion to either torture and or kill family members of terrorists was both damaging to American values and "deeply damaging to our security".NEWS,weblink Joe Biden slams Donald Trump on wall, Muslim entry ban, June 20, 2016, CBS News, Rebecca, Shabad, During an interview with George Stephanopoulos at the 2016 Democratic National Convention on July 26, Biden asserted that "moral and centered" voters would not vote for Trump.NEWS,weblink Vice President Joe Biden: 'Moral' Sanders Supporters 'Can't Vote for Trump', July 27, 2016, Suzan, Clarke, On October 21, the anniversary of his choice to not run, Biden said he wished he was still in high school so he could take Trump "behind the gym".NEWS,weblink Biden Says He Wishes He Could Take Trump 'Behind the Gym' Over Groping Comments, October 21, 2016, ABC, Maryalice, Parks, On October 24, Biden clarified he would only have fought Trump if he was still in high school,NEWS,weblink Biden: I would only take Trump behind the gym 'if I were in high school', October 24, 2016, CNN, and the following day, October 25, Trump responded that he would "love that".NEWS,weblink Trump: I'd love to fight 'Mr. Tough Guy', Joe Biden, USA Today, William, Cummings, October 26, 2016,

Post–Vice Presidency (2017–present)

File:Vice President Joe Biden Doug Jones.jpg|thumb|Biden campaigning for Alabama U.S. Senate candidate Doug Jones in October 2017]]In 2017, Biden was named the Benjamin Franklin Presidential Practice professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he intended to focus on foreign policy, diplomacy, and national security while leading the Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement. He also wanted to pursue his "cancer moonshot" agenda,NEWS,weblink Biden outlines steps to pursue post-Obama 'cancer moonshot', January 9, 2017, CNBC, January 20, 2017, calling the fight against cancer "the only bipartisan thing left in America" in March 2017.WEB,weblink Joe Biden: The fight against cancer is bipartisan, O'Brien, Sara Ashley, March 12, 2017, CNNMoney, March 13, 2017, Biden had been close friends with Sen. John McCain for over 30 years. In 2018, Sen. McCain died at the age of 81 after dealing with the same cancer that Joe Biden's late son Beau Biden died of. Biden gave the eulogy at McCain's funeral service in Phoenix, Arizona. He opened with "My name's Joe Biden. I'm a Democrat. And I loved John McCain.",WEB,weblink Joe Biden Just Gave an Incredibly Powerful Speech at John McCain's Memorial, Megan, Friedman, August 30, 2018, Town & Country, he also called him a "brother". Biden also served as a pallbearer at Sen. McCain's memorial service at the Washington National Cathedral alongside Warren Beatty, and Michael Bloomberg.WEB,weblink McCain's choice of Russian dissident as pallbearer is final dig at Putin, Trump, Josh, Meyer, POLITICO,

Comments on President Trump

While attending the launch of the Penn Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement on March 30, 2017, a student asked Biden what "piece of advice" he would give to President Trump, Biden responding that the president should grow up and cease his tweeting so he could focus on the office.NEWS,weblink Biden to Trump: 'Grow Up' and 'Stop tweeting', March 30, 2017, Taylor, Lorenz, The Hill, During a speech at a May 29, 2017 gathering of Philip D. Murphy supporters at a community center gymnasium, Biden said, "There are a lot of people out there who are frightened. Trump played on their fears. What we haven't done, in my view—and this is a criticism of all us—we haven't spoken enough to the fears and aspirations of the people we come from."NEWS,weblink Biden backs Phil Murphy, says N.J. governor's race 'most important' in nation, Ryan, Hutchins, May 28, 2017, Politico, On June 17, 2017, Biden predicted the "state the nation is today will not be sustained by the American people" while speaking at a Florida Democratic Party fundraiser in Hollywood.NEWS,weblink 'We are better than this', impassioned Biden tells Florida Democrats, June 17, 2017, Miami Herald, Patricia, Mazzei, Martin, Vassolo, Biden told CBS This Morning that Trump's administration "seems to feel the need to coddle autocrats and dictators" like Saudi Arabian leaders, Russian President Putin, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un or Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte.NEWS, Biden knocks Trump for 'coddling' Saudi leaders after Khashoggi's disappearance,weblink Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2018, In October 2018, Biden said if Democrats retake the House of Representatives, "I hope they don't [impeach Trump]. I don't think there's a basis for doing that right now."NEWS, Joe Biden hopes Democrats don't impeach Trump,weblink CNN, October 18, 2018,

Climate change

During an appearance at the Brainstorm Health Conference in San Diego, California on May 2, 2017, Biden said the public "has moved ahead of the administration [on science]".NEWS,weblink Joe Biden on His New Cancer Initiative, Drug Prices, and Donald Trump, Fortune, May 3, 2017, Sy, Mukherjee, On May 31, Biden tweeted that climate change was an "existential threat to our future" and remaining in the Paris Agreement was the "best way to protect our children and global leadership."NEWS,weblink Biden: Paris deal 'best way to protect' US leadership, Max, Greenwood, The Hill, May 31, 2017, The following day, after President Trump announced his withdrawal of the US from the Paris Agreement, Biden tweeted that the choice "imperils US security and our ability to own the clean energy future."NEWS,weblink Biden: Paris climate deal exit 'imperils' national security, Morgan, Chalfant, June 1, 2017, The Hill, While appearing at the Concordia Europe Summit in Athens, Greece on June 7, Biden said, referring to the Paris Agreement, "The vast majority of the American people do not agree with the decision the president made."NEWS,weblink Biden: Trump at odds with most Americans on climate change, ABC News, June 7, 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170608020347weblink">weblink June 8, 2017,

Healthcare

On March 22, 2017, Biden referred to the Republican healthcare bill as a "tax bill" meant to transfer nearly US$1 trillion used for health benefits for the lower classes to wealthy Americans during his first appearance on Capitol Hill since Trump's inauguration.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden says Republican health care is a giveaway to the rich, Nicole, Gaudiano, USA Today, March 22, 2017, On May 4, after the House of Representatives narrowly voted for the American Health Care Act, Biden tweeted that it was a "Day of shame for Congress", lamenting the loss of pre-existing condition protections.WEB,weblink 'Day of shame': Hillary Clinton and Joe Biden slammed the GOP for passing health care bill, May 4, 2017, Mark, Abadi, Business Insider, On June 24, in response to Senate Republicans revealing an American Health Care Act draft the previous day, Biden tweeted that the bill "isn't about health care at all—it's a wealth transfer: slashes care to fund tax cuts for the wealthy & corporations".NEWS,weblink Biden rips Senate GOP healthcare bill, says it 'isn't about healthcare', June 23, 2017, Julia, Manchester, The Hill, On July 28, in response to the Republican Senate healthcare bill falling through, Biden tweeted, "Thank you to everyone who tirelessly worked to protect the healthcare of millions."NEWS,weblink Biden thanks GOP healthcare bill opponents after skinny ObamaCare repeal failure, Max, Greenwood, The Hill, July 28, 2017,

Immigration

On September 5, 2017, after Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced that the Trump Administration is rescinding the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, Biden tweeted, "Brought by parents, these children had no choice in coming here. Now they'll be sent to countries they've never known. Cruel. Not America."NEWS,weblink Biden: Trump's DACA decision 'cruel', Rafael, Bernal, The Hill, September 5, 2017,

LGBT rights

On April 14, 2017, Biden released a statement both denouncing the authorities in Chechnya for their rounding up, torturing, and murdering of "individuals who are believed to be gay" and stating his hope that the Trump administration honor a prior pledge to advance human rights by confronting Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov and Russian leaders over "these egregious violations of human rights".NEWS,weblink Biden calls on Trump to raise anti-LGBT violence in Chechnya with Russians, Dan, Merica, April 14, 2017, CNN, On June 21, during a speech at a Democratic National Committee LGBT gala in New York City, Biden said, "Hold President Trump accountable for his pledge to be your friend."NEWS,weblink Joe Biden to LGBT gala: 'Hold President Trump accountable', June 21, 2017, Steve, Peoples, Seattle Times, On July 26, 2017, after Trump announced a ban of transgender people serving in the military, Biden tweeted, "Every patriotic American who is qualified to serve in our military should be able to serve. Full stop."NEWS,weblink Biden rips Trump transgender ban: Every qualified American should be allowed to serve, July 26, 2017, The Hill, Aida, Chavez, In March 2019, Biden condemned Brunei's new LGBT death penalty law, tweeting: "Stoning people to death for homosexuality or adultery is appalling and immoral. There is no excuse – not culture, not tradition – for this kind of hate and inhumanity."NEWS, Brunei defends tough new Islamic laws against growing backlash,weblink Reuters, March 30, 2019, Biden suggested that the Trump administration's hostility to the rights of LGBT people was sending a poor example to countries like Brunei.NEWS, Biden Swipes Trump Over LGBT Policies, Cites Brunei Abuses,weblink CNS News, June 3, 2019,

2020 presidential campaign

File:Joe Biden kickoff rally May 2019.jpg|thumb|right|210px|Biden at his presidential kickoff rally in Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPennsylvaniaDuring a tour of the U.S. Senate with reporters before leaving office, on December 5, 2016, Biden refused to rule out a bid for the presidency in the 2020 presidential election, after leaving office as Vice President. If he were to run in 2020, Biden would be 77 years old on election day and 78 on inauguration day in 2021.WEB,weblink Joe Biden wouldn't count out a 2020 run for president. But he was asked in an emotional moment, Los Angeles Times, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, Memoli, Michael, WEB,weblink Joe Biden floats a potential 2020 presidential run, Business Insider, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, Abadi, Mark, WEB,weblink Joe Biden predicts he will run for president in 2020, adds that he is not yet 'committed', CNBC, December 5, 2016, December 5, 2016, Wang, Christine, He reasserted his ambivalence about running on an appearance of The Late Show with Stephen Colbert on December 7, in which he stated "never say never" about running for President in 2020, while also acknowledging that he did not see a scenario in which he would run for office again.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Discussed Running in 2020 With Stephen Colbert: 'Never Say Never', Time Magazine, December 8, 2016, December 7, 2016, Lang, Cady, NEWS,weblink Biden stokes 2020 buzz on Colbert: 'Never say never', CNN, December 8, 2016, December 7, 2016, Wright, David, He seemingly announced on January 13, 2017, exactly one week prior to the expiration of his vice presidential term, that he would not run.NEWS, Revesz, Rachael,weblink Joe Biden: I will not run for president in 2020 but I am working to cure cancer, The Independent, January 13, 2017, January 20, 2017, He then appeared to backtrack four days later, on January 17, stating "I'll run if I can walk."NEWS,weblink Joe Biden: 'I Wish to Hell I'd Just Kept Saying the Exact Same Thing', The New York Times, Alter, Jonathan, January 17, 2017, January 22, 2017, A political action committee known as Time for Biden was formed in January 2018, seeking Biden's entry into the race.WEB,weblink New Quad City Super PAC: "Time for Biden", Charnetzki, Tori, WVIK, January 10, 2018, January 24, 2018, WEB,weblink Quad City men launch super PAC to support Joe Biden, Noe, Megan, WQAD-TV, WQAD, January 10, 2018, January 24, 2018, Between 2016 and 2019, Biden was mentioned by various media outlets as a potential candidate. He told a forum held in Bogota, Colombia, on July 17, 2018, that he would decide whether or not to formally declare as a candidate by January 2019.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden says he will decide whether he's running for president by January, USA TODAY, July 18, 2018, en, On February 4, 2019, with no decision having been forthcoming from Biden, Edward-Isaac Dovere of The Atlantic wrote that Biden was "very close to saying yes" but that some close to him are worried he would have a last-minute change of heart, as he did in 2016.NEWS,weblink Biden's Anguished Search for a Path to Victory, The Atlantic, February 9, 2019, February 4, 2019, Edward-Isaac Dovere, Dovere reported that Biden was concerned about the effect another presidential run could have on his family and reputation, as well as fundraising struggles and perceptions about his age and relative centrism, compared to other declared and potential candidates. Conversely, his "sense of duty," offense at the Trump presidency, the lack of foreign policy experience amongst other Democratic hopefuls and his desire to foster "bridge-building progressivism" in the Party, were said to be factors prompting him to run. In March 2019, he indicated he may run,NEWS,weblink Joe Biden says he's running in 2020 — then corrects himself, BBC, March 17, 2019, Joe Biden appeared to announce his candidacy for the 2020 US election, before immediately correcting himself., and ultimately launched his campaign on April 25, 2019.NEWS,weblink Former vice president Joe Biden jumps into White House race, Scherer, Michael, April 25, 2019, The Washington Post, April 25, 2019, Wagner, John, en-US, In May 2019, Biden chose Philadelphia to be his 2020 U.S. presidential campaign headquarters.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden chooses Philadelphia for 2020 presidential campaign headquarters, Jonathan Tamari, The Philadelphia Inquirer, May 16, 2019, May 17, 2019, While at a fundraiser on June 18, 2019, Biden said that one of his greatest strengths was "bringing people together" and pointed to his relationships with Senators James Eastland and Herman Talmadge, two segregationists as examples. While imitating a Southern drawl, Biden remarked "I was in a caucus with James O. Eastland. He never called me 'boy,' he always called me 'son.'”NEWS, Detrow, Scott, Democrats Blast Biden For Recalling 'Civil' Relationship With Segregationists,weblink 19 June 2019, National Public Radio, 19 June 2019, NEWS, Cammarata, Sarah, Biden faces backlash for citing his work with two segregationists as a sign of 'civility',weblink 19 June 2019, Politico, 19 June 2019, New Jersey Senator Cory Booker was one of many Democrats to criticize Biden for the remarks, issuing a statement that said "You don't joke about calling black men 'boys.' Men like James O. Eastland used words like that, and the racist policies that accompanied them, to perpetuate white supremacy and strip black Americans of our very humanity".During the first Democratic presidential debate, Kamala Harris criticized Biden for his comments regarding his past work with segregationist Senators and his past opposition to desegregation busing that allowed black children like her to attend integrated schools.WEB, Oliphant, James, Harris challenges Biden in breakout U.S. debate performance,weblink Reuters, June 27, 2019, Biden was widely criticized for his debate performance and support for him dropped 10 points.WEB, Flegenheimer, Matt, Burns, Alexander, Kamala Harris Makes the Case That Joe Biden Should Pass That Torch to Her,weblink The New York Times, June 27, 2019, NEWS, Biden's Support Slipped 10 Points After Debates, Poll Shows,weblink Time, June 29, 2019, WEB, Morin, Rebecca, Thursday Democratic debate: Who were the winners and losers,weblink USA Today, June 28, 2019, President Trump defended Biden, saying Harris was given "too much credit" for her debate with Biden.NEWS, Trump defends Biden after Democratic debate, says Harris got 'too much credit',weblink NBC News, June 29, 2019, On July 15, 2019, the non-profit Biden Cancer Initiative announced the foundation was ceasing operations for the foreseeable future. Biden and his wife left the initiative's board in April as an ethics precaution before starting his 2020 presidential campaign.NEWS, Braun, Stephen,weblink Biden cancer nonprofit suspends operations indefinitely, Associated Press, 2019-07-15, no,weblink 2019-07-15, 2019-07-16,

Allegations of inappropriate physical contact

There have been multiple photographs and videos of Biden engaged in what commentators considered to be inappropriate proximity to women and children, including kissing and or touching.WEB,weblink Lucy Flores isn't alone. Joe Biden's got a long history of touching women inappropriately., McGann, Laura, March 29, 2019, Vox, WEB,weblink Joe Biden 2020 Is A Terrible Idea In A Post-Weinstein America, Terkel, Amanda, November 15, 2017, HuffPost, NEWS,weblink America Shouldn't Tolerate 'Biden Being Biden', Markowitz, Karol, February 18, 2015, Time, Biden has described himself as a "tactile politician" and admitted that this behavior has caused trouble for him in the past.WEB,weblink Nevada Democrat accuses Joe Biden of touching and kissing her without consent at 2014 event, Brice-Saddler, Michael, March 29, 2019, Los Angeles Times, An image of Biden in close proximity to Stephanie Carter during her husband's swearing in as Secretary of Defense in 2015 resulted in a mocking epithet that was widely repeated. Carter defended Biden's depicted behavior in a 2019 interview.WEB,weblink Ex-Defense secretary's wife says photo of her with Biden misleading, Forgey, Quint, March 31, 2019, Politico, 31 March 2019, In March 2019, former Nevada assemblywoman Lucy Flores alleged that Biden kissed her without her consent at a 2014 campaign rally in Las Vegas. In a New York magazine op-ed for The Cut, Flores wrote that Biden had walked up behind her, put his hands on her shoulders, smelled her hair, and kissed the back of her head. Adding that the way he touched her was "an intimate way reserved for close friends, family, or romantic partners – and I felt powerless to do anything about it."NEWS, O'Connor, Lydia, Ex-Nevada Assemblywoman Says Joe Biden Inappropriately Kissed Her,weblink March 29, 2019, Huff Post, March 29, 2019, In an interview with HuffPost, Flores stated she believed Biden's behavior to be disqualifying for a 2020 presidential run.NEWS, Marans, Daniel, Lucy Flores Still Wants An Apology From Joe Biden,weblink April 1, 2019, HuffPost, April 1, 2019, Biden's spokesman stated that Biden did not recall the behavior described.NEWS, Taylor, Jessica, Former Nevada Candidate Accuses Biden Of Unwanted Touching, Which He Doesn't 'Recall',weblink March 29, 2019, NPR, March 29, 2019, Two days after Flores, Amy Lappos, a former congressional aide to Jim Himes, said Biden crossed a line of decency and respect when he touched her in a non-sexual, but inappropriate way by holding her head to rub noses with her at a political fundraiser in Greenwich in 2009.WEB,weblink Connecticut woman says then-Vice President Joe Biden touched her inappropriately at a Greenwich fundraiser in 2009, Hartford Courant, Vigdor, Neil, April 1, 2019, April 1, 2019, The next day, two additional women came forward with allegations of inappropriate conduct. One woman said that Biden placed his hand on her thigh, and the other said he ran his hand from her shoulder down her back.WEB,weblink Two more women accuse Biden of inappropriate touching, Michael, Burke, April 2, 2019, TheHill, WEB,weblink Biden's Tactile Politics Threaten His Return in the #MeToo Era, Sheryl Gay, Stolberg, Sydney, Ember, April 2, 2019, NYTimes.com, By early April 2019, a total of seven women had made allegations of inappropriate physical contact regarding Biden.NEWS, Amanda Arnold, All the Women Who Have Spoken Out Against Joe Biden,weblink April 6, 2019, New York (magazine), New York, April 5, 2019, en, At a conference on April 5, Biden apologized for not understanding how individuals would react to his actions, but stated that his intentions were honorable; he went on to say that he was not sorry for anything that he had ever done, which led critics to accuse him of sending a mixed message.WEB,weblink Joe Biden is sorry, not sorry, Heffernan, Virginia, latimes.com, 2019-04-07, He also proclaimed—with each public embrace he gave during the event—that he had received permission for it. Some critics interpreted this as Biden jokingly deflecting criticism, while other observers considered his change in tone responsive to the criticisms received.NEWS,weblink Joe Biden Jokes About Hugging in a Speech, Then Offers a Mixed Apology, Lerer, Lisa, 2019-04-05, The New York Times, 2019-04-08, en-US, 0362-4331,

Political positions

{| class="wikitable floatright"|+ Joe Biden's ratings from advocacy organizations!rowspan="3"| Group!rowspan="3"| Advocacy issue(s)!colspan="3"| Ratings!rowspan="2"| Lifetime!colspan="2"| RecentWEB, Joe Biden on the Issues,weblink OnTheIssues.org, April 5, 2013, ! Rating !! DateAFL–CIO >WORK=ELECTIONS 2008ACCESSDATE=APRIL 4, 2013DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=MAY 24, 2013, 85% 2007American Public Health Association>APHA public health 100% 2003Citizens for Tax Justice>CTJ progressive taxation 100% 2006National Association for the Advancement of Colored People>NAACP Minority group & affirmative action >| 2006League of Conservation Voters>LCV environmental protection 83%LCV Scorecard 2008 64% 2008National Education Association>NEA State school >| 2003Alliance for Retired Americans>ARA senior citizens 89% 2003Campaign for America's Future>CAF energy security 83% 2006Peace Action>PA peace and disarmament 80% 2003Human Rights Campaign>HRC LGBT social movements >| 2006NARAL Pro-Choice America>NARAL abortion rights ~72%(over ten years) 75%VICE PRESIDENT JOSEPH 'JOE' ROBINETTE BIDEN, JR.'S SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP RATINGS>URL=HTTP://VOTESMART.ORG/CANDIDATE/EVALUATIONS/53279/JOE-BIDEN-JRPUBLISHER=PROJECT VOTE SMART| 2007Citizens United for Rehabilitation of Errants>CURE Rehabilitation (penology) >| 2000American Civil Liberties Union>ACLU civil and political rights 80%HEAD>FIRST=TOMURL=HTTP://CIVILLIBERTY.ABOUT.COM/OD/USSENATORS/P/JOE_BIDEN.HTMPUBLISHER=ABOUT.COMYEAR=2008, 91% 2007Cato Institute>Cato free trade and libertarianism 42% 2002United States Chamber of Commerce>US CoC Corporation interests >| 2003Christian Coalition of America>CCA Christian family values 16% 2003National Taxpayers Union>NTU lowering taxes 2%JOE BIDEN>URL=HTTP://WWW.NTU.ORG/STATE/LEGISLATOR/JOE-BIDENACCESSDATE=AUGUST 13, 2015, 2008National Right to Life Committee>NRLC restrictions on abortion 0% 2006National Rifle Association>NRA gun ownership F 2003Biden has been characterized as a moderate Democrat.WEB,weblink Biden says he was a staunchly liberal senator. He wasn't, @politifact, en, 2019-05-06, He has supported deficit spending for fiscal stimulus in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009;NEWS, Biden, Joe, Assessing the Recovery Act: 'The best is yet to come',weblink April 5, 2013, obamawhitehouse.archives.gov, February 5, 2017, NEWS, Biden, Joe, Biden: Mubarak Is Not a Dictator, But People Have a Right to Protest,weblink April 5, 2013, PBS Newshour, January 27, 2011, the increased infrastructure spending proposed by the Obama administration; mass transit, including Amtrak, bus, and subway subsidies;NEWS, Hockenberry, John, Vice President Joe Biden pushes mass transit spending,weblink April 5, 2013, The TakeAway, April 23, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130719151247weblink">weblink July 19, 2013, same-sex marriage;NEWS, Biden, Joe, May 6: Joe Biden, Kelly Ayotte, Diane Swonk, Tom Brokaw, Chuck Todd,weblink April 5, 2013, Meet the Press, May 6, 2013, and the reduced military spending proposed in the Obama Administration's fiscal year 2014 budget.WEB, Biden, Joe, Statement by Vice President Biden On the Bipartisan Debt Talks,weblink Press Release, obamawhitehouse.archives.gov, April 6, 2013, June 23, 2011, WEB, Hellman, Chris, Competing Visions: President Obama, Rep. Paul Ryan, Sen. Patty Murray, and House Progressives Release Budget Proposals for 2014,weblink National Priorities Project, June 3, 2013, Mattea Kramer, April 10, 2013, A method that political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).NEWS, Mayer, William,weblink Kerry's Record Rings a Bell, The Washington Post, August 24, 2008, March 28, 2004, "The question of how to measure a senator's or representative's ideology is one that political scientists regularly need to answer. For more than 30 years, the standard method for gauging ideology has been to use the annual ratings of lawmakers' votes by various interest groups, notably the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) and the American Conservative Union (ACU)." Biden has a lifetime liberal 72 percent score from the ADA through 2004, while the ACU awarded Biden a lifetime conservative rating of 13 percent through 2008.NEWS,weblink Judging Judge Roberts: A look at the Judiciary Committee, USA Today, September 12, 2005, August 24, 2008, Kiely, Kathy, {{Dead link|date=September 2010 |bot=H3llBot }} See also: WEB,weblink 2008 U.S. Senate Votes, American Conservative Union, March 20, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090330124737weblink">weblink March 30, 2009, Lifetime rating is given. Using another metric, Biden has a lifetime average liberal score of 77.5 percent, according to a National Journal analysis that places him ideologically among the center of Senate Democrats as of 2008.WEB, Biden's Senate Vote Record,weblink August 23, 2008, August 23, 2008, National Journal,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080827100649weblink">weblink August 27, 2008, no, The Almanac of American Politics rates congressional votes as liberal or conservative on the political spectrum, in three policy areas: economic, social, and foreign. For 2005–2006, Biden's average ratings were as follows: the economic rating was 80 percent liberal and 13 percent conservative, the social rating was 78 percent liberal and 18 percent conservative, and the foreign rating was 71 percent liberal and 25 percent conservative.Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 363. In 2005, the ratings were E 73 26, S 83 10, F 76 15; in 2006, E 87 0, S 73 26, F 65 34. This has not changed much over time; his liberal ratings in the mid-1980s were also in the 70–80 percent range.Various advocacy groups have given Biden scores or grades as to how well his votes align with the positions of each group. The American Civil Liberties Union gives him an 80 percent lifetime score, with a 91 percent score for the 110th Congress.WEB,weblink ACLU Congressional Scorecard, American Civil Liberties Union, August 25, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081030020320weblink">weblink October 30, 2008, Biden opposes drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and supports governmental funding to find new energy sources.WEB,weblink Arctic Power – Arctic National Wildlife Refuge – Presidential Candidates views on ANWR, The Democrats, August 25, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080807162357weblink">weblink August 7, 2008, Biden believes action must be taken on global warming. He co-sponsored the Sense of the Senate resolution calling on the United States to be a part of the United Nations climate negotiations and the Boxer–Sanders Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act, the most stringent climate bill in the United States Senate.NEWS, Grist (magazine), Grist, January 3, 2008, May 4, 2008,weblink A look at the environmental record of Joe Biden, Barack Obama's ..., Biden was given an 85 percent lifetime approval rating from the AFL–CIO, and he voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).NEWS, Final Senate Vote on NAFTA,weblink Public Citizen, August 22, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080608182639weblink">weblink June 8, 2008,

Distinctions

Biden has received honorary degrees from the University of Scranton (1976),WEB,weblink Honorary Degree Recipients, University of Scranton, 2008, November 26, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080720153525weblink">weblink July 20, 2008, Saint Joseph's University (LL.D 1981),WEB,weblink PDF, Honorary Degree Recipients, Saint Joseph's University, August 19, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080904003527weblink">weblink September 4, 2008, Widener University School of Law (2000),WEB,weblink Senator Biden becomes Vice President-elect, Widener University School of Law, November 6, 2008, November 26, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105150946weblink">weblink January 5, 2009, mdy-all, Emerson College (2003),WEB,weblink Senator Biden to Address 123rd Commencement Rites On May 19, Emerson College, May 2003, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060918144250weblink">weblink September 18, 2006, yes, his alma mater the University of Delaware (2004),WEB,weblink Honorary Degree Citation for Joseph R. Biden Jr., University of Delaware, May 29, 2004, November 6, 2008, Suffolk University Law School (2005),NEWS,weblink Commencements, Boston Globe, May 23, 2005, November 26, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090105144404weblink">weblink January 5, 2009, and his other alma mater Syracuse University (LL.D 2009) WEB,weblink SU Archives: Awards and Honors - Recipient of Honorary Degrees, archives.syr.edu, February 5, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160730115922weblink">weblink July 30, 2016, yes, University of Pennsylvania (LL.D 2013) WEB,weblink Documents & Publications | University Archives and Records Center, archives.upenn.edu, Miami Dade College (2014) WEB,weblink Vice President Joe Biden hails need for immigration reform at Miami Dade College graduation, Trinity College, Dublin (LL.D 2016) WEB,weblink US Vice President Joe Biden Receives Honorary Doctorate from Trinity College, Trinity News and Events, Trinity College, Dublin, www.tcd.ie, Colby College (LL.D 2017) WEB,weblink Joe Biden to speak at Colby College commencement, April 17, 2017, Morgan State University (DPS 2017) WEB,weblink Former Vice President Joe Biden Is MSU's Spring 2017 Commencement Speaker - The MSU Spokesman, April 14, 2017, University of South Carolina (DPA 2017) WEB,weblink Vice President Joe Biden to deliver UofSC commencement address - University of South Carolina, www.sc.edu, File:Joe Biden Receives Presidential Medal of Freedom.jpg|right|thumb|President Barack Obama presents Vice President Joe Biden with the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction during a tribute to the Vice President in the State Dining Room of the White House, January 12, 2017.]]Biden also received the Chancellor Medal from his alma mater, Syracuse University, in 1980,NEWS,weblink Biden tells Syracuse University graduates they have special opportunity to help shape history, Kates, William, Newsday, May 10, 2009, May 11, 2009, and in 2005, he received the George Arents Pioneer Medal—Syracuse's highest alumni award—"for excellence in public affairs."WEB,weblink Five SU alumni to be honored with Arents Awards, Syracuse University, May 25, 2005, November 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060907182627weblink">weblink September 7, 2006, yes, In 2008, Biden received the Best of Congress Award, for "improving the American quality of life through family-friendly work policies", from Working Mother magazine.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Biden Honored for Making a Difference for Working Families, U.S. Senate, August 12, 2008, November 26, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081125111957weblink">weblink November 25, 2008, Also in 2008, Biden shared with fellow Senator Richard Lugar the Hilal-i-Pakistan award from the Government of Pakistan "in recognition of their consistent support for Pakistan".NEWS,weblink Pakistan gives awards to Biden, Lugar for support, Reuters, October 28, 2008, November 26, 2008, Zeeshan, Haider, In 2009, Biden received the Golden Medal of Freedom award from Kosovo, that region's highest award, for his vocal support for their independence in the late 1990s.NEWS,weblink Biden ends Balkans tour, heads to Lebanon, Agence France-Presse, May 22, 2009, May 23, 2009, Biden is an inductee of the Delaware Volunteer Firemen's Association Hall of Fame.WEB,weblink Hall of Fame, Delaware Volunteer Firemen's Association, September 16, 2008, He was named to the Little League Hall of Excellence in 2009.WEB
,weblink
, Hall of Excellence
, Little League Baseball
, April 10, 2010
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100430225626weblink">weblink
, April 30, 2010
,
, On June 25, 2016, Joe Biden received the freedom of County Louth in the Republic of Ireland.WEB,weblink talkofthetown.ie, Biden receives Freedom of County Louth on visit to Cooley Peninsula | Talk of the Town, January 11, 2017, On January 12, 2017, Obama surprised Biden by awarding him the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction during a farewell press conference at the White House honoring Biden and his wife. Obama said he was awarding the Medal of Freedom to Biden for "faith in your fellow Americans, for your love of country and a lifetime of service that will endure through the generations".NEWS, Obama awards Biden Presidential Medal of Freedom,weblink January 12, 2017, Boston Globe, January 12, 2017, NEWS, Shear, Michael D., Obama Surprises Joe Biden With Presidential Medal of Freedom,weblink The New York Times, January 12, 2017, January 12, 2017, It was the first and only time Obama awarded the Medal of Freedom with the additional honor of distinction, an honor which his three predecessors had reserved only for President Ronald Reagan, Colin Powell and Pope John Paul II, respectively.NEWS, Biden surprised with Presidential Medal of Freedom,weblink January 12, 2017, The Miami Herald, January 12, 2017, On December 11, 2018, the University of Delaware renamed their School of Public Policy and Administration after Biden, naming it the Joseph R. Biden, Jr. School of Public Policy and Administration, which also houses the Biden Institute.WEB,weblink Biden School | UDaily, www.udel.edu, {{Clear}}

Electoral history

{|class="wikitable" style="width:100%; text-align: center;"! colspan="12" | Election results!Year!Office!Election!Votes for Biden!%!Opponent!Party!Votes!%|1970County council#United States>County Councilman|General10,57355%Lawrence T. MessickRepublican8,19243%1972 United States Senate election in Delaware>1972U.S. Senator|General116,00650%J. Caleb BoggsRepublican112,84449%1978 United States Senate election in Delaware>1978|General93,93058%James H. Baxter Jr.Republican66,47941%1984 United States Senate election in Delaware>1984|General147,83160%John M. BurrisRepublican98,10140%1990 United States Senate election in Delaware>1990|General112,91863%M. Jane BradyRepublican64,55436%1996 United States Senate election in Delaware>1996|General165,46560%Raymond J. ClatworthyRepublican105,08838%2002 United States Senate election in Delaware>2002|General135,25358%Raymond J. ClatworthyRepublican94,79341%2008 United States Senate election in Delaware>2008|General257,48465%Christine O'DonnellRepublican140,58435%2008 United States presidential election>2008Vice President|General69,498,516365 electoral votes (270 needed)53%Sarah PalinRepublican59,948,323173 electoral votes46%2012 United States presidential election>2012|General65,915,796332 electoral votes (270 needed)51%Paul RyanRepublican60,933,500206 electoral votes47%

Writings by Biden

  • BOOK, Promise Me, Dad: A Year of Hope, Hardship, and Purpose, Biden, Joe, Flatiron Books, 2017, 978-1250171672,
  • BOOK, Promises to Keep, Biden, Joe, Random House, 2007, 1-4000-6536-4, Also paperback edition, Random House 2008, {{ISBN|0-8129-7621-5}}.
  • BOOK,weblink Administration's Missile Defense Program and the ABM Treaty: Hearing Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., July 24, 2001, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-1959-3, PDF, yes,weblink March 5, 2016,
  • BOOK,weblink Examining The Theft Of American Intellectual Property At Home And Abroad: Hearing before the Committee On Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., February 12, 2002, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-4177-7, PDF,
  • BOOK,weblink Hearings to Examine Threats, Responses, and Regional Considerations Surrounding Iraq: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., August 1, 2002, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-2823-1, PDF,
  • BOOK, Strategies for Homeland Defense: A Compilation by the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., September 2003, Diane Publishing, 0-7567-2623-9,
  • BOOK,weblink Putin Administration's Policies toward Non-Russian Regions of the Russian Federation: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., July 8, 2001, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-2624-7, PDF,
  • BOOK,weblink Threat of Bioterrorism and the Spread of Infectious Diseases: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., September 5, 2001, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-2625-5, PDF,
  • BOOK,weblink How Do We Promote Democratization, Poverty Alleviation, and Human Rights to Build a More Secure Future: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., February 27, 2002, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-7567-2478-3, PDF,
  • BOOK, Political Future of Afghanistan: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., January 2003, Diane Publishing, 0-7567-3039-2,
  • BOOK, International Campaign Against Terrorism: Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., January 2003, Diane Publishing, 0-7567-3041-4,
  • BOOK, Halting the Spread of HIV/AIDS: Future Efforts in the U.S. Bilateral & Multilateral Response: Hearings before the Comm. on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., Diane Publishing, 2002, 0-7567-3454-1,
  • BOOK, Hague Convention On International Child Abduction: Applicable Law And Institutional Framework Within Certain Convention Countries Report To The Senate, Biden, Joseph R., Jr., April 2000, Diane Publishing, 0-7567-2250-0, Jesse Helms,
  • BOOK, Homeland Security Law and Policy, Nicholson, William C., C. C Thomas, 2005, 0-398-07583-2, Foreword, Joseph Biden,

Notes

{{Reflist|30em|group=nb}}

References

Footnotes

{{Reflist|30em}}

Books

  • BOOK, The Almanac of American Politics, Barone, Michael, Michael Barone (pundit), Richard E., Cohen, Richard E. Cohen, 2008, National Journal, Washington, 0-89234-116-5,
  • BOOK, Bronner, Ethan, Ethan Bronner, Battle for Justice: How the Bork Nomination Shook America, W. W. Norton & Company, 1989, 0-393-02690-6,
  • BOOK, Germond, Jack, Jack Germond, Witcover, Jules, Jules Witcover, Whose Broad Stripes and Bright Stars? The Trivial Pursuit of the Presidency 1988, Warner Books, 1989, 0-446-51424-1,
  • BOOK, John, Heilemann, John Heilemann, Mark, Halperin, Mark Halperin, (Game Change, Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime), HarperCollins, New York, 2010, 0-06-173363-6,
  • BOOK, Mayer, Jane, Jane Mayer, Abramson, Jill, Jill Abramson, Strange Justice: The Selling of Clarence Thomas, Houghton Mifflin, 1994, 0-395-63318-4,
  • BOOK, Charles, Moritz, Current Biography, Current Biography Yearbook 1987, H. W. Wilson Company, New York, 1987,
  • BOOK, Taylor, Paul, See How They Run: Electing the President in an Age of Mediaocracy, Alfred A. Knopf, 1990, 0-394-57059-6,
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External links

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