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1976 United States presidential election

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1976 United States presidential election
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{{for|related races|1976 United States elections}}{{use mdy dates|date=November 2013}}







factoids
{{decrease}} 1.7 percentage point>pp| image_size = x200px| image1 = Carter cropped.jpg| nominee1 = Jimmy Carter| party1 = Democratic Party (United States)Georgia (U.S. state)>Georgia| running_mate1 = Walter Mondale| electoral_vote1 = 297Washington, D.C.>DC| popular_vote1 = 40,831,881 40,831,8811|pad=yes}}'''| image2 = Gerald Ford, official Presidential photo.jpg| nominee2 = Gerald Ford| party2 = Republican Party (United States)| home_state2 = Michigan| running_mate2 = Bob Dole| electoral_vote2 = 240A faithless Republican elector voted for Reagan for president. The same elector voted for Dole for vice president as pledged.| states_carried2 = 27| popular_vote2 = 39,148,634 39,148,6341|pad=yes}}| map_size = 350px| map = {{1976 United States presidential election imagemap}}Ronald Reagan by a Washington (state)>Washington faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.| title = President| before_election = Gerald Ford| before_party = Republican Party (United States)| after_election = Jimmy Carter| after_party = Democratic Party (United States)}}The 1976 United States presidential election was the 48th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976. Democrat Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford from Michigan. Carter's win represented the lone Democratic victory in a presidential election held between 1968 and 1988.President Richard Nixon had won the 1972 election with Spiro Agnew as his running mate, but in 1973 Agnew resigned and Ford was appointed as vice president via the 25th Amendment. When Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Ford ascended to the presidency, becoming the only president to have never been elected to national office. He faced a strong challenge from conservative former governor Ronald Reagan of California in the Republican primaries, but Ford narrowly prevailed at the convention. Carter was little-known at the start of the Democratic primaries, but the former governor of Georgia emerged as the front-runner after his victories in the first set of primaries. Campaigning as a political moderate and Washington outsider, Carter defeated opponents such as Jerry Brown and Mo Udall to clinch the Democratic nomination.Ford pursued a "Rose Garden strategy" in which he sought to portray himself as an experienced leader focused on fulfilling his role as chief executive. Carter emphasized his status as a reformer who was "untainted" by Washington. Saddled with a poor economy, the fall of South Vietnam and his unpopular pardon of Nixon, Ford trailed by a wide margin in polls taken after Carter's formal nomination in July 1976. Ford's polling rebounded after a strong performance in the first presidential debate, and the race was close on election day.Carter won a majority of the popular and electoral vote. He carried most states in the South and the Northeast while Ford dominated the Western states. Carter remains the only Democratic candidate since 1964 to win a majority of the Southern states. Ford won 27 states, the most states ever carried by a losing candidate. Both of the major party vice presidential nominees, Walter Mondale in 1984 and Bob Dole in 1996, would later win their respective party's presidential nominations, but lose in the general election.

Nominations

Democratic Party

Democratic candidates {| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"Democratic Party Ticket, 1976! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#3333FF; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Jimmy Carter}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#3333FF; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Walter Mondale}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#c8ebff;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|200x200px)List of Governors of Georgia>76thGovernor of Georgia(1971–1975)United States Senate>U.S. Senatorfrom Minnesota(1964–1976)Campaign(File:Jimmycarter1976.gif|200x200px)The surprise winner of the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination was Jimmy Carter, a former state senator and governor of Georgia. When the primaries began, Carter was little-known at the national level, and many political pundits regarded a number of better-known candidates, such as Senator Henry M. Jackson from Washington, Representative Morris Udall from Arizona, Governor George Wallace of Alabama, and California Governor Jerry Brown, as the favorites for the nomination. However, in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Carter realized that his status as a Washington outsider, political centrist, and moderate reformer could give him an advantage over his better-known establishment rivals. Carter also took advantage of the record number of state primaries and caucuses in 1976 to eliminate his better-known rivals one-by-one.Senator Jackson made a fateful decision not to compete in the early Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary, which Jimmy Carter won after liberals split their votes among four other candidates. Though Jackson went on to win the Massachusetts and New York primaries, he was forced to quit the race on May 1 after losing the critical Pennsylvania primary to Carter by twelve percentage points. Carter then defeated Governor Wallace, his main conservative challenger, by a wide margin in the North Carolina primary, thus forcing Wallace to end his campaign. Representative Udall, a liberal, then became Carter's main challenger. He finished second to Carter in the New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, New York, Michigan, South Dakota, and Ohio primaries, and won the caucuses in his home state of Arizona, while running even with Carter in the New Mexico caucuses. However, the fact that Udall finished second to Carter in most of these races meant that Carter steadily accumulated more delegates for the nomination than he did.As Carter closed in on the nomination, an "ABC" (Anybody But Carter) movement started among Northern and Western liberal Democrats who worried that Carter's Southern upbringing would make him too conservative for the Democratic Party. The leaders of the "ABC" movement – Idaho Senator Frank Church and California Governor Jerry Brown – both announced their candidacies for the Democratic nomination and defeated Carter in several late primaries. However, their campaigns started too late to prevent Carter from gathering the remaining delegates he needed to capture the nomination.By June 1976, Carter had captured more than enough delegates to win the Democratic nomination. At the 1976 Democratic National Convention, Carter easily won the nomination on the first ballot; Udall finished in second place. Carter then chose Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, a liberal and political protégé of Hubert Humphrey, as his running mate.

Republican Party

Republican candidates(File:1976RepublicanPresidentialNominationVotePathed.svg|thumb|right|350px|First ballot vote for the presidential nomination by state delegations) {| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:center;"Republican Party Ticket, 1976! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#E81B23; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Gerald Ford}}! style="width:3em; font-size:135%; background:#E81B23; width:200px;"| {{color|white|Bob Dole}} style="color:#000; font-size:100%; background:#ffd0d7;"for Presidentfor Vice Presidentcenter|200x200px)center|200x200px)List of Presidents of the United States>38thPresident of the United States(1974–1977) United States Senate>U.S. Senatorfrom Kansas(1969–1996) Campaign(File:Forddole1976.gif|200x200px)File:1976 Republican National Convention.jpg|thumb|right|350px|The 1976 Republican National Convention at Kemper Arena in Kansas City. Vice Presidential nominee Bob Dole is on the far left, then Nancy Reagan, Ronald Reagan is at the center shaking hands with President Gerald Ford, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller is just to the right of Ford, followed by Susan Ford and First Lady Betty FordBetty FordThe contest for the Republican Party's presidential nomination in 1976 was between two serious candidates: incumbent president Gerald Ford from Michigan, a member of the party's moderate wing, and former governor of California, Ronald Reagan, a member of the party's conservative wing. The presidential primary campaign between the two men was hard-fought and relatively even; by the start of the Republican Convention in August 1976, the race for the nomination was still too close to call. Ford defeated Reagan by a narrow margin on the first ballot at the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City, and chose Senator Bob Dole from Kansas as his running mate in place of incumbent Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, who had announced the previous year that he was not interested in being considered for the Vice Presidential nomination.WEB,weblink PDF, The President and the Vice President have a complete understanding between them regarding the Vice President's decision. The letter speaks for itself. The initiative was the Vice President's, Fordlibrarymuseum.gov, 2016-03-04, The 1976 Republican Convention was the last political convention to open with the presidential nomination still being undecided until the actual balloting at the convention.

Others

General election

Fall campaign

(File:Carter and Ford in a debate, September 23, 1976.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Carter and Ford in debate)One of the advantages Ford held over Carter as the general election campaign began was that as president he was privileged to preside over events dealing with the United States Bicentennial; this often resulted in favorable publicity for Ford. The Washington, D.C., fireworks display on the Fourth of July was presided over by the president and televised nationally.WEB,weblink Election of 1976: A Political Outsider Prevails., August 2, 2003, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030802173440weblink">weblink August 2, 2003, C-SPAN. Retrieved on June 20, 2012. On July 7, 1976, the President and First Lady served as hosts at a White House state dinner for Elizabeth II and Prince Philip of the United Kingdom, which was televised on the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) network. These events were part of Ford's "Rose Garden" strategy to win the election, meaning that instead of appearing as a typical politician, Ford presented himself as a "tested leader" who was busily fulfilling the role of national leader and chief executive. Not until October did Ford leave the White House to campaign actively across the nation.Jimmy Carter ran as a reformer who was "untainted" by Washington political scandals,WEB,weblink Commercials - 1976 - Essence, The Living Room Candidate, 1974-08-09, 2016-03-04, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120825102042weblink">weblink August 25, 2012, which many voters found attractive in the wake of the Watergate scandal that had led to President Richard Nixon's resignation. Ford, although personally unconnected with Watergate, was seen by many as too close to the discredited Nixon administration, especially after he granted Nixon a presidential pardon for any crimes he might have committed during his term of office. Ford's pardon of Nixon caused his popularity, as measured by public-opinion polls, to plummet. Ford's refusal to explain his reasons for pardoning Nixon publicly (he would do so in his memoirs several years later), also hurt his image.Ford unsuccessfully asked Congress to end the 1950s-era price controls on natural gas, which caused a dwindling of American natural gas reserves after the 1973 Oil Crisis.BOOK, How We Got Here: The '70s, Frum, David, David Frum, 2000, Basic Books, New York, New York, 0-465-04195-7, 321–322, Carter stated during his campaign that he opposed the ending of the price controls and thought such a move would be "disastrous".After the Democratic National Convention, Carter held a 33-point lead over Ford in the polls{{citation needed|date=February 2017}}. However, as the campaign continued, the race greatly tightened. During the campaign Playboy magazine published a controversial interview with Carter; in the interview, Carter admitted to having "lusted in my heart" for women other than his wife and used the word "screw," which cut into his support among women and evangelical Christians.Chapter three The Bicentennial election. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170502220212weblink |date=May 2, 2017 }} On September 23, Ford performed well in what was the first televised presidential debate since 1960. Polls taken after the debate showed that most viewers felt that Ford was the winner. Carter was also hurt by Ford's charges that he lacked the necessary experience to be an effective national leader, and that Carter was vague on many issues.(File:CarterHQ.jpg|right|thumb|250px|Carter campaign headquarters)However, Ford also committed a costly blunder in the campaign that halted his momentum. During the second presidential debate on October 6, Ford stumbled when he asserted that "there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and there never will be under a Ford administration". He added that he did not "believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union" and made the same claim with regard to Yugoslavia and Romania (Yugoslavia was not a Warsaw Pact member).WEB,weblink Debating Our Destiny: The Second 1976 Presidential Debate – October 6, 1976, Pbs.org, October 6, 1976, January 30, 2016, Ford refused to retract his statement for almost a week after the debate; as a result his surge in the polls stalled and Carter was able to maintain a slight lead in the polls.A vice-presidential debate, the first ever formal one of its kind,WEB,weblink The First VP Debate: Dole-Mondale, 10-15-76, Janda.org, 1976-10-15, 2016-03-04, between Bob Dole and Walter Mondale also hurt the Republican ticket when Dole asserted that military unpreparedness on the part of Democratic presidents was responsible for all of the wars the U.S. had fought in the 20th century. Dole, a World War II veteran, noted that in every 20th-century war from World War I to the Vietnam War, a Democrat had been president. Dole then pointed out that the number of U.S. casualties in "Democrat wars" was roughly equal to the population of Detroit. Many voters felt that Dole's criticism was unfairly harsh and that his dispassionate delivery made him seem cold. Years later, Dole would remark that he regretted the comment, having viewed it as hurting the Republican ticket.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130211010115weblink">Bob Dole interview, November 10, 1999. PBS.org. One factor which did help Ford in the closing days of the campaign was a series of popular television appearances he did with Joe Garagiola Sr., a retired baseball star for the St. Louis Cardinals and a well-known announcer for NBC Sports. Garagiola and Ford appeared in a number of shows in several large cities. During the show Garagiola would ask Ford questions about his life and beliefs; the shows were so informal, relaxed, and laid-back that some television critics labelled them the "Joe and Jerry Show". Ford and Garagiola obviously enjoyed one another's company, and they remained friends after the election was over.

Presidential debates

There were three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate during the 1976 general election.WEB,weblink CPD: 1976 Debates, www.debates.org, 2019-01-08, WEB,weblink 1976 Debates Overview, CNN, AllPolitics, 1996, April 24, 2019, {| class="wikitable" style="white-space: nowrap; text-align: center;"|+Debates among candidates for the 1976 U.S. presidential election!No.!Date!Host!City!Moderator!Panelists!Participants!Viewership(Millions)! style="background:#F7E7CE;" |P1|Thursday, September 23, 1976|Walnut Street TheatrePhiladelphia>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Edwin Newman|Elizabeth DrewJames GannonFrank Reynolds|Jimmy CarterGerald Ford|69.7! style="background:#F7E7CE;" |P2|Wednesday, October 6, 1976|Palace of Fine ArtsSan Francisco>San Francisco, CaliforniaPauline Frederick (journalist)>Pauline Frederick|Max FrankelHenry TrewhittRichard Valeriani|Jimmy CarterGerald Ford|63.9! style="background:#F7E7CE;" |VP|Friday, October 15, 1976|Alley TheatreHouston>Houston, Texas|James Hoge|Marilyn BergerHal BrunoWalter Mears|Bob DoleWalter Mondale|43.2! style="background:#F7E7CE;" |P3|Friday, October 22, 1976Phi Beta Kappa Memorial HallHTTPS://WWW.FORDLIBRARYMUSEUM.GOV/LIBRARY/DOCUMENT/DIARY/PDD761022.PDF PUBLISHER=GERALD R. FORD PRESIDENTIAL MUSEUM, April 24, 2019, |Williamsburg, Virginia|Barbara WaltersJoseph KraftRobert C. Maynard>Robert MaynardJack Nelson|Jimmy CarterGerald Ford|62.7

Results

File:1976prescountymap2.PNG|thumb|400px|Election results by county.{{legend|#1560BD|Jimmy Carter|border=1px #AAAAAA solid}}{{legend|#E32636|border=1px #AAAAAA solid}}(File:1976 Presidential Election in the United States, Results by Congressional District.png|thumb|400px|1976 presidential election results by congressional district)Despite his campaign's blunders, Ford managed to close the remaining gap in the polls and by election day, the race was judged to be even. It took most of that night and the following morning to determine the winner. It was not until 3:30 am (EST), that the NBC television network was able to declare that Carter had carried Mississippi and had thus accumulated more than the 270 electoral votes needed to win (seconds later, ABC News also declared Carter the winner based on projections for Carter in Wisconsin and Hawaii while CBS News announced Carter's victory at 3:45 am).Jules Witcover. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976 (New York: Viking), p. 11. Carter defeated Ford by two percentage points in the national popular vote.The electoral vote was the closest since 1916; Carter carried 23 states with 297 electoral votes, while Ford won 27 states with 240 electoral votes (one elector from Washington state, pledged to Ford, voted for Reagan). Carter's victory came primarily from his near-sweep of the South (he lost only Virginia and Oklahoma) and his narrow victories in large Northern states, such as New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Ford did well in the West, carrying every state in that region except for Hawaii. The most tightly contested state in the election was Oregon; Ford won that state by under 2,000 votes.A switch of 3,687 votes in Hawaii and 5,559 votes in Ohio from Carter to Ford would have resulted in Ford winning the election with 270 electoral votes.WEB,weblink How Close Were U.S. Presidential Elections?, August 25, 2012, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120825102042weblink">weblink August 25, 2012, By percentage of the vote, the states that secured Carter's victory were Wisconsin (1.68% margin) and Ohio (.27% margin). Had Ford won these states and all other states he carried, he would have won the presidency. The 27 states he won were and still are the most states ever carried by a losing candidate for president. Had Ford won the election, the provisions of the 22nd amendment would have disqualified him from running in 1980 as he served more than two years of Nixon's second term.Carter was the first Democrat since John F. Kennedy in 1960 to carry the states of the Deep South—Bill Clinton is the only Democrat since 1976 to carry more than one state from the Deep South, doing so in both 1992 and 1996—and the first since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 to carry a majority of all southern states. Carter performed very strongly in his home state of Georgia, carrying 66.7% of the vote and every county in the state. His winning of 23 states was only the first time since the 1960 election and the second time in history that the winner of the election won less than half the states. His 50.1% of the vote was the only time since 1964 that a Democrat managed to obtain an absolute majority of the popular vote in a presidential election until Barack Obama won 52.9% of the vote in 2008. Carter is one of five Democrats since the American Civil War to obtain an absolute majority of the popular vote, the others being Samuel J. Tilden, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Lyndon B. Johnson and Barack Obama.{{efn|Seven more won the plurality of the popular vote: Grover Cleveland, Woodrow Wilson, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, Al Gore, and Hillary Clinton. Al Gore and Hillary Clinton won the plurality of the popular vote in 2000 and 2016 respectively, but their opponents, George W. Bush in 2000 and Donald Trump in 2016, each won the majority of the electoral vote. Cleveland won the plurality of the popular vote in 1884, 1888, and 1892 along with the majority of the electoral vote in 1884 and 1892, but his opponent won the majority of the electoral vote in 1888. Wilson in 1912 and 1916, Truman in 1948, Kennedy in 1960, and Clinton in 1992 and 1996 all won the plurality of the popular vote and the majority of the electoral vote.}}This election represents the last time to date that Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, or South Carolina would vote Democratic, and the last time North Carolina would vote Democratic until 2008, as well as the last time Florida voted Democratic until 1996, the last time Arkansas, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Tennessee voted Democratic until 1992. It is also the last time in which Shasta, Yuba, Placer, El Dorado and Madera Counties in California, Brazoria, Williamson and McLennan Counties in Texas, Madison County in Alabama, Duval and Brevard Counties in Florida, Warren County, Kentucky and St. Mary's County, Maryland would vote Democratic. Cobb and Gwinnett Counties in Georgia would never again vote Democratic until 2016.Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016 This election was the last time that a Democrat won the presidency without winning California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Vermont and Washington.It was the first time in exactly 100 years (since 1876) when Florida and Virginia supported different candidates. This would happen again in 1996 and 2016. It was also the first time since Oklahoma statehood in 1907 when the Sooner State and Tennessee supported different candidates, an occurrence replicated only in 1992 and 1996.

Statistics

{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=James Earl Carter Jr.| party=Democratic| state=Georgia| pv=40,831,881| pv_pct=50.08%| ev=297| vp_name=Walter Frederick Mondale| vp_state=Minnesota}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box vp rowspan| name=Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (Incumbent)| party=Republican| state=Michigan| pres_count=2| pv=39,148,634| pv_pct=48.02%| ev=240| vp_name=Robert Joseph Dole| vp_state=Kansas| vp_ev=241}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box subrow| name=Ronald Wilson Reagan| party=Republican| state=California| vp_name=Nelson Rockefeller| vp_state=New York| pv=—{{efn|name="Mike"|Mike Padden, a Republican faithless elector from Washington, gave Ronald Reagan one electoral vote.}}| pv_pct=—{{efn|name="Mike"}}| ev=1}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Eugene McCarthy| party=None| state=Minnesota| pv=740,460| pv_pct=0.91%| ev=0| vp_name={{efn|name="Running"|The running mate of McCarthy varied from state to state.}}| vp_state={{efn|name="Running"}}}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Roger MacBride| party=Libertarian| state=Virginia| pv=172,557| pv_pct=0.21%| ev=0| vp_name=David Bergland| vp_state=California}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Lester Maddox| party=American Independent| state=Georgia| pv=170,274| pv_pct=0.21%| ev=0| vp_name=William Dyke| vp_state=Wisconsin}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Thomas J. Anderson| party=American| state={{efn|Research has not yet determined whether Anderson's home state was Tennessee or Texas at the time of the 1976 election.}}| pv=158,271| pv_pct=0.19%| ev=0| vp_name=Rufus Shackelford| vp_state=Florida}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Peter Camejo| party=Socialist Workers| state=California| pv=90,986| pv_pct=0.11%| ev=0|vp_name=Willie Mae Reid| vp_state=Illinois}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Gus Hall| party=Communist| state=New York| pv=58,709| pv_pct=0.07%| ev=0| vp_name=Jarvis Tyner| vp_state=New York}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Margaret Wright| party=People's| state=California| pv=49,013| pv_pct=0.06%| ev=0| vp_name=Benjamin Spock| vp_state=Connecticut}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box row| name=Lyndon LaRouche| party=U.S. Labor| state=New York| pv=40,043| pv_pct=0.05%| ev=0| vp_name=R. Wayne Evans| vp_state=Michigan}}{{U.S. presidential ticket box other| footnote=| pv=70,785| pv_pct=0.08%}}Source (Popular Vote): {{Leip PV source 2| year=1976| as of=August 7, 2005}}Source (Electoral Vote): {{National Archives EV source| year=1976| as of=August 7, 2005}}{{bar box|title=Popular vote|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Carter|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|50.08}}{{bar percent|Ford|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|48.02}}{{bar percent|McCarthy|#777777|0.91}}{{bar percent|Others|#777777|0.57}}}}{{bar box|title=Electoral vote|titlebar=#ddd|width=600px|barwidth=410px|bars={{bar percent|Carter|{{Democratic Party (US)/meta/color}}|55.20}}{{bar percent|Ford|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|44.61}}{{bar percent|Reagan|{{Republican Party (US)/meta/color}}|0.19}}}}(File:1976 Electoral College Map.png|650px|thumb|left)Image:1976nationwidecountymapshadedbyvoteshare.svg|Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Results by state

WEB,weblink 1976 Presidential General Election Data - National, March 18, 2013, This election represents the second time that the winning candidate has received a majority of the electoral votes although the second-place candidate carried a majority of the states. It had previously happened in the 1960 election.{|class="wikitable"{{Party shading/Democratic}}Jimmy Carter>Carter/Mondale{{Party shading/Republican}}Gerald Ford>Ford/Dole{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right"! colspan=2 |! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Jimmy CarterDemocratic! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Gerald FordRepublican! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Eugene McCarthyIndependent! style="text-align:center;" colspan="3"| Roger MacBrideLibertarian! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| Margin! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"| State Total! align=center | State! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | electoralvotes! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| #! style="text-align:center;" data-sort- type="number"| %! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" data-sort-type="number" | #!{{Party shading/Democratic}} Alabama 9| 659,170| 55.73| 9| 504,070| 42.61| -| -| -| -| 1,481| 0.13| -| 155,100| 13.11| 1,182,850 AL{{Party shading/Republican}} Alaska 3| 44,058| 35.65| -| 71,555| 57.90| 3| -| -| -| 6,785| 5.49| -| -27,497| -22.25| 123,574 AK{{Party shading/Republican}} Arizona 6| 295,602| 39.80| -| 418,642| 56.37| 6| 19,229| 2.59| -| 7,647| 1.03| -| -123,040| -16.57| 742,719 AZ{{Party shading/Democratic}} Arkansas 6| 499,614| 64.94| 6| 268,753| 34.93| -| 647| 0.08| -| -| -| -| 230,861| 30.01| 769,396 AR{{Party shading/Republican}} California 45| 3,742,284| 47.57| -| 3,882,244| 49.35| 45| 58,412| 0.74| -| 56,388| 0.72| -| -139,960| -1.78| 7,867,117 CA{{Party shading/Republican}} Colorado 7| 460,353| 42.58| -| 584,367| 54.05| 7| 26,107| 2.41| -| 5,330| 0.49| -| -124,014| -11.47| 1,081,135 CO{{Party shading/Republican}} Connecticut 8| 647,895| 46.90| -| 719,261| 52.06| 8| -| -| -| -| -| -| -71,366| -5.17| 1,381,526 CT{{Party shading/Democratic}} Delaware 3| 122,596| 51.98| 3| 109,831| 46.57| -| 2,437| 1.03| -| -| -| -| 12,765| 5.41| 235,834 DE{{Party shading/Democratic}} D.C. 3| 137,818| 81.63| 3| 27,873| 16.51| -| -| -| -| 274| 0.16| -| 109,945| 65.12| 168,830 DC{{Party shading/Democratic}} Florida 17| 1,636,000| 51.93| 17| 1,469,531| 46.64| -| 23,643| 0.75| -| 103| 0.00| -| 166,469| 5.28| 3,150,631 FL{{Party shading/Democratic}} Georgia 12| 979,409| 66.74| 12| 483,743| 32.96| -| 991| 0.07| -| 175| 0.01| -| 495,666| 33.78| 1,467,458 GA{{Party shading/Democratic}} Hawaii 4| 147,375| 50.59| 4| 140,003| 48.06| -| -| -| -| 3,923| 1.35| -| 7,372| 2.53| 291,301 HI{{Party shading/Republican}} Idaho 4| 126,549| 37.12| -| 204,151| 59.88| 4| -| -| -| 3,558| 1.04| -| -77,602| -22.76| 340,932 ID{{Party shading/Republican}} Illinois 26| 2,271,295| 48.13| -| 2,364,269| 50.10| 26| 55,939| 1.19| -| 8,057| 0.17| -| -92,974| -1.97| 4,718,833 IL{{Party shading/Republican}} Indiana 13| 1,014,714| 45.70| -| 1,183,958| 53.32| 13| -| -| -| -| -| -| -169,244| -7.62| 2,220,362 IN{{Party shading/Republican}} Iowa 8| 619,931| 48.46| -| 632,863 | 49.47| 8| 20,051| 1.57| -| 1,452| 0.11| -| -12,932| -1.01| 1,279,306 IA{{Party shading/Republican}} Kansas 7| 430,421| 44.94| -| 502,752| 52.49| 7| 13,185| 1.38| -| 3,242| 0.34| -| -72,331| -7.55| 957,845 KS{{Party shading/Democratic}} Kentucky 9| 615,717| 52.75| 9| 531,852| 45.57| -| 6,837| 0.59| -| 814| 0.07| -| 83,865| 7.19| 1,167,142 KY{{Party shading/Democratic}} Louisiana 10| 661,365| 51.73| 10| 587,446| 45.95| -| 6,588| 0.52| -| 3,325| 0.26| -| 73,919| 5.78| 1,278,439 LA{{Party shading/Republican}} Maine 4| 232,279| 48.07| -| 236,320| 48.91| 4| 10,874| 2.25| -| 10| 0.00| -| -4,041| -0.84| 483,208 ME{{Party shading/Democratic}} Maryland 10| 759,612| 53.04| 10| 672,661| 46.96| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| 86,951| 6.07| 1,432,273 MD{{Party shading/Democratic}} Massachusetts 14| 1,429,475| 56.11| 14| 1,030,276| 40.44| -| 65,637| 2.58| -| 135| 0.01| -| 399,199| 15.67| 2,547,557 MA{{Party shading/Republican}} Michigan 21| 1,696,714| 46.44| -| 1,893,742| 51.83| 21| 47,905| 1.31| -| 5,406| 0.15| -| -197,028| -5.39| 3,653,749 MI{{Party shading/Democratic}} Minnesota 10| 1,070,440| 54.90| 10| 819,395| 42.02| -| 35,490| 1.82| -| 3,529| 0.18| -| 251,045| 12.87| 1,949,931 MN{{Party shading/Democratic}} Mississippi 7| 381,309| 49.56| 7| 366,846| 47.68| -| 4,074| 0.53| -| 2,787| 0.36| -| 14,463| 1.88| 769,360 MS{{Party shading/Democratic}} Missouri 12| 998,387| 51.10| 12| 927,443| 47.47| -| 24,029| 1.23| -| -| -| -| 70,944| 3.63| 1,953,600 MO{{Party shading/Republican}} Montana 4| 149,259| 45.40| -| 173,703| 52.84| 4| -| -| -| -| -| -| -24,444| -7.44| 328,734 MT{{Party shading/Republican}} Nebraska 5| 233,692| 38.46| -| 359,705| 59.19| 5| 9,409| 1.55| -| 1,482| 0.24| -| -126,013| -20.74| 607,668 NE{{Party shading/Republican}} Nevada 3| 92,479| 45.81| -| 101,273| 50.17| 3| -| -| -| 1,519| 0.75| -| -8,794| -4.36| 201,876 NV{{Party shading/Republican}} New Hampshire 4| 147,635| 43.47| -| 185,935| 54.75| 4| 4,095| 1.21| -| 936| 0.28| -| -38,300| -11.28| 339,618 NH{{Party shading/Republican}} New Jersey 17| 1,444,653| 47.92| -| 1,509,688| 50.08| 17| 32,717| 1.09| -| 9,449| 0.31| -| -65,035| -2.16| 3,014,472 NJ{{Party shading/Republican}} New Mexico 4| 201,148| 48.28| -| 211,419| 50.75| 4| -| -| -| 1,110| 0.27| -| -10,271| -2.47| 416,590 NM{{Party shading/Democratic}} New York 41| 3,389,558| 51.95| 41| 3,100,791| 47.52| -| 4,303| 0.07| -| 12,197| 0.19| -| 288,767| 4.43| 6,525,225 NY{{Party shading/Democratic}} North Carolina 13| 927,365| 55.27| 13| 741,960| 44.22| -| -| -| -| 2,219| 0.13| -| 185,405| 11.05| 1,677,906 NC{{Party shading/Republican}} North Dakota 3| 136,078| 45.80| -| 153,470| 51.66| 3| 2,952| 0.99| -| 256| 0.09| -| -17,392| -5.85| 297,094 ND{{Party shading/Democratic}} Ohio 25| 2,011,621| 48.92| 25| 2,000,505| 48.65| -| 58,258| 1.42| -| 8,961| 0.22| -| 11,116| 0.27| 4,111,873 OH{{Party shading/Republican}} Oklahoma 8| 532,442| 48.75| -| 545,708| 49.96| 8| 14,101| 1.29| -| -| -| -| -13,266| -1.21| 1,092,251 OK{{Party shading/Republican}} Oregon 6| 490,407| 47.62| -| 492,120| 47.78| 6| 40,207| 3.90| -| -| -| -| -1,713| -0.17| 1,029,876 OR{{Party shading/Democratic}} Pennsylvania 27| 2,328,677| 50.40| 27| 2,205,604| 47.73| -| 50,584| 1.09| -| -| -| -| 123,073| 2.66| 4,620,787 PA{{Party shading/Democratic}} Rhode Island 4| 227,636| 55.36| 4| 181,249| 44.08| -| 479| 0.12| -| 715| 0.17| -| 46,387| 11.28| 411,170 RI{{Party shading/Democratic}} South Carolina 8| 450,825| 56.17| 8| 346,140| 43.13| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| 104,685| 13.04| 802,594 SC{{Party shading/Republican}} South Dakota 4| 147,068| 48.91| -| 151,505| 50.39| 4| -| -| -| 1,619| 0.54| -| -4,437| -1.48| 300,678 SD{{Party shading/Democratic}} Tennessee 10| 825,879| 55.94| 10| 633,969| 42.94| -| 5,004| 0.34| -| 1,375| 0.09| -| 191,910| 13.00| 1,476,346 TN{{Party shading/Democratic}} Texas 26| 2,082,319| 51.14| 26| 1,953,300| 47.97| -| 20,118| 0.49| -| 263| 0.01| -| 129,019| 3.17| 4,071,884 TX{{Party shading/Republican}} Utah 4| 182,110| 33.65| -| 337,908| 62.44| 4| 3,907| 0.72| -| 2,438| 0.45| -| -155,798| -28.79| 541,198 UT{{Party shading/Republican}} Vermont 3| 81,044| 43.14| -| 102,085| 54.34| 3| 4,001| 2.13| -| 4| 0.00| -| -21,041| -11.20| 187,855 VT{{Party shading/Republican}} Virginia 12| 813,896| 47.96| -| 836,554| 49.29| 12| -| -| -| 4,648| 0.27| -| -22,658| -1.34| 1,697,094 VA{{Party shading/Republican}} Washington 9| 717,323| 46.11| -| 777,732| 50.00| 8| 36,986| 2.38| -| 5,042| 0.32| -| -60,409| -3.88| 1,555,534 WA{{Party shading/Democratic}} West Virginia 6| 435,914| 58.07| 6| 314,760| 41.93| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| 121,154| 16.14| 750,674 WV{{Party shading/Democratic}} Wisconsin 11| 1,040,232| 49.50| 11| 1,004,987| 47.83| -| 34,943| 1.66| -| 3,814| 0.18| -| 35,245| 1.68| 2,101,336 WI{{Party shading/Republican}} Wyoming 3| 62,239| 39.81| -| 92,717| 59.30| 3| 624| 0.40| -| 89| 0.06| -| -30,478| -19.49| 156,343 WY! TOTALS:! 538! 40,831,881! 50.08! 297! 39,148,634! 48.02! 240! 740,460! 0.91! -! 172,557! 0.21! -! 1,683,247! 2.06! 81,531,584 US

Close states

File:Joe Garagiola-Gerald Ford.jpg|right|thumb|Gerald Ford (right) watching election returns with Joe Garagiola on election night in 1976. Garagiola is reacting to television reports that Ford had just lost Texas to Carter.]](File:Carter Mondale button 1976.jpg|thumb|A campaign button from election night where Carter and Mondale spent the weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120825102042weblink">evening in Flint Michigan at a rally It is notable as only a handful of counties in Michigan went to Carter in 1976, and no surrounding counties where Carter held the rally went to him.)(File:1976 campaign button a.JPG|thumb|A Ford-Dole campaign button.)States where margin of victory was under 1% (35 electoral votes):
  1. Oregon, 0.16%
  2. Ohio, 0.27%
  3. Maine, 0.84%
States where margin of victory was under 5% (264 electoral votes):
  1. Iowa, 1.01%
  2. Oklahoma, 1.21%
  3. Virginia, 1.34%
  4. South Dakota, 1.48%
  5. Wisconsin, 1.68% (tipping point state)
  6. California, 1.78%
  7. Mississippi, 1.88%
  8. Illinois, 1.97%
  9. New Jersey, 2.16%
  10. New Mexico, 2.47%
  11. Hawaii, 2.53%
  12. Pennsylvania, 2.66%
  13. Texas, 3.17%
  14. Missouri, 3.63%
  15. Washington, 3.88%
  16. Nevada, 4.36%
  17. New York, 4.43%
States where margin of victory was more than 5%, but less than 10% (105 electoral votes):
  1. Connecticut, 5.16%
  2. Florida, 5.29%
  3. Michigan, 5.39%
  4. Delaware, 5.41%
  5. Louisiana, 5.78%
  6. North Dakota, 5.86%
  7. Maryland, 6.08%
  8. Kentucky, 7.18%
  9. Montana, 7.44%
  10. Kansas, 7.55%
  11. Indiana, 7.62%
">

Voter demographics {| class"wikitable"

! colspan="7" | Social groups and the presidential vote, 1976!! Size"Size" = share of 1980 national total.! {{party shading/Democratic}}|Carter! {{party shading/Republican}}|Ford! colspan=7|Party| Democratic 43 77 22Independent (voter)>Independent 23 43 54| Republican 28 9 90! colspan=7|IdeologyModern liberalism in the United States>Liberal 18 70 26| Moderate 51 51 48Conservatism in the United States>Conservative 31 29 70! colspan=7|EthnicityAfrican American>Black 10 82 16Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic 2 75 24White American>White 88 47 52! colspan=7|Gender| Female 48 50 48| Male 52 50 48! colspan=7|ReligionProtestantism>Protestant 46 44 55| White Protestant 41 43 57Roman Catholicism in the United States>Catholic 25 54 44American Jews>Jewish 5 64 34! colspan=7|Family income| Less than US$10,000 13 58 40| $10,000–$14,999 15 55 43| $15,000–$24,999 29 48 50| $25,000–$50,000 24 36 62| Over $50,000 5 — —! colspan=7|OccupationProfessional or management>manager 39 41 57Clerk (position)>Clerical, sales, white-collar 11 46 53Blue-collar worker>Blue-collar 17 57 41Agriculture>Farmer 3 — —unemployment>Unemployed 3 65 34! colspan=7|Educationsecondary education in the United States>high school 11 58 41| High school graduate 28 54 46higher education in the United States>college 28 51 49| College graduate 27 45 55! colspan=7|Union membership| Labor union household 28 59 39| No member of household in union 62 43 55! colspan=7|Age| 18–21 years old 6 48 50| 22–29 years old 17 51 46| 30–44 years old 31 49 49| 45–59 years old 23 47 52| 60 years or older 18 47 52! colspan=7|RegionEastern United States>East 25 51 47Southern United States>South 27 54 45| White South 22 46 52Midwestern United States>Midwest 27 48 50Western United States>Far West 19 46 51! colspan=7|Community size| City over 250,000 18 60 40| Suburb/small city 53 53 47| Rural/town 29 47 53Source: CBS News/ New York Times interviews with 12,782 voters as they left the polls, as reported in the New York Times, November 9, 1980, p. 28, and in further analysis. The 1976 data are from CBS News interviews.{{reflist|group=A}}

Characteristics

{{refimprove section|date=September 2012}}
  • As of 2016, the 1976 election was the most recent time that a Democratic candidate carried any of the following states: Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas. North Carolina did not vote for a Democratic candidate again until Obama in 2008. Obama also carried Virginia, the only state in the South that Carter did not win.WEB,weblink 1976 Presidential General Election Results - Virginia, Uselectionatlas.org, May 28, 2010,
  • As of 2019, the 1976 election is the earliest election with a living nominee (Carter) and both living vice presidential nominees (Mondale and Dole).
  • As of 2016, the 1976 election was the most recent time that a Democratic candidate won the White House without carrying California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Maine, Vermont, and Washington.
  • This election was the first time since 1908 that Nevada did not back the winning candidate, something that would happen again in 2016.
  • This is the last election that Missouri voted Democratic and Iowa voted Republican in the same election.
It was also the first election that New Mexico did not back the winning candidate and the last time until 2000 (and 2016) and the only election that New Mexico did not back the winner of national popular vote since it had achieved statehood in 1912. In 2000 and 2016, the national popular vote winner eventually lost the electoral vote and thus the presidency.
  • Ford carried 27 out of 50 states, the most ever won by a losing candidate. He became the second and {{asof|2016|lc=y}} the last person not to win the presidency while carrying more than half the states. The first was Nixon in 1960, who won in 26 states.
  • This election marks the only time in U.S. history that the two major candidates and their running mates would all run for and lose the presidency, coming second in the general election: Ford in 1976, Carter in 1980, Mondale in 1984 and Dole in 1996.
  • With the triumph of Jimmy Carter, the 1976 presidential election was the last time in which a winning presidential candidate from the Democratic Party would win the presidency at the same time their party won majorities in both chambers of Congress and eventually go on to see that party retain control of both houses in the following midterm election (although Carter's party still lost seats in both houses). The subsequent victorious Democrats, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, witnessed the House of Representatives and Senate switch to Republican control during Clinton's in 1994 and Obama losing the House and several seats in the Senate in 2010 (though Clinton and Obama would both go on to be reelected and this would turn out to be Carter's only midterm election).
  • Carter carried 1,711 counties, to Ford's 1,403. Since this election, only Bill Clinton in both 1992 and 1996 carried more than 1,000 counties, and no Democrat since 1976 has won more counties than their Republican opponent.weblink
  • This is the first time in American history where both candidates eventually would become the longest lived president in the history of the United States. Gerald Ford held the record from November 12, 2006 to November 25, 2017. Jimmy Carter got the record in March 22, 2019. This happened once more, in 1980, which also involved Carter.

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Malcolm D., MacDougall, Mal MacDougall, 1977, We Almost Made It, New York, Crown, 0-517-52933-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Shirley, Craig, Craig Shirley, Reagan's Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It All, 2005, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tennessee, 0-7852-6049-8,weblink
  • Robert Buccellato, Jimmy Carter in Plains: The Presidential Hometown. Arcadia Publishing, South Carolina 2016

External links

{{United States presidential election, 1976}}{{State Results of the 1976 U.S. presidential election}}{{United States elections, 1976}}{{USPresidentialElections}}{{Jimmy Carter}}{{Gerald Ford}}{{Ronald Reagan}}{{Authority control}}

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