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{{For|the channel|YouTube (channel)}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|Video-sharing service owned by Google}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}

|country = United StatesWorldwide (except for censorship of YouTube>blocked countries)Chad HurleySteve Chen>Jawed Karim}}|key people = Susan Wojcicki (CEO)Internet|Video hosting service}}|products = YouTube MusicYouTube TV|revenue =|operating income =|international =|employees =|parent = Google LLC (2006–present)weblink#Localization>list of localized domain names)|content license = Uploader holds copyright (standard license); Creative Commons can be selected.Python (programming language)>Python (core/API),CLABURN >FIRST1=THOMAS URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEREGISTER.CO.UK/2017/01/05/GOOGLES_GRUMPY_MAKES_PYTHON_GO/ ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 16, 2017 DATE=JANUARY 5, 2017, C (programming language) (through CPython), C++, Java (programming language)>Java (through Guice platform),JESSE >LAST=WILSON URL=HTTP://GOOGLECODE.BLOGSPOT.NO/2009/05/GUICE-DEUCE.HTML DATE=MAY 19, 2009 PUBLISHER= Go (programming language)>Go,GOLANG VITESS: A DATABASE WRAPPER WRITTEN IN GO AS USED BY YOUTUBE >URL=HTTPS://GITHUB.COM/YOUTUBE/VITESS, October 23, 2018, JavaScript (UI)|ipv6 ={{nowrap201901WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM LANGUAGE=EN, |advertising = Google AdSense|registration = {hide}Collapsible list
| titlestyle = font-weight:normal; text-align:left; background-color:#F8F9FA
| title = Optional
| Not required to watch most videos; required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged (18+) videos, creating playlists, liking or disliking videos and posting comments
{edih}|users =|language =YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.YouTube allows users to upload, view, rate, share, add to playlists, report, comment on videos, and subscribe to other users. It offers a wide variety of user-generated and corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos, short and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, and other content such as video blogging, short original videos, and educational videos. Most content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Vevo, and Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed potentially inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.YouTube and selected creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services respectively offering premium and ad-free music streaming, and ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities. {{As of|2017|2}}, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, and one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. {{As of|2018|8}}, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. {{As of|2019|5}}, more than 500 hours of video content are uploaded to YouTube every minute.NEWS, June 10, 2019,weblink More Than 500 Hours Of Content Are Now Being Uploaded To YouTube Every Minute, TubeFilter, Los Angeles, CA, May 7, 2019, Loke Hale, James, YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, and fluctuating policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}

Company history

File:Youtube founders.jpg|thumb|upright=1.8|From left to right: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed KarimJawed KarimYouTube was founded by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal.WEB, Jefferson, Graham, Video websites pop up, invite postings,weblink USA Today, Gannett Company, November 21, 2005, March 26, 2017, Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.WEB, YouTube: Sharing Digital Camera Videos, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign,weblink November 29, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2009, Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, and later from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.WEB, Jim, Hopkins, Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder,weblink USA Today, Gannett Company, October 11, 2006, March 26, 2017, Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.weblink" title="">Earliest surviving version of the YouTube website Wayback Machine, April 28, 2005. Retrieved June 19, 2013. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video.NEWS, Stuart, Dredge, YouTube was meant to be a video-dating website,weblink The Guardian, March 16, 2016, March 15, 2019, According to a story that has often been repeated in the media, Hurley and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos that had been shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was probably very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story that was very digestible".MAGAZINE, John, Cloud, The YouTube Gurus,weblink Time, December 25, 2006, March 26, 2017, (File:Youtube logo.jpg|thumb|The YouTube logo from launch until 2011, featuring its former slogan Broadcast Yourself)YouTube began as a venture capital–funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006.NEWS, Miguel, Helft, Matt, Richtel, Venture Firm Shares a YouTube Jackpot,weblink The New York Times, October 10, 2006, March 26, 2017, NEWS, Helft, Miguel, San Francisco Hedge Fund Invested in YouTube,weblink The New York Times, Vol.156, Issue 53,730, October 12, 2006, en, YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.NEWS, Sara, Kehaulani Goo, Ready for Its Close-Up,weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings LLC, October 7, 2006, March 26, 2017, The domain name was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months.WEB,weblink Whois Record for, April 1, 2009, DomainTools, The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo.NEWS, Richard, Alleyne, YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, July 31, 2008, March 26, 2017, The video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, and can still be viewed on the site.WEB,weblink Me at the zoo, YouTube, April 23, 2005, August 3, 2009, YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, November 25, 2005, Ronaldinho: Touch of Gold – YouTube, Wayback Machine, November 25, 2005, January 1, 2017, WEB,weblinkweblink dead, November 2, 2005, Most Viewed – YouTube, Wayback Machine, November 2, 2005, January 1, 2017, Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched officially on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day.NEWS, YouTube: a history,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 17, 2010, March 26, 2017, WEB, Megan Rose, Dickey, The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, February 15, 2013, March 25, 2017, At the time of the official launch, YouTube did not have much market recognition. The week of YouTube's launch, NBC-Universal's Saturday Night Live ran a skit "Lazy Sunday" by The Lonely Island. Unofficial uploads of the skit to YouTube drew in more than five million collective views before they were removed at request of NBC-Universal about two months later, but even their short presence at the site not only help spread the name of YouTube, but allowed users to see it was not just for videophiles but a means to share other types of viral videos such as television clips and music videos.WEB,weblink ‘Lazy Sunday’ Turns 10: ‘SNL’ Stars Recall How TV Invaded the Internet, Andrew, Wallenstein, Todd, Spangler, December 18, 2015, April 27, 2019, Variety (magazine), Variety, WEB,weblink Hollywood Flashback: 'SNL's' 'Lazy Sunday' Put YouTube on the Map in 2005, Bill, Higgens, October 5, 2017, April 27, 2019, The Hollywood Reporter, The site grew rapidly and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day.WEB, YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online,weblink USA Today, Gannett Company, July 16, 2006, March 26, 2017, According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010.WEB, comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings, comScore,weblink June 27, 2010, In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute,NEWS, Alexei, Oreskovic, Exclusive: YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, January 23, 2012, March 26, 2017, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013,WEB, Chris, Welch, YouTube users now upload 100 hours of video every minute,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, May 19, 2013, March 26, 2017, WEB, Jon, Russell, YouTube reveals users now upload more than 100 hours of video per minute, as the site turns eight,weblink The Next Web, May 19, 2013, March 26, 2017, 300 hours every minute in November 2014,WEB, Joan, E. Solsman, YouTube's Music Key: Can paid streaming finally hook the masses?,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 12, 2014, March 25, 2017, and 400 hours every minute in February 2017.WEB, Saba, Hamedy, People now spend 1 billion hours watching YouTube every day,weblink Mashable, February 28, 2017, March 26, 2017, As of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month.NEWS,weblink Streaming Dreams, The New Yorker, January 16, 2012, January 6, 2012, Seabrook, John, It is has been claimed, by The Daily Telegraph in 2008, that in 2007, YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.NEWS, Lewis, Carter, Web could collapse as video demand soars,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 7, 2008, March 26, 2017, According to third-party web analytics providers, Alexa and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, {{as of|2016|12|28|alt=as of December 2016}}; SimilarWeb also lists YouTube as the top TV and video website globally, attracting more than 15 billion visitors per month.WEB,weblink Analytics, SimilarWeb, June 29, 2015, WEB,weblink Top 50 sites in the world for Arts And Entertainment > TV And Video, SimilarWeb, June 29, 2015, In October 2006, YouTube moved to a new office in San Bruno, California.WEB, Todd, Wasserman, The revolution wasn't televised: The early days of YouTube,weblink Mashable, February 15, 2015, July 4, 2018, The choice of the name led to problems for a similarly named website, The site's owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to, Help! YouTube is killing my business!, Zappone, Christian, CNN,weblink November 29, 2008, October 12, 2006, NEWS, Utube sues YouTube, Blakely, Rhys, The Times, London,weblink November 29, 2008, November 2, 2006, On October 9, 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock,WEB, Paul R., La Monica, Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion,weblink CNNMoney, CNN, October 9, 2006, March 26, 2017, WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google Has Acquired YouTube,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 9, 2006, March 26, 2017, and the deal was finalized on November 13, 2006.WEB, Michael, Arrington, Google Closes YouTube Acquisition,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, November 13, 2006, March 26, 2017, WEB, Google closes $A2b YouTube deal,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink The Age, Fairfax Media, November 14, 2006, December 20, 2007, March 26, 2017, (File:901 Cherry Avenue.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California)In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.NEWS, Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal, The Guardian, London,weblink February 6, 2010, Mark, Sweney, January 20, 2010, On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter."NEWS, YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated, AFP,weblink April 1, 2010, In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two billion times per day.WEB, Ben, Parr, YouTube Surpasses Two Billion Video Views Daily,weblink Mashable, May 17, 2010, March 26, 2017, WEB, Jason, Kincaid, Five Years In, YouTube Is Now Streaming Two Billion Views Per Day,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 16, 2010, March 26, 2017, NEWS, Emma, Barnett, YouTube hits two billion views a day,weblink The Guardian, Guardian Media Group, May 17, 2010, March 26, 2017, This increased to three billion in May 2011,WEB, Megan, O'Neill, YouTube Celebrates Its 6th Birthday With 3 Billion Daily Views,weblink Adweek, Beringer Capital, May 25, 2011, March 26, 2017, WEB, Martin, Bryant, YouTube hits 3 Billion views per day, 2 DAYS worth of video uploaded every minute,weblink The Next Web, May 25, 2011, March 26, 2017, WEB, YouTube moves past 3 billion views a day,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, May 25, 2011, March 26, 2017, and four billion in January 2012.WEB, Sarah, Perez, YouTube Reaches 4 Billion Views Per Day,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, January 23, 2012, March 26, 2017, In February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day.WEB, Rich, McCormick, Humans watch a billion hours of YouTube every single day,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, February 27, 2017, March 26, 2017, WEB, David, Lumb, One billion hours of YouTube are watched every day,weblink Engadget, AOL, February 27, 2017, March 26, 2017, WEB, Mitchel, Broussard, YouTube Users Watch More Than 1 Billion Hours of Video a Day, Will Soon Outpace U.S. TV,weblink MacRumors, February 28, 2017, March 26, 2017, In October 2010, Hurley announced that he would be stepping down as chief executive officer of YouTube to take an advisory role, and that Salar Kamangar would take over as head of the company.NEWS,weblink Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive, October 30, 2010, October 29, 2010, AFP, In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30% of videos accounted for 99% of views on the site.NEWS, Ben, Whitelaw, Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 20, 2011, March 26, 2017, In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface.WEB, Lance, Whitney, Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 4, 2011, March 25, 2017, (File:Logo of YouTube (2015-2017).svg|thumb|upright=0.9|YouTube logo from 2015 until 2017)In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites.NEWS, YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels, BBC,weblink December 2, 2011, December 2, 2011, At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.WEB,weblink YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks â€“ Growing Fast!, Cashmore, Pete, October 26, 2006, December 2, 2011, In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program for content providers to offer premium, subscription-based channels within the platform.NEWS,weblink YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels, BBC News, May 9, 2013, May 11, 2013, NEWS,weblink YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week, Nakaso, Dan, San Jose Mercury News, Mercury News, May 7, 2013, May 10, 2013, In February 2014, Susan Wojcicki was appointed CEO of YouTube.NEWS, Oreskovic, Alexei, Google taps longtime executive Wojcicki to head YouTube,weblink Reuters, September 16, 2017, en-IN, February 5, 2014, In November 2014, YouTube announced a subscription service known as "Music Key", which bundled ad-free streaming of music content on YouTube with the existing Google Play Music service.NEWS,weblink YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service, The Verge, May 17, 2018, In February 2015, YouTube released a secondary mobile app known as YouTube Kids. The app is designed to provide an experience optimized for children. It features a simplified user interface, curated selections of channels featuring age-appropriate content, and parental control features.WEB, Sarah, Perez, Hands on With "YouTube Kids," Google's Newly Launched, Child-Friendly YouTube App,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, February 23, 2015, March 26, 2017, Later on August 26, 2015, YouTube launched YouTube Gaming—a video gaming-oriented vertical and app for videos and live streaming, intended to compete with the Twitch.NEWS, Google launches YouTube Gaming to challenge Amazon-owned Twitch, The Guardian, Stuart, Dredge,weblink August 26, 2015, September 5, 2015, In October 2015, YouTube announced YouTube Red (now YouTube Premium), a new premium service that would offer ad-free access to all content on the platform (succeeding the Music Key service released the previous year), premium original series and films produced by YouTube personalities, as well as background playback of content on mobile devices. YouTube also released YouTube Music, a third app oriented towards streaming and discovering the music content hosted on the YouTube platform.WEB, Reader, Ruth, Google wants you to pay $9.99 per month for ad-free YouTube,weblink Venturebeat, October 22, 2015, October 21, 2015, NEWS,weblink Exclusive: An inside look at the new ad-free YouTube Red, The Verge, May 17, 2018, en-US, WEB, YouTube Music isn't perfect, but it's still heaven for music nerds,weblink Engadget, November 7, 2016,
In January 2016, YouTube expanded its headquarters in San Bruno by purchasing an office park for $215 million. The complex has 554,000 square feet of space and can house up to 2,800 employees.NEWS, YouTube expansion in San Bruno signals big push by video site,weblink San Jose Mercury News, George, Avalos, January 20, 2016, February 3, 2016, On August 29, 2017, YouTube officially launched a redesign of its user interfaces based on Material Design language, as well a redesigned logo that is built around the service's play button emblem.NEWS,weblink YouTube has a new look and, for the first time, a new logo, The Verge, May 7, 2018, On April 3, 2018, a shooting took place at YouTube's headquarters in San Bruno, California.NEWS, YouTube shooting: Suspect visited shooting range before attack,weblink BBC News, April 4, 2018, April 9, 2018, On May 17, 2018, YouTube announced the re-branding of YouTube Red as YouTube Premium (accompanied by a major expansion of the service into Canada and 13 European markets), as well as the upcoming launch of a separate YouTube Music subscription.NEWS,weblink Google announces YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, The Verge, May 17, 2018, In September 2018, YouTube began to phase out the separate YouTube Gaming website and app, and introduced a new Gaming portal within the main service. YouTube staff argued that the separate platform was causing confusion, and that the integration would allow the features developed for the service (including game-based portals and enhanced discoverability of gaming-related videos and live streaming) to reach a broader audience through the main YouTube website.NEWS,weblink YouTube launches new gaming destination, admits that the separate app was a bust, The Verge, September 28, 2018, In July 2019, It was announced that YouTube will shutdown for Nintendo 3DS systems on September 3, 2019. However, owners of New Nintendo 3DS, or New Nintendo 3DS XL can still access YouTube on the internet browser.WEB,weblink YouTube App For The Nintendo 3DS Will Be Shutting Down In September, PDT, Tyler Lee on 07/30/2019 04:21, Ubergizmo, en, 2019-07-30,


Video technology

YouTube primarily uses the VP9 and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video formats, and the Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP protocol.{{citation needed|date=May 2018}} YouTube has begun rolling out videos in AV1 format.WEB,weblink AV1 Beta Launch Playlist, YouTube, January 14, 2019,


Previously, viewing YouTube videos on a personal computer required the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to be installed in the browser.NEWS, Flash moves on to smart phones, BBC,weblink November 30, 2009, October 5, 2009, Jonathan, Fildes, In January 2010, YouTube launched an experimental version of the site that used the built-in multimedia capabilities of web browsers supporting the HTML5 standard.NEWS,weblink YouTube HTML5 Video Player, YouTube, April 12, 2011, This allowed videos to be viewed without requiring Adobe Flash Player or any other plug-in to be installed.WEB,weblink Watch this YouTube Video without the Flash Player, November 30, 2009, June 10, 2009, WEB,weblink HTML5 YouTube viewer: close, but not quite there,weblink" title="">weblink November 10, 2009, December 1, 2017, The YouTube site had a page that allowed supported browsers to opt into the HTML5 trial. Only browsers that supported HTML5 Video using the MP4 (with H.264 video) or WebM (with VP8 video) formats could play the videos, and not all videos on the site were available.WEB,weblink YouTube HTML5 Video Player, January 21, 2010, WEB, Stephen, Shankland, Google tries freeing Web video with WebM,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, May 19, 2010, March 25, 2017, On January 27, 2015, YouTube announced that HTML5 would be the default playback method on supported browsers. YouTube used to employ Adobe Dynamic Streaming for Flash,{{youtube|UklDSMG9ffU|YouTube: Google I/O 2013 – Adaptive Streaming for You and YouTube}} but with the switch to HTML5 video now streams video using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (MPEG-DASH), an adaptive bit-rate HTTP-based streaming solution optimizing the bitrate and quality for the available network.WEB, Rajeev Tiwari,weblink Streaming Media and RTOS: MPEG-DASH Support in Youtube,, January 3, 2013, March 13, 2014,


All YouTube users can upload videos up to 15 minutes each in duration. Users who have a good track record of complying with the site's Community Guidelines may be offered the ability to upload videos up to 12 hours in length, as well as live streams, which requires verifying the account, normally through a mobile phone."Upload videos longer than 15 minutes" YouTube Help. Retrieved July 15, 2017."Introduction to live streaming" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017. When YouTube was launched in 2005, it was possible to upload longer videos, but a ten-minute limit was introduced in March 2006 after YouTube found that the majority of videos exceeding this length were unauthorized uploads of television shows and films.WEB, Ken, Fisher, YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, March 29, 2006, March 25, 2017, The 10-minute limit was increased to 15 minutes in July 2010.WEB, Josh, Lowensohn, YouTube bumps video limit to 15 minutes,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, July 29, 2010, March 25, 2017, In the past, it was possible to upload videos longer than 12 hours. Videos can be at most 128 GB in size. Video captions are made using speech recognition technology when uploaded. Such captioning is usually not perfectly accurate, so YouTube provides several options for manually entering the captions for greater accuracy.WEB, Adding Captions to YouTube Videos, University of Washington, University of Washington,weblink September 4, 2016, YouTube accepts videos that are uploaded in most container formats, including AVI, MP4, MPEG-PS, QuickTime File Format and FLV. It supports WebM files and also 3GP, allowing videos to be uploaded from mobile phones.WEB, Video Formats: File formats, YouTube,weblink December 4, 2008, Videos with progressive scanning or interlaced scanning can be uploaded, but for the best video quality, YouTube suggests interlaced videos be deinterlaced before uploading. All the video formats on YouTube use progressive scanning.WEB, Getting Started: File formats, YouTube,weblink August 14, 2010, YouTube's statistics shows that interlaced videos are still being uploaded to YouTube, and there is no sign of that actually dwindling. YouTube attributes this to uploading of made-for-TV content.WEB, Anil, Kokaram, Thierry, Foucu, Yang, Hu, A look into YouTube's video file anatomy,weblink YouTube Engineering and Developers Blog, April 20, 2016, March 25, 2017,

Quality and formats

YouTube originally offered videos at only one quality level, displayed at a resolution of 320×240 pixels using the Sorenson Spark codec (a variant of H.263),WEB,weblink The quest for a new video codec in Flash 8, Tinic Uro, We went this route before with Sorenson Spark which is an incomplete implementation of H.263 and it bit us badly when trying to implement certain solutions., August 13, 2005, January 27, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2009, WEB,weblink Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification Version 10.1, Adobe Systems Incorporated, PDF, 72, Sorenson H.263, 2010, January 27, 2011, with mono MP3 audio.WEB,weblink Market Demand for Sorenson Media's Sorenson Spark Video Decoder Expands Sharply, Sorenson Media, June 2, 2009, July 31, 2009, In June 2007, YouTube added an option to watch videos in 3GP format on mobile phones.WEB,weblink YouTube Mobile goes live, June 17, 2007, August 11, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 20, 2007, In March 2008, a high-quality mode was added, which increased the resolution to 480×360 pixels.WEB, YouTube Videos in High Quality,weblink Official YouTube Blog, March 14, 2008, March 25, 2017, In December 2008, 720p HD support was added. At the time of the 720p launch, the YouTube player was changed from a (4:3) aspect ratio to a widescreen (16:9).WEB, Josh, Lowensohn, YouTube videos go HD with a simple hack,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 20, 2008, March 25, 2017, With this new feature, YouTube began a switchover to H.264/MPEG-4 AVC as its default video compression format. In November 2009, 1080p HD support was added. In July 2010, YouTube announced that it had launched a range of videos in 4K format, which allows a resolution of up to 4096×3072 pixels.WEB, Ramesh, Sarukkai, What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube,weblink Official YouTube Blog, July 9, 2010, March 25, 2017, WEB, Josh, Lowensohn, YouTube now supports 4K-resolution videos,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, July 9, 2010, March 25, 2017, In March 2015, support for 4K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 3840 × 2160 pixels. In June 2015, support for 8K resolution was added, with the videos playing at 7680×4320 pixels.NEWS,weblink You can watch an 8K video on YouTube – in theory, MashableUK, June 10, 2015, July 2, 2015, Stan, Schroeder, In November 2016, support for HDR video was added which can be encoded with Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) or Perceptual Quantizer (PQ).WEB, Steven, Robertson, Sanjeev, Verma, True colors: adding support for HDR videos on YouTube,weblink Official YouTube Blog, November 7, 2016, March 25, 2017, HDR video can be encoded with the Rec. 2020 color space.WEB, Upload High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos,weblink YouTube Help, March 25, 2017, In October 2014, YouTube introduced videos playing at 60 frames per second, in order to reproduce video games with a frame rate comparable to high-end graphics cards.WEB, Matthew, Glotzbach, Oliver, Heckmann, Look ahead: creator features coming to YouTube,weblink YouTube Creators Blog, June 26, 2014, March 25, 2017, NEWS,weblink Battlefield Hardline ushers in era of smooth YouTube trailers, The Guardian, June 27, 2014, June 29, 2014, Keith, Stuart, The videos play back at a resolution of 720p or higher.WEB, Greg, Kumparak, YouTube Can Now Play Videos at a Buttery 60 Frames Per Second,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, October 29, 2014, March 26, 2017, YouTube videos are available in a range of quality levels. The former names of standard quality (SQ), high quality (HQ), and high definition (HD) have been replaced by numerical values representing the vertical resolution of the video. The default video stream is encoded in the VP9 format with stereo Opus audio; if VP9/WebM is not supported in the browser/device or the browser's user agent reports Windows XP, then H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video with stereo AAC audio is used instead.WEB,weblink Deploying VP9 at YouTube: a postmortem – Steven Robertson, October 16, 2014, December 9, 2014,


From 2008 to 2017, users could add "annotations" to their videos—such as pop-up text messages and hyperlinks. These functions were notably used as the basis for interactive videos, which used hyperlinks to other videos to achieve branching elements. In March 2017, it was announced that the annotations editor had been discontinued and the feature would be sunset, because their use had fallen rapidly, users had found them to be an annoyance, and because they were incompatible with mobile versions of the service. Annotations were removed entirely from all videos on January 15, 2019. YouTube had introduced standardized widgets intended to replace annotations in a cross-platform manner, including "end screens" (a customizable array of thumbnails for specified videos displayed near the end of the video) and "cards", but they are not backwards compatible with existing annotations, while the removal of annotations will also break all interactive experiences which depended on them.WEB,weblink The death of YouTube annotations marks an end for early interactive web video, Binder, Matt, Mashable, en, January 14, 2019, WEB,weblink YouTube launches mobile-friendly "End Screens" feature to keep viewers watching more video, TechCrunch, en-US, January 14, 2019, WEB,weblink YouTube annotations will disappear for good in January, Porter, Jon, November 27, 2018, The Verge, January 14, 2019, WEB,weblink YouTube to discontinue video annotations because they never worked on mobile, Statt, Nick, March 16, 2017, The Verge, January 14, 2019,

Live streaming

YouTube carried out early experiments with live streaming, including a concert by U2 in 2009, and a question-and-answer session with US President Barack Obama in February 2010.WEB,weblink YouTube testing live streaming, Gross, Doug, September 13, 2010, CNN, September 22, 2017, These tests had relied on technology from 3rd-party partners, but in September 2010, YouTube began testing its own live streaming infrastructure.NEWS,weblink YouTube in two-day live video-streaming test, September 13, 2010, BBC News, In April 2011, YouTube announced the rollout of YouTube Live, with a portal page at the URL "". The creation of live streams was initially limited to select partners.WEB,weblink YouTube is going LIVE, April 8, 2011, YouTube Official Blog, September 22, 2017, It was used for real-time broadcasting of events such as the 2012 Olympics in London.JOURNAL,weblink YouTube Is the Sleeping Giant of Livestreaming, Pierce, David, Wired, en-US, September 22, 2017, August 17, 2015, In October 2012, more than 8 million people watched Felix Baumgartner's jump from the edge of space as a live stream on YouTube.NEWS,weblink Felix Baumgartner's jump from space's edge watched by millions, Associated Press, October 15, 2012, October 15, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 18, 2012, In May 2013, creation of live streams was opened to verified users with at least 1,000 subscribers; in August of that year the number was reduced to 100 subscribers,WEB,weblink YouTube opens up live streaming to anyone with 100 or more subscribers, Blagdon, Jeff, August 3, 2013, The Verge, and in December the limit was removed.WEB,weblink YouTube opens live streaming for all verified accounts, December 13, 2013, MacNN, September 22, 2017, In February 2017, live streaming was introduced to the official YouTube mobile app. Live streaming via mobile was initially restricted to users with at least 10,000 subscribers,WEB,weblink YouTube now lets creators with 10,000 subscribers live-stream video on mobile, Palladino, Valentina, February 8, 2017, Ars Technica, but as of mid-2017 it has been reduced to 100 subscribers."Create a live stream" YouTube Help. Retrieved September 22, 2017. Live streams can be up to 4K resolution at 60 fps, and also support 360° video.WEB,weblink YouTube now supports 4K live-streaming for both 360-degree and standard video, Garun, Natt, November 30, 2016, The Verge, In February 2017, a live streaming feature called Super Chat was introduced, which allows viewers to donate between $1 and $500 to have their comment highlighted.NEWS, Parker, Laura, A Chat With a Live Streamer Is Yours, for a Price,weblink The New York Times, April 21, 2018, April 12, 2017,

3D videos

In a video posted on July 21, 2009,WEB,weblink YouTube in 3D, YouTube, July 21, 2009, August 3, 2009, YouTube software engineer Peter Bradshaw announced that YouTube users could now upload 3D videos. The videos can be viewed in several different ways, including the common anaglyph (cyan/red lens) method which utilizes glasses worn by the viewer to achieve the 3D effect.NEWS,weblink YouTube in 3D?, Physorg, July 23, 2009, August 3, 2009, Miranda, Marquit, NEWS,weblink YouTube 3D Videos, July 20, 2009, Techie Buzz, Keith, Dsouza, August 3, 2009, NEWS,weblink YouTube adds a dimension, 3D goggles not included, July 21, 2009, August 3, 2009, thinkdigit, Kshitij, Sobti, The YouTube Flash player can display stereoscopic content interleaved in rows, columns or a checkerboard pattern, side-by-side or anaglyph using a red/cyan, green/magenta or blue/yellow combination. In May 2011, an HTML5 version of the YouTube player began supporting side-by-side 3D footage that is compatible with Nvidia 3D Vision.WEB, Ryan, Smith, YouTube Adds Stereoscopic 3D Video Support (And 3D Vision Support, Too),weblink AnandTech, Purch Group, May 26, 2011, March 25, 2017, The feature set has since been reduced, and the 3D feature currently only supports red/cyan anaglyph with no side-by-side support.

360-degree videos

In January 2015, Google announced that 360-degree video would be natively supported on YouTube. On March 13, 2015, YouTube enabled 360° videos which can be viewed from Google Cardboard, a virtual reality system. YouTube 360 can also be viewed from all other virtual reality headsets.JOURNAL, Christina, Bonnington, You Can Now Watch and Upload 360-Degree Videos on YouTube,weblink Wired, March 13, 2015, March 25, 2017, Live streaming of 360° video at up to 4K resolution is also supported.In 2017, YouTube began to promote an alternative stereoscopic video format known as VR180, which is limited to a 180-degree field of view, but is promoted as being easier to produce than 360-degree video, and allowing more depth to be maintained by not subjecting the video to equirectangular projection.NEWS,weblink YouTube's "VR180" format cuts down on VR video's prohibitive requirements, Ars Technica, September 26, 2017, en-us,


In late November 2018, YouTube announced that it would introduce a "Story" feature, similar to ones used by Snapchat and Instagram, which would allow its content creators to engage fans without posting a full video.NEWS,weblink YouTube is launching its own take on Stories with a new video format called 'Reels', TechCrunch, November 29, 2018, en-US, The stories, called "Reels," would be up to 30 seconds in length and would allow users to add "filters, music, text and more, including new "YouTube-y" stickers." Unlike those of other platforms, YouTube's stories could be made multiple times and would not expire. Instead of being placed at the top of the user interface as is commonly done, the "Reels" option would be featured as a separate tab on the creator's channel.NEWS,weblink YouTube Launches 'Reels' to Let Creators Post Snapchat-Like Video Stories, Spangler, Todd, November 29, 2017, Variety, November 29, 2018, en-US, As of its announcement, only certain content creators would have access to the "Reels" option, which would be utilized as a beta-version for further feedback and testing. If users engage more with the "Reels" option, it may end up as a more permanent feature and "trigger their appearance on the viewer's YouTube home page as recommendations." As of November 28, 2018, YouTube did not specify when "Reels" would arrive in Beta or when it would be publicly released.

User features


On September 13, 2016, YouTube launched a public beta of Community, a social media-based feature that allows users to post text, images (including GIFs), live videos and others in a separate "Community" tab on their channel.WEB, Sarah, Perez, YouTube gets its own social network with the launch of YouTube Community,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, September 13, 2016, March 26, 2017, Prior to the release, several creators had been consulted to suggest tools Community could incorporate that they would find useful; these YouTubers included Vlogbrothers, AsapScience, Lilly Singh, The Game Theorists, Karmin, The Key of Awesome, The Kloons, Peter Hollens, Rosianna Halse Rojas, Sam Tsui, Threadbanger and Vsauce3.WEB, Kiley, McEvoy, YouTube Community goes beyond video,weblink YouTube Creators Blog, September 13, 2016, March 25, 2017, After the feature has been officially released, the community post feature gets activated automatically for every channel that passes a specific threshold of subscriber counts or already has more subscribers. This threshold was lowered over time{{when|date=September 2019}}, from 10000 subscribers to 1500 subscribers, to 1000 subscribers, which is the current threshold as of September 2019.WEB,weblink Create a Community post - Computer - YouTube Help,, Channels that the community tab becomes enabled for, get their channel discussions (name prior to March 2013 “One channel layout” redesign finalization: “channel comments”) permanently erased, instead of co-existing or migrating.WEB,weblink Engage with creators on Community posts - Computer - YouTube Help,,

Content accessibility

YouTube offers users the ability to view its videos on web pages outside their website. Each YouTube video is accompanied by a piece of HTML that can be used to embed it on any page on the Web.WEB,weblink YouTube embedded video guide, This functionality is often used to embed YouTube videos in social networking pages and blogs. Users wishing to post a video discussing, inspired by or related to another user's video are able to make a "video response". On August 27, 2013, YouTube announced that it would remove video responses for being an underused feature.WEB, So long, video responses ... Next up: better ways to connect,weblink YouTube Creators Blog, August 27, 2013, March 25, 2017, Embedding, rating, commenting and response posting can be disabled by the video owner.WEB,weblink Control comments and video responses, YouTube, August 28, 2013, YouTube does not usually offer a download link for its videos, and intends for them to be viewed through its website interface.WEB,weblink Terms of Use, 5.B, YouTube, August 25, 2010, A small number of videos, can be downloaded as MP4 files.WEB, Josh, Lowensohn, (Some) YouTube videos get download option,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, January 16, 2009, March 25, 2017, Numerous third-party web sites, applications and browser plug-ins allow users to download YouTube videos.NEWS,weblink YouTube looks out for content owners, disables video ripping, Milian, Mark, Los Angeles Times, February 19, 2009, February 21, 2009, In February 2009, YouTube announced a test service, allowing some partners to offer video downloads for free or for a fee paid through Google Checkout.NEWS, Leena, Rao, YouTube Hopes To Boost Revenue With Video Downloads,weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings LLC, February 12, 2009, March 26, 2017, In June 2012, Google sent cease and desist letters threatening legal action against several websites offering online download and conversion of YouTube videos.NEWS,weblink Google Threatens To Sue Huge YouTube MP3 Conversion Site, Torrentfreak, June 19, 2012, September 4, 2013, In response, Zamzar removed the ability to download YouTube videos from its site.WEB,weblink Downloading YouTube videos – no longer supported, Zamzar, June 12, 2012, September 4, 2013, Users retain copyright of their own work under the default Standard YouTube License,WEB, Jane, Park, YouTube launches support for CC BY and a CC library featuring 10,000 videos,weblink Creative Commons, June 2, 2011, July 20, 2019, but have the option to grant certain usage rights under any public copyright license they choose. Since July 2012, it has been possible to select a Creative Commons attribution license as the default, allowing other users to reuse and remix the material.WEB, Cathy, Casserly, Here's your invite to reuse and remix the 4 million Creative Commons-licensed videos on YouTube,weblink Official YouTube Blog, July 25, 2012, March 25, 2017,


Most modern smartphones are capable of accessing YouTube videos, either within an application or through an optimized website. YouTube Mobile was launched in June 2007, using RTSP streaming for the video.WEB,weblink YouTube,, Not all of YouTube's videos are available on the mobile version of the site.WEB, Alex, Chitu, Mobile YouTube,weblink Unofficial Google Blog, June 15, 2007, March 25, 2017, Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone.WEB,weblink YouTube Live on Apple TV Today; Coming to iPhone on June 29, Apple Inc., Apple, June 20, 2007, January 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 28, 2008, In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls.WEB,weblink Goodbye Flash: YouTube mobile goes HTML5 on iPhone and Android, Zibreg, Christian, July 8, 2010, January 9, 2012, The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.WEB, Jason, Kincaid, YouTube Mobile Goes HTML5, Video Quality Beats Native Apps Hands Down,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, July 7, 2010, March 26, 2017, WEB,weblink YouTube 2.1 App Now Available on Android Market, December 8, 2010, January 9, 2012, In September 2012, YouTube launched its first app for the iPhone, following the decision to drop YouTube as one of the preloaded apps in the iPhone 5 and iOS 6 operating system.NEWS,weblink New YouTube iPhone app preempts iOS6 demotion, The Guardian, London, September 11, 2012, September 11, 2012, Stuart, Dredge, According to GlobalWebIndex, YouTube was used by 35% of smartphone users between April and June 2013, making it the third-most used app.WEB, Cooper, Smith, Google+ Is The Fourth Most-Used Smartphone App,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, September 5, 2013, March 25, 2017, A TiVo service update in July 2008 allowed the system to search and play YouTube videos.WEB,weblink TiVo Getting YouTube Streaming Today, Gizmodo, July 17, 2007, February 17, 2009, In January 2009, YouTube launched "YouTube for TV", a version of the website tailored for set-top boxes and other TV-based media devices with web browsers, initially allowing its videos to be viewed on the PlayStation 3 and Wii video game consoles.NEWS,weblink YouTube video comes to Wii and PlayStation 3 game consoles, Los Angeles Times, January 15, 2009, January 17, 2009, WEB, Coming Up Next ... YouTube on Your TV,weblinkweblink June 22, 2009, YouTube Blog, January 15, 2009, May 10, 2009, dead, In June 2009, YouTube XL was introduced, which has a simplified interface designed for viewing on a standard television screen.WEB, Experience YouTube XL on the Big Screen,weblink YouTube Blog, YouTube, June 2, 2009, June 20, 2009, YouTube is also available as an app on Xbox Live.WEB, Xbox Live Getting Live TV, YouTube & Bing Voice Search,weblink Mashable, June 6, 2011, December 22, 2011, On November 15, 2012, Google launched an official app for the Wii, allowing users to watch YouTube videos from the Wii channel.NEWS,weblink YouTube app wanders onto Nintendo Wii days before Wii U launch,, November 15, 2012, November 20, 2012, An app is also available for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS, and videos can be viewed on the Wii U Internet Browser using HTML5.WEB, Sarah, Ali, Just for U: YouTube arrives on Wii U,weblink Official YouTube Blog, November 22, 2012, March 25, 2017, {{Primary source inline|date=September 2019}} Google made YouTube available on the Roku player on December 17, 2013,WEB, Todd, Spangler, YouTube Channel Now Playing on Roku,weblink Variety (magazine), Variety, Penske Media Corporation, December 17, 2013, March 25, 2017, and, in October 2014, the Sony PlayStation 4.WEB, Richard, O'Grady, Pwn, share, repeat with YouTube on PlayStation 4,weblink Official YouTube Blog, October 28, 2014, March 25, 2017, In November 2018, YouTube launched as a downloadable app for the Nintendo Switch.WEB, YouTube for Nintendo Switch,weblink Nintendo Game Details, Nintendo of America, December 5, 2018,


On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt traveled to Paris to launch the new localization system. The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 102 countries, one territory (Hong Kong) and a worldwide version.See YouTube localisation list on the bottom of YouTube website.{|class="wikitable mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="margin: 1em auto;" width="70%"|+ Countries with YouTube localization (File:YouTube Localisation.svg|600px)! Country! Language(s)! Launch dateUSA}} (and worldwide launch)American English>English, Spanish200515|format=mdy}}Brazil}}Brazilian Portuguese>Portuguese200719|format=mdy}}France}}French language>French, and Basque200719URL=HTTP://WWW.PCADVISOR.CO.UK/NEWS/INDEX.CFM?NEWSID=9772 PUBLISHER=PC ADVISOR ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2009, Ireland}}Hiberno-English>English200719|format=mdy}}Italy}}Italian language>Italian200719|format=mdy}}Japan}}Japanese language>Japanese200719|format=mdy}}Netherlands}}Dutch language>Dutch200719|format=mdy}}Poland}}Polish language>Polish200719|format=mdy}}Spain}}Spanish language>Spanish, Galician language, Catalan language>Catalan, Basque200719|format=mdy}}United Kingdom}}British English>English200719|format=mdy}}Mexico}}Mexican Spanish>Spanish200711NEWSPAPER=EL UNIVERSAL (MEXICO CITY) >DATE=OCTOBER 11, 2007 LANGUAGE=SPANISH URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=MAY 16, 2009, Hong Kong}}Traditional Chinese characters>Chinese, English200717PUBLISHER=STANLEY5 ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2012, Taiwan}}Traditional Chinese characters>Chinese200718WORK=ZDNET ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100706154250/HTTP://WWW.ZDNET.COM.TW/NEWS/SOFTWARE/0%2C2000085678%2C20125299%2C00.HTM, July 6, 2010, Australia}}Australian English>English200722URL=HTTP://MASHABLE.COM/2007/10/22/YOUTUBE-AUSTRALIA-NEW-ZEALAND/ PUBLISHER=MASHABLE ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2009, New Zealand}}New Zealand English>English200722|format=mdy}}Canada}}Canadian English>English, French20076URL=HTTP://MASHABLE.COM/2007/11/06/YOUTUBE-CANADA/ DATE=NOVEMBER 6, 2007 MASHABLE >ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2009, Germany}}German language>German20078URL=HTTP://MASHABLE.COM/2007/11/08/YOUTUBE-GERMANY/ PUBLISHER=MASHABLE ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2009, Russia}}Russian language>Russian200713URL=HTTP://WWW.KOMMERSANT.RU/DOC/824940/ LANGUAGE=RU DATE=NOVEMBER 14, 2007, March 22, 2012, South Korea}}Korean language>Korean200823URL=HTTP://WWW.PCWORLD.COM/ARTICLE/141684/YOUTUBE_LAUNCHES_KOREAN_SITE.HTML PC WORLD >DATE=JANUARY 23, 2008 TITLE=YOUTUBE LAUNCHES KOREAN SITE, India}}Hindi language>Hindi, Bengali language, Indian English>English, Gujarati language, Kannada language>Kannada, Malayalam language, Marathi language>Marathi, Tamil language, Telugu language>Telugu, Urdu20087URL=HTTP://WWW.HINDU.COM/2008/05/08/STORIES/2008050857242200.HTM WORK=THE HINDU ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 3, 2009, Chennai, India, Israel}}Hebrew language>Hebrew, Arabic200816|format=mdy}}Czech Republic}}Czech language>Czech20089URL=HTTP://CZECHDAILY.WORDPRESS.COM/2008/10/12/CZECH-VERSION-OF-YOUTUBE-LAUNCHED-AND-ITS-CRAP-IT-SUCKS/ WORK=THE CZECH DAILY WORD DATE=OCTOBER 12, 2008, August 3, 2009, Sweden}}Swedish language>Swedish200822|format=mdy}}Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.South Africa}}South African English>English, Afrikaans language, Zulu language>Zulu201017|format=mdy}}Argentina}}Rioplatense Spanish>Spanish20108DATE=SEPTEMBER 9, 2010 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 12, 2010, Algeria}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic, French20119PUBLISHER=ARABCRUNCH URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 14, 2011, Egypt}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20119|format=mdy}}Jordan}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20119|format=mdy}}Morocco}}French language>French, Arabic20119|format=mdy}}Saudi Arabia}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20119|format=mdy}}Tunisia}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic, French20119|format=mdy}}Yemen}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20119|format=mdy}}Kenya}}English language>English, Swahili 20111URL=HTTPS://THENEXTWEB.COM/AFRICA/2011/10/05/GOOGLE-LAUNCHES-YOUTUBE-IN-KENYA/ PUBLISHER=THE NEXT WEB ACCESSDATE=MARCH 22, 2012, Philippines}}Filipino language>Filipino, English201113URL=HTTP://WWW.PHILSTAR.COM/ARTICLE.ASPX?ARTICLEID=737018&PUBLICATIONSUBCATEGORYID=200 NEWSPAPER=THE PHILIPPINE STAR ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 13, 2011, Singapore}}Singapore English>English, Malay language, Simplified Chinese characters>Chinese, Tamil201120ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 23, 2015 ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 21, 2011, Belgium}}Belgian French>French, Dutch language, German language>German201116|format=mdy}}Colombia}}Colombian Spanish>Spanish201130|format=mdy}}YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.Uganda}}Ugandan English>English, Swahili20112Google Launches YouTube Uganda {{webarchive>url= |date=January 4, 2012 }} December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.Nigeria}}Nigerian Standard English>English20117Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today {{webarchive>url= |date=January 8, 2012 }} December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.Chile}}Spanish language>Spanish201220Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. {{webarchive >url= |date=March 25, 2012 }}Hungary}}Hungarian language>Hungarian201229Google Launches Hungarian YouTube March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012. {{webarchive >url= |date=January 17, 2013 }}Malaysia}}Malaysian language>Malay, English201222|format=mdy}}YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.Peru}}Spanish language>Spanish201225|format=mdy}}YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.United Arab Emirates}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic, English20121PUBLISHER=EMIRATES 247 ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2014, Bindu Suresh Rai, Greece}}Greek language>Greek20121|format=mdy}}Indonesia}}Indonesian language>Indonesian, English201217|format=mdy}} "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.Ghana}}English language>English20125 "Google launches YouTube in Ghana" {{webarchive>url= |date=June 24, 2012 }}, June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.Senegal}}French language>French, and English20124|format=mdy}} "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", Jubr>{{note|media_type_table_note_3}}[3] itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live". July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.Turkey}}Turkish language>Turkish20121|format=mdy}} "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.Ukraine}}Ukrainian language>Ukrainian, Russian201213URL=HTTP://GOOGLE-UKRAINE-BLOG.BLOGSPOT.COM/2012/12/YOUTUBE.HTML TITLE=YOUTUBE приходить в Україну! (YOUTUBE COMES IN UKRAINE!) 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Portugal}}Portuguese language>Portuguese201325TITLE=GOOGLE LANçA VERSãO LUSA DO YOUTUBE LOCATION=PORTUGAL ARCHIVE-DATE=DECEMBER 3, 2013, dead, Slovakia}}Slovak language>Slovak201325PUBLISHER=VAT PRAVDA ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2014 Tš >LANGUAGE=SLOVAK, Bahrain}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic201316PUBLISHER=TBREAK MEDIA ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 14, 2014 NICK REGO >URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 13, 2014, Kuwait}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic201316|format=mdy}}Oman}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic201316|format=mdy}}Qatar}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic201316|format=mdy}}Bosnia and Herzegovina}}Bosnian language>Bosnian, Croatian language, Serbian language>Serbian201417|format=mdy}}Bulgaria}}Bulgarian language>Bulgarian201417PUBLISHER=NEW TREND ACCESSDATE=APRIL 5, 2014 Ивелина Атанасова >LANGUAGE=BULGARIAN ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140407082809/HTTPS://NEWTREND.BG/DIGITAL-COMPANY/YOUTUBE/YOUTUBE-REKLAMA-BULGARIA, April 7, 2014, Croatia}}Croatian language>Croatian201417PUBLISHER=LIDER ACCESSDATE=APRIL 5, 2014, Croatian, Estonia}}Estonian language>Estonian201417PUBLISHER=MEEDIUM ACCESSDATE=APRIL 5, 2014 LANGUAGE=ESTONIAN ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140407094928/HTTP://WWW.MEEDIUM.EE/BLOG/YOUTUBE-REKLAAMID-EESTIS, April 7, 2014, Latvia}}Latvian language>Latvian201417PUBLISHER=MARKETING ACCESSDATE=APRIL 5, 2014 MARTA >LANGUAGE=LATVIAN ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140321170116/HTTP://MARKETING.LV/TAGAD-REKLAMAS-IESPEJAS-YOUTUBE-KANALA-IESPEJAMS-IZMANTOT-ARI-LATVIJA/, March 21, 2014, Lithuania}}Lithuanian language>Lithuanian201417|format=mdy}}Macedonia}}Macedonian language>Macedonian, Serbian language, Turkish language>Turkish201417|format=mdy}}Montenegro}}Serbian language>Serbian, Croatian201417|format=mdy}}Serbia}}Serbian language>Serbian201417|format=mdy}}Slovenia}}Slovenian language>Slovenian201417PUBLISHER=DNEVNIK (SLOVENIA) >DATE=MARCH 18, 2014 AUTHOR=STA, Slovenian, Thailand}}Thai language>Thai20141NEWSPAPER=THE NATION (THAILAND) >DATE=APRIL 3, 2014 AUTHOR=ASINA PORNWASIN, Lebanon}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20141|format=mdy}}Puerto Rico}}Puerto Rican Spanish>Spanish, English201423|format=mdy}}Iceland}}Icelandic language>Icelandic| ?, 2014Luxembourg}}French language>French, German| ?, 2014Vietnam}}Vietnamese language>Vietnamese20141|format=mdy}}Libya}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabic20151|format=mdy}}Tanzania}}English language>English, Swahili20152|format=mdy}}Zimbabwe}}English language>English20152|format=mdy}}Azerbaijan}}Azerbaijani language>Azerbaijani201512AUTHOR=STEPHEN HALL DATE=OCTOBER 12, 2015, March 18, 2016, Belarus}}Belarusian language>Belarusian, Russian201512|format=mdy}}Georgia}}Georgian language>Georgian201512|format=mdy}}Kazakhstan}}Kazakh language>Kazakh, Russian201512|format=mdy}}Iraq}}Modern Standard Arabic>Arabicdate=April 2018}}Nepal}}Nepali language>Nepali201612NEWSPAPER=THE HIMALAYAN TIMES ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 31, 2016, Pakistan}}Urdu language>Urdu, English201612NEWSPAPER=THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 31, 2016, Sri Lanka}}Sinhala language>Sinhala, Tamil language, Sri Lankan English>English201612|format=mdy}}Jamaica}}Jamaican English>Englishdate=April 2018}}Malta}}English language>English| June 24, 2018Bolivia}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Costa Rica}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Ecuador}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019El Salvador}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Guatemala}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Honduras}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Nicaragua}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Panama}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Uruguay}}Spanish language>Spanish| January 30, 2019Paraguay}}Spanish language>Spanish, Guarani| February 21, 2019Dominican Republic}}Spanish language>Spanish| February 21, 2019Cyprus}}Greek language>Greek, Turkish| March 13, 2019Liechtenstein}}German language>German| March 13, 2019The YouTube interface suggests which local version should be chosen on the basis of the IP address of the user. In some cases, the message "This video is not available in your country" may appear because of copyright restrictions or inappropriate content.WEB, Learn More: Video not available in my country,,weblink August 4, 2009, The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions, including Amharic, Albanian, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do not have local channel versions. Access to YouTube was blocked in Turkey between 2008 and 2010, following controversy over the posting of videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and some material offensive to Muslims.NEWS, Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube, BBC News,weblink October 30, 2010, October 3, 2012, NEWS, Turks censor YouTube censorship, Danforth, Nick, San Francisco Chronicle,weblink July 31, 2009, August 4, 2009, In October 2012, a local version of YouTube was launched in Turkey, with the domain The local version is subject to the content regulations found in Turkish law.WEB, Dara, Kerr, YouTube cedes to Turkey and uses local Web domain,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, October 2, 2012, March 25, 2017, In March 2009, a dispute between YouTube and the British royalty collection agency PRS for Music led to premium music videos being blocked for YouTube users in the United Kingdom. The removal of videos posted by the major record companies occurred after failure to reach agreement on a licensing deal. The dispute was resolved in September 2009.NEWS, Emma, Barnett, Music videos back on YouTube in multi-million pound PRS deal,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, September 3, 2009, March 26, 2017, In April 2009, a similar dispute led to the removal of premium music videos for users in Germany.NEWS, Now YouTube stops the music in Germany, The Guardian, London,weblink April 1, 2009, April 2, 2009,

YouTube Premium

YouTube Premium (formerly YouTube Red) is YouTube's premium subscription service. It offers advertising-free streaming, access to exclusive content, background and offline video playback on mobile devices, and access to the Google Play Music "All Access" service.WEB,weblink YouTube Red, YouTube Premium was originally announced on November 12, 2014, as "Music Key", a subscription music streaming service, and was intended to integrate with and replace the existing Google Play Music "All Access" service.WEB, James, Trew, YouTube unveils Music Key subscription service, here's what you need to know,weblink Engadget, AOL, November 12, 2014, March 25, 2017, WEB, Casey, Newton, YouTube announces plans for a subscription music service,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, November 12, 2014, March 25, 2017, WEB, Todd, Spangler, YouTube Launches 'Music Key' Subscription Service with More Than 30 Million Songs,weblink Variety (magazine), Variety, Penske Media Corporation, November 12, 2014, March 25, 2017, On October 28, 2015, the service was relaunched as YouTube Red, offering ad-free streaming of all videos, as well as access to exclusive original content.WEB, Todd, Spangler, YouTube Red Unveiled: Ad-Free Streaming Service Priced Same as Netflix,weblink Variety (magazine), Variety, Penske Media Corporation, October 21, 2015, March 25, 2017, WEB, Ron, Amadeo, "YouTube Red" offers premium YouTube for $9.99 a month, $12.99 for iOS users,weblink Ars Technica, Condé Nast, October 21, 2015, March 25, 2017, WEB, Ben, Popper, A first look at the ad-free YouTube Red subscription service,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, October 21, 2015, March 25, 2017, {{As of|2016|November}}, the service has 1.5 million subscribers, with a further million on a free-trial basis.WEB, Hannah, Roberts, YouTube's ad-free paid subscription service looks like it is struggling to take off,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, November 3, 2016, March 25, 2017, {{As of|2017|June}}, the first season of YouTube Red Originals had gotten 250 million views in total.WEB, YouTube Red originals have racked up nearly 250 million views,weblink The Verge, September 16, 2017, June 22, 2017, In May 2014, before Music Key service was launched, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and that YouTube would block all music content from labels who do not reach a deal to be included on the paid service. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that YouTube would block the content of labels who do not negotiate deals to be included in the paid service "to ensure that all content on the platform is governed by its new contractual terms." Stating that 90% of labels had reached deals, he went on to say that "while we wish that we had [a] 100% success rate, we understand that is not likely an achievable goal and therefore it is our responsibility to our users and the industry to launch the enhanced music experience."WEB, Ben, Popper, YouTube will block videos from artists who don't sign up for its paid streaming service,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, June 17, 2014, March 25, 2017, NEWS, YouTube subscription music licensing strikes wrong notes with indie labels,weblink The Guardian, London, June 17, 2014, NEWS, Talks with indie labels stall over YouTube music subscription service,weblink The Guardian, London, June 17, 2014, NEWS, YouTube to block indie labels who don't sign up to new music service,weblink The Guardian, London, June 17, 2014, The Financial Times later reported that YouTube had reached an aggregate deal with Merlin Network—a trade group representing over 20,000 independent labels, for their inclusion in the service. However, YouTube itself has not confirmed the deal.On September 28, 2016, YouTube named Lyor Cohen, the co-founder of 300 Entertainment and former Warner Music Group executive, the Global Head of Music.NEWS,weblink Lyor Cohen Named YouTube's Global Head of Music, Billboard, January 6, 2018,

YouTube TV

On February 28, 2017, in a press announcement held at YouTube Space Los Angeles, YouTube announced the launch of YouTube TV, an over-the-top MVPD-style subscription service that would be available for United States customers at a price of US$35 per month. Initially launching in five major markets (New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and San Francisco) on April 5, 2017,NEWS, YouTube TV launches today. It has some cool features and some big drawbacks,weblink Associated Press, Los Angeles Times, Tronc, April 5, 2017, April 24, 2017, WEB, YouTube Is Officially in the Live TV Game Now,weblink Christina Warren, Gizmodo, Gizmodo Media Group, April 5, 2017, April 24, 2017, the service offers live streams of programming from the five major broadcast networks (ABC, CBS, The CW, Fox and NBC), as well as approximately 40 cable channels owned by the corporate parents of those networks, The Walt Disney Company, CBS Corporation, 21st Century Fox, NBCUniversal and Turner Broadcasting System (including among others Bravo, USA Network, Syfy, Disney Channel, CNN, Cartoon Network, E!, Fox Sports 1, Freeform, FX and ESPN). Subscribers can also receive Showtime and Fox Soccer Plus as optional add-ons for an extra fee, and can access YouTube Premium original content (YouTube TV does not include a YouTube Red subscription).NEWS, YouTube takes on cable with new TV service,weblink Dave Lee, BBC, March 1, 2017, March 1, 2017, NEWS,weblink Meet YouTube TV: Google's Live TV Subscription Service, Tom Huddleston, Jr., Fortune, March 1, 2017, March 1, 2017, During the 2017 World Series (in which it was the presenting sponsor), YouTube TV ads were placed behind the home plate. The trademarked red play button logo appeared at the center of the screen, mimicking YouTube's interface.This well-placed YouTube ad on the World Series broadcast drove people crazy – Matt Clapp, Awful Announcing, October 24, 2017

YouTube Go

YouTube Go is an Android app aimed at making YouTube easier to access on mobile devices in emerging markets. It is distinct from the company's main Android app and allows videos to be downloaded and shared with other users. It also allows users to preview videos, share downloaded videos through Bluetooth, and offers more options for mobile data control and video resolution.NEWS, Dave, Paresh, YouTube's emerging markets-focused app expands to 130 countries,weblink February 10, 2018, Reuters, February 1, 2018, YouTube announced the project in September 2016 at an event in India.NEWS, Byford, Sam, YouTube Go is a new app for offline viewing and sharing,weblink February 10, 2018, The Verge, September 27, 2016, It was launched in India in February 2017, and expanded in November 2017 to 14 other countries, including Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Kenya, and South Africa.NEWS, Singh, Manish, YouTube Go is finally here, kind of,weblink February 10, 2018, Mashable, February 9, 2017, NEWS, Ho, Victoria, Data-friendly YouTube Go beta launches in Southeast Asia, Africa,weblink February 10, 2018, Mashable, November 30, 2017, It was rolled out in 130 countries worldwide, including Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, and Iraq on February 1, 2018. The app is available to around 60% of the world's population.NEWS,weblink Google's data-friendly app YouTube Go expands to over 130 countries, now supports higher quality videos, Perez, Sarah, TechCrunch, February 2, 2018, en, WEB,weblink Google's 'offline first' YouTube Go app launches in 130 new markets, but not the U.S., VentureBeat, February 2, 2018, February 2018,

YouTube Music

In early 2018, Cohen began hinting at the possible launch of YouTube's new subscription music streaming service, a platform that would compete with other services such as Spotify and Apple Music.NEWS,weblink How YouTube Is Playing the Peacemaker With Musicians, Fortune, January 6, 2018, en, On May 22, 2018, the music streaming platform named "YouTube Music" was launched.NEWS,weblink Inside YouTube's New Subscription Music Streaming Service, Billboard, September 24, 2018, NEWS,weblink YouTube to launch new music streaming service, Snapes, Laura, Sweney, Mark, May 17, 2018, The Guardian, en, September 24, 2018,


In 2018, YouTube became an ISNI registry, and announced its intention to begin creating ISNI identifiers to uniquely identify the musicians whose videos it features.WEB, YouTube Adopts ISNI ID for Artists & Songwriters,weblink ISNI, June 1, 2018, ISNI anticipate the number of ISNI IDs "going up by perhaps 3-5 million over the next couple of years" as a result.WEB, Transcript: YouTube Knows Who You Are,weblink Beyond the Book, June 1, 2018, March 18, 2018,

April Fools

YouTube featured an April Fools prank on the site on April 1 of every year from 2008 to 2016. In 2008, all links to videos on the main page were redirected to Rick Astley's music video "Never Gonna Give You Up", a prank known as "rickrolling".WEB, Michael, Arrington, YouTube RickRolls Users,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, March 31, 2008, March 26, 2017, JOURNAL, Jenna, Wortham, YouTube 'Rickrolls' Everyone,weblink Wired, April 1, 2008, March 26, 2017, The next year, when clicking on a video on the main page, the whole page turned upside down, which YouTube claimed was a "new layout".WEB,weblink April fools: YouTube turns the world up-side-down,, April 1, 2009, April 2, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink April 3, 2009, Bas van den Beld, In 2010, YouTube temporarily released a "TEXTp" mode which rendered video imagery into ASCII art letters "in order to reduce bandwidth costs by $1 per second."WEB, Patrick, Pichette, TEXTp saves YouTube bandwidth, money,weblink Official YouTube Blog, March 31, 2010, March 25, 2017, The next year, the site celebrated its "100th anniversary" with a range of sepia-toned silent, early 1900s-style films, including a parody of Keyboard Cat.NEWS, Shane, Richmond, YouTube goes back to 1911 for April Fools' Day,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, April 1, 2011, March 26, 2017, In 2012, clicking on the image of a DVD next to the site logo led to a video about a purported option to order every YouTube video for home delivery on DVD.JOURNAL, Nick, Carbone, April Fools' Day 2012: The Best Pranks from Around the Web,weblink Time, April 1, 2012, March 26, 2017, In 2013, YouTube teamed up with satirical newspaper company The Onion to claim that the video sharing website was launched as a contest which had finally come to an end, and would announce a winner of the contest when the site went back up in 2023.JOURNAL, Kristene, Quan, WATCH: YouTube Announces It Will Shut Down,weblink Time, April 1, 2013, March 26, 2017, In 2014, YouTube announced that it was responsible for the creation of all viral video trends, and revealed previews of upcoming trends, such as "Clocking", "Kissing Dad", and "Glub Glub Water Dance".NEWS,weblink YouTube Reveals Its Viral Secrets in April Fools' Day Video, Alexis, Kleinman, Huffington Post, April 1, 2014, April 1, 2014, The next year, YouTube added a music button to the video bar that played samples from "Sandstorm" by Darude.WEB,weblink 17 April Fools' pranks from tech brands, tech giants today, April 1, 2015, NY Daily News, June 12, 2016, Alejandro, Alba, In 2016, YouTube introduced an option to watch every video on the platform in 360-degree mode with Snoop Dogg.NEWS,weblink Snoopavision and other April Fools jokes going viral, BBC News, April 1, 2016, April 1, 2016, Rozina, Sini,

Content partnerships

In 2016, YouTube introduced a global program to develop creators whose videos produce a positive social impact. Google dedicated $1 million to this Creators for Change program.WEB,weblink YouTube commits $1 million to Creators for Change, Mihalcik, Carrie, September 22, 2016, CNET, en, December 30, 2018, The first three videos from the program premiered at the 2017 Tribeca TV Festival.WEB,weblink YouTubes 'Creators for Change premiere at Tribeca's TV Festival, Hardawar, Devindra, September 23, 2017, Engadget, en, December 30, 2018, YouTube expanded the program in 2018.WEB,weblinkweblink dead, December 9, 2018, YouTube investing $5 million on 47 creators trying to make platform more positive, Alexander, Julie, May 8, 2018, Polygon (website), Polygon, December 30, 2018,

Social impact

Both private individuals and large production companiesJOURNAL,weblink The rise and fall of YouTube's celebrity pioneers, Tufnell, Nicholas, November 27, 2013, Wired UK,weblink" title="">weblink live, January 10, 2014, have used YouTube to grow audiences. Independent content creators have built grassroots followings numbering in the thousands at very little cost or effort, while mass retail and radio promotion proved problematic.NEWS,weblink YouTube stars don't always welcome record deals, Bruno, Antony, February 25, 2007, Reuters,weblink" title="">weblink January 6, 2014, dead, Concurrently, old media celebrities moved into the website at the invitation of a YouTube management that witnessed early content creators accruing substantial followings, and perceived audience sizes potentially larger than that attainable by television. While YouTube's revenue-sharing "Partner Program" made it possible to earn a substantial living as a video producer—its top five hundred partners each earning more than $100,000 annuallyNEWS,weblink Streaming Dreams / YouTube turns pro, The New Yorker, Seabrook, John, January 16, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2012, dead, and its ten highest-earning channels grossing from $2.5 million to $12 millionMAGAZINE, Berg, Madeline, The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015,weblink Forbes,weblink November 13, 2015, live, November 2015, • MAGAZINE, Berg, Madeline, The World's Top-Earning YouTube Stars 2015 / 1. PewDiePie: $12 million,weblink Forbes,weblink November 13, 2015, dead, November 2015, November 16, 2015, mdy-all, —in 2012 CMU business editor characterized YouTube as "a free-to-use ... promotional platform for the music labels".NEWS,weblink Gangnam Style hits one billion views on YouTube, December 21, 2012, BBC News,weblink" title="">weblink January 15, 2014, dead, In 2013 Forbes{{'}} Katheryn Thayer asserted that digital-era artists' work must not only be of high quality, but must elicit reactions on the YouTube platform and social media.NEWS,weblink The Youtube Music Awards: Why Artists Should Care, Thayer, Katheryn, October 29, 2013, Forbes,weblink" title="">weblink November 2, 2013, dead, Videos of the 2.5% of artists categorized as "mega", "mainstream" and "mid-sized" received 90.3% of the relevant views on YouTube and Vevo in that year.WEB,weblink 2013: Year in Rewind (report title) / Mapping the Landscape (specific section title), January 2014, Next Big Sound,weblink January 21, 2014, dead, "Developing" artists 6.9%; "Undiscovered" artists 2.8%. By early 2013 Billboard had announced that it was factoring YouTube streaming data into calculation of the Billboard Hot 100 and related genre charts.WEB,weblink Hot 100 News: Billboard and Nielsen Add YouTube Video Streaming to Platforms, Billboard staff, February 20, 2013, Billboard,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2014, dead, File:Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards for YouTube.jpg|thumb|upright|Jordan Hoffner at the 68th Annual Peabody AwardsPeabody AwardsObserving that face-to-face communication of the type that online videos convey has been "fine-tuned by millions of years of evolution", TED curator Chris Anderson referred to several YouTube contributors and asserted that "what Gutenberg did for writing, online video can now do for face-to-face communication".WEB,weblink How web video powers global innovation, Anderson, Chris, July 2010, TED (conference), TED,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2013, dead, (click on "Show transcript" tab) • Corresponding weblink" title="">YouTube video from official TED channel was titled "How YouTube is driving innovation." Anderson asserted that it's not far-fetched to say that online video will dramatically accelerate scientific advance, and that video contributors may be about to launch "the biggest learning cycle in human history." In education, for example, the Khan Academy grew from YouTube video tutoring sessions for founder Salman Khan's cousin into what Forbes{{'}}  Michael Noer called "the largest school in the world", with technology poised to disrupt how people learn.NEWS,weblink One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education, Noer, Michael, November 2, 2012, Forbes,weblink" title="">weblink December 4, 2013, dead, YouTube was awarded a 2008 George Foster Peabody Award, (award profile), "Winner 2008",, May 2009. ({{webarchive |url= |date=January 14, 2016 }} from the original on January 14, 2016). the website being described as a Speakers' Corner that "both embodies and promotes democracy."JOURNAL, James, Poniewozik, Nonprofit Press Release Theater: Peabody Awards Announced,weblink Time, April 1, 2009, March 26, 2017, The Washington Post reported that a disproportionate share of YouTube's most subscribed channels feature minorities, contrasting with mainstream television in which the stars are largely white.WEB, Haley, Tsukayama, In online video, minorities find an audience,weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings LLC, April 20, 2012, March 26, 2017, A Pew Research Center study reported the development of "visual journalism", in which citizen eyewitnesses and established news organizations share in content creation.WEB,weblink PEJ: YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual Journalism Is Developing, but Ethics of Attribution Have Yet to Emerge, Journalism Project Staff, July 16, 2012, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink December 31, 2013, dead, The study also concluded that YouTube was becoming an important platform by which people acquire news.WEB,weblink YouTube and News: A New Kind of Visual News, Journalism Project Staff, July 16, 2012, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink December 31, 2013, dead, YouTube has enabled people to more directly engage with government, such as in the CNN/YouTube presidential debates (2007) in which ordinary people submitted questions to U.S. presidential candidates via YouTube video, with a techPresident co-founder saying that Internet video was changing the political landscape.NEWS, Katharine, Q. Seelye, New Presidential Debate Site? Clearly, YouTube,weblink The New York Times, June 13, 2007, March 26, 2017, Describing the Arab Spring (2010– ), sociologist Philip N. Howard quoted an activist's succinct description that organizing the political unrest involved using "Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world."WEB,weblink The Arab Spring's Cascading Effects, Howard, Philip N., February 23, 2011, Pacific Standard,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2014, dead, In 2012, more than a third of the U.S. Senate introduced a resolution condemning Joseph Kony 16 days after the "Kony 2012" video was posted to YouTube, with resolution co-sponsor Senator Lindsey Graham remarking that the video "will do more to lead to (Kony's) demise than all other action combined."WEB,weblink Joseph Kony captures Congress' attention, Wong, Scott, March 22, 2012, Politico,weblink" title="">weblink January 8, 2014, dead, (File:ObamaYouTubers307.png|thumb|right|upright=1.15|Leading YouTube content creators met at the White House with U.S. President Obama to discuss how government could better connect with the "YouTube generation".WEB, Jenkins, Brad L., YouTube Stars Talk Health Care (and Make History) at the White House,weblink,weblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2014, Washington, D.C., March 6, 2014, dead, )Conversely, YouTube has also allowed government to more easily engage with citizens, the White House's official YouTube channel being the seventh top news organization producer on YouTube in 2012WEB,weblink YouTube Video Creation–A Shared Process, Journalism Project Staff, July 16, 2012, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink December 31, 2013, dead, and in 2013 a healthcare exchange commissioned Obama impersonator Iman Crosson's YouTube music video spoof to encourage young Americans to enroll in the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)-compliant health insurance.NEWS,weblink Round 2: Obamacare and Hollywood open new social media campaign, Reston, Maeve, December 12, 2013, Los Angeles Times,weblink" title="">weblink December 12, 2013, dead, In February 2014, U.S. President Obama held a meeting at the White House with leading YouTube content creators to not only promote awareness of ObamacareNEWS, McMorris-Santoro, Evan, Obama Enlisted YouTube Personalities For Final Health Care Enrollment Push Last Week,weblink Buzzfeed, March 2, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 3, 2014, dead, but more generally to develop ways for government to better connect with the "YouTube Generation".WEB, Cohen, Joshua, Obama Meets With YouTube Advisors on How To Reach Online Audiences,weblink Tubefilter,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2014, March 2, 2014, dead, Whereas YouTube's inherent ability to allow presidents to directly connect with average citizens was noted, the YouTube content creators' new media savvy was perceived necessary to better cope with the website's distracting content and fickle audience.Some YouTube videos have themselves had a direct effect on world events, such as Innocence of Muslims (2012) which spurred protests and related anti-American violence internationally.NEWS,weblink U.S. warns of rising threat of violence amid outrage over anti-Islam video, CNN Wire Staff, September 14, 2012, CNN,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2013, dead, TED curator Chris Anderson described a phenomenon by which geographically distributed individuals in a certain field share their independently developed skills in YouTube videos, thus challenging others to improve their own skills, and spurring invention and evolution in that field. Journalist Virginia Heffernan stated in The New York Times that such videos have "surprising implications" for the dissemination of culture and even the future of classical music.NEWS, Virginia, Heffernan, Web Guitar Wizard Revealed at Last,weblink The New York Times, August 27, 2006, March 26, 2017, The Legion of Extraordinary DancersWEB,weblink The LXD: In the Internet age, dance evolves, Chu, Jon M., February 2010, TED (conference), TED,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2014, dead, and the YouTube Symphony Orchestra selected their membership based on individual video performances.NEWS,weblink YouTube orchestra prepares for Carnegie debut, Nichols, Michelle (reporter), Simao, Paul (editor), April 14, 2009, Reuters,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2014, dead, Further, the cybercollaboration charity video "We Are the World 25 for Haiti (YouTube edition)" was formed by mixing performances of 57 globally distributed singers into a single musical work,NEWS,weblink CNN Newsroom, Levs, Josh (interviewer), March 6, 2010, CNN,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2010, dead, Also weblink" title="">CNN Saturday Morning News and weblink" title="">CNN Sunday Morning (archives). with The Tokyo Times noting the "We Pray for You" YouTube cyber-collaboration video as an example of a trend to use crowdsourcing for charitable purposes.WEB,weblink Crowdsourcing: After Quakebook, We Pray For You, Smart, Richard, May 11, 2011, The Tokyo Times,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2011, dead, The anti-bullying It Gets Better Project expanded from a single YouTube video directed to discouraged or suicidal LGBT teens,NEWS,weblink Dan Savage overwhelmed by gay outreach's response, Hartlaub, Peter, October 8, 2010, San Francisco Chronicle,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2013, dead, that within two months drew video responses from hundreds including U.S. President Barack Obama, Vice President Biden, White House staff, and several cabinet secretaries.WEB,weblink It Gets Better,,weblink" title="">weblink January 2, 2014, dead, Similarly, in response to fifteen-year-old Amanda Todd's video "My story: Struggling, bullying, suicide, self-harm", legislative action was undertaken almost immediately after her suicide to study the prevalence of bullying and form a national anti-bullying strategy.WEB,weblink In wake of Amanda Todd suicide, MPs to debate anti-bullying motion, October 14, 2012, CTV News,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2013, dead, In May 2018, London Metropolitan Police claimed that the drill videos that talk about violence give rise to the gang-related violence. YouTube deleted 30 music videos after the complaint.NEWS,weblink YouTube deletes 30 music videos after Met link with gang violence, Waterson, Jim, May 28, 2018, The Guardian, en, May 29, 2018,


Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing.NEWS, Yi-Wyn, Yen, March 25, 2008,weblink YouTube Looks For the Money Clip, March 26, 2008, CNN, In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.NEWS, Quentin, Hardy, Evan Hessel,weblink GooTube, Forbes Magazine, May 22, 2008, August 3, 2009, In January 2012, it was estimated that visitors to YouTube spent an average of 15 minutes a day on the site, in contrast to the four or five hours a day spent by a typical US citizen watching television. In 2012, YouTube's revenue from its ads program was estimated at $3.7 billion. In 2013 it nearly doubled and estimated to hit $5.6 billion according to eMarketer,NEWS,weblink YouTube Growing Faster Than Thought, Report Says, Winkler, Rolfe, December 11, 2013, Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2016, WEB, YouTube's ad revenue estimated at $5.6 billion,weblink YAHOO, March 28, 2016, WEB, Tim, Worstall, Google's YouTube Ad Revenues May Hit $5.6 Billion in 2013,weblink Forbes, December 12, 2013, March 26, 2017, while others estimated $4.7 billion. The vast majority of videos on YouTube are free to view and supported by advertising. In May 2013, YouTube introduced a trial scheme of 53 subscription channels with prices ranging from $0.99 to $6.99 a month.NEWS,weblink YouTube launches subscriptions with 53 paid channels, The Register, Neil, McAllister, May 9, 2013, May 20, 2013, The move was seen as an attempt to compete with other providers of online subscription services such as Netflix and Hulu. In 2017, viewers on average watch YouTube on mobile devices for more than an hour every day.WEB, Updates from VidCon: more users, more products, more shows and much more,weblink Official YouTube Blog, September 16, 2017,

Advertisement partnerships

YouTube entered into a marketing and advertising partnership with NBC in June 2006.NEWS, Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy,weblink Knowledge@wharton, July 19, 2012, In March 2007, it struck a deal with BBC for three channels with BBC content, one for news and two for entertainment.NEWS, Tim, Weber, BBC strikes Google-YouTube deal,weblink BBC News, March 2, 2007, March 26, 2017, In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for U.S. viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.NEWS, Brad, Stone, Brooks, Barnes, MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube,weblink The New York Times, November 9, 2008, March 26, 2017, NEWS, Staci, D. Kramer, It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets,weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings LLC, April 30, 2009, March 26, 2017, In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.NEWS, YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners, Allen, Katie, The Guardian, London,weblink December 13, 2009, November 19, 2009, In January 2010, YouTube introduced an online film rentals service,NEWS, Miguel, Helft, YouTube Takes a Small Step into the Film Rental Market,weblink The New York Times, January 20, 2010, March 26, 2017, which is only available to users in the United States, Canada, and the UK as of 2010.NEWS,weblink YouTube turns to movie rental business, May 7, 2010, January 21, 2010, BBC News, Maggie, Shiels, NEWS,weblink YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK, BBC News, October 7, 2011, October 7, 2011, The service offers over 6,000 films.WEB, Alexia, Tsotsis, Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 9, 2011, March 26, 2017,

Partnership with video creators

In May 2007, YouTube launched its Partner Program (YPP), a system based on AdSense which allows the uploader of the video to share the revenue produced by advertising on the site.WEB, John, Biggs, YouTube Launches Revenue Sharing Partners Program, but no Pre-Rolls,weblink TechCrunch, AOL, May 4, 2007, March 26, 2017, YouTube typically takes 45 percent of the advertising revenue from videos in the Partner Program, with 55 percent going to the uploader.WEB, Tim, Carmody, It's not TV, it's the Web: YouTube partners complain about Google ads, revenue sharing,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, March 4, 2013, March 25, 2017, WEB, The biggest stars on YouTube make huge incomes ... yet they can't keep the vast majority of it,weblink Business Insider, September 16, 2017, en, There are over a million members of the YouTube Partner Program.Statistics – YouTube Retrieved May 20, 2013. According to TubeMogul, in 2013 a pre-roll advertisement on YouTube (one that is shown before the video starts) cost advertisers on average $7.60 per 1000 views. Usually no more than half of eligible videos have a pre-roll advertisement, due to a lack of interested advertisers.NEWS, Leslie, Kaufman, Chasing Their Star, on YouTube,weblink The New York Times, February 1, 2014, March 26, 2017, YouTube policies restrict certain forms of content from being included in videos being monetized with advertising, including videos containing strong violence, language, sexual content, "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown" (unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain"),NEWS, Robertson, Adi, Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?,weblink March 19, 2017, The Verge, September 1, 2016, and videos whose user comments contain "inappropriate" content.WEB,weblink After Child Video Scandal, YouTube Says Ad-Friendly Videos Can Be Demonetized For Inappropriate Comments, February 22, 2019, Tubefilter, 2019-02-22, In 2013, YouTube introduced an option for channels with at least a thousand subscribers to require a paid subscription in order for viewers to watch videos.WEB, McCue, TJ, Google's YouTube Introduces Paid Content Subscriptions,weblink Forbes, September 16, 2017, en, WEB, Introduction to paid content – YouTube Help,weblink, September 16, 2017, en, In April 2017, YouTube set an eligibility requirement of 10,000 lifetime views for a paid subscription.WEB, Additional Changes to the YouTube Partner Program (YPP) to Better Protect Creators,weblink YouTube, January 16, 2018, en, On January 16, 2018, the eligibility requirement for monetization was changed to 4,000 hours of watchtime within the past 12 months and 1,000 subscribers. The move was seen as an attempt to ensure that videos being monetized did not lead to controversy, but was criticized for penalizing smaller YouTube channels.NEWS, Sam, Levin, YouTube's small creators pay price of policy changes after Logan Paul scandal,weblink The Guardian, January 18, 2018, January 19, 2018, YouTube Play Buttons, a part of the YouTube Creator Rewards, are a recognition by YouTube of its most popular channels.WEB, {{sfnRef, "YouTube Creator Rewards", n.d., |url=|title=YouTube Creator Rewards|publisher=YouTube|accessdate=August 14, 2017}} The trophies made of nickel plated copper-nickel alloy, golden plated brass, silver plated metal and ruby are given to channels with at least one hundred thousand, a million, ten million and fifty million subscribers, respectively.WEB, {{sfnRef, "What is the Gold Play Button REALLY Made of? – JerryRigEverything", n.d., |url=|title=What is the Gold Play Button REALLY Made Of?|publisher=YouTube|accessdate=June 6, 2017}}WEB, YouTube Sends PewDiePie Custom Ruby Play Button To Commemorate 50 Million Subscribers,weblink Tubefilter, September 16, 2017, December 19, 2016,

Revenue to copyright holders

{{further|#Copyrighted material}}Much of YouTube's revenue goes to the copyright holders of the videos. In 2010, it was reported that nearly a third of the videos with advertisements were uploaded without permission of the copyright holders. YouTube gives an option for copyright holders to locate and remove their videos or to have them continue running for revenue.NEWS, Claire Cain, Miller, YouTube Ads Turn Videos into Revenue,weblink The New York Times, September 2, 2010, March 26, 2017, In May 2013, Nintendo began enforcing its copyright ownership and claiming the advertising revenue from video creators who posted screenshots of its games.WEB, Keza, MacDonald, Nintendo enforces copyright on YouTube Let's Plays,weblink IGN, j2 Global, May 16, 2013, March 26, 2017, In February 2015, Nintendo agreed to share the revenue with the video creators.WEB, Paul, Tassi, Nintendo Updates Their Bad YouTube Policies By Making Them Worse,weblink Forbes, February 6, 2015, March 26, 2017, WEB, Eric, Johnson, Nintendo Wants YouTubers to Pretend Its Competitors' Games Don't Exist,weblink Recode, Vox Media, February 4, 2015, March 25, 2017, WEB, Patricia, Hernandez, Nintendo's YouTube Plan Is Already Being Panned By YouTubers [Update],weblink Kotaku, Univision Communications, January 29, 2015, March 26, 2017,

Community policy

YouTube has a set of community guidelines aimed to reduce abuse of the site's features. Generally prohibited material includes sexually explicit content, videos of animal abuse, shock videos, content uploaded without the copyright holder's consent, hate speech, spam, and predatory behavior. Despite the guidelines, YouTube has faced criticism from news sources for content in violation of these guidelines.

Copyrighted material

At the time of uploading a video, YouTube users are shown a message asking them not to violate copyright laws.NEWS,weblink Why did my YouTube account get closed down?, The Independent, London, Rhodri, Marsden, August 12, 2009, August 12, 2009, Despite this advice, there are still many unauthorized clips of copyrighted material on YouTube. YouTube does not view videos before they are posted online, and it is left to copyright holders to issue a DMCA takedown notice pursuant to the terms of the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act. Any successful complaint about copyright infringement results in a YouTube copyright strike. Three successful complaints for copyright infringement against a user account will result in the account and all of its uploaded videos being deleted.Why do I have a sanction on my account? YouTube. Retrieved February 5, 2012.NEWS,weblink Is YouTube's three-strike rule fair to users?, BBC News, May 21, 2010, February 5, 2012, London, Organizations including Viacom, Mediaset, and the English Premier League have filed lawsuits against YouTube, claiming that it has done too little to prevent the uploading of copyrighted material.NEWS, Viacom will sue YouTube for $1bn, BBC News,weblink May 26, 2008, March 13, 2007, NEWS, Mediaset Files EUR500 Million Suit Vs Google's YouTube,weblink July 30, 2008,, August 19, 2009, NEWS, Premier League to take action against YouTube,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, May 5, 2007, March 26, 2017, Online, Telegraph, Viacom, demanding $1 billion in damages, said that it had found more than 150,000 unauthorized clips of its material on YouTube that had been viewed "an astounding 1.5 billion times". YouTube responded by stating that it "goes far beyond its legal obligations in assisting content owners to protect their works".NEWS, YouTube law fight 'threatens net', BBC News,weblink May 28, 2008, May 27, 2008, During the same court battle, Viacom won a court ruling requiring YouTube to hand over 12 terabytes of data detailing the viewing habits of every user who has watched videos on the site. The decision was criticized by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, which called the court ruling "a setback to privacy rights".NEWS, Google must divulge YouTube log, BBC News,weblink July 3, 2008, NEWS, Miguel, Helft, Google Told to Turn Over User Data of YouTube,weblink The New York Times, July 4, 2008, March 26, 2017, In June 2010, Viacom's lawsuit against Google was rejected in a summary judgment, with U.S. federal Judge Louis L. Stanton stating that Google was protected by provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Viacom announced its intention to appeal the ruling.NEWS, US judge tosses out Viacom copyright suit against YouTube, Lefkow, Chris, AFP,weblink June 24, 2010, June 23, 2010, On April 5, 2012, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reinstated the case, allowing Viacom's lawsuit against Google to be heard in court again.NEWS, Google and Viacom: YouTube copyright lawsuit back on, BBC News,weblink April 5, 2012, April 5, 2012, On March 18, 2014, the lawsuit was settled after seven years with an undisclosed agreement.NEWS, Google and Viacom settle seven-year YouTube row, BBC News,weblink March 18, 2014, March 18, 2014, In August 2008, a US court ruled in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. that copyright holders cannot order the removal of an online file without first determining whether the posting reflected fair use of the material. The case involved Stephanie Lenz from Gallitzin, Pennsylvania, who had made a home video of her 13-month-old son dancing to Prince's song "Let's Go Crazy", and posted the 29-second video on YouTube.NEWS, Bob, Egelko, Woman can sue over YouTube clip de-posting,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, August 20, 2008, August 25, 2008, In the case of Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, professional singer Matt Smith sued Summit Entertainment for the wrongful use of copyright takedown notices on YouTube.WEB, Court Docket, Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, Ohio Northern District Court,weblink Docket Alarm, Inc., July 18, 2013, October 21, 2014, He asserted seven causes of action, and four were ruled in Smith's favor.WEB, Order,weblink District Judge James G. Carr, Smith v. Summit Entertainment LLC, United States District Court, N.D. Ohio, Western Division, June 6, 2011, November 7, 2011, In April 2012, a court in Hamburg ruled that YouTube could be held responsible for copyrighted material posted by its users. The performance rights organization GEMA argued that YouTube had not done enough to prevent the uploading of German copyrighted music. YouTube responded by stating:}}On November 1, 2016, the dispute with GEMA was resolved, with Google content ID being used to allow advertisements to be added to videos with content protected by GEMA.NEWS, YouTube's seven-year stand-off ends, BBC News, London,weblink November 1, 2016, November 2, 2016, In April 2013, it was reported that Universal Music Group and YouTube have a contractual agreement that prevents content blocked on YouTube by a request from UMG from being restored, even if the uploader of the video files a DMCA counter-notice. When a dispute occurs, the uploader of the video has to contact UMG.WEB,weblink YouTube's Deal With Universal Blocks DMCA Counter Notices, TorrentFreak, April 5, 2013, April 5, 2013, WEB,weblink Videos removed or blocked due to YouTube's contractual obligations, April 5, 2013, YouTube's owner Google announced in November 2015 that they would help cover the legal cost in select cases where they believe fair use defenses apply.JOURNAL, Klint, Finley, Google Pledges to Help Fight Bogus YouTube Copyright Claims—for a Few,weblink Wired, November 19, 2015, March 25, 2017,

Content ID

In June 2007, YouTube began trials of a system for automatic detection of uploaded videos that infringe copyright. Google CEO Eric Schmidt regarded this system as necessary for resolving lawsuits such as the one from Viacom, which alleged that YouTube profited from content that it did not have the right to distribute.NEWS, Kevin J., Delaney, YouTube to Test Software To Ease Licensing Fights,weblink Wall Street Journal, June 12, 2007, December 4, 2011, The system, which was initially called "Video Identification"{{Citation|last=YouTube Advertisers|title=Video Identification|date=February 4, 2008|url=|access-date=August 29, 2018}}NEWS,weblink Content ID turns three, King, David, December 2, 2010, Official YouTube Blog, August 29, 2018, en-US, and later became known as Content ID,WEB, YouTube Content ID,weblink YouTube, May 25, 2015, September 28, 2010, creates an ID File for copyrighted audio and video material, and stores it in a database. When a video is uploaded, it is checked against the database, and flags the video as a copyright violation if a match is found.More about Content ID YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011. When this occurs, the content owner has the choice of blocking the video to make it unviewable, tracking the viewing statistics of the video, or adding advertisements to the video. By 2010, YouTube had "already invested tens of millions of dollars in this technology". In 2011, YouTube described Content ID as "very accurate in finding uploads that look similar to reference files that are of sufficient length and quality to generate an effective ID File". By 2012, Content ID accounted for over a third of the monetized views on YouTube.Press Statistics YouTube. Retrieved March 13, 2012.An independent test in 2009 uploaded multiple versions of the same song to YouTube, and concluded that while the system was "surprisingly resilient" in finding copyright violations in the audio tracks of videos, it was not infallible.WEB, Testing YouTube's Audio Content ID System,weblink April 23, 2009, Von Lohmann, Fred, December 4, 2011, The use of Content ID to remove material automatically has led to controversy in some cases, as the videos have not been checked by a human for fair use.WEB, YouTube's January Fair Use Massacre,weblink February 3, 2009, Von Lohmann, Fred, December 4, 2011, If a YouTube user disagrees with a decision by Content ID, it is possible to fill in a form disputing the decision.Content ID disputes YouTube. Retrieved December 4, 2011. Prior to 2016, videos weren't monetized until the dispute was resolved. Since April 2016, videos continue to be monetized while the dispute is in progress, and the money goes to whoever won the dispute.WEB, Hernandez, Patricia, YouTube's Content ID System Gets One Much-Needed Fix,weblink Kotaku, September 16, 2017, Should the uploader want to monetize the video again, they may remove the disputed audio in the "Video Manager".WEB, Remove Content ID claimed songs from my videos – YouTube Help,weblink, September 17, 2017, en, YouTube has cited the effectiveness of Content ID as one of the reasons why the site's rules were modified in December 2010 to allow some users to upload videos of unlimited length.WEB, Joshua, Siegel, Doug, Mayle, Up, Up and Away – Long videos for more users,weblink Official YouTube Blog, December 9, 2010, March 25, 2017,

Controversial videos

{{See also|Criticism of Google#YouTube|Censorship by Google#YouTube}}YouTube has also faced criticism over the handling of offensive content in some of its videos. The uploading of videos containing defamation, pornography, and material encouraging criminal conduct is forbidden by YouTube's "Community Guidelines".WEB,weblink YouTube Community Guidelines, YouTube, November 30, 2008,weblink March 4, 2017, {{better source|date=August 2019}} YouTube relies on its users to flag the content of videos as inappropriate, and a YouTube employee will view a flagged video to determine whether it violates the site's guidelines.

Public disasters

Controversial content has included material relating to Holocaust denial and the Hillsborough disaster, in which 96 football fans from Liverpool were crushed to death in 1989.NEWS, YouTube criticized in Germany over anti-Semitic Nazi videos, Reuters,weblink May 28, 2008, WEB, Fury as YouTube carries sick Hillsboro video insult, icLiverpool,weblink November 29, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink March 20, 2012, dead, In July 2008, the Culture and Media Committee of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom stated that it was "unimpressed" with YouTube's system for policing its videos, and argued that "proactive review of content should be standard practice for sites hosting user-generated content". YouTube responded by stating:
(July 2008)}}

Imam Anwar al-Awlaki

In October 2010, U.S. Congressman Anthony Weiner urged YouTube to remove from its website videos of imam Anwar al-Awlaki.NEWS,weblink Al-Awlaki's YouTube Videos Targeted by Rep. Weiner, Fox News, October 25, 2010, November 13, 2010, YouTube pulled some of the videos in November 2010, stating they violated the site's guidelines.NEWS, John, F. Burns, Miguel, Helft, YouTube Withdraws Cleric's Videos,weblink The New York Times, November 4, 2010, March 26, 2017, In December 2010, YouTube added the ability to flag videos for containing terrorism content.NEWS, YouTube is letting users decide on terrorism-related videos, Bennett, Brian, Los Angeles Times,weblink November 29, 2015, December 12, 2010,


Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in June 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including YouTube. According to leaks from the program, YouTube joined the PRISM program in 2010.NEWS, Greenwald, Glenn, MacAskill, Ewen, NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others, June 7, 2013, The Guardian, Guardian News and Media Limited,weblink

Restricted monetization policies

YouTube's policies on "advertiser-friendly content" restrict what may be incorporated into videos being monetized; this includes strong violence, language, sexual content, and "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown", unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain".WEB, Adi, Robertson, Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, September 1, 2016, March 25, 2017, In September 2016, after introducing an enhanced notification system to inform users of these violations, YouTube's policies were criticized by prominent users, including Phillip DeFranco and Vlogbrothers. DeFranco argued that not being able to earn advertising revenue on such videos was "censorship by a different name". A YouTube spokesperson stated that while the policy itself was not new, the service had "improved the notification and appeal process to ensure better communication to our creators".WEB, Jessica, Guynn, YouTubers protest 'advertiser friendly' policy,weblink USA Today, Gannett Company, September 2, 2016, March 26, 2017, WEB, Tim, Mulkerin, A bunch of famous YouTubers are furious at YouTube right now – here's why,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, September 1, 2016, March 25, 2017, WEB, Joan, E. Solsman, Pause the #YouTubeIsOverParty: YouTube isn't pulling more ads from stars' videos,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, September 1, 2016, March 25, 2017,

Advertiser mass boycott

In March 2017, the government of the United Kingdom pulled its advertising campaigns from YouTube, after reports that its ads had appeared on videos containing extremist content. The government demanded assurances that its advertising would "be delivered in a safe and appropriate way". The Guardian newspaper, as well as other major British and U.S. brands, similarly suspended their advertising on YouTube in response to their advertising appearing near offensive content. Google stated that it had "begun an extensive review of our advertising policies and have made a public commitment to put in place changes that give brands more control over where their ads appear".WEB, Google Ad Crisis Spreads as Biggest Marketers Halt Spending,weblink Bloomberg, March 23, 2017, NEWS, YouTube: UK government suspends ads amid extremism concerns,weblink BBC News, March 23, 2017, March 17, 2017, In early April 2017, the YouTube channel h3h3Productions presented evidence claiming that a Wall Street Journal article had fabricated screenshots showing major brand advertising on an offensive video containing Johnny Rebel music overlaid on a Chief Keef music video, citing that the video itself had not earned any ad revenue for the uploader. The video was retracted after it was found that the ads had actually been triggered by the use of copyrighted content in the video.NEWS, A YouTube Star, Reddit Detectives, and the Alt-Right Call Out a Fake News Story. Turns Out It Was Real.,weblink The Daily Beast, April 5, 2017, April 4, 2017, Collins, Ben, WEB, How one little screenshot drove YouTube to the brink,weblink Mashable, April 10, 2017, On April 6, 2017, YouTube announced that in order to "ensure revenue only flows to creators who are playing by the rules", it would change its practices to require that a channel undergo a policy compliance review, and have at least 10,000 lifetime views, before they may join the Partner Program.WEB, YouTube will no longer allow creators to make money until they reach 10,000 views,weblink The Verge, Vox Media, April 6, 2017, April 6, 2017,

Logan Paul corpse scandal

In January 2018, YouTube creator Logan Paul faced criticism for a video he had uploaded from a trip to Japan, where he encountered a body of a suicide death in the Aokigahara forest. The corpse was visible in the video, although its face was censored. The video proved controversial due to its content, with its handling of the subject matter being deemed insensitive by critics. On January 10—eleven days after the video was published—YouTube announced that it would cut Paul from the Google Preferred advertising program. Six days later, YouTube announced tighter thresholds for the partner program to "significantly improve our ability to identify creators who contribute positively to the community", under which channels must have at least 4,000 hours of watch time within the past 12 months and at least 1,000 subscribers. YouTube also announced that videos approved for the Google Preferred program would become subject to manual review, and that videos would be rated based on suitability (with advertisers allowed to choose).NEWS,weblink YouTube tightens rules around what channels can be monetized, The Verge, April 14, 2018, WEB, Spangler, Todd, YouTube Sets Stricter Requirements for Creator Partners in Response to Advertiser Concerns,weblink Variety, 17 January 2018, 16 January 2018, WEB,weblink YouTube Cuts Logan Paul from Preferred Program Over Controversial Video, Brockington, Ariana, Brockington, Ariana, 2018-01-11, Variety, en, 2019-04-05, These changes led to further criticism of YouTube from independent channels, who alleged that the service had been changing its algorithms to give a higher prominence to professionally-produced content (such as celebrities, music videos and clips from late night talk shows), that attract wide viewership and has a lower risk of alienating mainstream advertisers, at the expense of the creators that had bolstered the service's popularity.WEB,weblink YouTube's relationship with creators, the source of so much success, has been turbulent, USA Today, en, 2019-04-05, WEB,weblink The golden age of YouTube is over, Alexander, Julia, 2019-04-05, The Verge, 2019-04-05,

Conspiracy theories and fringe discourse{{anchor|Promotion_of_conspiracy_theories_and_fringe_discourse}}

YouTube has been criticized for using an algorithm that gives great prominence to videos that promote conspiracy theories, falsehoods and incendiary fringe discourse.NEWS,weblink How YouTube Drives People to the Internet’s Darkest Corners, Nicas, Jack, February 7, 2018, Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2018, en-US, 0099-9660, NEWS,weblink As Germans Seek News, YouTube Delivers Far-Right Tirades, September 8, 2018, en, NEWS, Ingram, Matthew, YouTube’s secret life as an engine for right-wing radicalization,weblink 26 March 2019, Columbia Journalism Review, September 19, 2018, en, According to an investigation by The Wall Street Journal, "YouTube’s recommendations often lead users to channels that feature conspiracy theories, partisan viewpoints and misleading videos, even when those users haven’t shown interest in such content. When users show a political bias in what they choose to view, YouTube typically recommends videos that echo those biases, often with more-extreme viewpoints."WEB, Lewis, Rebecca, Alternative Influence: Broadcasting the Reactionary Right on YouTube,weblink, Data and Society, 26 March 2019, September 2018, When users search for political or scientific terms, YouTube's search algorithms often give prominence to hoaxes and conspiracy theories.NEWS,weblink YouTube wants the news audience, but not the responsibility, Columbia Journalism Review, September 23, 2018, en, After YouTube drew controversy for giving top billing to videos promoting falsehoods and conspiracy when people made breaking-news queries during the 2017 Las Vegas shooting, YouTube changed its algorithm to give greater prominence to mainstream media sources.NEWS,weblink YouTube Tweaks Search Results as Las Vegas Conspiracy Theories Rise to Top, Nicas, Jack, October 6, 2017, Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2018, en-US, 0099-9660, NEWS,weblink Here's How YouTube Is Spreading Conspiracy Theories About The Vegas Shooting, BuzzFeed, June 16, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink The Big Tech Platforms Still Suck During Breaking News, BuzzFeed, June 16, 2018, en, In 2018, it was reported that YouTube was again promoting fringe content about breaking news, giving great prominence to conspiracy videos about Anthony Bourdain's death.NEWS,weblink YouTube Is Spreading Conspiracy Theories about Anthony Bourdain’s Death, BuzzFeed, June 16, 2018, en, In 2017, it was revealed that advertisements were being placed on extremist videos, including videos by rape apologists, anti-Semites and hate preachers who received ad payouts.NEWS,weblink Google apologises as M&S pulls ads, March 20, 2017, BBC News, June 16, 2018, en-GB, After firms started to stop advertising on YouTube in the wake of this reporting, YouTube apologized and said that it would give firms greater control over where ads got placed.Alex Jones, known for far-right conspiracy theories, had built a massive audience on YouTube.NEWS,weblink 'Fiction is outperforming reality': how YouTube's algorithm distorts truth, Lewis, Paul, February 2, 2018, The Guardian, June 16, 2018, en-GB, 0261-3077, YouTube drew criticism in 2018 when it removed a video from Media Matters compiling offensive statements made by Jones, stating that it violated its policies on "harassment and bullying".NEWS,weblink YouTube under fire for censoring video exposing conspiracy theorist Alex Jones, Levin, Sam, April 23, 2018, The Guardian, June 16, 2018, en, On August 6, 2018, however, YouTube removed Alex Jones' YouTube page following a content violationweblink Retrieved October 15, 2018University of North Carolina professor Zeynep Tufekci has referred to YouTube as "The Great Radicalizer", saying "YouTube may be one of the most powerful radicalizing instruments of the 21st century."NEWS,weblink Opinion {{!, YouTube, the Great Radicalizer|access-date=June 16, 2018|language=en}} Jonathan Albright of the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University described YouTube as a "conspiracy ecosystem".WEB,weblink Parkland shooting 'crisis actor' videos lead users to a 'conspiracy ecosystem' on YouTube, new research shows, Washington Post, en, September 23, 2018, In January 2019, YouTube said that it had introduced a new policy intended to stop recommending videos containing "content that could misinform users in harmful ways." YouTube gave flat earth theories, miracle cures, and 9/11 trutherism as examples.NEWS,weblink YouTube Tweaks Algorithm to Fight 9/11 Truthers, Flat Earthers, Miracle Cures, Weill, Kelly, 2019-01-25, 2019-01-29, en, Efforts within YouTube engineering to stop recommending borderline extremist videos falling just short of forbidden hate speech, and track their popularity were originally rejected because they could interfere with viewer engagement, but began being implemented in 2019.NEWS, Bergen, Mark, YouTube Executives Ignored Warnings, Letting Toxic Videos Run Rampant,weblink 2 April 2019, Bloomberg News, April 2, 2019, A July 2019 study found that when users searched for videos related to the climate and climate change, the majority of videos were videos that communicated views contrary to the scientific consensus on climate change.JOURNAL, Allgaier, Joachim, 2019-07-25, Science and Environmental Communication on YouTube: Strategically Distorted Communications in Online Videos on Climate Change and Climate Engineering,weblink Frontiers in Communication, 4, 10.3389/fcomm.2019.00036, 2297-900X, In Brazil, YouTube has been linked to pushing pseudoscientific misinformation on health matters, as well as elevated far-right fringe discourse and conspiracy theories.NEWS,weblink How YouTube Radicalized Brazil, Fisher, Max, 2019-08-11, The New York Times, 2019-08-12, Taub, Amanda, en-US, 0362-4331,

Child protection

{{See also|DaddyOFive|Fantastic Adventures (Youtube channel)|Elsagate}}Leading into 2017, there was a significant increase in the number of videos related to children, coupled between the popularity of parents vlogging their family's activities, and previous content creators moving away from content that often was criticized or demonetized into family-friendly material. In 2017, YouTube reported that time watching family vloggers had increased by 90%.WEB,weblink The YouTube Parents Who are Turning Family Moments into Big Bucks, Belinda, Luscombe, May 18, 2017, June 21, 2019, Time (magazine), Time ], WEB,weblink YouTube can’t remove kid videos without tearing a hole in the entire creator ecosystem, Julia, Alexander, June 21, 2019, June 21, 2019, The Verge, However, with the increase in videos featuring children, the site began to face several controversies related to child safety. During Q2 2017, the owners of popular channel DaddyOFive, which featured themselves playing "pranks" on their children, were accused of child abuse. Their videos were eventually deleted, and two of their children were removed from their custody.WEB, Ohlheiser, Abby,weblink The saga of a YouTube family who pulled disturbing pranks on their own kids, The Washington Post, April 26, 2017, NEWS, Cresci, Elena,weblink Mean stream: how YouTube prank channel DaddyOFive enraged the internet, May 7, 2017, The Guardian, June 7, 2017, en-GB, 0261-3077, WEB, Dunphy, Rachel,weblink The Abusive 'Pranks' of YouTube Family Vloggers, Select All, New York (magazine), New York Magazine, April 28, 2017, July 9, 2017, WEB, Gajanan, Mahita,weblink YouTube Star DaddyOFive Loses Custody of 2 Children Shown in 'Prank' Videos, Time (magazine), Time, May 3, 2017, July 9, 2017, A similar case happened in 2019 when the owners of the channel Fantastic Adventures was accused of abusing her adopted children. Her videos would later be deleted.WEB,weblink A mom on a popular YouTube show is accused of pepper-spraying her kids when they flubbed their lines, Eric Levenson and Mel Alonso, CNN, CNN, Later that year, YouTube came under criticism for showing inappropriate videos targeted at children and often featuring popular characters in violent, sexual or otherwise disturbing situations, many of which appeared on YouTube Kids and attracted millions of views. The term "Elsagate" was coined on the Internet and then used by various news outlets to refer to this controversy.Ben Popper, Adults dressed as superheroes is YouTube’s new, strange, and massively popular genre, The Verge, February 4, 2017WEB,weblink Report: Thousands of videos mimicking popular cartoons on YouTube Kids contain inappropriate content, Staff, Web, March 31, 2017, NEWS10 ABC, April 30, 2017, Sapna Maheshwari, On YouTube Kids, Startling Videos Slip Past Filters, The New York Times, November 4, 2017Dani Di Placido, YouTube's "Elsagate" Illuminates The Unintended Horrors Of The Digital Age, Forbes, November 28, 2017 On November 11, 2017, YouTube announced it was strengthening site security to protect children from unsuitable content. Later that month, the company started to mass delete videos and channels that made improper use of family friendly characters. As part as a broader concern regarding child safety on YouTube, the wave of deletions also targeted channels which showed children taking part in inappropriate or dangerous activities under the guidance of adults. Most notably, the company removed Toy Freaks, a channel with over 8.5 million subscribers, that featured a father and his two daughters in odd and upsetting situations.Todd Spangler, YouTube Terminates Toy Freaks Channel Amid Broader Crackdown on Disturbing Kids’ Content, Variety, November 17, 2017NEWS, The Verge, November 9, 2017, YouTube says it will crack down on bizarre videos targeting children,weblink Ben, Popper, In August of this year, YouTube announced that it would no longer allow creators to monetize videos which "made inappropriate use of family friendly characters." Today it's taking another step to try and police this genre., live,weblink November 16, 2017, Sarah Templeton, Disturbing 'ElsaGate', 'Toy Freaks' videos removed from YouTube after abuse allegations, Newshub, November 22, 2017YouTube to crack down on videos showing child endangerment, ABC News, November 22, 2017Charlie Warzel, YouTube Is Addressing Its Massive Child Exploitation Problem BuzzFeed, November 22, 2017 According to analytics specialist SocialBlade, it earned up to £8.7 million annually prior to its deletion.NEWS, Bridge, Mark, Mostrous, Alexi, Child abuse on YouTube,weblink The Times, November 28, 2017, November 18, 2017, subscription, Even for content that appears to aimed at children and appears to contain only child-friendly content, YouTube's system allows for anonymity of who uploads these videos. These questions have been raised in the past, as YouTube has had to remove channels with children's content which, after becoming popular, then suddenly include inappropriate content masked as children's content. A current example is the "Cocomelon" YouTube channel containing numerous mass-produced animated videos aimed at children which has drawn up to {{USD|10 million}} a month in ad revenue. The channel is reportedly owned by Treasure Studio, but journalists have not able to confirm any associated with the studio or channel.WEB,weblink Kids Love These YouTube Channels. Who Creates Them Is a Mystery., Koh, Yoree, Morris, Betsy, 11 April 2019, registration,weblink 14 August 2019, live, 14 August 2019, WEB,weblink YouTube Has Kid Troubles Because Kids Are a Core Audience, Martineau, Paris, Wired (magazine), Wired,weblink 11 August 2019, live, 14 August 2019, WEB,weblink Why YouTube's kid issues are so serious, Graham, Jefferson, 22 June 2019, USA Today,weblink 14 August 2019, live, 14 August 2019, "Cocomelon" and other channels like it a part of a YouTube "hellscape" because of the lack of knowledge of what purpose they are trying to serve.WEB,weblink YouTubers Are Fighting Algorithms to Make Good Content for Kids, Haskins, Caroline, 19 March 2019, Vice Media, Vice,weblink 14 August 2019, live, 14 August 2019, In January 2019, YouTube officially banned videos containing "challenges that encourage acts that have an inherent risk of severe physical harm" (such as, for example, the Tide Pod Challenge), and videos featuring pranks that "make victims believe they're in physical danger" or cause emotional distress in children.WEB,weblink YouTube updates policies to explicitly ban dangerous pranks, challenges, Palladino, Valentina, January 16, 2019, Ars Technica, en-us, January 16, 2019,

Child exploitation by pedophiles

Also in November 2017, it was revealed in the media that many videos featuring children – often uploaded by the minors themselves, and showing innocent content such as the children playing with toys or performing gymnastics – were attracting comments from pedophilesYouTube videos of children are plagued by sexual comments, The Verge, November 15, 2017NEWS, Mostrous, Alexi, Bridge, Mark, Gibbons, Katie, YouTube adverts fund paedophile habits,weblink The Times, November 28, 2017, November 24, 2017, subscription, with predators finding the videos through private YouTube playlists or typing in certain keywords in Russian. Other child-centric videos originally uploaded to YouTube began propagating on the dark web, and uploaded or embedded onto forums known to be used by pedophiles.WEB,weblink Why YouTube mums are taking their kids offline, Amelia, Tait, April 24, 2016, June 21, 2019, New Statesman, As a result of the controversy, which added to the concern about "Elsagate", several major advertisers whose ads had been running against such videos froze spending on YouTube.Todd Spangler, YouTube Faces Advertiser Boycott Over Videos With Kids That Attracted Sexual Predators, Variety, November 25, 2017 In December 2018, The Times found more than 100 grooming cases in which children were manipulated into sexually implicit behavior (such as taking off clothes, adopting sexualised poses and touching other children inappropriately) by strangers.NEWS,weblink Paedophiles grooming children live on YouTube, Bridge, Harry Shukman, Mark, 2018-12-10, The Times, 2019-02-18, en, 0140-0460, After a reporter flagged the videos in question, half of them were removed, and the rest were removed after The Times contacted YouTube's PR department.In February 2019, YouTube vlogger Matt Watson identified a "wormhole" that would cause the YouTube recommendation algorithm to draw users into this type of video content, and make all of that user's recommended content feature only these types of videos. Most of these videos had comments from sexual predators commenting with timestamps of when the children were shown in compromising positions, or otherwise making indecent remarks. In some cases, other users had reuploaded the video in unlisted form but with incoming links from other videos, and then monetized these, propagating this network. In the wake of the controversy, the service reported that they had deleted over 400 channels and tens of millions of comments, and reported the offending users to law enforcement and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. A spokesperson explained that "any content — including comments — that endangers minors is abhorrent and we have clear policies prohibiting this on YouTube. There's more to be done, and we continue to work to improve and catch abuse more quickly."WEB,weblink YouTube terminates more than 400 channels following child exploitation controversy, Julia, Alexander, February 21, 2019, February 21, 2019, The Verge, WEB,weblink YouTube loses advertisers over "wormhole into pedophilia ring", Brodkin, Jon, 2019-02-21, Ars Technica, en-us, 2019-02-22, Despite these measures, AT&T, Disney, Dr. Oetker, Epic Games, and Nestlé all pulled their advertising from YouTube.WEB,weblink Nestle, Disney Pull YouTube Ads, Joining Furor Over Child Videos  , Mark, Bergen, Gerrit, de Vynck  , Christopher, Palmeri, February 20, 2019, February 20, 2019, Bloomberg News, WEB,weblink As fallout over pedophilia content on YouTube continues, AT&T pulls all advertisements, Todd, Haselton, Sara, Salinas, February 21, 2019, February 21, 2019, CNBC, Subsequently, YouTube began to demonetize and block advertising on the types of videos that have drawn these predatory comments. The service explained that this was a temporary measure while they explore other methods to eliminate the problem.WEB,weblink YouTube is proactively blocking ads on videos prone to predatory comments, Nathan, Ingraham, February 22, 2019, February 22, 2019, Engadget, YouTube also began to flag channels that predominantly feature children, and preemptively disable their comments sections. "Trusted partners" can request that comments be re-enabled, but the channel will then become responsible for moderating comments. These actions mainly target videos of toddlers, but videos of older children and teenagers may be protected as well if they contain actions that can be interpreted as sexual, such as gymnastics. YouTube stated it was also working on a better system to remove comments on other channels that matched the style of child predators.NEWS,weblink YouTube bans comments on all videos of kids, Fox, Chris, 2019-02-28, 2019-03-02, en-GB, WEB,weblink YouTube is disabling comments on almost all videos featuring children, Julia, Alexander, February 28, 2019, February 28, 2019, The Verge, A related attempt to algorithmically flag videos containing references to the string "CP" (an abbreviation of child pornography) resulted in a number of prominent false positives involving unrelated topics using the same abbreviation, including videos related to the mobile video game Pokémon Go (which uses "CP" as an abbreviation of the statistic "Combat Power"), and Club Penguin. YouTube apologized for the errors, and reinstated the affected videos.WEB,weblink YouTube backtracks after Pokemon 'child abuse' ban, Tom, Gerken, February 19, 2019, February 20, 2019, BBC News, Separately, online trolls have attempted to have videos flagged for takedown or removal by commenting with statements similar to what the child predators had said; this activity became an issue during the PewDiePie vs T-Series rivalry in early 2019. YouTube stated they do not take action on any video with these comments but those that they have flagged that are likely to draw child predator activity.WEB,weblink Trolls are lying about child porn to try to get YouTube channels taken down, Julia, Alexander, February 28, 2019, February 28, 2019, The Verge, In June 2019, The New York Times cited researchers who found that users who watched erotic videos could be recommended seemingly innocuous videos of children.WEB,weblink On YouTube’s Digital Playground, an Open Gate for Pedophiles, Max, Fisher, Amanda, Taub, June 3, 2019, June 6, 2019, The New York Times, As a result, Senator Josh Hawley stated plans to introduce federal legislation that would ban YouTube and other video sharing sites from including videos that predominantly feature minors as "recommended" videos, excluding those that were "professionally produced", such as videos of televised talent shows.WEB,weblink A Senator wants to stop YouTube from recommending videos featuring minors, Nathan, Ingraham, June 6, 2019, June 6, 2019, Engadget, YouTube has suggested potential plans to remove all videos featuring children from the main YouTube site and transferring them to the YouTube Kids site where they would have stronger controls over the recommendation system, as well as other major changes on the main YouTube site to the recommended feature and autoplay system.WEB,weblink YouTube, Under Fire, Considers Major Changes to Kids’ Content, Rob, Copeland, June 19, 2019, June 19, 2019, Wall Street Journal,

Privacy violations

In April 2018, a coalition of 23 groups (including the CCFC, CDD, as well as Common Sense Media) filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission, alleging that YouTube collected information from users under the age of 13 without parental consent, in violation of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA).NEWS,weblink YouTube Illegally Tracks Data on Kids, Groups Claim in FTC Complaint, Spangler, Todd, April 9, 2018, Variety, April 27, 2018, en-US, In September 2019, YouTube was fined $170 million by the FTC for collecting personal information from minors (in particular, viewing history) without parental consent, in order to serve targeted advertising. In order to comply with the settlement, YouTube subsequently announced that within four months, it would perform major changes to its handling of content targeting children on the platform. Among the changes will be that videos "clearly" targeting minors must be manually or algorithmically marked, and that YouTube will no longer collect any user data (unless strictly necessary in order to offer the service) or display targeted advertising when viewing such videos. Features such as comments will be disabled. YouTube also announced that it would invest $100 million over the next three years to support the creation of "thoughtful, original children's content".WEB,weblink Google will pay $170 million for YouTube’s child privacy violations, Kelly, Makena, 2019-09-04, The Verge, 2019-09-04, WEB,weblink Google and FTC reach $170 million settlement over alleged YouTube violations of kids' privacy, Fung, Brian, CNN Business, 2019-09-04, WEB,weblink An update on kids and data protection on YouTube, Official YouTube Blog, en, 2019-09-04, In particular, the FTC ruled that YouTube was partly liable under COPPA, as the service's rating and curation of content as being suitable for children constituted the targeting of the website towards children.WEB,weblink FTC's Latest Fine Of YouTube Over COPPA Violations Shows That COPPA And Section 230 Are On A Collision Course, Masnick, Mike, Techdirt., 2019-09-07,

User comments

{{See also|Criticism of Google#YouTube user comments}}Most videos enable users to leave comments, and these have attracted attention for the negative aspects of both their form and content. In 2006, Time praised Web 2.0 for enabling "community and collaboration on a scale never seen before", and added that YouTube "harnesses the stupidity of crowds as well as its wisdom. Some of the comments on YouTube make you weep for the future of humanity just for the spelling alone, never mind the obscenity and the naked hatred".JOURNAL, Lev, Grossman, You – Yes, You – Are TIME's Person of the Year,weblink Time, December 25, 2006, March 26, 2017, The Guardian in 2009 described users' comments on YouTube as:NEWS, Owen, Paul,weblink Our top 10 funniest YouTube comments – what are yours?, The Guardian, November 3, 2009, March 13, 2014, London, In September 2008, The Daily Telegraph commented that YouTube was "notorious" for "some of the most confrontational and ill-formed comment exchanges on the internet", and reported on YouTube Comment Snob, "a new piece of software that blocks rude and illiterate posts".NEWS, Matthew, Moore, YouTube's worst comments blocked by filter,weblink The Daily Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, September 2, 2008, March 26, 2017, The Huffington Post noted in April 2012 that finding comments on YouTube that appear "offensive, stupid and crass" to the "vast majority" of the people is hardly difficult.NEWS, Rundle, Michael, Policing Racism Online: Liam Stacey, YouTube And The Law Of Big Numbers,weblink June 1, 2012, The Huffington Post, April 7, 2012, On November 6, 2013, Google implemented a comment system oriented on Google+ that required all YouTube users to use a Google+ account in order to comment on videos. The stated motivation for the change was giving creators more power to moderate and block comments, thereby addressing frequent criticisms of their quality and tone."YouTube aims to tame the trolls with changes to its comments section", Stuart Dredge, The Guardian, November 7, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. The new system restored the ability to include URLs in comments, which had previously been removed due to problems with abuse.WEB,weblink No more links in comments?, Google product forums, 2009, August 28, 2013, WEB,weblink View and post comments, Google Support, 2013, November 11, 2013, November 17, 2013,weblink dead, In response, YouTube co-founder Jawed Karim posted the question "why the fuck do I need a google+ account to comment on a video?" on his YouTube channel to express his negative opinion of the change.NEWS, Alex, Hern,weblink YouTube co-founder hurls abuse at Google over new YouTube comments, The Guardian, London, November 8, 2013, November 11, 2013, The official YouTube announcement{{YouTube|bVGp8Z8Yb28|"Meet the new YouTube comments"}}, November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. received 20,097 "thumbs down" votes and generated more than 32,000 comments in two days."YouTube Founder Blasts New YouTube Comments: Jawed Karim Outraged At Google Plus Requirement", Ryan W. Neal, International Business Times, November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 9, 2013. Writing in the Newsday blog Silicon Island, Chase Melvin noted that "Google+ is nowhere near as popular a social media network as Facebook, but it's essentially being forced upon millions of YouTube users who don't want to lose their ability to comment on videos" and "Discussion forums across the Internet are already bursting with outcry against the new comment system". In the same article Melvin goes on to say:NEWS, Chase, Melvin, YouTube comments require Google+ account, Google faces uproar, Newsday, November 20, 2013,weblink {{subscription}} Alternate link {{webarchive |url= |date=December 3, 2013 }}.On July 27, 2015, Google announced in a blog post that it would be removing the requirement to sign up to a Google+ account to post comments to YouTube.NEWS,weblink Google unlinking Google+ from YouTube, BBC News, London, July 28, 2015, July 29, 2015, On November 3, 2016, YouTube announced a trial scheme which allows the creators of videos to decide whether to approve, hide or report the comments posted on videos based on an algorithm that detects potentially offensive comments.WEB, Joan, E. Solsman, YouTube helps creators blast trolls from comments,weblink CNET, CBS Interactive, November 3, 2016, March 25, 2017, Creators may also choose to keep or delete comments with links or hashtags in order to combat spam. They can also allow other users to moderate their comments.WEB, Jotham, Immanuel, New YouTube feature allows creators to automatically block spam,weblink International Business Times UK, September 17, 2017, en, July 24, 2017,

View counts

In December 2012, two billion views were removed from the view counts of Universal and Sony music videos on YouTube, prompting a claim by The Daily Dot that the views had been deleted due to a violation of the site's terms of service, which ban the use of automated processes to inflate view counts. This was disputed by Billboard, which said that the two billion views had been moved to Vevo, since the videos were no longer active on YouTube.WEB,weblink YouTube strips Universal and Sony of 2 billion fake views, The Daily Dot, December 21, 2012, January 10, 2014, Chase, Hoffberger, Complex Media, Inc., NEWS,weblink Two billion YouTube music video views disappear ... or just migrate?, The Guardian, December 28, 2012, January 10, 2014, Dan, Sabbagh, Dan Sabbagh, Guardian News and Media Limited, On August 5, 2015, YouTube patched the formerly nutorious behaviour which caused a video's view count to freeze at "301" (later "301+") until the actual count was verified to prevent view count fraud.AV MEDIA,weblink Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?, Numberphile, Haran, Brady, Brady Haran, June 22, 2012, August 30, 2018, YouTube, YouTube view counts once again updated in real time.JOURNAL, Benjamin, Snyder, YouTube Finally Fixed This Annoying Feature,weblink Time (magazine), Time, August 6, 2015, March 26, 2017, However, as a monumental easter egg, YouTube has deliberately frozen the publicly indicated view count of one video to “301 views”, which is the Video by Numberphile titled “Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?” (published in 2012), which explains this former behaviour of YouTube.

Other algorithm design or implementation issues

In 2018, YouTube introduced a system that would automatically add information boxes to videos that its algorithms determined may present conspiracy theories and other fake news, filling the infobox with content from Encyclopedia Britannica and Pseudopedia as a means to inform users to minimize misinformation propagation without impacting freedom of speech.WEB,weblink YouTube will add information from Wikipedia to videos about conspiracies, Casey, Newton, March 13, 2018, April 15, 2019, The Verge, In the wake of the Notre-Dame de Paris fire on April 15, 2019, several user-uploaded videos of the landmark fire were flagged by YouTube' system automatically with an Encyclopedia Britannica article on the false conspiracy theories around the September 11 attacks. Several users complained to YouTube about this inappropriate connection. YouTube officials apologized for this, stating that their algorithms had misidentified the fire videos and added the information block automatically, and were taking steps to remedy this.WEB,weblink YouTube Flags Notre-Dame Fire as 9/11 Conspiracy, Says System Made ‘Wrong Call’, Mark, Bergen, April 15, 2019, April 15, 2019, Bloomberg L.P., Five leading content creators whose channels were based on LGBTQ+ materials filed a federal lawsuit against YouTube in August 2019, alleging that YouTube's algorithms diverts discovery away from their channels, impacting their revenue. The plaintiffs claimed that the algorithms discourage content with works like "lesbian" or "gay", which would be predominant in their channels' content, and because of YouTube's near-monopolization of online video services, they are abusing that position.WEB,weblink YouTube discriminates against LGBT content by unfairly culling it, suit alleges, Greg, Bensinger, Reed, Albergotti, August 14, 2019, August 14, 2019, The Washington Post,

Censorship and filtering

(File:YouTube world map May 2016 Update.svg|thumb|270px|Availability of YouTube as of January 2019:{{legend|#008000|Has local YouTube version}}{{legend|#B2B2B2|Accessible}}{{legend|#FF0000|Currently blocked}}{{legend|#FF8888|Previously blocked}}){{As of|2018}}, China and North Korea permanently block accessing YouTube, while Iran blocks YouTube on only one internet service provider. YouTube was blocked in Uzbekistan in October 2018 for unknown reasons.NEWS, Syundyukova, Nazerke, Uzbekistan has blocked YouTube social network,weblink January 23, 2019, The Qazaq Times, October 9, 2018, Access to Facebook had been blocked a month earlier. People in the country rely on virtual private network software to circumvent the blockage. On January 15, it was reported that the blockage had been repealed, but it lasted only for 6–7 hours.NEWS, Маҳаллий ОАВ: Ўзбекистонда Facebook ва YouTube яна ўчириб қўйилди, Local Media: YouTube and Facebook once again blocked in Uzbekistan,weblink January 23, 2019, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Uzbek Service, January 16, 2019, Uzbek, Governments block YouTube for a variety of reasons, including:"YouTube Censored: A Recent History", OpenNet Initiative. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
  • Limiting public access and exposure to content that may ignite social or political unrest.
  • Preventing criticism of a ruler (e.g. in North Korea), government (e.g. in China) or its actions (e.g. in Morocco), government officials (e.g. in Turkey and Libya), or religion (e.g. in Pakistan).
  • Violations of national laws, including copyright and intellectual property protection laws (e.g. in Germany), violations of hate speech, ethics, or morality-based laws, e.g. in Iran, and preventing access to videos judged inappropriate for youth,NEWS, The disturbing YouTube videos that are tricking children,weblink BBC News, September 16, 2017, March 27, 2017, which is also done by YouTube with the YouTube Kids app and with "restricted mode".WEB, Shu, Catherine, YouTube responds to complaints that its Restricted Mode censors LGBT videos,weblink TechCrunch, September 16, 2017, en,
  • Reducing distractions at work or school,NEWS, Strom, Stephanie, YouTube Finds a Way Off Schools' Banned List,weblink The New York Times, September 16, 2017, March 9, 2012, e.g. in Australia.
  • Reducing the amount of network bandwidth used.WEB, David Meerman Scott, Facebook and YouTube blocked by paranoid corporations at their own peril,weblink September 16, 2017, en, WEB, Marks, Gene, Netflix and YouTube Now Consume 50% Of The Internet As The Argument For Net Neutrality Weakens,weblink Forbes, September 16, 2017, en, WEB, Hannaford, Kat, US Military Bans YouTube, Amazon and 11 Other Websites to Free Up Bandwidth for Japan Crisis,weblink Gizmodo, September 16, 2017, en,
In some countries, YouTube is completely blocked, either through a long term standing ban or for more limited periods of time such as during periods of unrest, the run-up to an election, or in response to upcoming political anniversaries. In other countries access to the website as a whole remains open, but access to specific videos is blocked. In cases where the entire site is banned due to one particular video, YouTube will often agree to remove or limit access to that video in order to restore service. Businesses, schools, government agencies, and other private institutions often block social media sites, including YouTube, due to bandwidth limitations and the site's potential for distraction.Several countries have previously blocked access to YouTube:
  • Thailand blocked access in April 2007 over a video said to be insulting the Thai king.NEWS, Thailand Bans YouTube,weblink The New York Times, April 5, 2007,
  • Morocco blocked access in May 2007, possibly as a result of videos critical of Morocco's occupation of Western Sahara.NEWS, YouTube site 'blocked' in Morocco, BBC News,weblink December 25, 2013, May 29, 2007, YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007, after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was a mere "technical glitch".WEB,weblink YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom, May 30, 2007, May 30, 2007, Reporters Without Borders, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 16, 2013,
  • Turkey blocked access between 2008 and 2010 after controversy over videos deemed insulting to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.NEWS, Jeffrey, Rosen, Google's Gatekeepers,weblink The New York Times, November 28, 2008, March 26, 2017, NEWS, Turkey goes into battle with Google,weblink BBC News, July 2, 2010, July 3, 2010, NEWS, Turkey lifts two-year ban on YouTube, BBC News,weblink October 30, 2010, October 31, 2010, In November 2010, a video of the Turkish politician Deniz Baykal caused the site to be blocked again briefly, and the site was threatened with a new shutdown if it did not remove the video.NEWS, Turkey Reinstates YouTube Ban, The Wall Street Journal,weblink November 2, 2010, November 2, 2010, Marc, Champion, During the two and a half-year block of YouTube, the video-sharing website remained the eighth-most-accessed site in Turkey."Turkey report", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012."Top Sites in Turkey", Alexa. Retrieved August 26, 2010. In 2014, Turkey blocked the access for the second time, after "a high-level intelligence leak."WEB, Michael, B. Kelley, YouTube Blocked in Turkey Amid High-Level Intelligence Leak,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, March 27, 2014, March 25, 2017, NEWS,weblink Turkey moves to block YouTube access after 'audio leak', BBC, March 27, 2014, March 27, 2014, BBC News, WEB,weblink YouTube Banned in Turkey, NBC News, March 27, 2014, March 27, 2014, Wagstaff, Keith,
  • Pakistan blocked access on February 23, 2008, because of "offensive material" towards the Islamic faith, including display of the Danish cartoons of Muhammad.NEWS, Pakistan blocks YouTube website, BBC,weblink November 30, 2008, February 24, 2008, This led to a near global blackout of the YouTube site for around two hours, as the Pakistani block was inadvertently transferred to other countries. On February 26, 2008, the ban was lifted after the website had removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government.NEWS, Pakistan lifts YouTube ban,weblink AFP, ABC News (Australia), February 26, 2008, February 26, 2008, NEWS, Pakistan lifts the ban on YouTube, BBC,weblink November 30, 2008, February 26, 2008, Many Pakistanis circumvented the three-day block by using virtual private network software.WEB, Pakistan web users get round YouTube ban, Silicon Republic,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 29, 2008, November 30, 2008, In May 2010, following the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day, Pakistan again blocked access to YouTube, citing "growing sacrilegious content".NEWS, Pakistan blocks access to YouTube in internet crackdown, BBC News,weblink May 20, 2010, May 20, 2010, The ban was lifted on May 27, 2010, after the website removed the objectionable content from its servers at the request of the government. However, individual videos deemed offensive to Muslims posted on YouTube will continue to be blocked."YouTube ban lifted by Pakistan authorities", Joanne McCabe, Metro (Associated Newspapers Limited, UK), May 27, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2012"Pakistan lifts ban on YouTube", The Times of India, May 27, 2010 Pakistan again placed a ban on YouTube in September 2012, after the site refused to remove the film Innocence of Muslims, with the ban still in operation as of September 2013.Pakistan ban on YouTube stays even after one year The Economic Times, September 17, 2013. Retrieved December 11, 2013. The ban was lifted in January 2016 after YouTube launched a Pakistan-specific version.NEWS, Pakistan unblocks access to YouTube,weblink January 27, 2016, BBC News, January 18, 2016,
  • Turkmenistan blocked access on December 25, 2009, for unknown reasons. Other websites, such as LiveJournal were also blocked.WEB, Turkmenistan blocks access to YouTube, LJ,weblink, October 5, 2017,
  • Libya blocked access on January 24, 2010, because of videos that featured demonstrations in the city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim prison in 1996, and videos of family members of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi at parties. The blocking was criticized by Human Rights Watch.NEWS,weblink Watchdog urges Libya to stop blocking websites, Agence France-Presse, February 7, 2010, In November 2011, after the Libyan Civil War, YouTube was once again allowed in Libya."Libya", Freedom on the Net 2012, Freedom House, September 24, 2012
  • Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sudan blocked access in September 2012 following controversy over a 14-minute trailer for the film Innocence of Muslims which had been posted on the site."Afghanistan to unblock YouTube – Afghanistan Times" {{webarchive|url= |date=January 17, 2013 }}, December 1, 2012."Afghanistan bans YouTube to block anti-Muslim film", Miriam Arghandiwal, Reuters (Kabul), September 12, 2012."YouTube blocked in Bangladesh over Prophet Mohamed video", The Independent (AP), September 18, 2012.WEB, Haley, Tsukayama, YouTube blocked in Pakistan,weblink The Washington Post, Jeff Bezos, Nash Holdings LLC, September 17, 2012, March 26, 2017, NEWS, Pakistan, Bangladesh Block YouTube Amid Islam Film Protests, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg,weblink September 18, 2012, September 18, 2012, Arun, Devnath, A court in the southern Russian Republic of Chechnya ruled Innocence of Muslims should be banned.NEWS, Russian court bans anti-Islam film,weblink The News, September 29, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 17, 2013,
  • In Libya and Egypt, the Innocence of Muslims trailer was blamed{{By whom|date=September 2017}} for violent protests in September 2012. YouTube stated that "This video—which is widely available on the Web—is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries."NEWS, 'Innocence of Muslims': Mystery shrouds film's California origins, Los Angeles Times,weblink March 1, 2019, September 12, 2012, Phil, Willon, Rebecca, Keegan, NEWS, YouTube restricts video access over Libyan violence, CNN,weblink September 13, 2012, September 12, 2012,

See also

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Youtube spoken word.ogg|2011-03-26}} General



Further reading

  • WEB, Dickey, Megan Rose, The 22 Key Turning Points in the History of YouTube,weblink Business Insider, Axel Springer SE, February 15, 2013, March 25, 2017,
  • WEB, Haran, Brady, Why do YouTube views freeze at 301?,weblink Numberphile, Brady Haran, Brady Haran, Hamilton, Ted, April 8, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink December 26, 2016, dead, mdy-all,
  • BOOK, Kelsey, Todd, Social Networking Spaces: From Facebook to Twitter and Everything In Between,weblink 2010, Springer-Verlag, 978-1-4302-2596-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Lacy, Sarah, The Stories of Facebook, YouTube and MySpace: The People, the Hype and the Deals Behind the Giants of Web 2.0, 2008, Crimson, Richmond, 978-1-85458-453-3, harv,
  • NEWS, Walker, Rob, On YouTube, Amateur Is the New Pro,weblink The New York Times, June 28, 2012, March 26, 2017,

External links

{{Sister project links}}{{Scholia|topic}} {{YouTube navigation}}{{Google Inc.}}{{Alphabet Inc.}}{{Video digital distribution platforms}}{{Authority control}}

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