United States Postal Service

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United States Postal Service
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{{Merge from |United States Post Office Department |discuss=Talk:United States Postal Service#Merge with United States Post Office Department|date=April 2019 }}{{Redirect|United States Post Office|individual post offices|List of United States Post Offices}}{{Redirect|USPS|the non-profit boating safety and education organization|United States Power Squadrons}}

| jurisdiction =L'Enfant Plaza>475 L'Enfant Plaza SWWashington, D.C. 20260-0004 U.S. WEBSITE= ABOUT USPS ACCESSDATE=2018-12-08, | budget =| chief1_name = Megan BrennanUnited States Postmaster General>Postmaster General| chief2_name = Ronald A. Stroman| chief2_position = Deputy Postmaster General| chief3_name =| chief3_position =| chief4_name =| chief4_position =| chief5_name =| chief5_position =| chief6_name =| chief6_position =| chief7_name =| chief7_position =| chief8_name =| chief8_position =| chief9_name =| chief9_position =| parent_department =| parent_agency =| child1_agency =| child2_agency = | keydocument1 = Postal Clause of the United States Constitutionweblink}}| map =| map_width =| map_caption =| footnotes =Independent Agencies of the United States Government>Independent| embed =

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US$ 69.636 billion
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US$ (2.742) billionWEB,weblink FY2017 Annual Report to Congress, 6,, United States Postal Service, 2017,
}}}}(File:United States Postal Service (emblem).png|thumb|The full eagle logo, used in various versions from 1970 to 1993)The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states. It is one of the few government agencies explicitly authorized by the United States Constitution.The U.S. Mail traces its roots to 1775 during the Second Continental Congress, when Benjamin Franklin was appointed the first postmaster general. The Post Office Department was created in 1792 from Franklin's operation. It was elevated to a cabinet-level department in 1872, and was transformed by the Postal Reorganization Act in 1970 into the USPS as an independent agency.Postal Reorganization Act, Pub. Law No. 91-375, 84 Stat. 719, at 720 (Aug. 12, 1970), codified at {{usc|39|201}}.The USPS as of 2017 has 644,124 active employees and operated 211,264 vehicles in 2014. The USPS is the operator of the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world. The USPS is legally obligated to serve all Americans, regardless of geography, at uniform price and quality. The USPS has exclusive access to letter boxes marked "U.S. Mail" and personal letterboxes in the United States, but now has to compete against private package delivery services, such as United Parcel Service and FedEx.WEB, Universal Service and the Postal Monopoly: A Brief History,weblink The United States Postal Service, 11 February 2013, Since the early 1980s, many of the direct tax subsidies to the Post Office, with the exception of subsidies for costs associated with the disabled and overseas voters, have been reduced or eliminated in favor of indirect subsidies, in addition to the advantages associated with a government-enforced monopoly on the delivery of first-class mail.WEB, The U.S. Postal Service; PBS,weblink PBS, 2011-11-13, 2013-12-01, Since the 2006 all-time peak mail volume,WEB,weblink USPS: By the Numbers, PDF, 2012-07-18, yes,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2011, after which Congress passed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement ActWEB, Rep. Thomas "Tom" Davis [R-VA11, 1995–2008],weblink PAEA: Overfunding of Retired Employee Health Benefits,, 2012-07-18, which mandated that $5.5 billion per year be paid to fully prefund employee retirement health benefits,WEB, Mariano, Willoughby, PolitiFact Georgia | Bishop signs letter saying post office faces big pension burden,weblink 8 February 2013, revenue dropped sharply due to recession-influencedWEB,weblink USPS Comments re: 2011 Rate Increase PRC Remand, PDF, 2012-07-18, declining mail volume,NEWS,weblink CNN, Jennifer, Liberto, Clock ticking on Postal Service budget crisis, August 12, 2011, prompting the postal service to look to other sources of revenue while cutting costs to reduce its budget deficit.NEWS,weblink CNN, U.S. Postal Service find ways to save money, May 11, 2009, May 26, 2010, Aaron, Smith, {{TOC limit|3}}


{{Further|United States Post Office Department|Postage stamps and postal history of the United States}}{{Anchor| strike & reorganization }}On March 18, 1970, postal workers in New York City—upset over low wages and poor working conditions, and emboldened by the Civil Rights Movement—organized a strike against the United States government. The strike initially involved postal workers in only New York City, but it eventually gained support of over 210,000 United States Post Office Department workers across the nation.WEB, The Great 1970 Mail Strike that Stunned the Country, Labor History Articles, American Postal Workers Union, March 2017,weblink 22 April 2019, While the strike ended without any concessions from the Federal government, it did ultimately allow for postal worker unions and the government to negotiate a contract which gave the unions most of what they wanted, as well as the signing of the Postal Reorganization Act by President Richard Nixon on August 12, 1970. The Act replaced the cabinet-level Post Office Department with a new federal agency, the United States Postal Service,WEB, Boyd, Deanna, Chen, Kendra, Postal Strike and Reorganization: Reinventing the System, The History and Experience of African Americans in America’s Postal Service, National Postal Museum, 2019,weblink 22 April 2019, and took effect on July 1, 1971.WEB, Piazza, Daniel, 8-cent Postal Service Emblem, Smithsonian National Postal Museum, 15 April 2008,weblink 22 April 2019,

Current operations

(File:United States Postal Service Truck.jpg|thumb|USPS service delivery truck)The United States Postal Service employs some 617,000 workers, making it the third-largest civilian employer in the United States behind the federal government and Walmart.WEB,weblink PDF, Corporate Fact Sheet, Wal-Mart, July 17, 2008, August 4, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink March 25, 2009, In a 2006 U.S. Supreme Court decision, the Court noted: "Each day, according to the Government's submissions here, the United States Postal Service delivers some 660 million pieces of mail to as many as 142 million delivery points."Dolan v. United States Postal Service, {{ussc|546|481|2006}}. Update: In 2017, the figure for number of delivery points was 157.3 million (See citation name=sizescope2016). As of 2017, the USPS operates 30,825 post offices and locations in the U.S., and delivers 149.5 billion pieces of mail annually.The USPS operates one of the largest civilian vehicle fleets in the world, with an estimated 227,896 vehicles, the majority of which are the easily identified Chevrolet/Grumman LLV (long-life vehicle), and the newer Ford/Utilimaster FFV (flex-fuel vehicle), originally also referred to as the CRV (carrier route vehicle). It is by geography and volume the globe's largest postal system, delivering 47% of the world's mail. For every penny increase in the national average price of gasoline, the USPS spends an extra {{USD|8}} million per year to fuel its fleet.NEWS, Erica, Johnson,weblink Gas Prices Affecting Mail, June 20, 2008, Keloland Television, 2014-04-18,weblink" title="">weblink April 19, 2014, yes, mdy-all, The number of gallons of fuel used in 2009 was 444 million, at a cost of {{USD|1.1}} billion.WEB, Postal Facts 2010, U.S. Postal Service, 2010, 28 September 2010,weblink 28 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink The fleet is notable in that many of its vehicles are right-hand drive, an arrangement intended to give drivers the easiest access to roadside mailboxes. Some rural letter carriers use personal vehicles. Standard postal-owned vehicles do not have license plates. These vehicles are identified by a seven-digit number displayed on the front and rear.File:GriffithStationHoustonvehicles.JPG|thumb|A fleet of post office vehicles at the James Griffith Station in Spring Branch, HoustonSpring Branch, HoustonThe Department of Defense and the USPS jointly operate a postal system to deliver mail for the military; this is known as the Army Post Office (for Army and Air Force postal facilities) and the Fleet Post Office (for Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard postal facilities).In February 2013, the Postal Service announced that on Saturdays it would only deliver packages, mail-order medicines, Priority Mail, and Express Mail, effective August 10, 2013.WEB, Postal Service Announces New Delivery Schedule,weblink United States Postal Service, February 6, 2013, NEWS, U.S. Postal Service: Saturday letter delivery to end in August,weblink CBS News, February 6, 2013, However, this change was reversed by federal law in the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013.WEB,weblink Statement from the U.S. Postal Service Board of Governors, 2013-04-10, 2014-04-09, They now deliver packages on Sunday—only for,weblink Amazon Sunday delivery: Key facts to know as USPS rolls out service nationally, 2014-07-16, GeekWire, en-US, 2017-01-28, During the four weeks preceding Christmas since 2013, packages from all mail classes and senders were delivered on Sunday in some areas.NEWS,weblink Postal Service to Deliver Packages on Sundays Before Christmas, 2013-12-14, NBC Chicago, en-US, 2017-02-04, Parcels are also delivered on holidays, with the exception of Thanksgiving and Christmas.The period between Thanksgiving and Christmas are the busiest time of the year for the USPS with the agency delivering a projected 900 million packages during this period in 2018.NEWS, Porter, David,weblink Sting uses fake Amazon boxes, GPS to catch would-be thieves, The Associated Press, 2018-12-12, 2018-12-13,

Five-year plans

In October 2016, the Postal Service released Future Ready,WEB,weblink Future Ready: Fiscal Years 2017 to 2021, United states Postal Service, 2017-01-28, a five-year plan required by law starting in 1993.Government Performance and Results Act 0f 1993, P.L. 103-62, (weblink) The plan outlines the Postal Service's goals for the next five years.


In 2011, numerous media outlets reported that the USPS was going out of business.NEWS, Hartung, Adam, Why the Postal Service Is Going Out of Business,weblink 23 December 2012, Forbes, 6 December 2011, NEWS, Leonard, Devin, The postal service is running out of options,weblink 23 December 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek, 5 July 2012, NEWS, Schmid, Randolph E., Postal Service Struggles: What Would The U.S. Do Without Mail?,weblink 23 December 2012, Huffington Post, 10 November 2011, The USPS's strategy came under fire as new technologies emerged and the USPS was not finding ways to generate new sources of revenue.WEB, Kolodny, Lora, Can Technology Save The U.S. Postal Service?,weblink 23 December 2012,, 15 September 2011,


(File:USPS Surplus-Deficit.png|frameless|right|upright=1.5|United States Postal Service surplus/deficit)In 2016, the Postal Service collected $71.49 billion in revenue.WEB,weblink United States Postal Service FY2016 Annual Report to Congress, United States Postal Service, 28 January 2017,

Revenue decline and planned cuts

In 2016, the USPS had its fifth straight annual operating loss, in the amount of $5.59 billion, of which $5.8 billion was the accrual of unpaid mandatory retiree health payments.

Declining mail volume

First-class mail volume peaked in 2001, declining by 43% as of 2017WEB,weblink First-Class Mail Volume Since 1926, PDF, 2018-07-23, March 2018, USPS, en, due to the increasing use of email and the World Wide Web for correspondence and business transactions.WEB,weblink USPS – Area Mail Processing, USPS, 2009, August 4, 2009, Private courier services, such as FedEx and United Parcel Service (UPS), directly compete with USPS for the delivery of urgent letters and packages.Lower volume means lower revenues to support the fixed commitment to deliver to every address once a day, six days a week. According to an official report on November 15, 2012, the U.S. Postal Service lost $15.9 billion its 2012 fiscal year.WEB,weblink 2012 Annual Report to Congress and Comprehensive Statement - Home,, en, 2018-01-25,

Internal streamlining and delivery slowdown

In response, the USPS has increased productivity each year from 2000 to 2007,WEB,weblink Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations 2008, USPS, 2008, August 4, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2009, through increased automation, route re-optimization, and facility consolidation. Despite these efforts, the organization saw an $8.5 billion budget shortfall in 2010,McElhatton, Jim "Postal Service Reports $8 billion in Losses", The Washington Times, November 12, 2010, accessed August 4, 2011. and was losing money at a rate of about $3 billion per quarter in 2011.WEB,weblink NACS Magazine | Going Postal,, 2012-07-18,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-10-30, yes, On December 5, 2011, the USPS announced it would close more than half of its mail processing centers, eliminate 28,000 jobs and reduce overnight delivery of First-Class Mail. This will close down 252 of its 461 processing centers.Postal Service to Delay Cutbacks Until Mid-May, Staving Off Bankruptcy, Fox News. Accessed: 13 December 2011. (At peak mail volume in 2006, the USPS operated 673 facilities.WEB,weblink 2012-09-27, FACT SHEET: MODIFIED NETWORK REALIGNMENT PLAN, USPS, ) As of May 2012, the plan was to start the first round of consolidation in summer 2012, pause from September to December, and begin a second round in February 2014; 80% of first-class mail would still be delivered overnight through the end of 2013.WEB,weblink 2012-09-27, 2012-05-17, Postal Service Moves Ahead with Modified Network Consolidation Plan, USPS, New delivery standards were issued in January 2015, and the majority of single-piece (not presorted) first-class mail is now being delivered in two days instead of one.WEB,weblink USPS Delivery Standards and Statistics fact sheet, USPS, 2015-03-23, 2015-06-08, Large commercial mailers can still have first-class mail delivered overnight if delivered directly to a processing center in the early morning, though as of 2014 this represented only 11% of first-class mail. Unsorted first-class mail will continued to be delivered anywhere in the contiguous United States within three days.WEB,weblink Key facts on network rationalization, USPS, 2015-03-23, 2015-06-08,

Post office closures

In July 2011, the USPS announced a plan to close about 3,700 small post offices. Various representatives in Congress protested, and the Senate passed a bill that would have kept open all post offices farther than 10 miles from the next office.NEWS, Sanburn, Josh,weblink Post Office Keeps Saturday Delivery Thanks to Congress, Time Magazine, 2013-04-12, 2015-06-08, In May 2012, the service announced it had modified its plan. Instead, rural post offices would remain open with reduced retail hours (some as little as two hours per day) unless there was a community preference for a different option.WEB,weblink FACT SHEET / New Strategy Preserves Post Offices in Rural America, 2012-09-27, USPS, In a survey of rural customers, 20% preferred the "Village Post Office" replacement (where a nearby private retail store would provide basic mail services with expanded hours), 15% preferred merger with another Post Office, and 11% preferred expanded rural delivery services.WEB,weblink New Strategy to Preserve the Nation's Smallest Post Offices, 2012-09-27, USPS, Approximately 40% of postal revenue already comes from online purchases or private retail partners including Walmart, Staples, Office Depot, Walgreens, Sam's Club, Costco, and grocery stores. The National Labor Relations Board agreed to hear the American Postal Workers Union's arguments that these counters should be manned by postal employees who earn far more and have "a generous package of health and retirement benefits".NEWS,weblink Unions Angered by Postal Service's Staples Outlets, HANANEL, SAM, 19 January 2014,, Associated Press, 19 January 2014, NEWS,weblink USPS's controversial deal with Staples headed to showdown over legality, Rein, Lisa, 8 July 2015,, The Washington Post, 8 July 2015,

Elimination of Saturday delivery averted

On January 28, 2009, Postmaster General John E. Potter testified before the SenateWEB,weblink Postmaster General/CEO John E. Potter Before the Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, January 28, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2009, that, if the Postal Service could not readjust its payment toward the contractually funding earned employee retiree health benefits, as mandated by the Postal Accountability & Enhancement Act of 2006,WEB,weblink Postal Accountability & Enhancement Act of 2006, February 11, 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink December 1, 2008, the USPS would be forced to consider cutting delivery to five days per week during June, July, and August.H.R. 22, addressing this issue, passed the House of Representatives and Senate and was signed into law on September 30, 2009.WEB, Text of the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act,weblink, United States Government, 8 December 2014, However, Postmaster General Potter continued to advance plans to eliminate Saturday mail delivery.{{citation needed|date=May 2014}}On June 10, 2009, the National Rural Letter Carriers' Association (NRLCA) was contacted for its input on the USPS's current study of the effect of five-day delivery along with developing an implementation plan for a five-day service plan. A team of Postal Service headquarters executives and staff has been given a time frame of sixty days to complete the study. The current concept examines the effect of five-day delivery with no business or collections on Saturday, with Post Offices with current Saturday hours remaining open.On Thursday, April 15, 2010, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform held a hearing to examine the status of the Postal Service and recent reports on short and long term strategies for the financial viability and stability of the USPS entitled "Continuing to Deliver: An Examination of the Postal Service's Current Financial Crisis and its Future Viability". At which, PMG Potter testified that by the year 2020, the USPS cumulative losses could exceed $238 billion, and that mail volume could drop 15 percent from 2009.WEB,weblink Statement of Postmaster General/CEO John E. Potter Before the Committee on Government on Oversight & Government Reform United States House of Representatives & Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Postal Service, and the District of Columbia, April 15, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 9, 2010, In February 2013, the USPS announced that in order to save about $2 billion per year, Saturday delivery service would be discontinued except for packages, mail-order medicines, Priority Mail, Express Mail, and mail delivered to Post Office boxes, beginning August 10, 2013.WEB, Postal Service Announces New Delivery Schedule, 2013-02-06, 2014-05-20,weblink NEWS,weblink Postal Service to end Saturday mail delivery in bid to cut costs, February 6, 2013, Fox News, February 6, 2013, However, the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013, passed in March, reversed the cuts to Saturday delivery.

Retirement funding and payment defaults

The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006 (PAEA)WEB, Postal Civil Service Retirement System Funding Reform Act of 2003,weblink 26 April 2012, 2003-04-23, obligates the USPS to fund the present value of earned retirement obligations (essentially past promises which have not yet come due) within a ten-year time span. In contrast, private businesses in the United States have no legal obligation to pay for retirement costs at promise-time rather than retirement-time, but about one quarter do.WEB, Barro, Josh,weblink Understanding the Post Office's Benefits Mess, Bloomberg View, 2012-08-02, 2015-06-08, The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is the main bureaucratic organization responsible for the human resources aspect of many federal agencies and their employees. The PAEA created the Postal Service Retiree Health Benefit Fund (PSRHB) after Congress removed the Postal Service contribution to the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS). Most other employees that contribute to the CSRS have 7% deducted from their wages. Currently all new employees contribute into Federal Employee Retirement System (FERS) once they become a full-time regular employees.WEB,weblink CSRS,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-11, yes, On September 30, 2014, the USPS failed to make a $5.7 billion payment on this debt, the fourth such default.WEB,weblink U.S. Postal Service Reports Revenue Increase, $5.5 Billion Loss in Fiscal 2014, USPS, 2014-11-14, 2015-06-08,

Rate increases

Congress has limited rate increases for First-Class Mail to the cost of inflation, unless approved by the Postal Regulatory Commission.NEWS, Pence, Herbert, Congress didn't do US Postal Service any favors,weblink 25 March 2012, Nashua Telegraph, 6 November 2011, A three-cent surcharge above inflation increased the {{convert|1|oz|abbr=on}} rate to 49¢ in January, 2014, but this was approved by the Commission for two years only.NEWS, Bradley Klapper,weblink First-class stamps to cost 49 cents as of Jan. 26, USA Today, 2013-12-24, 2015-06-08,

Reform packages, delivery changes, and alcohol delivery

Comprehensive reform packages considered in the 113th Congress include S.1486WEB,weblink Text – S.1486 – 113th Congress (2013–2014): Postal Reform Act of 2014, USA Congress, 2014-07-31, 2015-06-08, and H.R.2748.WEB,weblink Text – H.R.2748 – 113th Congress (2013–2014): Postal Reform Act of 2013, USA Congress, 2013-07-19, 2015-06-08, These include the efficiency measure, supported by Postmaster General Patrick Donahoe NEWS, Andrew Miga,weblink USPS suggests lifting alcohol delivery ban, Spokesman-Review, 2013-08-02, 2015-06-08, of ending door-to-door delivery of mail for some or most of the 35 million addresses that currently receive it, replacing that with either curbside boxes or nearby "cluster boxes". This would save $4.5 billion per year out of the $30 billion delivery budget; door-to-door city delivery costs annually on average $353 per stop, curbside $224, and cluster box $160 (and for rural delivery, $278, $176, and $126, respectively).NEWS, Liberto, Jennifer,weblink Postal Service moving away from at-your-door delivery, CNN, 2013-07-23, 2015-06-08, WEB,weblink The Postal Service delivers the last mile, almost: Changing modes of delivery, Save the Post Office, 2013-06-10, 2015-06-08, S.1486,WEB,weblink S 1486- Postal Reform Act of 2014,, 2013-08-01, 2015-06-08, also with the support of Postmaster Donahoe,NEWS, Andrew Miga,weblink U.S. Postal Service Wants To Deliver Alcohol To Your Doorstep, Huffington Post, 2013-08-02, 2015-06-08, would also allow the USPS to ship alcohol in compliance with state law, from manufacturers to recipients with ID to show they are over 21. This is projected to raise approximately $50 million per year. (Shipping alcoholic beverages is currently illegal under {{usc|18|1716}}(f).)In 2014, the Postal Service was requesting reforms to workers' compensation, moving from a pension to defined contribution retirement savings plan, and paying senior retiree health care costs out of Medicare funds, as is done for private-sector workers.WEB,weblink U.S. Postal Service Testifies Before Congress Urging Elimination of Unfunded Liabilities, USPS, 2014-03-13, 2015-06-08,

Governance and organization

The Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service sets policy, procedure, and postal rates for services rendered, and has a similar role to a corporate board of directors. Of the eleven members of the Board, nine are appointed by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate (see {{usc|39|202}}). The nine appointed members then select the United States Postmaster General, who serves as the board's tenth member, and who oversees the day-to-day activities of the service as Chief Executive Officer (see {{usc|39|202|203}}). The ten-member board then nominates a Deputy Postmaster General, who acts as Chief Operating Officer, to the eleventh and last remaining open seat.The independent Postal Regulatory Commission (formerly the Postal Rate Commission) is also controlled by appointees of the President confirmed by the Senate. It oversees postal rates and related concerns, having the authority to approve or reject USPS proposals.The USPS is often mistaken for a government-owned corporation (e.g., Amtrak) because it operates much like a business. It is, however, an "establishment of the executive branch of the Government of the United States", ({{usc|39|201}}) as it is controlled by Presidential appointees and the Postmaster General. As a government agency, it has many special privileges, including sovereign immunity, eminent domain powers, powers to negotiate postal treaties with foreign nations, and an exclusive legal right to deliver first-class and third-class mail. Indeed, in 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a unanimous decision that the USPS was not a government-owned corporation, and therefore could not be sued under the Sherman Antitrust Act.United States Postal Serv. v. Flamingo Indus. (USA) Ltd., {{ussc|540|736|2004}}.The U.S. Supreme Court has also upheld the USPS's statutory monopoly on access to letter boxes against a First Amendment freedom of speech challenge; it thus remains illegal in the U.S. for anyone, other than the employees and agents of the USPS, to deliver mailpieces to letter boxes marked "U.S. Mail".United States Postal Serv. v. Greenburgh Civic Ass'ns, {{ussc|453|114|1981}}.The Postal Service also has a Mailers' Technical Advisory Committee and local Postal Customer Councils, which are advisory and primarily involve business {{webarchive |url= |date=May 9, 2009 }}. (September 17, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.


On December 17, 2017, President Donald Trump criticized the postal service's relationship with Amazon. In a post on Twitter, the President stated: “Why is the United States Post Office, which is losing many billions of dollars a year, while charging Amazon and others so little to deliver their packages, making Amazon richer and the Post Office dumber and poorer? Should be charging MUCH MORE!”WEB,weblink Banker, Steve, December 29, 2017, President Trump, Here's Why The Postal Service Is Charging Amazon 'So Little', Forbes, On June 21, 2018, the President proposed a sweeping government reorganization that would sharpen the focus on workforce training, consolidate government-assistance programs and shrink federal agencies. As part of this proposal, he recommended restructuring the postal service with an eye toward privatization. According to his proposal, privatization would cut costs and give the financially burdened agency greater flexibility in adjusting to the digital age.WEB,weblink Smith, Jennifer, June 22, 2018, Trump’s Fix for Postal Service: Privatize It, The Wall Street Journal, Article 1, Section 8, Clause 7 of the United States Constitution provides for the establishment of a postal service but does not specify how it is funded.

Universal service obligation and monopoly status

{{Refimprove section|{{November 2011}}|date=November 2011|talk=y}}

Legal basis and rationale

Article I, section 8, Clause 7 of the United States Constitution grants Congress the power to establish post offices and post roads,NEWS,weblink The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription, 2015-11-04, National Archives, en, 2017-01-28, which has been interpreted as a de facto Congressional monopoly over the delivery of first-class residential mail—which has been defined as non-urgent residential letters (not packages). Accordingly, no other system for delivering first-class residential mail—public or private—has been tolerated, absent Congress's consent.{{citation needed|date=November 2011}}The mission of the Postal Service is to provide the American public with trusted universal postal service. While not explicitly defined, the Postal Service's universal service obligation (USO) is broadly outlined in statute and includes multiple dimensions: geographic scope, range of products, access to services and facilities, delivery frequency, affordable and uniform pricing, service quality, and security of the mail. While other carriers may claim to voluntarily provide delivery on a broad basis, the Postal Service is the only carrier with a legal obligation to provide all the various aspects of universal service.WEB,weblink Mission statement,, Proponents of universal service principles claim that since any obligation must be matched by the financial capability to meet that obligation, the postal monopoly was put in place as a funding mechanism for the USO, and it has been in place for over a hundred years. It consists of two parts: the Private Express Statutes (PES) and the mailbox access rule. The PES refers to the Postal Service's monopoly on the delivery of letters, and the mailbox rule refers to the Postal Service's exclusive access to customer mailboxes.WEB,weblink Report On Universal Postal Service and The Postal Monopoly, USPS, 28 January 2017, Proponents of universal service principles further claim that eliminating or reducing the PES or mailbox rule would affect the ability of the Postal Service to provide affordable universal service. If, for example, the PES and the mailbox rule were to be eliminated, and the USO maintained, then either billions of dollars in tax revenues or some other source of funding would have to be found.WEB,weblink Report On Universal Postal Service and The Postal Monopoly, October 2008, USPS, February 5, 2017, Some proponents{{by whom|date=April 2012}} of universal service principles suggest that private communications that are protected by the veil of government promote the exchange of free ideas and communications. This separates private communications from the ability of a private for-profit or non-profit organization to corrupt. Security for the individual is in this way protected by the United States Post Office, maintaining confidentiality and anonymity, as well as government employees being much less likely to be instructed by superiors to engage in nefarious spying.{{citation needed|date=April 2012}} It is seen by some{{by whom|date=April 2012}} as a dangerous step to extract the universal service principle from the post office, as the untainted nature of private communications is preserved as assurance of the protection of individual freedom of privacy.However, as the recent notice of a termination of mail service to residents of the Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness indicates, mail service has been contracted to private firms such as Arnold Aviation for many decades. KTVB-TV reported:Postal Service to renew Idaho back country mail route {{webarchive |url= |date=March 15, 2012 }} Alyson Outen, KTVB-TV, April 10, 2009|sign=|source=}}

2008 report on universal postal service and the postal monopoly

The Postal Act of 2006 required the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC) to submit a report to the President and Congress on universal postal service and the postal monopoly in December 2008. The report must include any recommended changes. The Postal Service report supports the requirement that the PRC is to consult with and solicit written comments from the Postal Service. In addition, the Government Accountability Office is required to evaluate broader business model issues by 2011.On October 15, 2008, the Postal Service submitted a {{webarchive |url= |date=June 23, 2011 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. to the PRC on its position related to the Universal Service Obligation (USO). It said no changes to the USO and restriction on mailbox access were necessary at this time, but increased regulatory flexibility was required to ensure affordable universal service in the future. In 2013, the Postal Service announced that starting August 2013, Saturday delivery would be discontinued.Obligations of the USO include uniform prices, quality of service, access to services, and six-day delivery to every part of the country. To assure financial support for these obligations, the postal monopoly provides the Postal Service the exclusive right to deliver letters and restricts mailbox access solely for mail. The report argued that eliminating or reducing either aspect of the monopoly "would have a devastating impact on the ability ... to provide the affordable universal service that the country values so highly". Relaxing access to the mailbox would also pose security concerns, increase delivery costs, and hurt customer service, according to the Post Office. The report notes:It is somewhat misleading to characterize the mailbox rule as a "monopoly," because the enforcement of {{UnitedStatesCode|18|1725}} leaves customers with ample alternative means of delivering their messages. Customers can deliver their messages either by paying postage, by placing messages on or under a door or a doormat, by using newspaper or non-postal boxes, by telephoning or emailing, by engaging in person-to-person delivery in public areas, by tacking or taping their notices on a door post, or by placing advertisements in local newspapers. These methods are comparable in efficacy to communication via the mailbox. Most of these alternatives are not actually free in some communities. For example, in the Chicago metropolitan area and many other major metros one must get a background check from police and pay a daily fee for the right to solicit or post commercial messages on private property.Regarding the monopoly on delivery of letters, the report notes that the monopoly is not complete, as there is an exception for letters where either the amount paid for private carriage of the letter equals at least six times the current rate for the first ounce of a single-piece First-Class Mail letter (also known as the "base rate" or "base tariff") or the letter weighs at least 12.5 ounces.The Postal Service said that the USO should continue to be broadly defined and there should be no changes to the postal monopoly. Any changes would have far-reaching effects on customers and the trillion dollar mailing industry. "A more rigidly defined USO would ... ultimately harm the American public and businesses," according to the report, which cautions that any potential change must be studied carefully and the effects fully understood.


File:U.S. Post Office - Los Angeles Terminal Annex.jpg|thumb|USPS Terminal AnnexTerminal AnnexFedEx and United Parcel Service (UPS) directly compete with USPS Express Mail and package delivery services, making nationwide deliveries of urgent letters and packages. Due to the postal monopoly, they are not allowed to deliver non-urgent letters and may not directly ship to U.S. Mail boxes at residential and commercial destinations. However, both companies have transit agreements with the USPS in which an item can be dropped off with either FedEx or UPS who will then provide shipment up to the destination post office serving the intended recipient where it will be transferred for delivery to the U.S. Mail destination, including Post Office Box destinations.WEB,weblink FedEx SmartPost® Shipping & Tracking for Low Weight Packages, FedEx, April 11, 2012, WEB,weblink UPS Mail Innovations – Overview, United Parcel Service, April 11, 2012, These services also deliver packages which are larger and heavier than USPS will accept. DHL Express was the third major competitor until February 2009, when it ceased domestic delivery operations in the United States.A variety of other (:Category:Transportation companies of the United States|transportation companies in the United States) move cargo around the country, but either have limited geographic scope for delivery points, or specialize in items too large to be mailed. Many of the thousands of courier companies focus on same-day delivery, for example, by bicycle messenger.Although USPS and FedEx are direct competitors, USPS contracts with FedEx for air transport of 2–3 Day Priority Mail WEB,weblink Priority Mail - USPS,, and Priority Mail Express (typically delivered overnight).WEB,weblink Priority Mail Express - USPS,,

Alternative transmission methods

The Post Office Department owned and operated the first public telegraph lines in the United States, starting in 1844 from Washington to Baltimore, and eventually extending to New York, Boston, Buffalo, and Philadelphia. In 1847, the telegraph system was privatized, except for a period during World War I, when it was used to accelerate the delivery of letters arriving at night.WEB, Telegraph: Early Postal Role, Postal History, USPS, July 2008,weblink 2014-04-18, Between 1942 and 1945, "V-Mail" (for "Victory Mail") service was available for military mail. Letters were converted into microfilm and reprinted near the destination, to save room on transport vehicles for military cargo.WEB,weblink Postal History, V-Mail, USPS, July 2008,weblink 2009-05-08, July 8, 2011, From 1982 to 1985, Electronic Computer Originated Mail, known as E-COM was accepted for bulk mailings. Text was transmitted electronically to one of 25 post offices nationwide. The Postal Service would print the mail and put it in special envelopes bearing a blue E-COM logo. Delivery was assured within 2 days.WEB,weblink E-COM, Electronic Computer Originated Mail, July 2008, July 8, 2011, USPS,weblink 2009-05-08, To improve accuracy and efficiency, the Postal Service introduced the Intelligent Mail program to complement the ZIP code system. This system, which was intended to replace the depreciated POSTNET system, allows bulk mailers to use pre-printed bar codes to assist in mail delivery and sorting. Additional features, called Enhanced, or Full-Service, Intelligent Mail Barcodes allow for mail tracking of bulk mail through the postal system up to the final delivery Post Office.WEB,weblink Intelligent Mail,weblink 2012-08-30, yes,

Criticism of the universal service requirement and the postal monopoly

Critics of the universal service requirement and the statutory postal monopoly include several professional economists advocating for the privatization of the mail delivery system, or at least a relaxation of the universal service model that currently exists.Geddes, Rick. "Do Vital Economists Reach a Policy Conclusion on Postal Reform?" (April 2004) Rick Geddes argued in 2000:WEB,weblink Neither Snow nor Sleet ... Can Dampen This Monopoly, Hoover Institution, Furthermore, some economists have argued that because public enterprises may pursue objectives different than profit maximization, they might have more of an incentive than profit-maximizing firms to behave anticompetitively through policies such as predatory pricing, misstating costs, and creating barriers to entry.JOURNAL, Sappington, David E. M., Sidak, J. Gregory, 2003, Incentives for Anticompetitive Behavior by Public Enterprises,weblink Review of Industrial Organization, 22, 183, 184, To resolve those issues, one economist proposes a cost-allocation model that would determine the optimal allocation of USPS's common costs by finding the share of costs that would maximize USPS profits from its competitive products.JOURNAL, Sidak, J. Gregory, Maximizing the Postal Service's Profits from Competitive Products,weblinkweblink yes, 2017-01-12, Journal of Competition Law & Economics, 11, 3, 617, 10.1093/joclec/nhv026, 2015, Postal regulators could use such a cost model to ensure that the Postal Service is not abusing its statutory monopoly by subsidizing price cuts in competitive product markets with revenue obtained from the monopolized market.Id.

Law enforcement agencies

File:FDA and the International Mail Facilities (IMFs) (27057043228).jpg|thumb|The Food and Drug AdministrationFood and Drug Administration

Postal Inspection Service

The United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) is one of the oldest law enforcement agencies in the U.S. Founded by Benjamin Franklin, its mission is to protect the Postal Service, its employees, and its customers from crime and protect the nation's mail system from criminal misuse.WEB,weblink Who We Are, March 31, 2008archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink December 23, 2007, Postal Inspectors enforce over 200 federal laws providing for the protection of mail in investigations of crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U.S. Mail, the postal system or postal employees.The USPIS has the power to enforce the USPS monopoly by conducting search and seizure raids on entities they suspect of sending non-urgent mail through overnight delivery competitors. According to the American Enterprise Institute, a private conservative think tank, the USPIS raided Equifax offices in 1993 to ascertain if the mail they were sending through Federal Express was truly "extremely urgent". It was found that the mail was not, and Equifax was fined $30,000.HTTP://WWW.AEI.ORG/PUBLICATION/OPPORTUNITIES-FOR-ANTICOMPETITIVE-BEHAVIOR-IN-POSTAL-SERVICES/ >TITLE= OPPORTUNITIES FOR ANTICOMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR IN POSTAL SERVICES LAST= GEDDES DATE= JUNE 1, 2003AMERICAN ENTERPRISE INSTITUTE, HTTP://MENTALFLOSS.COM/ARTICLE/26424/WHY-CANT-YOU-START-RIVAL-POST-OFFICEDATE=19 NOVEMBER 2010, The PIS oversees the activities of the Postal Police Force who patrol and secure selected high-risk postal facilities in major metropolitan areas in the United States and its territories.{{cn|date=December 2018}}

Office of Inspector General

The United States Postal Service Office of Inspector General (OIG) was authorized by law in 1996. Prior to the 1996 legislation, the Postal Inspection Service performed the duties of the OIG. The Inspector General, who is independent of postal management, is appointed by and reports directly to the nine presidentially appointed, Senate–confirmed members of the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service.The primary purpose of the OIG is to prevent, detect and report fraud, waste and program abuse, and promote efficiency in the operations of the Postal Service. The OIG has "oversight" responsibility for all activities of the Postal Inspection Service.

How delivery services work

Elements of addressing and preparing domestic mail

{{see also|Address (geography)#United States}}All mailable articles (e.g., letters, flats, machinable parcels, irregular parcels, etc.) shipped within the United States must comply with an array of standards published in the USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM).Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 600: Basic Standards For All Mailing Services. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Before addressing the mailpiece, one must first comply with the various mailability standards relating to attributes of the actual mailpiece such as: minimum/maximum dimensionsUSPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 101: Physical Standards. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. and weight, acceptable mailing containers, proper mailpiece sealing/closure, utilization of various markings, and restrictions relating to various hazardous (e.g., explosives, flammables, etc.) and restricted (e.g., cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, etc.) materials, as well as others articulated in § 601 of the DMM.USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 601: Mailability. (August 20, 1912). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.The USPS specifies the following key elements when preparing the face of a mailpiece:
  1. Proper Placement: The Delivery Address should be left-justified and located roughly in the center of mailpiece's largest side. More precisely, on a letter-size piece, the recommended address placement is within the optical character reader (OCR) read area, which is a space on the address side of the mailpiece defined by these boundaries: Left – 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the left edge of the piece; Right – 1/2 inch (13 mm) from the right edge of the piece; Top – 2-3/4 inches (70 mm) from the bottom edge of the piece; Bottom – 5/8 inch (16 mm) from the bottom edge of the piece.USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – Section 102.2.1: Exhibit 2.1 OCR Read Area. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Preferred placement of a return address is in the upper left portion of the mailpiece—on the side of the piece bearing postage.USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 602.1.5: Elements of Addressing – Return Address. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Finally, postage (e.g., stamps, meter imprints, information-based indicia [IBI], etc.) is to be affixed in the upper right corner of the address side of the mail cover. It should be noted that any stamp/indicia partly concealed or otherwise obscured by an overlapping stamp/indicia may not be counted as valid postage.USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – Section 102.2.1: Exhibit 2.1 OCR Read Area. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  2. Delivery Address (party receiving mail): The mail piece must have the address of the intended recipient, visible and legible, only on the side of the mail piece bearing postage. Generally, the name of the addressee should be included above the address itself. A ZIP+4 code will facilitate delivery.WEB,weblink A Customer's Guide to Mailing, 2013-01-25, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink August 25, 2009,
  3. Return Address (party sending mail): A return address tells the USPS where the sender wants the mail returned if it is undeliverable. Usage of a return address is required for some postal services (including Priority Mail, Express Mail, Periodicals in envelopes or wrappers, Insured Mail, Registered Mail, and parcel services).USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 602.1.5.3 Addressing—Required Use of Return Addresses. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
  4. Postage Payment: All mailpieces must include appropriate valid postage. Postage payment may be in the form of stamps, stamped stationery, precanceled stamps, postage meter imprints & PC Postage products ("Postage Evidencing Systems"), or permit imprint (indicia).USPS Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) – § 604 Postage Payment Methods. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Members of the U.S. Congress, among others, have franking privileges, which require only a signature.
Domestic First-Class Mail costs 55¢ for envelopes (35¢ for post cards) and upwards, depending on the weight and dimensions of the letter and the class.Mail going to naval vessels is known as the Fleet Post Office (FPO) and to Army or Air Force installations use the city abbreviation APO (Army Post Office or Air Force Post Office).Undeliverable mail that could not be readily returned, including mail without a return address, is treated as dead mail at a Mail Recovery Center in Atlanta, Georgia or Saint Paul, Minnesota.(File:UseZipCode.JPG|thumb|Sticker promoting ZIP code use)
The format of the address is as follows:
Line 1: Name of recipient Line 2: Street address or P.O. Box Line 3: City, State ((ISO 3166-2:US|ISO 3166-2:US code) or APO/FPO code) and ZIP+4 code
Clifford Clavin 789 Beacon Street Boston MA 02186-1234
The USPS maintains a list of proper abbreviations.USPS list of abbreviations. Retrieved on September 11, 2012.The format of a return address is similar. Though some style manuals recommend using a comma between the city and state name when typesetting addresses in other contexts, for optimal automatic character recognition, the Post Office does not recommend this when addressing mail. The official recommendation is to use all upper case block letters with proper formats and abbreviations, and leave out all punctuation except for the hyphen in the ZIP+4 code. If the address is unusually formatted or illegible enough, it will require hand-processing, delaying that particular item. The USPS publishes the entirety of their postal addressing standards.USPS postal addressing standards. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.Postal address verification tools and services are offered by the USPS and third party companies to help ensure mail is deliverable by fixing formatting, appending information such as ZIP code and validating the address is a valid delivery point. Customers can look up ZIP codes and verify addresses using USPS Web Tools available on the official USPS website and Facebook page, as well as on third-party sites.WEB, Zip,weblink USPS, 9 September 2016,

Delivery Point Validation

Delivery Point Validation (DPV) provides the highest level of address accuracy checking. In a DPV process, the address is checked against the AMS data file to ensure that it exists as an active delivery point.WEB, 2004 Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations Chapter 2 Postal Operations,weblink USPS, 9 September 2016, 2004 Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations Chapter 2 Postal Operations The USPS does not offer DPV validation on their website; however, there are companies that offer services to perform DPV verification.

Paying postage

The actual postage can be paid {{webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2011 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. All unused U.S. postage stamps issued since 1861 are still valid as postage at their indicated value. Stamps with no value shown or denominated by a letter are also still valid, although the value depends upon the particular stamp. For some stamps issued without a printed value, the current value is the original value. But some stamps beginning in 1988 or earlier, including Forever Stamps (issued from April 2007) and all first-class, first-ounce stamps issued from January 21, 2011, the value is the current value of a first-class-mail first-ounce stamp. The USPS calls these Forever Stamps but the generic name is non-denominated postage.Forever stamps are sold at the First-Class Mail postage rate at the time of purchase, but will always be valid for First-Class Mail (1 oz and under), no matter how rates rise in the future.weblink" title="">Postal Rates Set to Go Up on May 14. March 20, 2007.New Prices Coming May 12, 2008 {{webarchive |url= |date=August 4, 2015 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Britain has had a similar stamp since 1989. The cost of mailing a {{convert|1|oz|abbr=on}} First-Class letter increased to 50 cents on 28 January 2018WEB,weblink USPS announces new 2018 prices,,

Postage meters

A postage meter is a mechanical device used to create and apply physical evidence of postage (or franking) to mailed matter. Postage meters are regulated by a country's postal authority; for example, in the United States, the United States Postal Service specifies the rules for the creation, support, and use of postage meters. A postage meter imprints an amount of postage, functioning as a postage stamp, a cancellation and a dated postmark all in one. The meter stamp serves as proof of payment and eliminates the need for adhesive stamps.

PC Postage

In addition to using standard stamps, postage can now be printed in the form of an electronic stamp, or e-stamp, from a personal computer using a system called Information Based Indicia. This online PC Postage method relies upon application software on the customer's computer contacting a postal security device at the office of the postal service.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Henk C. A., van Tilborg, 2005, Encyclopedia of cryptography and security, Electronic Postage, Springer,weblink 978-0-387-23473-1, PC Postage providers include:

Other electronic postage payment methods

Electronic Verification System (eVS)Advanced Preparation and Special Postage Payment Systems – Manifest Mailing System – Electronic Verification System. Retrieved on July 8, 2011. is the Postal Service's integrated mail management technology that centralizes payment processing and electronic postage reports. Part of an evolving suite of USPS electronic payment services called PostalOne!,USPS Memo To Mailers – August 2006 "Making It E-Easy For High-Volume Shippers" {{webarchive |url= |date=August 22, 2006 }} eVS allows mailers shipping large volumes of parcels through the Postal Service a way to circumvent use of hard-copy manifests, postage statements and drop-shipment verification forms. Instead, mailers can pay postage automatically through a centralized account and track payments online.Beginning in August 2007, the Postal Service began requiring mailers shipping Parcel Select packages using a permit imprint to use eVS for manifesting their packages.

Stamp copyright and reproduction

All U.S. postage stamps issued under the former United States Post Office Department and other postage items that were released before 1978 are not subject to copyright, but stamp designs since 1978 are copyrighted.WEB,weblink Stamp Collecting: What other stamp materials can I collect?, United States Postal Service, July 6, 2015, The United States Copyright Office in section 313.6(C)(1) of the Third Edition of the Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices holds that "Works prepared by officers or employees of the U.S. Postal Service ... are not considered works of the U.S. Government"WEB,weblink Compendium of U.S. Copyright Office Practices, § 313.6(C)(1), 36–37, United States Copyright Office, December 22, 2014, July 6, 2015, and are therefore eligible for registration. Thus, the USPS holds copyright to such materials released since 1978 under Title 17 of the United States Code. Written permission is required for use of copyrighted postage stamp images, although under USPS rules, permission is "generally" not required for "educational use", "news reporting" or "philatelic advertising use," but users must cite USPS as the source of the image and include language such as "© United States Postal Service. All rights reserved."WEB,weblink Rights and Permission Overview, June 18, 2010, United States Postal Service,

Service level choices

{{Overly detailed|date=April 2015|section=yes}}{{update|section|date=September 2016}}

General domestic services

File:TyvekExpressMailEnvelope.jpg|thumb|Former TyvekTyvekAs of April 2011, domestic postage levels for low-volume mailers include: The Post Office will not deliver packages heavier than {{convert|70|lb}} or if the length (the package's longest dimension) plus the girth (the measurement around the package at its largest point in the two shorter dimensions) is greater than {{convert|108|in|cm}} combined ({{convert|130|in|cm|disp=x| [|]}} for Parcel Post)

Bulk mail

{{See also|Bulk mail}}File:USPS Dodge CV.JPG|thumb|USPS Dodge Caravan used for residential delivery in Omaha, NebraskaOmaha, Nebraska(File:LLV replacement.jpg|thumb|USPS-operated minivan serving in the LLV's role)Discounts are available for large volumes of mail. Depending on the postage level, certain conditions might be required or optional for an additional discount: In addition to bulk discounts on Express, Priority, and First-Class Mail, the following postage levels are available for bulk mailers:

Extra services

File:ASmallUnitedStatesPostalServiceTruckGuam.jpg|thumb|A Long Life Vehicle seen in GuamGuamDepending on the type of mail, additional services are available for an additional {{webarchive |url= |date=June 9, 2015 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.

International services

(File:FDA and the International Mail Facilities (IMFs) (40886549732).jpg|thumb|Packages awaiting inspection at the International Mail Facility in JFK airport)In May 2007, the USPS restructured international service names to correspond with domestic shipping options. Formerly, USPS International servicesWEB, International Delivery Options,weblink USPS, September 29, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2010, were categorized as Airmail (Letter Post), Economy (Surface) Parcel Post, Airmail Parcel Post, Global Priority, Global Express, and Global Express Guaranteed Mail. The former Airmail (Letter Post) is now First-Class Mail International,USPS International Mail Manual, Issue 35. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.First-Class Mail International. USPS (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. {{webarchive |url= |date=June 9, 2015 }} and includes small packages weighing up to four pounds (1.8 kg). Economy Parcel Post was discontinued for international service, while Airmail Parcel Post was replaced by Priority Mail International. Priority Mail International Flat-Rate packaging in various sizes was introduced, with the same conditions of service previously used for Global Priority. Global Express is now Express Mail International, while Global Express Guaranteed is unchanged. The international mailing classes with a tracking ability are Express, Express Guaranteed, and Priority (except that tracking is not available for Priority Mail International Flat Rate Envelopes or Priority Mail International Small Flat Rate Boxes) Retrieved November 16, 2010.One of the major changes in the new naming and services definitions is that USPS-supplied mailing boxes for Priority and Express mail are now allowed for international use. These services are offered to ship letters and packages to almost every country and territory on the globe. The USPS provides much of this service by contracting with a private parcel service, FedEx.USPS press release, June 8, 2004, Release No. 40, FedEx to deliver premium postal int'l service {{webarchive |url= |date=May 8, 2009 }}. Retrieved October 10, 2007.(File:M-bag Asendia.jpg|thumb|upright|An m-bag)The USPS provides an {{visible anchor|M-bag}}Styling for "M-bag" is inconsistent – the term is styled both as M-bag (with a hyphen) and M–bag (with an en-dash). service for international shipment of printed matter;Postal Explorer>IMM Issue 37 – International Mail Manual > 2 Conditions for Mailing > 260 Direct Sacks of Printed Matter to One Addressee (M–bags) previously surface M-bags existed, but with the 2007 elimination of surface mail, only airmail M-bags remain.Airmail M-Bags{{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} The term "M-bag" is not expanded in USPS publications; M-bags are simply defined as "direct sacks of printed matter ... sent to a single foreign addressee at a single address"; however, the term is sometimes referred to informally as "media bag", as the bag can also contain "discs, tapes, and cassettes", in addition to books, for which the usual umbrella term is "media"; some also refer to them as "mail bags".Military mail is billed at domestic rates when being sent from the United States to a military outpost, and is free when sent by deployed military personnel. The overseas logistics are handled by the Military Postal Service Agency in the Department of Defense.USPS FAQ – Mailing to military personnel. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.{{cbignore}} Outside of forward areas and active operations, military mail First-Class takes 7–10 days, Priority 10–15 days, and Parcel Post about 24 days.Three independent countries with a Compact of Free Association with the U.S. (Palau, the Marshall Islands, and the Federated States of Micronesia) have a special relationship with the United States Postal Service:

The discontinuation of international surface mail

{{For|more information about surface mail|Surface mail}}{{#section:Surface mail|USA}}

Sorting and delivery process

{{Refimprove section|date=March 2014}}(File:USPS mail flow through national infrastructure.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Mail flow through national infrastructure)Processing of standard sized envelopes and cards is highly automated, including reading of handwritten addresses. Mail from individual customers and public postboxes is collected by mail carriers into plastic tubs, which are taken to one of approximately 251 Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) across the United States. Each P&DC sorts mail for a given region (typically with a radius of around {{convert|200|mi}}) and connects with the national network for interregional mail.Author unknown (date unknown). Direct Marketing Direct Mail. Retrieved on 2011-07-08 from WEB, Equipment Scheduling at Mail Processing and Distribution Centers,weblink April 4, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink March 11, 2008, . The USPS has consolidated mail sorting for large regions into the P&DCs on the basis that most mail is addressed to faraway destinations,NEWS, Wade, Madison, Changes announced for Redding mail processing center,weblink 19 January 2017, KRCR News Channel ABC 7, Bonten Media Group, Redding, 9 April 2015, but for cities at the edge of a P&DC's region, this means all locally addressed mail must now travel long distances (that is, to and from the P&DC for sorting) to reach nearby addresses.NEWS, Benda, David, Mail sorting facility will close; move will affect 90 jobs in Redding,weblink 19 January 2017, Redding Record-Searchlight, Gannett, 23 February 2012, At the P&DC, mail is emptied into hampers which are then automatically dumped into a Dual Pass Rough Cull System (DPRCS). As mail travels through the DPRCS, large items, such as packages and mail bundles, are removed from the stream. As the remaining mail enters the first machine for processing standard mail, the Advanced Facer-Canceler System (AFCS), pieces that passed through the DPRCS but do not conform to physical dimensions for processing in the AFCS (e.g., large envelopes or overstuffed standard envelopes) are automatically diverted from the stream. Mail removed from the DPRCS and AFCS is manually processed or sent to parcel sorting machines.In contrast to the previous system, which merely canceled and postmarked the upper right corner of the envelope, thereby missing any stamps which were inappropriately placed, the Advanced Facer-Canceler System locates indicia (stamp or metered postage mark), regardless of the orientation of the mail as it enters the machine, and cancels it by applying a postmark. Detection of indicia enables the AFCS to determine the orientation of each mailpiece and sort it accordingly, rotating pieces as necessary so all mail is sorted right-side up and faced in the same direction in each output bin.Mail is output by the machine into three categories: mail already affixed with a bar code and addressed (such as business reply envelopes and cards); mail with machine printed (typed) addresses; and mail with handwritten addresses. Additionally, machines with a recent Optical Character Recognition (OCR) upgrade have the capability to read the address information, including handwritten, and sort the mail based on local or outgoing ZIP codes.Mail with typed addresses goes to a Multiline Optical Character Reader (MLOCR) which reads the ZIP Code and address information and prints the appropriate bar code onto the envelope. Mail (actually the scanned image of the mail) with handwritten addresses (and machine-printed ones that are not easily recognized) goes to the Remote Bar Coding System. It also corrects spelling errors and, where there is an error, omission, or conflict in the written address, identifies the most likely correct address.When it has decided on a correct address, it prints the appropriate bar code onto the envelopes, similarly to the MLOCR system. RBCS also has facilities in place, called Remote Encoding Centers, that have humans look at images of mail pieces and enter the address data. The address data is associated with the image via an ID Tag, a fluorescent barcode printed by mail processing equipment on the back of mail pieces.Processed mail is imaged by the Mail Isolation Control and Tracking (MICT) system to allow easier tracking of hazardous substances. Images are taken at more than 200 mail processing centers, and are destroyed after being retained for 30 days.NEWS, Andrew, Miga,weblink Yahoo! News, AP Interview: Postal Service takes photos of all mail, keeps images for up to a month, 2 August 2013, 2014-04-18, If a customer has filed a change of address card and his or her mail is detected in the mailstream with the old address, the mailpiece is sent to a machine that automatically connects to a Computerized Forwarding System database to determine the new address. If this address is found, the machine will paste a label over the former address with the current address. The mail is returned to the mailstream to forward to the new location.Mail with addresses that cannot be resolved by the automated system are separated for human intervention. If a local postal worker can read the address, he or she manually sorts it out according to the ZIP code on the article. If the address cannot be read, mail is either returned to the sender (First-Class Mail with a valid return address) or is sent to the Mail Recovery Center in Atlanta, Georgia (formerly known as the dead letter office). At this office, the mail is opened to try to find an address to forward to. If an address is found, the contents are resealed and delivered. Otherwise, the items are held for 90 days in case of inquiry by the customer; if they are not claimed, they are either destroyed or auctioned off at the monthly Postal Service Unclaimed Parcel auction to raise money for the service.Once the mail is bar coded, it is automatically sorted by a Delivery Bar Code Sorter (DBCS) that reads the bar code, identifies the destination of the mailpiece, and sends it to an appropriate tray that corresponds to the next segment of its journey.Regional mail is either trucked to the appropriate local post office, or kept in the building for carrier routes served directly from the P&DC. Out-of-region mail is trucked to the airport and then flown, usually as baggage on commercial airlines, to the airport nearest the destination station. At the destination P&DC, mail is once again read by a DBCS which sorts items to local post offices; this includes grouping mailpieces by individual mail carrier.At the carrier route level, 95% of letters arrive pre-sorted; the remaining mail must be sorted by hand. The Post Office is working to increase the percentage of automatically sorted mail, including a pilot program to sort "flats" Retrieved on 2011-07-08 from WEB,weblink Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations 2008, March 31, 2009, yes,weblink May 8, 2009, .FedEx provides air transport service to USPS for Priority and Express Mail. Priority Mail and Express Mail are transported from Priority Mail processing centers to the closest FedEx-served airport, where they are handed off to FedEx. FedEx then flies them to the destination airport and hands them back to USPS for transport to the local post office and delivery.

Types of postal facilities

File:OldPostOfficeTomahWI.JPG|thumb|Historic main post office in Tomah, WisconsinTomah, WisconsinFile:LongPointStationHouston.JPG|thumb|A typical post office station in the Spring Branch area of HoustonHoustonFile:Galveston Federal Building 2009.jpg|thumb|A combined Post Office, Customs House, and Federal Court House in Galveston, TexasGalveston, TexasFile:Halibut Cove Post Office.jpg|thumb|Floating post office, Halibut Cove, AlaskaHalibut Cove, AlaskaAlthough its customer service centers are called post offices in regular speech, the USPS recognizes several types of postal facilities, including the following: While common usage refers to all types of postal facilities as "substations", the USPS Glossary of Postal Terms does not define or even list that word.Publication 32 – Glossary of Postal Terms {{webarchive |url= |date=May 8, 2009 }}. (PDF) . Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Post Offices often share facilities with other governmental organizations located within a city's central business district. In those locations, often Courthouses and Federal Buildings, the building is owned by the General Services Administration while the U.S. Postal Services operates as a tenant.WEB,weblink General Services Administration, Texas Federal Buildings:Galveston U.S. Post Office and Courthouse, 2009-12-20, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 17, 2009, The USPS retail system has approximately 36,000 post offices, stations, and Retrieved on 2011-07-08 from WEB,weblink Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations 2008, April 5, 2009, yes,weblink May 9, 2009, .

Automated Postal Centers

File:APC 77598 Webster Texas.jpg|thumb|upright|A 24-hour Automated Postal Center kiosk inside the Webster, TexasWebster, TexasIn the year 2004, the USPS began deploying Automated Postal Centers (APCs).WEB,weblink,, 2012-07-18, APCs are unattended kiosks that are capable of weighing, franking, and storing packages for later pickup as well as selling domestic and international postage stamps. Since its introduction, APCs do not take cash payments – they only accept credit or debit cards. Similarly, traditional vending machines are available at many post offices to purchase stamps, though these are being phased out in many {{webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2011 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Due to increasing use of Internet services, as of June 2009, no retail post office windows are open 24 hours; overnight services are limited to those provided by an Automated Postal Center.WEB,weblink Chicago's 24-Hour Postal Service Comes To An End, Cheryl, Corley, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, June 5, 2009,

Evolutionary Network Development (END) program

In February 2006, the USPS announced that they plan to replace the nine existing facility-types with five processing facility-types:WEB,weblink,, 2012-07-18, Over a period of years, these facilities are expected to replace Processing & Distribution Centers, Customer Service Facilities, Bulk Mail Centers, Logistic and Distribution Centers, annexes, the Hub and Spoke Program, Air Mail Centers, and International Service Centers.The changes are a result of the declining volumes of single-piece First-Class Mail, population shifts, the increase in drop shipments by advertising mailers at destinating postal facilities, advancements in equipment and technology, redundancies in the existing network, and the need for operational flexibility.

Airline and rail division

File:Boeing 727-223(F), US Postal Service AN0236566.jpg|thumbnail|A former United States Postal Service Boeing 727-200 aircraft at Miami International AirportMiami International AirportThe United States Postal Service does not directly own or operate any aircraft or trains, although both were formerly operated. The mail and packages are flown on airlines with which the Postal Service has a contractual agreement. The contracts change periodically. Contract airlines have included: UPS, Emery Worldwide, Ryan International Airlines, FedEx Express, American Airlines, United Airlines, and Express One International. The Postal Service also contracts with Amtrak to carry some mail between certain cities such as Chicago and Minneapolis – Saint Paul.WEB,weblink USPS,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-02-24, yes, The last air delivery route in the continental U.S., to residents in the Frank Church—River of No Return Wilderness, was scheduled to be ended in June 2009. The weekly bush plane route, contracted out to an air taxi company, had in its final year an annual cost of $46,000, or $2400/year per residence, over ten times the average cost of delivering mail to a residence in the United States.Where to Buy Stamps' This decision has been reversed by the U.S. Postmaster General.WEB,weblink Idaho delegation gets reversal on backcountry mail delivery decision, Press release, May 7, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-05-27,, 2013-07-08,

Parcel forwarding and private interchange

Private US parcel forwarding or US mail forwarding companies focusing on personal shopper, relocation, Ex-pat and mail box services often interface with the United States Postal Service for transporting of mail and packages for their customers.WEB,weblink Forward Mail {{!, USPS||access-date=2018-01-25}}

Delivery timing

File:Usmailcontractor.jpg|thumb|USPS contractor-driven semi-trailer truck seen near Mendota, CaliforniaMendota, California(File:2008-08-06 Postal delivery van in Durham.jpg|thumb|1998 United States Postal Service Ford Windstar, showing the larger driver's side door)

Delivery days

From 1810, mail was delivered seven days a week. In 1828, local religious leaders noticed a decline in Sunday-morning church attendance because of local post offices' doubling as gathering places. These leaders appealed to the government to intervene and close post offices on Sundays. The government, however, declined, and mail was delivered 7 days a week until, "Sunday Mail Service in a Christian Nation", Austin Cline, February 19, 2006 {{webarchive |url= |date=September 6, 2008 }}. Retrieved October 10, 2007."The Unlikely Alliance That Ended Sunday Mail Delivery ... in 1912".Today, U.S. Mail (with the exception of Express Mail)USPS – Express Mail Delivery Chart {{webarchive |url= |date=September 29, 2007 }}. Retrieved October 10, 2007. is not delivered on Sunday.Saturday delivery was temporarily suspended in April 1957, because of lack of funds, but quickly, events April, events April 15Budget problems prompted consideration of dropping Saturday delivery starting around 2009. This culminated in a 2013 announcement that regular mail services would be cut to five days a week, which was reversed by Congress before it could take effect. (See the section Revenue decline and planned cuts.)

Direct delivery vs. customer pickup

Originally, mail was not delivered to homes and businesses, but to post offices. In 1863, "city delivery" began in urban areas with enough customers to make this economical. This required streets to be named, houses to be numbered, with sidewalks and lighting provided, and these street addresses to be added to envelopes.WEB, City Delivery, Postal History, USPS,weblink 2016-01-02, The number of routes served expanded over time. In 1891, the first experiments with Rural Free Delivery began in less densely populated areas. There is currently an effort to reduce direct delivery in favor of mailbox clusters.To compensate for high mail volume and slow long-distance transportation which saw mail arrive at post offices throughout the day, deliveries were made multiple times a day. This ranged from twice for residential areas to up to seven times for the central business district of Brooklyn, New York.Deliveries per Day {{webarchive |url= |date=May 9, 2009 }}. (PDF) . Retrieved on July 8, 2011. In the late 19th century, mail boxes were encouraged, saving carriers the time it took to deliver directly to the addressee in person; in the 1910s and 1920s, they were phased in as a requirement for service. In the 1940s, multiple daily deliveries began to be reduced, especially on Saturdays. By 1990, the last twice-daily deliveries in New York City were eliminated.Today, mail is delivered once a day on-site to most private homes and businesses. The USPS still distinguishes between city delivery (where carriers generally walk and deliver to mailboxes hung on exterior walls or porches, or to commercial reception areas) and rural delivery (where carriers generally drive).Home Delivery {{webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2011 }}. USPS (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. With "curbside delivery", mailboxes are at the ends of driveways, on the nearest convenient road. "Central point delivery" is used in some locations, where several nearby residences share a "cluster" of individual mailboxes in a single housing.Some customers choose to use post office boxes for an additional fee, for privacy or convenience. This provides a locked box at the post office to which mail is addressed and delivered (usually earlier in the day than home delivery). Customers in less densely populated areas where there is no city delivery and who do not qualify for rural delivery may receive mail only through post office boxes. High-volume business customers can also arrange for special pick-up.USPS FAQ – Caller Service, multiple pickups for a fee{{Dead link|date=January 2016}}{{cbignore}}USPS FAQ – Firm Holdout Service, free pickup once a day{{Dead link|date=January 2016}}{{cbignore}}Another option is the old-style general delivery, for people who have neither post office boxes nor street addresses. Mail is held at the post office until they present identification and pick it up.Some customers receive free post office boxes if the USPS declines to provide door-to-door delivery to their location or a nearby box.USPS FAQ – Do I qualify for free box service? {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-03-24 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.{{Dead link|date=January 2016}}{{cbignore}} People with medical problems can request door-to-door delivery.USPS FAQ – Hardship / Medical Problems {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-03-24 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.{{cbignore}} Homeless people are also eligible for post office boxes at the discretion of the local postmaster, or can use general delivery.USPS FAQ – Mail service available for the homeless {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-03-24 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.{{Dead link|date=January 2016}}{{cbignore}}

Special delivery

From 1885 to 1997, a service called special delivery was available, which caused a separate delivery to the final location earlier in the day than the usual daily rounds.

Same-day trials

In December 2012, the USPS began a limited one-year trial of same-day deliveries directly from retailers or distribution hubs to residential addresses in the same local area, a service it dubbed "Metro Post".NEWS, Associated Press, Post office tests same-day delivery, 2012-11-23,weblink WEB, Target,weblink® – Metro Post,, 2011-03-28, 2013-03-24, The trial was initially limited to San Francisco and the only retailer to participate in the first few weeks was 1-800-FLOWERS.NEWS,, 2013-01-14, Kenneth Corbin, USPS Adding Retailers to Same Day Delivery Trial|weblink In March 2013, the USPS faced new same-day competition for e-commerce deliveries from Google Shopping Express.In November 2013, the Postal Service began regular package delivery on Sundays for Amazon customers in New York and Los Angeles,NEWS, Joseph Adinolfi,weblink Terms Of Deal For US Postal Service (USPS) To Deliver Amazon (AMZN) Packages Not Revealed By USPS Or Amazon, International Business Times, 2013-11-14, 2015-06-08, which it expanded to 15 cities in May 2014.WEB, Bishop, Todd,weblink Amazon and USPS expand Sunday delivery to 15 more cities, will reach 'large portion' of U.S. this year, GeekWire, 2014-05-07, 2015-06-08, Amazon Sunday delivery has now been expanded to most major markets as of September 2015.Other competition in this area includes online grocers such as AmazonFresh, Webvan, and delivery services operated by grocery stores like Peapod and Safeway.

Forwarding and holds

Residential customers can fill out a form to forward mail to a new address, and can also send pre-printed forms to any of their frequent correspondents. They can also put their mail on "hold", for example, while on vacation. The Post Office will store mail during the hold, instead of letting it overflow in the mailbox. These services are not available to large buildings and customers of a commercial mail receiving agency,USPS FAQ – Commercial Mail Receiving Agency (CMRA) {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-03-24 }}. (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.{{Dead link|date=January 2016}}{{cbignore}} where mail is subsorted by non-Post Office employees into individual mailboxes.

Financial services

Postal money orders provide a safe alternative to sending cash through the mail, and are available in any amount up to $1,000. Like a bank cheque, money orders are cashable only by the recipient. Unlike a personal bank check, they are prepaid and therefore cannot be returned because of insufficient funds.Domestic Money Orders {{webarchive|url= |date=July 23, 2011 }}. USPS (November 26, 2008). Retrieved on July 8, 2011. Money orders are a declining business for the USPS, as companies like PayPal, PaidByCash and others are offering electronic replacements.From 1911 to 1967, the Postal Service also operated the United States Postal Savings System, not unlike a savings and loan association with the amount of the deposit limited.WEB,weblink Postal Savings System by HISTORIAN, UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE, JULY 2008, PDF, 2012-07-18, A January 2014 report by the Inspector General of the USPS suggested that the agency could earn $8.9 billion per year in revenue by providing financial services, especially in areas where there are no local banks but there is a local post office, and to customers who currently do not have bank accounts.WEB,weblink Providing Non-Bank Financial Services for the Underserved, 2014-01-17, 2014-05-16,

Employment in the USPS

File:United States Postal Service rural letter carrier, 2006.jpg|thumb|A Rural Letter Carrier from Fort Myers, FloridaFort Myers, FloridaThe Postal Service is the nation's second-largest civilian employer.WEB, 2011 Postal Facts, U.S. Postal Service, 2011,weblink PDF, November 17, 2011,  â€“ There is also a web version of the content. {{As of|2011}}, it employed 574,000 personnel, divided into offices, processing centers, and actual post offices. The United States Postal Service would rank 29th on the 2010 Fortune 500 list, if considered a private company.Labor unions representing USPS employees include: The American Postal Workers Union (APWU), which represents postal clerks and maintenance, motor vehicle, mail equipment shops, material distribution centers, and operating services and facilities services employees, postal nurses, and IT and accounting;Collective Bargaining Agreement between APWU and USPS the National Association of Letter Carriers (NALC), which represents city letter carriers; the National Rural Letter Carriers' Association (NRLCA), which represents rural letter carriers; and the National Postal Mail Handlers Union (NPMHU).USPS employees are divided into three major crafts according to the work they engage in: Other non-managerial positions in the USPS include: Though the USPS employs many individuals, as more Americans send information via email, fewer postal workers are needed to work dwindling amounts of mail. Post offices and mail facilities are constantly downsizing, replacing craft positions with new machines and consolidating mail routes through the MIARAP (Modified Interim Alternate Route Adjustment Process) agreement. A major round of job cuts, early retirements, and a construction freeze were announced on March 20, 2009.NEWS,weblink CNN, Postal service to slash more than 3,000 jobs, offer early retirements, March 20, 2009, May 26, 2010,

Workplace violence

In the early 1990s, widely publicized workplace shootings by disgruntled employees at USPS facilities led to a Human Resource effort to provide care for stressed workers and resources for coworker conflicts.WEB,weblink Human Resources,, 2013-03-24, Due to media coverage, postal employees gained a reputation among the general public as more likely to be mentally ill. The USPS Commission on a Safe and Secure Workplace found that "Postal workers are only a third as likely as those in the national workforce to be victims of homicide at work."USPS Commission on a Safe and Secure Workplace, January 31, 2006 {{webarchive |url= |date=June 29, 2011 }}. Retrieved October 10, 2007. In the documentary Murder by Proxy: How America Went Postal, it was argued that this number failed to factor out workers killed by external subjects rather than by fellow employees.This series of events in turn has influenced American culture, as seen in the slang term "going postal"Vick, Karl, "Violence at work tied to loss of esteem", St. Petersburg Times, Dec 17, 1993"The Year in Review 1993", Los Angeles Times, December 31, 1993 (see Patrick Sherrill for information on his August 20, 1986, rampage) and the computer game Postal. Also, in the opening sequence of (Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult), a yell of "Disgruntled postal workers" is heard, followed by the arrival of postal workers with machine guns. In an episode of Seinfeld, the mailman character, Newman, explained in a dramatic monologue that postal workers "go crazy and kill everyone" because the mail never stops. In The Simpsons episode "Sunday, Cruddy Sunday," Nelson Muntz asks Postmaster Bill if he has "ever gone on a killing spree"; Bill replies, "The day of the gun-toting, disgruntled postman shooting up the place went out with the Macarena".WEB,weblink The Simpsons Episode Scripts: AABF08 – Sunday, Cruddy Sunday,, 2015-06-08, The series of massacres led the USPS to issue a rule prohibiting the possession of any type of firearms (except for those issued to Postal Inspectors) in all designated USPS facilities.WEB,weblink 43 Firearms {{!, Postal Explorer||language=en|access-date=2018-01-25}}In 2016, video footage was released showing a group of police officers from the New York City Police Department (NYPD) arresting a USPS worker while he was in the middle of his deliveries. The footage showed that the officers were dressed in civilian clothing. The NYPD is reportedly investigating alleged disorderly conduct.WEB,weblink Postal worker speaks out on controversial NYPD arrest caught on video, 28 March 2016,

In fiction

See also

Unions of the U.S. Postal Service History International associations Mail bag types Workplace violence



Further reading

External links

{{Commons category}} {{United States Postal Service}}{{Postal system}}{{PostalhistoryAmericas}}{{Authority control}}

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