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September 11 attacks
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{{Redirect|9/11|other uses|911 (disambiguation){{!}}911|and|September 11 attacks (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{short description|Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}







factoids
>{{longitem2nd row, left to right: Collapsed section ofthe Pentagon; United Airlines Flight 175>Flight 175 crashes into 2 WTC}}3rd row, left to right: A firefighter requestsassistance at World Trade Center site;Ground zero#World Trade Center; An enginefrom United Airlines Flight 93>Flight 93 is recovered}} Bottom row: American Airlines Flight 77's collision with thePentagon as captured by threeconsecutive Closed-circuit television>CCTV frames}}}}
style=white-space:nowrap; Manhattan, New York, U.S.; >Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.; Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania>Stonycreek Township nearShanksville, Pennsylvania, U.S.}}Eastern Time Zone>EDTAircraft hijackings Suicide attacks >Mass murder |Terrorism}}World Trade Center (1973–2001)(American Airlines Flight 11>AA 11 and United Airlines Flight 175) > The Pentagon (American Airlines Flight 77) > White House or United States Capitol(United Airlines Flight 93>UA 93; failed)}}1}}{{smaller|(2,977 victims + 19 hijackers)}}|injuries = 6,000+{{nowrapAl-Qaeda}}{{smaller>(see also Responsibility for the September 11 attacks and Hijackers in the September 11 attacks>hijackers)}} }}|partof = terrorism in the United States|numparts = 19}}The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11){{efn|name=NoteA|The expression 9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven" in English; the slash is not pronounced. The event is often pronounced "nine eleven" throughout the English-speaking world, even in places that use the opposite numerical dating convention. Only the United States and countries closely associated with it use the month/day numerical date convention (i.e., 9/11). Most of Europe, India, Latin America, and Central, Southeast, and West Asia, among others, use the day/month numerical convention (i.e., 11/9).}} were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-QaedaBOOK, The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks, Moghadam, Assaf, Johns Hopkins University, 2008, 978-0-8018-9055-0, 48, WEB,weblink Special Reports â€“ The Salafist Movement: Al Qaeda's New Front, Livesey, Bruce, January 25, 2005, PBS Frontline, WGBH educational foundation, October 18, 2011, BOOK, US Counter-Terrorism Strategy and al-Qaeda: Signalling and the Terrorist World-View, Geltzer, Joshua A., 2011, Routledge, 978-0415664523, Reprint, 83, {{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=79}} against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,977 people (not counting the 19 hijackers who also died), injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.WEB, How much did the September 11 terrorist attack cost America?,weblink Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, April 30, 2014, BOOK, The Impact of 9/11 on Politics and War: The Day that Changed Everything?, Matthew J. Morgan, 222, August 4, 2009, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-60763-7,weblink Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)—all of which departed from airports in northeastern United States bound for San Francisco and Los Angeles—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was initially flown toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officersBOOK, Congress, Congressional Record, Vol. 148, Pt. 7, May 23, 2002 to June 12, 2002,weblink April 9, 2014, Government Printing Office, 9909, 978-0-16-076125-6, May 2006, in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively.Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U.S. demands to extradite Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.NEWS, Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11, CBC News, October 29, 2004,weblink September 1, 2011, Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden appeared in a new message aired on an Arabic TV station Friday night, for the first time claiming direct responsibility for the 2001 attacks against the United States., Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U.S. Navy in May 2011.The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure seriously harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building opened on November 3, 2014.WEB, Moore, Jack, World Trade Center Re-opens as Tallest Building in America,weblink International Business Times, November 3, 2014, September 11, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904120549weblink">weblink September 4, 2015, NEWS, Smith, Aaron, One World Trade Center opens today,weblink CNN, November 3, 2014, November 4, 2014, Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks.WEB,weblink What We Know About Saudi Arabia's Role in 9/11, Henderson, Simon, Foreign Policy, 2019-03-31, Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. These 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government.BOOK,weblink declasspart4, U. S Senate Select Committee on Intellegence, U. S. House Permanent Committee on Intelligence, December 2002, As a consequence of the attacks, the United States has been in a state of national emergency ever since 2001.WEB,weblink Text of a Notice on the Continuation of the National Emergency with Respect to Certain Terrorist Attacks, The White House, en-US, 2019-10-03,

Background

Al-Qaeda{{anchor|Al-Qaeda}}

{{Further|Al-Qaeda|Jihad}}{{Campaignbox al-Qaeda attacks}}The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets.NEWS, BBC News Online, Al-Qaeda's origins and links, July 20, 2004,weblink September 3, 2011, Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical.{{Sfnp|Gunaratna|2002|pp=23–33}} In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia.WEB,weblink Bin Laden's fatwā (1996), PBS, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011031024057weblink">weblink October 31, 2001, May 29, 2014, In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131128194258weblink">weblink November 28, 2013, Al Qaeda's Second Fatwa, PBS NewsHour, Public Broadcasting Service, live, May 29, 2014, Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden.

Osama bin Laden

{{Further|Osama bin Laden|Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden|Death of Osama bin Laden}}File:Osama bin Laden portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Osama bin LadenOsama bin LadenBin Laden orchestrated the attacks and initially denied involvement but later recanted his false statements.NEWS, Pakistan inquiry orders Bin Laden family to remain,weblink BBC News Online, July 6, 2011, September 3, 2011, NEWS,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070613014620weblink">weblink June 13, 2007,weblink Full transcript of bin Laden's speech, Al Jazeera, November 2, 2004, September 3, 2011, Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation."NEWS, Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border,weblink Fox News Channel, September 16, 2001, September 3, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100523082548weblink">weblink May 23, 2010, dead, In November 2001, U.S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi and admits foreknowledge of the attacks.NEWS, Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly', CNN, December 14, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071227125232weblink">weblink December 27, 2007, dead, November 24, 2013, Reveling in the details of the fatal attacks, bin Laden brags in Arabic that he knew about them beforehand and says the destruction went beyond his hopes. He says the attacks "benefited Islam greatly"., On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said:but he stopped short of admitting responsibility for the attacks.NEWS, Transcript: Bin Laden video excerpts, BBC News Online, December 27, 2001,weblink September 3, 2011, The transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims.Shortly before the U.S. presidential election in 2004, bin Laden used a taped statement to publicly acknowledge al-Qaeda's involvement in the attacks on the United States. He admitted his direct link to the attacks and said they were carried out because:}} Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.WEB, A. B. C., News, 2019-02-02, Bin Laden Dead -- Where Are Other 9/11 Planners?,weblink May 2, 2011, ABC News, While initially denying responsibility for the 9/11 attacks, Bin Laden took responsibility for them in a 2004 taped statement, saying that he had personally directed the hijackers., WEB, 2019-02-02, October 29, 2004, Bin Laden claims responsibility for 9/11, CBC News,weblink Another video obtained by Al Jazeera in September 2006 shows bin Laden with Ramzi bin al-Shibh, as well as two hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks.NEWS,weblink Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired, CBC News, September 7, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071013183902weblink">weblink October 13, 2007, September 3, 2011, The U.S. never formally indicted bin Laden for the 9/11 attacks, but he was on the FBI's Most Wanted List for the bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya.NEWS, Clewley, Robin, How Osama Cracked FBI's Top 10, Wired (magazine), Wired, September 27, 2001,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080526032503weblink">weblink May 26, 2008, May 29, 2014, WEB, Usama Bin Laden,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation, September 10, 2011, After a 10-year manhunt, bin Laden was killed by American special forces in a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on May 2, 2011.NEWS,weblink Bin Laden Is Dead, President Obama Says, Baker, Peter, Cooper, Helene, May 1, 2011, The New York Times, September 3, 2011, NEWS,weblink Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden, Cooper, Helene, May 1, 2011, The New York Times, September 3, 2011,

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed

File:Khalid Shaikh Mohammed after capture.jpg|thumb|Khalid Sheikh MohammedKhalid Sheikh MohammedJournalist Yosri Fouda of the Arabic television channel Al Jazeera reported that in April 2002 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed admitted his involvement in the attacks, along with Ramzi bin al-Shibh.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080123195032weblink">weblink January 23, 2008, We left out nuclear targets, for now, The Guardian, March 4, 2003, September 3, 2011, Yosri Fouda of the Arabic television channel al-Jazeera is the only journalist to have interviewed Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the al-Qaeda military commander arrested at the weekend. Here he describes the two-day encounter with him and his fellow organiser of September 11, Ramzi bin al- Shibh: ... Summoning every thread of experience and courage, I looked Khalid in the eye and asked: 'Did you do it?' The reference to September 11 was implicit. Khalid responded with little fanfare: 'I am the head of the al-Qaeda military committee,' he began, 'and Ramzi is the coordinator of the Holy Tuesday operation. And yes, we did it.', London, dead, NEWS,weblink Alleged 9/11 mastermind wants to confess to plot, The Daily Telegraph, October 10, 2008, September 3, 2011, London, Tom, Leonard, Alex, Spillius, The 9/11 Commission Report determined that the animosity towards the United States felt by Mohammed, the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks, stemmed from his "violent disagreement with U.S. foreign policy favoring Israel".9/11 Commission Report (2004), p. 147. Mohammed was also an adviser and financier of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the uncle of Ramzi Yousef, the lead bomber in that attack.NEWS,weblink White House power grabs, August 26, 2009, The Washington Times, September 3, 2011, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110417023034weblink">weblink April 17, 2011, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Terror Indictment Unsealed, Dismissed, Van Voris, Bob, Hurtado, Patricia, April 4, 2011, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, September 3, 2011, Mohammed was arrested on March 1, 2003, in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, by Pakistani security officials working with the CIA. He was then held at multiple CIA secret prisons and Guantanamo Bay where he was interrogated and tortured with methods including waterboarding.NEWS,weblink Khalid Sheikh Mohammed Names Names, Time (magazine), Time, March 24, 2003, September 3, 2011, Elaine, Shannon, Michael, Weisskopf, NEWS, May 8, 2008,weblink US judge orders CIA to turn over 'torture' memo-ACLU, Reuters, September 3, 2011, Michelle, Nichols, NEWS,weblink Khalid Sheikh Mohammed 'asked to design' vacuum cleaner, July 11, 2013, BBC News Online, September 10, 2017, During U.S. hearings at Guantanamo Bay in March 2007, Mohammed again confessed his responsibility for the attacks, stating he "was responsible for the 9/11 operation from A to Z" and that his statement was not made under duress.NEWS,weblink September 11 suspect 'confesses', Al Jazeera, March 15, 2007, September 3, 2011, NEWS,weblink Key 9/11 suspect 'admits guilt', BBC News Online, March 15, 2007, April 10, 2012, A letter presented by the lawyers of Khaled Sheikh Mohammed in the U.S. District Court, Manhattan on 26 July 2019, indicated that the prime accused mastermind was interested in testifying against Saudi Arabia’s role in the 9/11 attacks and helping the victims and families of the victims of 9/11. However, as per the letter, Mohammed's agreement upon the same in “the present time” isn't certain. James Kreindler, one of the lawyers for the plaintiff also raised question over the usefulness of Mohammed._WEB,weblink Accused 9/11 mastermind open to role in victims' lawsuit if not executed, 29 July 2019, Reuters,

Other al-Qaeda members

{{Further|Trials related to the September 11 attacks}}In "Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed" from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui, five people are identified as having been completely aware of the operation's details. They are bin Laden, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, Abu Turab al-Urduni, and Mohammed Atef.WEB, Substitution for Testimony of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, 24,weblink 2006, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, September 3, 2011, To date, only peripheral figures have been tried or convicted for the attacks.On September 26, 2005, the Spanish high court sentenced Abu Dahdah to 27 years in prison for conspiracy on the 9/11 attacks and being a member of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda. At the same time, another 17 al-Qaeda members were sentenced to penalties of between six and eleven years.NEWS,weblink Spain jails 18 al-Qaeda operatives, The Age, Melbourne, September 27, 2005, September 3, 2011, On February 16, 2006, the Spanish Supreme Court reduced the Abu Dahdah penalty to 12 years because it considered that his participation in the conspiracy was not proven.NEWS, Philippe, Naughton, Spanish court quashes 9/11 conviction, June 1, 2006,weblink The Times, September 3, 2011, Also in 2006, Moussaoui—who some originally suspected might have been the assigned 20th hijacker—was convicted for the lesser role of conspiracy to commit acts of terrorism and air piracy. He was sentenced to life in prison without parole in the United States.Summers and Swan (2011), p. 489n.NEWS, Youssef, Maamoun, Bin Laden: Moussaoui Not Linked to 9/11, Associated Press, May 24, 2006, The Washington Post,weblink Mounir el-Motassadeq, an associate of the Hamburg-based hijackers, served 15 years in Germany for his role in helping the hijackers prepare for the attacks. He was released in October 2018, and deported to Morocco.WEB,weblink 9/11: One of the few men convicted, Mounir el-Motassadeq, is free — Quartz, Quartz (publication), Quartz, 2018-10-26, The Hamburg cell in Germany included radical Islamists who eventually came to be key operatives in the 9/11 attacks.NEWS, BBC News Online, The Hamburg connection, August 19, 2005,weblink Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, Ramzi bin al-Shibh, and Said Bahaji were all members of al-Qaeda's Hamburg cell."Chapter of the 9/11 Commission Report detailing the history of the Hamburg Cell {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090816215318weblink |date=August 16, 2009 }}". 9/11 Commission.

Motives

Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a 1998 fatwā signed by bin Laden and others, calling for the killing of Americans, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation.Gunarathna, pp. 61–62. In bin Laden's November 2002 "Letter to America", he explicitly stated that al-Qaeda's motives for their attacks include:
  • U.S. support of Israel
  • Mearsheimer (2007), p. 67.
  • Kushner (2003), p. 389.
  • Murdico (2003), p. 64.
  • Kelley (2006), p. 207.
  • Ibrahim (2007), p. 276.
  • {{harvp|Berner|2007|p=80}}
  • support for the "attacks against Muslims" in Somalia
  • support of Philippines against Muslims in the Moro conflict
  • support for Israeli "aggression" against Muslims in Lebanon
  • support of Russian "atrocities against Muslims" in Chechnya
  • pro-American governments in the Middle East (who "act as your agents") being against Muslim interests
  • support of Indian "oppression against Muslims" in Kashmir
  • the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia
  • Plotz, David (2001) What Does Osama Bin Laden Want?, Slate
  • {{harvp|Bergen|2001|p=3}}
  • NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080119011449weblink">weblink January 19, 2008, Face to face with Osama, The Guardian, September 26, 2001, London, September 3, 2011, Rahimullah, Yusufzai, dead,
  • NEWS,weblink US pulls out of Saudi Arabia, September 3, 2011, BBC News Online, April 29, 2003,
  • NEWS,weblink Saga of Dr. Zawahri Sheds Light on the Roots of al Qaeda Terror, The Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2002, September 3, 2011, subscription,
  • WEB,weblink Tenth Public Hearing, Testimony of Louis Freeh, 9/11 Commission, April 13, 2004, September 3, 2011,
  • WEB, Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: World Islamic Front Statement, February 23, 1998,weblink Federation of American Scientists, September 3, 2011,
  • the sanctions against Iraq
  • WEB,weblink Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech, Al Jazeera, April 10, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101093303weblink">weblink January 1, 2016,
  • NEWS, Osama, bin Laden, Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America', November 24, 2002,weblink The Observer, September 3, 2011, London,
After the attacks, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri released additional videotapes and audio recordings, some of which repeated those reasons for the attacks. Two particularly important publications were bin Laden's 2002 "Letter to America",NEWS,weblink Full transcript of bin Laden's "Letter to America", The Guardian, November 24, 2002, September 3, 2011, London, and a 2004 videotape by bin Laden.WEB,weblink Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech, April 10, 2012, bin Laden, Osama, Al Jazeera, So I shall talk to you about the story behind those events and shall tell you truthfully about the moments in which the decision was taken, for you to consider, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160101093303weblink">weblink January 1, 2016, Bin Laden interpreted Muhammad as having banned the "permanent presence of infidels in Arabia".{{harvp|Bergen|2001|p=3}} In 1996, bin Laden issued a fatwā calling for American troops to leave Saudi Arabia. In 1998, al-Qaeda wrote, "for over seven years the United States has been occupying the lands of Islam in the holiest of places, the Arabian Peninsula, plundering its riches, dictating to its rulers, humiliating its people, terrorizing its neighbors, and turning its bases in the Peninsula into a spearhead through which to fight the neighboring Muslim peoples."WEB,weblink 1998 Al Qaeda fatwā, Federation of American Scientists (FAS), February 23, 1998, September 3, 2011, In a December 1999 interview, bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca", and considered this a provocation to the entire Muslim world.NEWS,weblink Face to face with Osama, The Guardian, September 26, 2001, London, September 3, 2011, Rahimullah, Yusufzai, One analysis of suicide terrorism suggested that without U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, al-Qaeda likely would not have been able to get people to commit to suicide missions.BOOK, Pape, Robert A., Robert Pape, Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, 2005, Random House, New York, 978-0-8129-7338-9,weblink In the 1998 fatwā, al-Qaeda identified the Iraq sanctions as a reason to kill Americans, condemning the "protracted blockade" among other actions that constitute a declaration of war against "Allah, his messenger, and Muslims." The fatwā declared that "the ruling to kill the Americans and their allies â€“ civilians and military â€“ is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy mosque of Mecca from their grip, and in order for their [the Americans'] armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim."See also the 1998 Al-Qaeda fatwā: "The ruling to kill the Americans and their allies â€“ civilians and military â€“ is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque and the holy mosque [Mecca] from their grip, and in order for their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim." Quoted from WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131128194258weblink">weblink November 28, 2013, Al Qaeda's Second Fatwa, PBS NewsHour, Public Broadcasting Service, dead, May 29, 2014, In 2004, Bin Laden claimed that the idea of destroying the towers had first occurred to him in 1982, when he witnessed Israel's bombardment of high-rise apartment buildings during the 1982 Lebanon War.Summers and Swan (2011), pp. 211, 506n.Lawrence (2005), p. 239. Some analysts, including Mearsheimer and Walt, also claimed that U.S. support of Israel was one motive for the attacks. In 2004 and 2010, bin Laden again connected the September 11 attacks with U.S. support of Israel, although most of the letter expressed bin Laden's disdain for President Bush and bin Laden's hope to "destroy and bankrupt" the U.S.WEB, Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech,weblink Al Jazeera, August 24, 2016, November 4, 2004, In his taped broadcast from January 2010, Bin Laden said "Our attacks against you [the United States] will continue as long as U.S. support for Israel continues. ... The message sent to you with the attempt by the hero Nigerian Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab is a confirmation of our previous message conveyed by the heroes of September 11". Quoted from "Bin Laden: Attacks on U.S. to go on as long as it supports Israel" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161216081625weblink |date=December 16, 2016 }}, in Haaretz.comOther motives have been suggested in addition to those stated by bin Laden and al-Qaeda, including western support of Islamic and non-Islamic authoritarian regimes in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Iraq, Pakistan and northern Africa, and the presence of western troops in some of these countries.BOOK,weblink Before and After 9/11: A Philosophical Examination of Globalization, Terror, April 21, 2011, September 11, 2011, 978-1-4411-1892-9, Rockmore, Tom, {{page number needed|reason=Citing a whole book for a claim (or rather over a half-dozen claims) like this is not helpful. The claim that the attacks could have been motivated by western support of Saddam's regime in Iraq is extremely dubious, let alone the claim that not only is the Iranian regime "authoritarian" (at least relatively speaking) but that said regime is the recipient of western support. No one is going to read an entire book to try to locate details like this that almost certainly are not there.|date=October 2017}} Some authors suggested the "humiliation" that resulted from the Islamic world falling behind the Western world â€“ this discrepancy was rendered especially visible by the globalization trendBernard Lewis, 2004. In Bernard Lewis's 2004 book (The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror), he argues that animosity toward the West is best understood with the decline of the once powerful Ottoman empire, compounded by the import of western ideas â€“ Arab socialism, Arab liberalism and Arab secularism. During the past three centuries, according to this interpretation, the Islamic world has lost its dominance and its position of leadership in the world, and has fallen behind both the modern West and the rapidly modernizing Orient. The resulting widening gap poses increasingly severe problems, both practical and emotional, for which the rulers, thinkers, and rebels of Islam have not yet found effective answers.In an essay titled "The spirit of terrorism", Jean Baudrillard described 9/11 as the first global event that "questions the very process of globalization". WEB,weblink The spirit of terrorism, Baudrillard, June 26, 2011, and a desire to provoke the U.S. into a broader war against the Islamic world in the hope of motivating more allies to support al-Qaeda. Similarly, others have argued that 9/11 was a strategic move with the objective of provoking America into a war that would incite a pan-Islamic revolution.In an essay entitled "Somebody Else's Civil War", Michael Scott Doran argues the attacks are best understood as part of a religious conflict within the Muslim world and that Bin Laden's followers "consider themselves an island of true believers surrounded by a sea of iniquity". Hoping that U.S. retaliation would unite the faithful against the West, bin Laden sought to spark revolutions in Arab nations and elsewhere. Doran argues the Osama bin Laden videos attempt to provoke a visceral reaction in the Middle East and ensure that Muslim citizens would react as violently as possible to an increase in U.S. involvement in their region. (MAGAZINE,weblink Somebody Else's Civil War, Michael Scott, Doran, January/February 2002, Foreign Affairs, December 5, 2009, subscription, Reprinted in BOOK, Hoge, James F., Rose, Gideon, Understanding the War on Terror, Norton, 2005, New York, 978-0-87609-347-4, 72–75, )In The Osama bin Laden I Know, Peter Bergen argues the attacks were part of a plan to cause the United States to increase its military and cultural presence in the Middle East, thereby forcing Muslims to confront the idea of a non-Muslim government and to eventually establish conservative Islamic governments in the region.({{harvp|Bergen|2006|p=229}})

Planning

File:911 - FEMA - WTC impacts (graphic).svg|thumb|left|alt=Ground zero and surrounding area as seen from directly above depicting where the two planes impacted the towers|Map showing the attacks on the World Trade Center (The planes are not drawn to scale.)]]The attacks were conceived by Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who first presented it to Osama bin Laden in 1996.NEWS,weblink Suspect 'reveals 9/11 planning', BBC News Online, September 22, 2003, September 3, 2011, At that time, bin Laden and al-Qaeda were in a period of transition, having just relocated back to Afghanistan from Sudan.9/11 Commission Report (2004), Chapter 5, pp ?? The 1998 African Embassy bombings and bin Laden's February 1998 fatwā marked a turning point of al-Qaeda's terrorist operation,9/11 Commission Report (2004), p. 67. as bin Laden became intent on attacking the United States.In late 1998 or early 1999, bin Laden gave approval for Mohammed to go forward with organizing the plot.9/11 Commission Report (2004), p. 149. Mohammed, bin Laden, and bin Laden's deputy Mohammed Atef held a series of meetings in early 1999.9/11 Commission Report (2004), p. 155. Atef provided operational support, including target selections and helping arrange travel for the hijackers. Bin Laden overruled Mohammed, rejecting potential targets such as the U.S. Bank Tower in Los Angeles for lack of time.NEWS,weblink Bin Laden Chose 9/11 Targets, Al Qaeda Leader Says, The New York Times, Lichtblau, Eric, March 20, 2003, September 3, 2011, {{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=308}}(File:World Trade Center, NY - 2001-09-11 - Debris Impact Areas.svg|thumb|upright|Diagram showing the attacks on the World Trade Center)Bin Laden provided leadership and financial support, and was involved in selecting participants.{{sfnp|Bergen|2006|p=283}} He initially selected Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, both experienced jihadists who had fought in Bosnia. Hazmi and Mihdhar arrived in the United States in mid-January 2000. In early 2000, Hazmi and Mihdhar took flying lessons in San Diego, California, but both spoke little English, performed poorly in flying lessons, and eventually served as secondary â€“ or "muscle" â€“ hijackers.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=309–15}}McDermott (2005), pp. 191–92.In late 1999, a group of men from Hamburg, Germany arrived in Afghanistan; the group included Mohamed Atta, Marwan al-Shehhi, Ziad Jarrah, and Ramzi bin al-Shibh.NEWS, Richard, Bernstein, On Path to the U.S. Skies, Plot Leader Met bin Laden,weblink The New York Times, September 10, 2002, September 3, 2011, Bin Laden selected these men because they were educated, could speak English, and had experience living in the West.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=304–07}} New recruits were routinely screened for special skills and al-Qaeda leaders consequently discovered that Hani Hanjour already had a commercial pilot's license.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=302}} Mohammed later said that he helped the hijackers blend in by teaching them how to order food in restaurants and dress in Western clothing.{{sfnp|Jessee|2006|p=371}}Hanjour arrived in San Diego on December 8, 2000, joining Hazmi.NEWS, 9/11 commission staff statement No. 16, June 16, 2004,weblink 9/11 Commission, September 11, 2012, {{Rp|6–7}} They soon left for Arizona, where Hanjour took refresher training.{{rp|7}} Marwan al-Shehhi arrived at the end of May 2000, while Atta arrived on June 3, 2000, and Jarrah arrived on June 27, 2000.{{rp|6}} Bin al-Shibh applied several times for a visa to the United States, but as a Yemeni, he was rejected out of concerns he would overstay his visa.{{rp|4, 14}} Bin al-Shibh stayed in Hamburg, providing coordination between Atta and Mohammed.{{rp|16}} The three Hamburg cell members all took pilot training in South Florida.{{rp|6}}In spring of 2001, the secondary hijackers began arriving in the United States.WEB,weblink Staff Monograph on 9/11 and Terrorist Travel, 9/11 Commission, 2004, September 3, 2011, In July 2001, Atta met with bin al-Shibh in Spain, where they coordinated details of the plot, including final target selection. Bin al-Shibh also passed along bin Laden's wish for the attacks to be carried out as soon as possible.NEWS,weblink Atta recibió en Tarragona joyas para que los miembros del 'comando' del 11-S se hiciesen pasar por ricos saudíes, El País, March 21, 2004, Irujo, Jose María, April 10, 2012, Spanish, Some of the hijackers received passports from corrupt Saudi officials who were family members, or used fraudulent passports to gain entry.DOCUMENT,weblink 2, Entry of the 9/11 Hijackers into the United States Staff Statement No. 1, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon The United States,

Prior intelligence

In late 1999, al-Qaeda associate Walid bin Attash ("Khallad") contacted Mihdhar, telling him to meet him in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Hazmi and Abu Bara al Yemeni would also be in attendance. The NSA intercepted a telephone call mentioning the meeting, Mihdhar, and the name "Nawaf" (Hazmi). While the agency feared "Something nefarious might be afoot", it took no further action. The CIA had already been alerted by Saudi intelligence about the status of Mihdhar and Hazmi as al-Qaeda members, and a CIA team broke into Mihdhar's Dubai hotel room and discovered that Mihdhar had a U.S. visa. While Alec Station alerted intelligence agencies worldwide about this fact, it did not share this information with the FBI. The Malaysian Special Branch observed the January 5, 2000 meeting of the two al-Qaeda members, and informed the CIA that Mihdhar, Hazmi, and Khallad were flying to Bangkok, but the CIA never notified other agencies of this, nor did it ask the State Department to put Mihdhar on its watchlist. An FBI liaison to Alec Station asked permission to inform the FBI of the meeting but was told: "This is not a matter for the FBI."{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=310–312}}By late June, senior counter-terrorism official Richard Clarke and CIA director George Tenet were "convinced that a major series of attacks was about to come", although the CIA believed the attacks would likely occur in Saudi Arabia or Israel.{{sfnp|Clarke|2004|pp=235–236}} In early July, Clarke put domestic agencies on "full alert", telling them, "Something really spectacular is going to happen here ... soon." He asked the FBI and the State Department to alert the embassies and police departments, and the Defense Department to go to "Threat Condition Delta."{{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=344}}{{sfnp|Clarke|2004|pp=236–237}} Clarke would later write: "Somewhere in CIA there was information that two known al Qaeda terrorists had come into the United States. [...] in [the] FBI there was information that strange things had been going on at flight schools in the United States. [...] They had specific information about individual terrorists. [...] None of that information got to me or the White House."{{sfnp|Clarke|2004|pp=242–243}}On July 13, Tom Wilshire, a CIA agent assigned to the FBI's international terrorism division, emailed his superiors at the CIA's Counterterrorism Center (CTC) requesting permission to inform the FBI that Hazmi was in the country and that Mihdhar had a U.S. visa. The CIA never responded.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=340}}The same day in July, Margarette Gillespie, an FBI analyst working in the CTC, was told to review material about the Malaysia meeting. She was not told of the participants' presence in the U.S. The CIA gave Gillespie surveillance photos of Mihdhar and Hazmi from the meeting to show to FBI counterterrorism, but did not tell her their significance. The Intelink database informed her not to share intelligence material on the meeting to criminal investigators. When shown the photos, the FBI were refused more details on their significance, and they were not given Mihdhar's date of birth nor passport number.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=340–343}} In late August 2001, Gillespie told the INS, the State Department, the Customs Service, and the FBI to put Hazmi and Mihdhar on their watchlists, but the FBI was prohibited from using criminal agents in the search for the duo, which hindered their efforts.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=352–353}}Also in July, a Phoenix-based FBI agent sent a message to FBI headquarters, Alec Station, and to FBI agents in New York alerting them to "the possibility of a coordinated effort by Osama bin Laden to send students to the United States to attend civil aviation universities and colleges." The agent, Kenneth Williams, suggested the need to interview all flight school managers and identify all Arab students seeking flight training.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|p=350}} In July, Jordan alerted the U.S. that al-Qaeda was planning an attack on the U.S.; "months later", Jordan notified the U.S. that the attack's codename was "The Big Wedding" and that it involved airplanes.{{sfnp|Yitzhak|2016|p=218}}On August 6, 2001, the CIA's Presidential Daily Brief ("PDB"), designated "For the President Only", was entitled "Bin Ladin Determined to Strike in U.S." The memo noted that "The FBI information ... indicates patterns of suspicious activity in this country consistent with preparations for hijackings or other types of attacks."WEB, THE OSAMA BIN LADEN FILE: National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 343,weblink The National Security Archive, The National Security Archive, March 14, 2016, In mid-August, one Minnesota flight school alerted the FBI about Zacarias Moussaoui, who had asked "suspicious questions." The FBI found that Moussaoui was a radical who had traveled to Pakistan, and the INS arrested him for overstaying his French visa. Their request to search his laptop was denied by FBI headquarters due to the lack of probable cause.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=350–351}}The failures in intelligence-sharing were attributed to 1995 Justice Department policies limiting intelligence sharing, combined with CIA and NSA reluctance to reveal "sensitive sources and methods" such as tapped phones.{{sfnp|Wright|2006|pp=342–343}} Testifying before the 9/11 Commission in April 2004, then-Attorney General John Ashcroft recalled that the "single greatest structural cause for the September 11th problem was the wall that segregated or separated criminal investigators and intelligence agents."{{sfnp|Javorsek II|Rose|Marshall|Leitner|2015|p=742}} Clarke also wrote: "There were failures in the organizations [...] failures to get information to the right place at the right time."{{sfnp|Clarke|2004|p=238}}

Attacks

{{Further|Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks}}(File:Flight paths of hijacked planes-September 11 attacks.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Flight paths of the four planes used on September 11)Early on the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers took control of four commercial airliners (two Boeing 757s and two Boeing 767s) en route to California (three headed to LAX in Los Angeles and one to SFO in San Francisco) after takeoffs from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts; Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey; and Washington Dulles International Airport in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia. Large planes with long flights were selected for hijacking because they would be full of fuel.The four flights were:
  • American Airlines Flight 11: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 7:59{{nbsp}}a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of 11 and 76 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the northern facade of the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 8:46{{nbsp}}a.m.
  • United Airlines Flight 175: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 8:14{{nbsp}}a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of nine and 51 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the southern facade of the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 9:03{{nbsp}}a.m.
  • American Airlines Flight 77: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Washington Dulles International Airport at 8:20{{nbsp}}a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of six and 53 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the western facade of the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, at 9:37{{nbsp}}a.m.
  • United Airlines Flight 93: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Newark International Airport at 8:42{{nbsp}}a.m. en route to San Francisco, with a crew of seven and 33 passengers, not including four hijackers. As passengers attempted to subdue the hijackers, the aircraft crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:03{{nbsp}}a.m.
Media coverage was extensive during the attacks and aftermath, beginning moments after the first crash into the World Trade Center.See, for example, news coverage by CNN: JOURNAL, CNN,weblink Breaking News Videos from CNN.com,

The four crashes

{{See also|Media documentation of the September 11 attacks}}File:September 11 2001 just collapsed.jpg|thumb|upright|Collapse of the towers as seen from across the Hudson RiverHudson RiverAt 8:46{{nbsp}}a.m., five hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the northern façade of the World Trade Center's North Tower (1 WTC). At 9:03{{nbsp}}a.m., another five hijackers crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern façade of the South Tower (2 WTC).WEB,weblink Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 11, National Transportation Safety Board, February 19, 2002, WEB,weblink Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 175, National Transportation Safety Board, February 19, 2002, Five hijackers flew American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon at 9:37{{nbsp}}a.m.WEB,weblink Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 77, National Transportation Safety Board, February 19, 2002, A fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh, at 10:03{{nbsp}}a.m. after the passengers fought the four hijackers. Flight 93's target is believed to have been either the Capitol or the White House.BOOK, The Attack Looms,weblink 2004, 9/11 Commission Report, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, September 1, 2011, Flight 93's cockpit voice recorder revealed crew and passengers tried to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that Flights 11, 77, and 175 had been crashed into buildings that morning.NEWS, David, Snyder, Families Hear Flight 93's Final Moments,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130602123513weblink">weblink dead, June 2, 2013, The Washington Post, April 19, 2002, November 12, 2013, Once it became evident that the passengers might gain control, the hijackers rolled the plane and intentionally crashed it.WIKISOURCE, Flight 93 Cockpit Transcript, WEB,weblink The Flight 93 Story, September 21, 2011, National Park Service, File:North face south tower after plane strike 9-11.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The north face of Two World Trade Center (south tower) immediately after being struck by United Airlines Flight 175United Airlines Flight 175Some passengers and crew members who called from the aircraft using the cabin airphone service and mobile phones provided details: several hijackers were aboard each plane; they used mace, tear gas, or pepper spray to overcome attendants; and some people aboard had been stabbed.
  • NEWS,weblink The phone line from Flight 93 was still open when a GTE operator heard Todd Beamer say: 'Are you guys ready? Let's roll', Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 16, 2001, McKinnon, Jim, April 10, 2011,
  • NEWS,weblink Relatives wait for news as rescuers dig, CNN, September 13, 2001, November 11, 2013,
  • Summers and Swan (2011), pp. 58, 463n, 476n.
  • NEWS,weblink On Doomed Flight, Passengers Vowed To Perish Fighting, Wilgoren, Jodi, Edward, Wong, September 13, 2001, The New York Times, September 1, 2011,
  • NEWS,weblink Moussaoui Jury Hears the Panic From 9/11, Serrano, Richard A., Los Angeles Times, April 11, 2006, September 1, 2011,
  • NEWS,weblink Hijackers used Mace, knives to take over airplanes, San Francisco Chronicle, January 28, 2004, Goo, Sara Kehaulani, Eggen, Dan, November 12, 2013,
  • NEWS, Ahlers, Mike M., 9/11 panel: Hijackers may have had utility knives, CBS News, January 27, 2004,weblink September 1, 2011, Reports indicated hijackers stabbed and killed pilots, flight attendants, and one or more passengers.9/11 Commission Report, pp. 4–14.NEWS,weblink Encore Presentation: Barbara Olson Remembered, Larry King Live, CNN, January 6, 2002, September 1, 2011, According to the 9/11 Commission's final report, the hijackers had recently purchased multi-function hand tools and assorted Leatherman-type utility knives with locking blades, which were not forbidden to passengers at the time, but were not found among the possessions left behind by the hijackers.WEB, National Commission Upon Terrorist Attacks in the United States,weblink National Commission Upon Terrorist Attacks in the United States, January 24, 2008, January 27, 2004, Summers and Swan (2011), p. 343. A flight attendant on Flight 11, a passenger on Flight 175, and passengers on Flight 93 said the hijackers had bombs, but one of the passengers said he thought the bombs were fake. The FBI found no traces of explosives at the crash sites, and the 9/11 Commission concluded that the bombs were probably fake.
Three buildings in the World Trade Center collapsed due to fire-induced structural failure.NEWS, Bill, Miller, Skyscraper Protection Might Not Be Feasible, Federal Engineers Say,weblink Orlando Sentinel, May 1, 2002, November 24, 2013, The South Tower collapsed at 9:59{{nbsp}}a.m. after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175 and the explosion of its fuel. The North Tower collapsed at 10:28{{nbsp}}a.m. after burning for 102 minutes. When the North Tower collapsed, debris fell on the nearby 7 World Trade Center building (7 WTC), damaging it and starting fires. These fires burned for hours, compromising the building's structural integrity, and 7 WTC collapsed at 5:21{{nbsp}}p.m.World Trade Center Building Performance Study, Ch. 5 WTC 7 â€“ section 5.5.4{{sfnp|Final Report on the Collapse of World Trade Center Building 7|2008|p=xxxvii}} The west side of the Pentagon sustained significant damage.File:Pentagon Security Camera 1.ogv|thumb|thumbtime=01:31|Security camera footage of American Airlines Flight 77 hitting the Pentagonthe PentagonAt 9:42{{nbsp}}a.m., the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) grounded all civilian aircraft within the continental U.S., and civilian aircraft already in flight were told to land immediately.NEWS, Chapter 1: "We have some planes",weblink 9/11 Commission Report, July 22, 2004, All international civilian aircraft were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico, and were banned from landing on United States territory for three days.WEB, Profiles of 9/11 â€“ About 9/11,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722151526weblink">weblink July 22, 2011, The Biography Channel, A&E Television Networks, September 2, 2011, The attacks created widespread confusion among news organizations and air traffic controllers. Among the unconfirmed and often contradictory news reports aired throughout the day, one of the most prevalent said a car bomb had been detonated at the U.S. State Department's headquarters in Washington, D.C.WEB, Miller, Mark, Three hours that shook America: A chronology of chaos,weblink August 26, 2002, Broadcasting & Cable, September 2, 2011, Another jet—Delta Air Lines Flight 1989—was suspected of having been hijacked, but the aircraft responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio.NEWS, Marilyn, Adams, Levin, Alan, Morrison, Blake, Part II: No one was sure if hijackers were on board,weblink USA Today, August 13, 2002, September 2, 2011, In an April 2002 interview, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi bin al-Shibh, who are believed to have organized the attacks, said Flight 93's intended target was the United States Capitol, not the White House.{{Sfnp|Fouda|Fielding|2004|pp=158–59}} During the planning stage of the attacks, Mohamed Atta, the hijacker and pilot of Flight 11, thought the White House might be too tough a target and sought an assessment from Hani Hanjour (who hijacked and piloted Flight 77).Summers and Swan (2011), p. 323. Mohammed said al-Qaeda initially planned to target nuclear installations rather than the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but decided against it, fearing things could "get out of control".NEWS, Al-Qaeda 'plotted nuclear attacks', BBC News Online, September 8, 2002,weblink September 2, 2011, Final decisions on targets, according to Mohammed, were left in the hands of the pilots.

Casualties

File:September 17 2001.jpg|thumb|left|The remains of 6, 7, and 1 WTC on September 17, 2001]](File:9-11 Wall segment.jpg|thumb|left|A surviving portion of the wall from the Twin Towers)The attacks caused the deaths of 2,996 people (including all 19 hijackers) and injured more than 6,000 others.NEWS, Winnipegger heads to NY for 9/11 memorial, September 9, 2011,weblink CBC News, November 13, 2013, A total of 2,996 people died: 19 hijackers and 2,977 victims., The death toll included 265 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, and 125 at the Pentagon.NEWS,weblink First video of Pentagon 9/11 attack released, May 16, 2006, CNN, September 2, 2011,weblink September 24, 2006, live, Most of those who perished were civilians, with the exception of 343 firefighters, 72 law enforcement officers, 55 military personnel, and the 19 terrorists who died in the attacks.NEWS, Stone, Andrea,weblink Military's aid and comfort ease 9/11 survivors' burden, USA Today, August 20, 2002, September 2, 2011, September 11 Memorial {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160326025722weblink |date=March 26, 2016 }} After New York, New Jersey lost the most state citizens, with the city of Hoboken having the most New Jersey citizens who died in the attacks.WEB,weblink 9/11/01-02: A Demographic Portrait of the Victims in 10048, Gotham Gazette, Beveridge, Andrew, September 2, 2011, More than 90 countries lost citizens in the September 11 attacks;JOURNAL, A list of the countries whose citizens died as a result of the attacks on September 11, 2001, Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State, Office of International Information Programs,weblink U.S. Department of State, March 18, 2016, unfit,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411152231weblink">weblink April 11, 2008, for example, the 67 Britons who died were more than in any other terrorist attack anywhere {{As of|2002|10|lc=y}}.HTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/WORLD/2002/SEP/10/SEPTEMBER11.UK >TITLE=BRITISH VICTIMS OF SEPTEMBER 11 DATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 2002 ACCESSDATE=JUNE 6, 2017, The attacks killed about 500 more people than the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and are the deadliest terrorist attacks in world history.In Arlington County, Virginia, 125 Pentagon workers lost their lives when Flight 77 crashed into the western side of the building. Of these, 70 were civilians and 55 were military personnel, many of whom worked for the United States Army or the United States Navy. The Army lost 47 civilian employees, six civilian contractors, and 22 soldiers, while the Navy lost six civilian employees, three civilian contractors, and 33 sailors. Seven Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) civilian employees were also among the dead in the attack, as well as an Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) contractor.WEB, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, U.S. Congress, August 21, 2004,weblink September 8, 2006, {{Sfnp|Goldberg et al.|2007|pp=208–212}}WEB,weblink September 11, 2001 Pentagon Victims, patriotresource.com, March 18, 2016, Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, an Army Deputy Chief of Staff, was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.WEB, Remembering the Lost, Timothy J. Maude, Lieutenant General, United States Army, Arlington National Cemetery, September 22, 2001,weblink April 16, 2001, File:National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire.jpg|thumb|The Statue of LibertyStatue of LibertyIn New York City, more than 90% of the workers and visitors who died in the towers had been at or above the points of impact.Sunder (2005), p. 48. In the North Tower, 1,355 people at or above the point of impact were trapped and died of smoke inhalation, fell or jumped from the tower to escape the smoke and flames, or were killed in the building's eventual collapse. The destruction of all three staircases in the tower when Flight 11 hit made it impossible for anyone above the impact zone to escape. 107 people below the point of impact died as well.In the South Tower, one stairwell, Stairwell A, was left intact after Flight 175 hit, allowing 14 people located on the floors of impact (including one man who saw the plane coming at him) and four more from the floors above to escape. New York City 9-1-1 operators who received calls from people inside the tower were not well informed of the situation as it rapidly unfolded and as a result, told callers not to descend the tower on their own.BOOK, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, The 9/11 Commission Report (first edition), W. W. Norton & Company, July 22, 2004,weblink 294, 978-0-393-32671-0, January 24, 2014, In total 630 people died in that tower, fewer than half the number killed in the North Tower. Casualties in the South Tower were significantly reduced because some occupants decided to start evacuating as soon as the North Tower was struck.Sunder (2005), p. 46. The failure to evacuate the South Tower fully after the first jet crash into the North Tower was described by USA Today as "one of the day's great tragedies".BOOK, Purpura, Philip, Security and Loss Prevention: An Introduction,weblink September 16, 2017, 5th, 2007, Elsevier, 978-0080554006, 300, Life safety, fire protection, and emergencies, Almost all the 600 people in the top floors of the south tower died after a second hijacked airliner crashed in the 80th floor shortly after 9{{nbsp, a.m. The failure to evacuate the building was one of the day's great tragedies.}}File:French Urban Search and Rescue.jpg|thumb|left|An Urban Search and Rescue Task Force German shepherdGerman shepherdAt least 200 people fell or jumped to their deaths from the burning towers (as exemplified in the photograph The Falling Man), landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below.NEWS,weblink Desperation forced a horrific decision, USA Today, September 2, 2002, Cauchon, Dennis, Moore, Martha, September 2, 2011, Some occupants of each tower above the point of impact made their way toward the roof in the hope of helicopter rescue, but the roof access doors were locked.WEB, Paltrow, Scot, Could Helicopters Have Saved People From the Top of the Trade Center?,weblink The Wall Street Journal, January 22, 2017, No plan existed for helicopter rescues, and the combination of roof equipment, thick smoke, and intense heat prevented helicopters from approaching.NEWS,weblink Poor Info Hindered 9/11 Rescue, CBS News, May 18, 2004, September 2, 2011, A total of 411 emergency workers died as they tried to rescue people and fight fires. The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) lost 343 firefighters, including a chaplain and two paramedics.WEB,weblink The Unofficial Home Page of FDNY, The New York City Police Department (NYPD) lost 23 officers.NEWS, Post-9/11 report recommends police, fire response changes,weblink August 19, 2002, Associated Press, USA Today, September 2, 2011, The Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) lost 37 officers.NEWS, Police back on day-to-day beat after 9/11 nightmare,weblink July 21, 2002, CNN, November 12, 2013, Eight emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from private emergency medical services units were killed.WEB,weblink EMT & Paramedics, August 18, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203041213weblink">weblink February 3, 2017, dead, Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of the North Tower, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer.NEWS,weblink Cantor rebuilds after 9/11 losses, BBC, September 4, 2006, September 2, 2011, Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–100, lost 358 employees,WEB,weblink Marsh & McLennan Companies 9/11 Memorial, September 7, 2011, WEB,weblink Milestones of Marsh & McLennan Companies, September 7, 2011, and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were also killed.NEWS,weblink Industry honors fallen on 9/11 anniversary, InvestmentNews, Siegel, Aaron, September 11, 2007, September 2, 2011, The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) estimated that about 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. Turnstile counts from the Port Authority suggest 14,154 people were typically in the Twin Towers by 8:45{{nbsp}}a.m.{{sfnp|Averill|2005|loc="Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications"}}{{page number needed|date=July 2019}}{{sfnp|Dwyer|Flynn|2005|p=266}} Most people below the impact zone safely evacuated the buildings.NEWS,weblink Last Words at the Trade Center; Fighting to Live as the Towers Die, Dwyer, Jim, Eric, Lipton, Kevin, Flynn, James, Glanz, The New York Times, May 26, 2002, September 2, 2011, etal, {| class="wikitable" style="width:280px; font-size:90%; float:right; margin-left:10px"|+Deaths (victims + hijackers)!rowspan="3"| New York CityWorld Trade Center}}2,606HTTP://EDITION.CNN.COM/2009/CRIME/11/13/KHALID.SHEIKH.MOHAMMED/INDEX.HTML>TITLE=ACCUSED 9/11 PLOTTER KHALID SHEIKH MOHAMMED FACES NEW YORK TRIALPUBLISHER=CNNARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 25, 2012TITLE=ALLEGED 9/11 PLOTTERS FACE TRIAL BLOCKS FROM WTC SITE PUBLISHER=WIBW-TV >ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 24, 2013, }}American Airlines Flight 11>American 11PUBLISHER=CNN, September 2, 2011, United Airlines Flight 175>United 175PUBLISHER=CNN, September 2, 2011, !rowspan="2"| ArlingtonThe Pentagon>PentagonPUBLISHER=CNN, September 2, 2011, American Airlines Flight 77>American 77 59 + 5HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/SPECIALS/2001/MEMORIAL/LISTS/BY-LOCATION/PAGE96.HTML >TITLE=AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 77 ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 2, 2011, ! {{nobr|Near Shanksville}}United Airlines Flight 93>United 93WORK=PITTSBURGH POST-GAZETTE LAST=RODDY AUTHORLINK=DENNIS RODDYARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WWW.WEBCITATION.ORG/5KMMRKIHH URL-STATUS=LIVE, !colspan="2"| Total2,977 + 19}}Weeks after the attack, the death toll was estimated to be over 6,000, more than twice the number of deaths eventually confirmed.NEWS,weblink Source: Hijacking suspects linked to Afghanistan, CNN, September 30, 2001, September 2, 2011, The city was only able to identify remains for about 1,600 of the World Trade Center victims. The medical examiner's office collected "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead".NEWS, Ground Zero Forensic Work Ends, CBS News, February 23, 2005,weblink September 2, 2011, Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 by workers who were preparing to demolish the damaged Deutsche Bank Building. In 2010, a team of anthropologists and archaeologists searched for human remains and personal items at the Fresh Kills Landfill, where 72 more human remains were recovered, bringing the total found to 1,845. DNA profiling continues in an attempt to identify additional victims.NEWS, Andrade, Mariano, Scientists still struggle to identify 9/11 remains,weblink Agence France-Presse, August 25, 2011, September 5, 2011, Discovery News, NEWS,weblink Remains of WTC worker Ernest James, 40, ID'd ten years after 9/11, Lemre, Jonathan, Daily News, New York, August 24, 2011, April 10, 2012, NEWS, Bobby, Cuza, 9/11 A Decade Later: DNA Matching Efforts To Continue At WTC Site, June 11, 2011,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140920211012weblink">weblink September 20, 2014, NY1, September 21, 2011, The remains are being held in storage in Memorial Park, outside the New York City Medical Examiner's facilities. It was expected that the remains would be moved in 2013 to a repository behind a wall at the 9/11 museum. In July 2011, a team of scientists at the Office of Chief Medical Examiner was still trying to identify remains, in the hope that improved technology will allow them to identify other victims. On August 7, 2017, the 1,641st victim was identified as a result of newly available DNA technology,WEB,weblink 9/11 victim identified 16 years on, August 7, 2017, BBC, and a 1,642nd on July 26, 2018.WEB,weblink "Finality": 9/11 victim's remains identified 17 years later, July 26, 2018, CBS News, A further 1,111 victims are yet to be identified.

Damage

{{Further|Collapse of the World Trade Center}}(File:World Trade Center 3 After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations.jpg|thumb|World Trade Center site (Ground Zero) with an overlay showing the original building locations)(File:Aerial view of the Pentagon during rescue operations post-September 11 attack.JPEG|thumb|The Pentagon was damaged by fire and partly collapsed.)File:September 11 attack seen from space by nasa.jpg|thumb|The aftermath of the World Trade Center attacks, as seen from space by the Landsat 7 satelliteNEWS, Jones, Jonathan, The 9/11 attack seen from space – an image of impotence,weblink The GuardianThe GuardianAlong with the 110-floor Twin Towers, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including WTC buildings 3 through 7 and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church.WEB,weblink World Trade Center Building Performance Study, May 2002, FEMA, September 3, 2011,weblink September 18, 2010, dead, The North Tower, South Tower, the Marriott Hotel (3 WTC), and 7 WTC were destroyed. The U.S. Customs House (6 World Trade Center), 4 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, and both pedestrian bridges connecting buildings were severely damaged. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street was partially damaged and demolished some years later, starting in 2007.Summers and Swan (2011), p. 75.NEWS, Matt, Chaban, 130 Liberty Finally Gone from Ground Zero, February 9, 2011,weblink The New York Observer, April 10, 2012, The two buildings of the World Financial Center also suffered damage. The last fires at the World Trade Center site were extinguished on December 20, exactly 100 days after the attacks.WEB,weblink Ground Zero stops burning, after 100 days, The Guardian, December 20, 2001, May 5, 2018, The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned as uninhabitable because of toxic conditions inside the office tower, and was deconstructed.World Trade Center Building Performance Study â€“ Bankers Trust Building, pp ??WEB, The Deutsche Bank Building at 130 Liberty Street, Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center,weblink September 2, 2011, The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and was reopened in 2012.WEB, Shapiro, Julie, Students Return to Rebuilt Fiterman Hall 11 Years After 9/11, DNAinfo New York, August 27, 2012,weblink October 27, 2017, dead,weblink October 27, 2017, mdy-all, Other neighboring buildings (including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building) suffered major damage but have been restored.WEB,weblink Verizon Building Restoration, New York Construction (McGraw Hill), September 2, 2011,weblink May 22, 2010, live, World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage and have since been restored.World Trade Center Building Performance Study â€“ Peripheral Buildings, pp. ?? Communications equipment on top of the North Tower was also destroyed, with only WCBS-TV maintaining a backup transmitter on the Empire State Building, but media stations were quickly able to reroute the signals and resume their broadcasts.WEB, Bloomfield, Larry,weblink New York broadcasters rebuild, Broadcast Engineering, October 1, 2001, September 3, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080604040210weblink">weblink June 4, 2008, The PATH train system's World Trade Center station was located under the complex. As a result, the entire station was demolished completely when the towers collapsed, and the tunnels leading to Exchange Place station in Jersey City, New Jersey were flooded with water.WEB,weblink Downtown Restoration Program – THE PORT AUTHORITY OF NY&NJ, January 11, 2009, February 7, 2018, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090111002148weblink">weblink January 11, 2009, The station was rebuilt as the $4{{nbsp}}billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub, which reopened in March 2015.WEB, World Trade Center transportation hub, dubbed Oculus, opens to public, ABC7 New York, March 3, 2016,weblink July 8, 2018, WEB,weblink Port Authority Announces Opening of World Trade Center Transportation Hub, January 19, 2016, Port Authority of New York, New Jersey, January 29, 2016, The Cortlandt Street station on the New York City Subway's IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was also within close proximity to the World Trade Center complex, and the entire station, along with the surrounding track, was reduced to rubble.NEWS,weblink Subway Line in Attack May Reopen Much Earlier, Kennedy, Randy, January 4, 2002, The New York Times, February 7, 2018, 0362-4331, The latter station was rebuilt and reopened to the public on September 8, 2018.NEWS, WTC Cortlandt Subway Station Reopens for 1st Time Since 9/11 Attacks,weblink September 8, 2018, NBC 4 New York, Associated Press, September 8, 2018, The Pentagon was severely damaged by the impact of American Airlines Flight 77 and ensuing fires, causing one section of the building to collapse.The Pentagon Building Performance Report, pp. ?? As the airplane approached the Pentagon, its wings knocked down light poles and its right engine hit a power generator before crashing into the western side of the building.Flight Path Study – American Airlines Flight 77, pp. ??American Airlines Flight 77 FDR Report, pp. ?? The plane hit the Pentagon at the first-floor level. The front part of the fuselage disintegrated on impact, while the mid and tail sections kept moving for another fraction of a second.{{Sfnp|Goldberg et al.|2007|p=17}} Debris from the tail section penetrated furthest into the building, breaking through {{convert|310|ft|m|0}} of the three outermost of the building's five rings.{{Sfnp|Goldberg et al.|2007|p=17}}NEWS, Maclean, John N, America Under Attack: A chronicle of chaos and heroism at the Pentagon,weblink June 1, 2008, The Washington Post, September 3, 2011,

Rescue efforts

(File:DN-SD-04-12744.JPEG|right|thumb|alt=An injured victim is being loaded into a paramedic van with the burning Pentagon in the background.|EMS workers rescue and evacuate an injured victim of the Pentagon attack.)The New York City Fire Department deployed 200 units (half of the department) to the World Trade Center. Their efforts were supplemented by numerous off-duty firefighters and emergency medical technicians.McKinsey Report, "Emergency Medical Service response", pp. ??McKinsey Report, "Executive Summary", pp. ??McKinsey Report, Exhibit 7, "Fire Apparatus Deployment on September 11" The New York City Police Department sent Emergency Service Units and other police personnel and deployed its aviation unit. Once on the scene, the FDNY, the NYPD, and the PAPD did not coordinate efforts and performed redundant searches for civilians.{{Sfnp|Alavosius|Rodriquez|2005|pp=666–680}} As conditions deteriorated, the NYPD aviation unit relayed information to police commanders, who issued orders for its personnel to evacuate the towers; most NYPD officers were able to safely evacuate before the buildings collapsed.{{Sfnp|Alavosius|Rodriquez|2005|pp=666–680}}McKinsey Report, "NYPD", pp. ?? With separate command posts set up and incompatible radio communications between the agencies, warnings were not passed along to FDNY commanders.After the first tower collapsed, FDNY commanders issued evacuation warnings. Due to technical difficulties with malfunctioning radio repeater systems, many firefighters never heard the evacuation orders. 9-1-1 dispatchers also received information from callers that was not passed along to commanders on the scene. Within hours of the attack, a substantial search and rescue operation was launched. After months of around-the-clock operations, the World Trade Center site was cleared by the end of May 2002.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081201081749weblink">weblink December 1, 2008, dead, Ceremony closes 'Ground Zero' cleanup, May 30, 2002, CNN, November 24, 2013,

Aftermath

{{Further|Aftermath of the September 11 attacks|Airport security repercussions due to the September 11 attacks|Closings and cancellations following the September 11 attacks|Reactions to the September 11 attacks|U.S. government response to the September 11 attacks|U.S. military response during the September 11 attacks|September 11 Victim Compensation Fund}}The aftermath of the 9/11 attack resulted in immediate responses to the event, including domestic reactions, hate crimes, Muslim American responses to the event, international responses to the attack, and military responses to the events. An extensive compensation program was quickly established by Congress in the aftermath to compensate the victims and families of victims of the 9/11 attack as well.BOOK, Who Gets What: Fair Compensation after Tragedy and Financial Upheaval, Kenneth, Feinberg, June 2012, PublicAffairs, New York City, 9781586489779,weblink Feinberg, Kenneth. What is Life Worth?: The Unprecedented Effort to Compensate the Victims of 9/11 (2005), Perseus Books Group.

Immediate response

File:Bush 9-11 on phone.jpg|thumb|President George W. Bush is briefed on the attacks in Sarasota, FloridaSarasota, FloridaFile:9 11 Terror Attacks Historical Pentagon Briefing.webm|thumb|start=02:16|alt=Three high-level politicians and a General, all displaying grim facial expressions, flank the main speaker.|Eight hours after the attacks, Donald RumsfeldDonald RumsfeldAt 8:32{{nbsp}}a.m. FAA officials were notified Flight 11 had been hijacked and they, in turn, notified the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). NORAD scrambled two F-15s from Otis Air National Guard Base in Massachusetts and they were airborne by 8:53{{nbsp}}a.m.WEB, We Have Some Planes,weblink The 911 Commission Report, 911 Commission, September 9, 2011, 20–42, Because of slow and confused communication from FAA officials, NORAD had 9 minutes' notice that Flight 11 had been hijacked, and no notice about any of the other flights before they crashed. After both of the Twin Towers had already been hit, more fighters were scrambled from Langley Air Force Base in Virginia at 9:30{{nbsp}}a.m. At 10:20{{nbsp}}a.m. Vice President Dick Cheney issued orders to shoot down any commercial aircraft that could be positively identified as being hijacked. These instructions were not relayed in time for the fighters to take action.NEWS, Cheney: Order To Shoot Down Hijacked 9/11 Planes 'Necessary',weblink September 9, 2011, Fox News Channel, September 4, 2011, NEWS, Schrader, Esther, Cheney Gave Order to Shoot Down Jets,weblink September 9, 2011, Los Angeles Times, June 18, 2004, BOOK, Greer, Gordon, What Price Security?, 2005, iUniverse, Inc, 978-0-595-35792-5, 73,weblink March 18, 2016, Some fighters took to the air without live ammunition, knowing that to prevent the hijackers from striking their intended targets, the pilots might have to intercept and crash their fighters into the hijacked planes, possibly ejecting at the last moment.NEWS, Hendrix, Steve, F-16 pilot was ready to give her life on Sept. 11,weblink September 9, 2011, The Washington Post, September 8, 2011, For the first time in U.S. history, SCATANA was invoked,WEB,weblink NOTAMs/Flight Restrictions in Effect on 9/13/01, Flight Data Center, Federal Bureau of Investigation, April 13, 2007, 15ff, thus stranding tens of thousands of passengers across the world.WEB, Wartime, National Commission on Terrorists Attacks upon the United States, U.S. Congress,weblink September 3, 2011, Ben Sliney, in his first day as the National Operations Manager of the FAA,WEB,weblink October 4, 2006, 60 Seconds: Ben Sliney, Andrew, Williams, Metro (Associated Metro Limited), Metro online, Associated Northcliffe Digital, London, April 13, 2010, ordered that American airspace would be closed to all international flights, causing about five hundred flights to be turned back or redirected to other countries. Canada received 226 of the diverted flights and launched Operation Yellow Ribbon to deal with the large numbers of grounded planes and stranded passengers.PRESS RELEASE, Actions taken following September 11 terrorist attacks, December 11, 2001, Transport Canada,weblink September 3, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020415131425weblink">weblink April 15, 2002, The 9/11 attacks had immediate effects on the American people.JOURNAL, Stein, Howard F., 2003, Days of Awe: September 11, 2001 and its Cultural Psychodynamics, Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 8, 2, 187–199, 10.1353/psy.2003.0047, Police and rescue workers from around the country took a leave of absence from their jobs and traveled to New York City to help recover bodies from the twisted remnants of the Twin Towers.NEWS, Asthma Rates Up Among Ground Zero Workers, Associated Press, CBS News, September 10, 2009,weblink September 11, 2013, Blood donations across the U.S. surged in the weeks after 9/11.JOURNAL, Glynn, Simone A., Effect of a National Disaster on Blood Supply and Safety: The September 11 Experience, 2003, Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 17, 12734136, 10.1001/jama.289.17.2246, 2246–2253, Busch, MP, Schreiber, GB, Murphy, EL, Wright, DJ, Tu, Y, Kleinman, SH, Nhlbi Reds Study, Group, WEB, Red Cross Woes,weblink December 19, 2001, September 3, 2011, PBS, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110905071729weblink">weblink September 5, 2011, The deaths of adults in the attacks resulted in over 3,000 children losing a parent.JOURNAL, Coates, S., Schechter, D., 10.1016/j.psc.2004.03.006, Preschoolers' traumatic stress post-9/11: Relational and developmental perspectives, Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 27, 3, 473–489, 2004, 15325488, Subsequent studies documented children's reactions to these actual losses and to feared losses of life, the protective environment in the aftermath of the attacks, and effects on surviving caregivers.Schechter DS, Coates SW, First E (2002). Observations of acute reactions of young children and their families to the World Trade Center attacks. Journal of ZERO-TO-THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, 22(3), 9–13.Coates SW, Rosenthal J, Schechter DS—Eds. (2003). September 11: Trauma and Human Bonds. New York: Taylor and Francis, Inc.JOURNAL, Klein, T. P., Devoe, E. R., Miranda-Julian, C., Linas, K., Young children's responses to September 11th: The New York City experience, 10.1002/imhj.20200, 28636121, Infant Mental Health Journal, 30, 1, 1–22, 2009,

Domestic reactions

(File:Address to the Nation by President George W. Bush on September 11, 2001.webm|thumb|George W. Bush's address to the people of the United States, September 11, 2001, 8:30{{nbsp}}p.m. EDT.)File:Remarks from Ground Zero September 14, 2001.webm|thumb|thumbtime=00:11|Bush making remarks from Ground ZeroGround Zero{{Multiple image
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Following the attacks, President George W. Bush's approval rating soared to 90%.NEWS,weblink Presidential Approval Ratings â€“ George W. Bush, Gallup, September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090402045152weblink">weblink April 2, 2009, On September 20, 2001, he addressed the nation and a joint session of the United States Congress regarding the events of September 11 and the subsequent nine days of rescue and recovery efforts, and described his intended response to the attacks. New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani's highly visible role won him high praise in New York and nationally.NEWS, Pooley, Eric, Mayor of the World,weblink Person of the Year 2001, September 4, 2011, December 31, 2001, Many relief funds were immediately set up to assist victims of the attacks, with the task of providing financial assistance to the survivors of the attacks and to the families of victims. By the deadline for victim's compensation on September 11, 2003, 2,833 applications had been received from the families of those who were killed.NEWS, Barrett, Devlin, 9/11 Fund Deadline Passes, CBS News, December 23, 2003,weblink September 4, 2011, Contingency plans for the continuity of government and the evacuation of leaders were implemented soon after the attacks. Congress was not told that the United States had been under a continuity of government status until February 2002.NEWS, 'Shadow Government' News To Congress, CBS News, March 2, 2002,weblink September 4, 2011, In the largest restructuring of the U.S. government in contemporary history, the United States enacted the Homeland Security Act of 2002, creating the Department of Homeland Security. Congress also passed the USA PATRIOT Act, saying it would help detect and prosecute terrorism and other crimes.WEB,weblink The USA PATRIOT Act: Preserving Life and Liberty, September 4, 2011, United States Department of Justice,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100102035036weblink">weblink January 2, 2010, dead, Civil liberties groups have criticized the PATRIOT Act, saying it allows law enforcement to invade the privacy of citizens and that it eliminates judicial oversight of law enforcement and domestic intelligence.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Uncle Sam Asks: "What The Hell Is Going On Here?" in New ACLU Print and Radio Advertisements, American Civil Liberties Union, September 3, 2003, April 10, 2012, NEWS, Eggen, Dan, Key Part of Patriot Act Ruled Unconstitutional,weblink The Washington Post, September 30, 2004, September 4, 2011, NEWS,weblink Federal judge rules 2 Patriot Act provisions unconstitutional, September 4, 2011, September 26, 2007, CNN, In an effort to effectively combat future acts of terrorism, the National Security Agency (NSA) was given broad powers. NSA commenced warrantless surveillance of telecommunications, which was sometimes criticized since it permitted the agency "to eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant".NEWS, VandeHei, Jim, Eggen, Dan, Cheney Cites Justifications For Domestic Eavesdropping, The Washington Post, January 5, 2006,weblink September 4, 2011, In response to requests by various intelligence agencies, the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court permitted an expansion of powers by the U.S. government in seeking, obtaining, and sharing information on U.S. citizens as well as non-U.S. people from around the world.NEWS, How a Court Secretly Evolved, Extending U.S. Spies' Reach, The New York Times, Savage, Charlie, Laura, Poitras, March 11, 2014,weblink March 13, 2014,

Hate crimes

(File:WTC-remnant highres.jpg|thumb|upright|A fireman looks up at the remains of the South Tower.)(File:September 14 2001 Ground Zero 02.jpg|thumb|upright|A fireman can be seen in silhouette at the base of the rubble.)Shortly after the attacks, President Bush made a public appearance at Washington, D.C.'s largest Islamic Center and acknowledged the "incredibly valuable contribution" that millions of American Muslims made to their country and called for them "to be treated with respect."NEWS, Samuel G., Freedman,weblink Six Days After 9/11, Another Anniversary Worth Honoring, March 12, 2015, September 7, 2012, The New York Times, Numerous incidents of harassment and hate crimes against Muslims and South Asians were reported in the days following the attacks.WEB,weblink New York City Commission on Human Rights, Nyc.gov, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040203071912weblink">weblink February 3, 2004, May 29, 2014, WEB,weblink Post-9/11, US policies created atmosphere of fear for South Asians, The Indian Express, August 25, 2011, October 23, 2011, NEWS, Hate crime reports up in wake of terrorist attacks, CNN, September 17, 2001,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051127025019weblink">weblink November 27, 2005, May 29, 2014, Sikhs were also targeted because Sikh males usually wear turbans, which are stereotypically associated with Muslims. There were reports of attacks on mosques and other religious buildings (including the firebombing of a Hindu temple), and assaults on people, including one murder: Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh mistaken for a Muslim, was fatally shot on September 15, 2001, in Mesa, Arizona. Two dozen members of Osama bin Laden's family were urgently evacuated out of the country on a private charter plane under FBI supervision three days after the attacks.WEB,weblink Bin Laden Family Evacuated, www.cbsnews.com, 2019-01-30, According to an academic study, people perceived to be Middle Eastern were as likely to be victims of hate crimes as followers of Islam during this time. The study also found a similar increase in hate crimes against people who may have been perceived as Muslims, Arabs, and others thought to be of Middle Eastern origin.WEB,weblink Many minority groups were victims of hate crimes after 9-11, October 9, 2003, Ball State University, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081211050839weblink">weblink December 11, 2008, May 29, 2014, A report by the South Asian American advocacy group known as South Asian Americans Leading Together, documented media coverage of 645 bias incidents against Americans of South Asian or Middle Eastern descent between September 11 and 17. Various crimes such as vandalism, arson, assault, shootings, harassment, and threats in numerous places were documented.WEB,weblink American Backlash: Terrorist Bring War Home in More Ways Than One, 2003, SAALT, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101203140832weblink">weblink December 3, 2010, May 29, 2014, NEWS, 645 racial incidents reported in week after September 11, Jeet, Thayil, India Abroad, October 12, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511211812weblink">weblink dead, May 11, 2011,

Muslim American response

Muslim organizations in the United States were swift to condemn the attacks and called "upon Muslim Americans to come forward with their skills and resources to help alleviate the sufferings of the affected people and their families".WEB, American Muslim Leaders, Muslim Americans Condemn Attack, ISNA,weblink September 4, 2011, These organizations included the Islamic Society of North America, American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Circle of North America, and the Shari'a Scholars Association of North America. Along with monetary donations, many Islamic organizations launched blood drives and provided medical assistance, food, and shelter for victims.NEWS, Beaulieu, Dan, Muslim groups around world condemn the killing of innocents, Agence France Presse â€“ English, September 12, 2001, NEWS, Davis, Joyce M., Muslims condemn attacks, insist Islam not violent against innocents, Knight Ridder Washington Bureau, September 13, 2001, NEWS, Witham, Larry, Muslim groups decry attacks; No cause justifies the 'immoral' act, U.S. councils say, The Washington Times, September 12, 2001,

International reactions

The attacks were denounced by mass media and governments worldwide. Across the globe, nations offered pro-American support and solidarity.WEB, Hertzberg, Hendrik, Lost love, The New Yorker,weblink September 11, 2006, September 4, 2011,weblink August 30, 2010, live, Leaders in most Middle Eastern countries, and Afghanistan, condemned the attacks. Iraq was a notable exception, with an immediate official statement that, "the American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity".NEWS, Attacks draw mixed response in Mideast,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070813060324weblink">weblink August 13, 2007, CNN, September 12, 2001, dead, May 29, 2014, The government of Saudi Arabia officially condemned the attacks, but privately many Saudis favored bin Laden's cause.BOOK, Summers, Anthony, Swan, Robbyn, The Eleventh Day: The Full Story of 9/11 and Osama bin Laden, 2011, Ballantine Books, New York, 978-1-4000-6659-9, 403,weblink WEB, The Kingdom and the Towers,weblink Vanity Fair, September 4, 2011, Although Palestinian Authority (PA) president Yasser Arafat also condemned the attacks, there were reports of celebrations of disputed size in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem.NEWS,weblink In pictures: Atrocities' aftermath, 2001-09-12, 2019-09-12, en-GB, BOOK, Porter, Patrick, Blunder: Britain's War in Iraq, Oxford University Press, 139,weblink 12 September 2019, Footage by CNN and other news outlets were suggested to be from 1991, which was later proven to be a false accusation, resulting in a statement being issued by CNN.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080416104012weblink">weblink CNN.com - CNN statement about false claim it used old video - September 20, 2001, 2008-04-16, web.archive.org, 2019-09-12, WEB,weblink Palestinians Dancing in the Street, Snopes.com, en-US, 2019-09-12, As in the United States, the aftermath of the attacks saw tensions increase in other countries between Muslims and non-Muslims.NEWS,weblink UK | Muslim community targets racial tension, BBC News Online, September 19, 2001, April 11, 2012, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368 condemned the attacks, and expressed readiness to take all necessary steps to respond and combat all forms of terrorism in accordance with their Charter.WEB, Security Council Condemns, 'In Strongest Terms', Terrorist Attacks on the United States, United Nations, September 12, 2001,weblink September 11, 2006, The Security Council today, following what it called yesterday's "horrifying terrorist attacks" in New York, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania, unequivocally condemned those acts, and expressed its deepest sympathy and condolences to the victims and their families and to the people and Government of the United States., Numerous countries introduced anti-terrorism legislation and froze bank accounts they suspected of al-Qaeda ties.WEB, Hamilton, Stuart, September 11, the Internet, and the effects on information provision in Libraries, 68th IFLA Council and Conference, August 24, 2002,weblink September 4, 2011, WEB,weblink G8 counter-terrorism cooperation since September 11 backgrounder, September 4, 2011, Site Internet du Sommet du G8 d'Evian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927084019weblink">weblink September 27, 2011, Law enforcement and intelligence agencies in a number of countries arrested alleged terrorists.WEB, Walsh, Courtney C, Italian police explore Al Qaeda links in cyanide plot, The Christian Science Monitor, March 7, 2002,weblink September 4, 2011, NEWS, SE Asia unites to smash militant cells, CNN, May 8, 2002,weblink September 4, 2011, British Prime Minister Tony Blair said Britain stood "shoulder to shoulder" with the United States.NEWS, Blair's statement in full,weblink BBC, September 11, 2001, A few days later, Blair flew to Washington, D.C. to affirm British solidarity with the United States. In a speech to Congress, nine days after the attacks, which Blair attended as a guest, President Bush declared "America has no truer friend than Great Britain."WEB, President Declares 'Freedom at War with Fear',weblink The White House, August 25, 2016, September 20, 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080225062850weblink">weblink February 25, 2008, Subsequently, Prime Minister Blair embarked on two months of diplomacy to rally international support for military action; he held 54 meetings with world leaders and traveled more than 40,000 miles (60,000 km).NEWS, Tony Blair's allegiance to George Bush laid bare,weblink London Evening Standard, October 27, 2007, File:Vladimir Putin in the United States 13-16 November 2001-54.jpg|thumb|Vladimir Putin (right) and his wife attend a commemoration service for the victims of the terrorist attacks, November 16, 2001.]]In the aftermath of the attacks, tens of thousands of people attempted to flee Afghanistan due to the possibility of a military retaliation by the United States. Pakistan, already home to many Afghan refugees from previous conflicts, closed its border with Afghanistan on September 17, 2001. Approximately one month after the attacks, the United States led a broad coalition of international forces to overthrow the Taliban regime from Afghanistan for their harboring of al-Qaeda.NEWS, U.S. President Bush's speech to United Nations, CNN, November 10, 2001,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060615023853weblink">weblink June 15, 2006, May 29, 2014, Though Pakistani authorities were initially reluctant to align themselves with the United States against the Taliban, they permitted the coalition access to their military bases, and arrested and handed over to the U.S. over 600 suspected al-Qaeda members.NEWS, Musharraf 'bullied' into supporting US war on terror,weblink September 4, 2011, Zee News, December 11, 2009, NEWS, Khan, Aamer Ahmed, Pakistan and the 'key al-Qaeda' man, BBC News Online, May 4, 2005,weblink September 4, 2011, The U.S. set up the Guantanamo Bay detention camp to hold inmates they defined as "illegal enemy combatants". The legitimacy of these detentions has been questioned by the European Union and human rights organizations.NEWS, Euro MPs urge Guantanamo closure,weblink BBC News Online, June 13, 2006, September 4, 2011, WEB, Mendez, Juan E., Juan E. Méndez, March 13, 2002, Detainees in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Request for Precautionary Measures, Inter-Am. C.H.R,weblink University of Minnesota, September 4, 2011, WEB, USA: Release or fair trials for all remaining Guantánamo detainees,weblink Amnesty International, May 2, 2008, September 4, 2011, On September 25, 2001, Iran's fifth president, Mohammad Khatami meeting British Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, said: "Iran fully understands the feelings of the Americans about the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington on September 11." He said although the American administrations had been at best indifferent about terrorist operations in Iran (since 1979), the Iranians instead felt differently and had expressed their sympathetic feelings with bereaved Americans in the tragic incidents in the two cities. He also stated that "Nations should not be punished in place of terrorists."weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020503200608weblink">P.I.R.I News Headlines (Tue 80/07/03 A.H.S). The Official Site of the Office of the President of Iran. Official website of the President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. September 25, 2001. Permanent Archived Link. Original page and URL are not available online now. (weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010926214218weblink">Website's Homepage at that time (Title: Presidency of The Islamic Republic of Iran, The Official Site)) According to Radio Farda's website, when the attacks' news was released, some Iranian citizens gathered in front of the Embassy of Switzerland in Tehran, which serves as the protecting power of the United States in Iran (U.S. interests protecting office in Iran), to express their sympathy and some of them lit candles as a symbol of mourning. This piece of news at Radio Farda's website also states that in 2011, on the anniversary of the attacks, United States Department of State, published a post at its blog, in which the Department thanked Iranian people for their sympathy and stated that they would never forget Iranian people's kindness on those harsh days.WEB,weblink تشکر وزارت خارجه آمریکا از همدردی ایرانیان با قربانیان Û±Û± سپتامبر, fa, Radio Farda, September 11, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120121163708weblink">weblink June 30, 2016, June 30, 2016, live, A mechanized Translation by Google Translate is available here. After the attacks, both the President"Iran's President Says Muslims Reject bin Laden's 'Islam'". Iranian Students News Agency. November 10, 2001 / 17:07. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160918154504weblink">Permanent Archived Link. Retrieved and archived on September 18, 2016, 3:45:04{{nbsp}}p.m. UTC.Ynetnews News – Khatami slams bin Laden, defends Hizbullah. Ynetnews. November 9, 2006. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160908183108weblink">Permanent Archived Link. Retrieved and archived on September 8, 2016; 6:31:08{{nbsp}}p.m. UTC. and the Supreme Leader of Iran, condemned the attacks. The BBC and Time magazine published reports on holding candlelit vigils for the victims by Iranian citizens at their websites.NEWS,weblink BBC News Online, Iran's gulf of misunderstanding with US, September 25, 2006, May 22, 2010, Gordon, Corera, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160404184211weblink">Permanent Archived Link.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101115094604weblink">Iran mourns America's dead Time According to Politico Magazine, following the attacks, Sayyed Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, "suspended the usual 'Death to America' chants at Friday prayers" temporarily.WEB, Slavin, Barbara, 34 Years of Getting to No with Iran, Politico, Politico Magazine, November 19, 2013,weblink July 4, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140129195150weblink">weblink January 25, 2014, In a speech by the Nizari Ismaili Imam at the Nobel Institute in 2005, Aga Khan IV stated that the "9/11 attack on the United States was a direct consequence of the international community ignoring the human tragedy that was Afghanistan at that time".WEB, Aga Khan, Karim, Speech by His Highness the Aga Khan at the Nobel Institute on Democratic Development, Pluralism and Civil Society, Ismaili,weblink April 7, 2005, January 6, 2018, In September 2001, shortly after the attacks, Greek soccer fans burned an Israeli flag and unsuccessfully tried to burn an American flag. Though the American flag did not catch fire, the fans booed during a moment of silence for victims of the attacks.NEWS, 0362-4331, Press, The Associated, PLUS: SOCCER; Fans in Athens Try To Burn U.S. Flag, The New York Times, April 18, 2018, September 23, 2001,weblink

Military operations

{{Further|War on Terror}}At 2:40{{nbsp}}p.m. in the afternoon of September 11, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was issuing rapid orders to his aides to look for evidence of Iraqi involvement. According to notes taken by senior policy official Stephen Cambone, Rumsfeld asked for, "Best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit S.H. [Saddam Hussein] at same time. Not only UBL" [Osama bin Laden].EPISODE, Bush's War, September 4, 2011, FRONTLINE, Frontline (U.S. TV series), Written, produced and directed by Michael Kirk, produced and reported by Jim Gilmore, PBS, WGBH, Boston, March 24–25, 2008, 8:40, Transcript,weblinkweblink Cambone's notes quoted Rumsfeld as saying, "Need to move swiftly—Near term target needs—go massive—sweep it all up. Things related and not."NEWS, Joel, Roberts, Plans For Iraq Attack Began on 9/11, September 4, 2002, CBS News,weblink September 4, 2011, NEWS, Julian, Borger, Blogger bares Rumsfeld's post 9/11 orders, February 24, 2006, The Guardian,weblink October 7, 2009, London, In a meeting at Camp David on September 15 the Bush administration rejected the idea of attacking Iraq in response to 9/11.9/11 Commission Report pp. 334–336 Nonetheless, they later invaded the country with allies, citing "Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism".WEB,weblink President Discusses Beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom, October 29, 2011, At the time, as many as 7 in 10 Americans believed the Iraqi president played a role in the 9/11 attacks.WEB,weblink US public thinks Saddam had role in 9/11, March 20, 2017, Three years later, Bush conceded that he had not.WEB,weblink Bush: Saddam was not responsible for 9/11, March 20, 2017, File:US 10th Mountain Division soldiers in Afghanistan.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A line of soldiers carrying equipment on their backs walking toward a transport helicopter in desert terrain|U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan ]]The NATO council declared that the terrorist attacks on the United States were an attack on all NATO nations that satisfied Article 5 of the NATO charter. This marked the first invocation of Article 5, which had been written during the Cold War with an attack by the Soviet Union in mind.WEB, Statement by the North Atlantic Council, NATO, September 15, 2001,weblink September 4, 2011, Article 5: The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective self-defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security., Australian Prime Minister John Howard who was in Washington, D.C. during the attacks invoked Article IV of the ANZUS treaty.WEB, ABC Conversations with Richard Fidler John Howard Interview Transcript, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, September 2011,weblink The Bush administration announced a War on Terror, with the stated goals of bringing bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks.NEWS,weblink Text: President Bush Addresses the Nation, September 20, 2001, July 4, 2015, The Washington Post, Bush, George, These goals would be accomplished by imposing economic and military sanctions against states harboring terrorists, and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing.WEB,weblink TERROR STRATEGY-2/11 -Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf, February 2003, July 4, 2015, Central Intelligence Agency, On September 14, 2001, the U.S. Congress passed the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists. Still in effect, it grants the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the September 11 attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups.WEB,weblink PLAW-107publ40.pdf, September 18, 2001, July 4, 2015, U.S. Government Publishing Office, 107th Congress, On October 7, 2001, the War in Afghanistan began when U.S. and British forces initiated aerial bombing campaigns targeting Taliban and al-Qaeda camps, then later invaded Afghanistan with ground troops of the Special Forces.NEWS,weblink Operation Enduring Freedom – Operations, 2008, GlobalSecurity.org, July 5, 2015, This eventually led to the overthrow of the Taliban rule of Afghanistan with the Fall of Kandahar on December 7, 2001, by U.S.-led coalition forces.WEB,weblink U.S. Military Operations in the Global War on Terrorism: Afghanistan, Africa, the Philippines, and Colombia, July 5, 2015, The Air University, Conflict in Afghanistan between the Taliban insurgency and the Afghan forces backed by NATO Resolute Support Mission is ongoing. The Philippines and Indonesia, among other nations with their own internal conflicts with Islamic terrorism, also increased their military readiness.JOURNAL, Kuppuswamy, C.S., Terrorism in Indonesia : Role of the Religious Organisation, South Asia Analysis Group, November 2, 2005,weblink September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070611032357weblink">weblink June 11, 2007, BOOK, Banlaoi, Rommel, Radical Muslim Terrorism in the Philippines, 2006, Handbook on Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia, Tan, Andrew, London, Edward Elgar Publishing, The military forces of the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Iran cooperated with each other to overthrow the Taliban regime which had had conflicts with the government of Iran. Iran's Quds Force helped U.S. forces and Afghan rebels in the 2001 uprising in Herat.WEB,weblink USATODAY.com – Iran helped overthrow Taliban, candidate says, USA Today, January 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181129125643weblink">weblink November 29, 2018, bot: unknown, WEB,weblink Iranian Special Forces Reportedly Fight Alongside US in Battle for Herat, spongobongo.com, January 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160819201520weblink">weblink August 19, 2016, bot: unknown, at Wayback Machine. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180728221845weblink">Alternative link at Wayback MachineQassem Soleimani and Iran's Unique Regional Strategy – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Ali Soufan. CTC Sentinel. November 2018, Vol. 11, Issue 10. Combating Terrorism Center – CTC at West Point. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181119185404weblink">Permanent link and archived version at Wayback Machine. weblink" title="archive.today/20181119185830weblink">Permanent link and archived version at archive.is. Retrieved and archived on November 19, 2018. Permanent link at WebCite (November 30, 2018. 14:42:35 UTC)."In the months after 9/11, Soleimani saw an opportunity to defeat the Taliban once and for all by unconventional means—namely, cooperation with the United States. Early in the war, he directed Iranian diplomats to share intelligence on Taliban military positions with their U.S. counterparts. The Americans, in return, told the Iranians what they knew about an al-Qa`ida fixer hiding out in eastern Iran."

Effects

Health issues

(File:Dust covered 911 victims.jpg|thumb|Two survivors are covered in dust after the collapse of the towers.)Hundreds of thousands of tons of toxic debris containing more than 2,500 contaminants, including known carcinogens, were spread across Lower Manhattan due to the collapse of the Twin Towers.NEWS, Anita, Gates, Buildings Rise from Rubble while Health Crumbles, The New York Times, September 11, 2006,weblink September 4, 2011, NEWS,weblink What was Found in the Dust, The New York Times, September 5, 2006, September 4, 2011, Exposure to the toxins in the debris is alleged to have contributed to fatal or debilitating illnesses among people who were at Ground Zero.NEWS, New York: 9/11 toxins caused death, CNN, May 24, 2007,weblink September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070618154824weblink">weblink June 18, 2007, NEWS,weblink Tracing Lung Ailments That Rose With 9/11 Dust, DePalma, Anthony, May 13, 2006, The New York Times, September 4, 2011, The Bush administration ordered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue reassuring statements regarding air quality in the aftermath of the attacks, citing national security, but the EPA did not determine that air quality had returned to pre-September 11 levels until June 2002.NEWS, Heilprin, John, White House edited EPA's 9/11 reports, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 23, 2003,weblink September 4, 2011, Health effects extended to residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown.WEB, Updated Ground Zero Report Examines Failure of Government to Protect Citizens, Sierra Club, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611191219weblink">weblink June 11, 2010, September 4, 2011, Several deaths have been linked to the toxic dust, and the victims' names were included in the World Trade Center memorial.NEWS, Smith, Stephen,weblink 9/11 "Wall of Heroes" To Include Sick Cops, CBS News, April 28, 2008, September 4, 2011, Approximately 18,000 people have been estimated to have developed illnesses as a result of the toxic dust.NEWS,weblink Toxic dust legacy of 9/11 plagues thousands of people, BBC News Online, David, Shukman, September 1, 2011, September 11, 2011, There is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products in the air may have negative effects on fetal development. A notable children's environmental health center is currently{{when|date=March 2019}} analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working nearby.WEB, CCCEH Study of the Effects of 9/11 on Pregnant Women and Newborns, World Trade Center Pregnancy Study, Columbia University, 2006,weblink September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726045732weblink">weblink July 26, 2011, A study of rescue workers released in April 2010 found that all those studied had impaired lung functions, and that 30–40% were reporting little or no improvement in persistent symptoms that started within the first year of the attack.NEWS, Grady, Denise, Lung Function of 9/11 Rescuers Fell, Study Finds,weblink September 4, 2011, The New York Times, April 7, 2010, Years after the attacks, legal disputes over the costs of illnesses related to the attacks were still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, a federal judge rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city.NEWS, Anthony, DePalma, Many Ground Zero Workers Gain Chance at Lawsuits, The New York Times, October 18, 2006,weblink September 4, 2011, Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly after the attacks. Christine Todd Whitman, administrator of the EPA in the aftermath of the attacks, was heavily criticized by a U.S. District Judge for incorrectly saying that the area was environmentally safe.NEWS, Larry, Neumeister,weblink Judge Slams Ex-EPA Chief Over Sept. 11, Associated Press, San Francisco Chronicle, February 2, 2006, September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080524084609weblink">weblink May 24, 2008, dead, Mayor Giuliani was criticized for urging financial industry personnel to return quickly to the greater Wall Street area.NEWS, Smith, Ben, Rudy's black cloud. WTC health risks may hurt Prez bid,weblink Daily News, New York, September 18, 2006, May 29, 2014, On December 22, 2010, the United States Congress passed the James L. Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, which President Barack Obama signed into law on January 2, 2011. It allocated $4.2 billion to create the World Trade Center Health Program, which provides testing and treatment for people suffering from long-term health problems related to the 9/11 attacks.NEWS,weblink CNN, Bloomberg urges passage of 9/11 health bill, December 20, 2010, {{dead link|date=January 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}WEB, World Trade Center Health Program FAQ,weblink Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2, 2012, The WTC Health Program replaced preexisting 9/11-related health programs such as the Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program and the WTC Environmental Health Center program.

Economic

(File:9-11 attacks effect on NYC economy SVG.svg|thumb|right|The table shows that the 9/11 attacks had a major effect on the economy of New York City (in red), compared to the United States' economy overall (in blue).)The attacks had a significant economic impact on United States and world markets.WEB, Makinen, Gail,weblink The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, 17, September 27, 2002, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, September 4, 2011, The stock exchanges did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. Reopening, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8921, a record-setting one-day point decline.NEWS, Markets reopen, plunge, Barnhart, Bill,weblink Chicago Tribune, September 17, 2001, April 11, 2012, By the end of the week, the DJIA had fallen 1,369.7 points (14.3%), at the time its largest one-week point drop in history.NEWS, Fernandez, Bob, U.S. Markets Decline Again, KRTBN Knight Ridder Tribune Business News, September 22, 2001, In 2001 dollars, U.S. stocks lost $1.4 trillion in valuation for the week.In New York City, about 430,000 job-months and $2.8 billion dollars in wages were lost in the first three months after the attacks. The economic effects were mainly on the economy's export sectors.JOURNAL, Dolfman, Michael L., Wasser, Solidelle F., Monthly Labor Review, 127, 2004, 9/11 and the New York City Economy, The city's GDP was estimated to have declined by $27.3 billion for the last three months of 2001 and all of 2002. The U.S. government provided $11.2 billion in immediate assistance to the Government of New York City in September 2001, and $10.5 billion in early 2002 for economic development and infrastructure needs.WEB, Makinen, Gail,weblink The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment, 5, September 27, 2002, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, September 4, 2011, Also hurt were small businesses in Lower Manhattan near the World Trade Center, 18,000 of which were destroyed or displaced, resulting in lost jobs and their consequent wages. Assistance was provided by Small Business Administration loans, federal government Community Development Block Grants, and Economic Injury Disaster Loans. Some {{convert|31900000|sqft|m2}} of Lower Manhattan office space was damaged or destroyed.WEB, Hensell, Lesley, Tough Times Loom For Manhattan Commercial Market,weblink Realty Times, December 14, 2001, September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110814003420weblink">weblink August 14, 2011, Many wondered whether these jobs would return, and if the damaged tax base would recover.WEB, Parrott, James, The Employment Impact of the September 11 World Trade Center Attacks: Updated Estimates based on the Benchmarked Employment Data, The Fiscal Policy Institute, March 8, 2002,weblink September 4, 2011, Studies of the economic effects of 9/11 show the Manhattan office real-estate market and office employment were less affected than first feared, because of the financial services industry's need for face-to-face interaction.JOURNAL, Fuerst, Franz, Exogenous Shocks and Real Estate Rental Markets: An Event Study of the 9/11 Attacks and their Impact on the New York Office Market, Russell Sage Foundation, September 7, 2005, 800006, WEB, Russell, James S., Do skyscrapers still make sense? Revived downtowns and new business models spur tall-building innovation, Architectural Record, November 7, 2004,weblink September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110808062854weblink">weblink August 8, 2011, North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased upon its reopening, leading to a nearly 20% cutback in air travel capacity, and exacerbating financial problems in the struggling U.S. airline industry.WEB, Bhadra, Dipasis, Texter, Pamela, Airline Networks: An Econometric Framework to Analyze Domestic U.S. Air Travel, United States Department of Transportation, 2004,weblink September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050330035744weblink">weblink March 30, 2005, dead, File:Deficits vs. Debt Increases - 2008.png|thumb|U.S. deficit and debt increases 2001–08]]The September 11 attacks also led to the U.S. wars in Afghanistan and Iraq,NEWS,weblink Bin Laden's war against the U.S. economy, The Washington Post, May 3, 2011, Thomas, Heath, as well as additional homeland security spending, totaling at least $5 trillion.NEWS,weblink Osama bin Laden didn't win, but he was 'enormously successful', The Washington Post, Suzy, Khimm, May 3, 2011,

Cultural influence

The impact of 9/11 extends beyond geopolitics into society and culture in general. Immediate responses to 9/11 included greater focus on home life and time spent with family, higher church attendance, and increased expressions of patriotism such as the flying of flags.BOOK, Bernardo J. Carducci, The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications,weblink January 16, 2012, February 20, 2009, Wiley-Blackwell, 978-1-4051-3635-8, 200–, The radio industry responded by removing certain songs from playlists, and the attacks have subsequently been used as background, narrative, or thematic elements in film, television, music, and literature. Novels inspired or directly influenced by 9/11 include Crazy Gran by Gary Botting, about a girl who discovers a direct family connection to the terrorists. The action begins at "9 am., Tuesday, 9/11/2001" and continues for a harrowing week as her uncle attempts to silence her, applying precepts of Sharia law.Gary Botting, Crazy Gran, Singapore: Strategic, 2016 Already-running television shows as well as programs developed after 9/11 have reflected post-9/11 cultural concerns.BOOK, Quay, Sara, Damico, Amy, September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide, Greenwood Publishing Group, September 14, 2010, 978-0-313-35505-9,weblink 9/11 conspiracy theories have become social phenomena, despite lack of support from expert scientists, engineers, and historians.JOURNAL, 9/11 conspiracy theories won't stop, Joshua, Norman, September 11, 2011, CBS News,weblink 9/11 has also had a major impact on the religious faith of many individuals; for some it strengthened, to find consolation to cope with the loss of loved ones and overcome their grief; others started to question their faith or lost it entirely, because they could not reconcile it with their view of religion.NEWS,weblink After 9/11, Some Run Toward Faith, Some Run The Other Way, HuffPost, August 29, 2011, April 6, 2013, NEWS,weblink Faith and Doubt at Ground Zero – The Question of God, PBS Frontline, April 6, 2013, The culture of America succeeding the attacks is noted for heightened security and an increased demand thereof, as well as paranoia and anxiety regarding future terrorist attacks that includes most of the nation. Psychologists have also confirmed that there has been an increased amount of national anxiety in commercial air travel.WEB,weblink Anxiety After 9/11, Brad Schmidt, Ph.d., October 11, 2013,

Government policies toward terrorism

As a result of the attacks, many governments across the world passed legislation to combat terrorism.JOURNAL, Terrorism in the Asia-Pacific: Threat and Response, The Journal of Asian Studies, 2004, Andrew, Scobell, 63, 4, 1078–79, 10.1017/S0021911804002463, In Germany, where several of the 9/11 terrorists had resided and taken advantage of that country's liberal asylum policies, two major anti-terrorism packages were enacted. The first removed legal loopholes that permitted terrorists to live and raise money in Germany. The second addressed the effectiveness and communication of intelligence and law enforcement.WEB,weblink Germany's Role in Fighting Terrorism: Implications for U.S. Policy, September 4, 2011, Miko, Francis, Froehlich, Christian, December 27, 2004, Federation of American Scientists, Canada passed the Canadian Anti-Terrorism Act, their first anti-terrorism law.NEWS, Anti-terrorism Act,weblink November 12, 2013, CBC News, February 27, 2007, The United Kingdom passed the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 and the Prevention of Terrorism Act 2005.NEWS, Q and A: Anti-terrorism legislation, October 17, 2003,weblink BBC News Online, September 4, 2011, NEWS, Sam, Coates, After all the fuss dies down, what really happened, November 10, 2005,weblink The Times, September 4, 2011, New Zealand enacted the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002.WEB, Terrorism Suppression Act 2002,weblink New Zealand Government, September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111219044052weblink">weblink December 19, 2011, In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security was created by the Homeland Security Act to coordinate domestic anti-terrorism efforts. The USA Patriot Act gave the federal government greater powers, including the authority to detain foreign terror suspects for a week without charge, to monitor telephone communications, e-mail, and Internet use by terror suspects, and to prosecute suspected terrorists without time restrictions. The FAA ordered that airplane cockpits be reinforced to prevent terrorists gaining control of planes, and assigned sky marshals to flights. Further, the Aviation and Transportation Security Act made the federal government, rather than airports, responsible for airport security. The law created the Transportation Security Administration to inspect passengers and luggage, causing long delays and concern over passenger privacy.BOOK, Beck, Roger, Modern World History, 20, Holt McDougal, 2004, 657–8, 978-0-618-69012-1,weblink After suspected abuses of the USA Patriot Act were brought to light in June 2013 with articles about collection of American call records by the NSA and the PRISM program (see 2013 mass surveillance disclosures), Representative Jim Sensenbrenner, Republican of Wisconsin, who introduced the Patriot Act in 2001, said that the National Security Agency overstepped its bounds.WEB,weblink President Obama's Dragnet, June 6, 2013, WEB,weblink Author of Patriot Act: FBI's FISA Order is Abuse of Patriot Act, June 6, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130610061511weblink">weblink June 10, 2013,

Investigations

FBI

Immediately after the attacks, the Federal Bureau of Investigation started PENTTBOM, the largest criminal inquiry in the history of the United States. At its height, more than half of the FBI's agents worked on the investigation and followed a half-million leads.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101010030053weblink">weblink dead, October 10, 2010, 9/11 Investigation (PENTTBOM), April 11, 2012, Federal Bureau of Investigation, The FBI concluded that there was "clear and irrefutable" evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks.WEB, Testimony of Dale L. Watson, Executive Assistant Director, Counterterrorism/Counterintelligence Division, FBI Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, February 6, 2002,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation, September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100410013616weblink">weblink April 10, 2010, dead, File:Mohamed Atta.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A head shot of a man in his thirties looking expressionless toward the camera|Mohamed AttaMohamed AttaThe FBI was quickly able to identify the hijackers, including leader Mohamed Atta, when his luggage was discovered at Boston's Logan Airport. Atta had been forced to check two of his three bags due to space limitations on the 19-seat commuter flight he took to Boston. Due to a new policy instituted to prevent flight delays, the luggage failed to make it aboard American Airlines Flight 11 as planned. The luggage contained the hijackers' names, assignments, and al-Qaeda connections. "It had all these Arab-language {{sic}} papers that amounted to the Rosetta stone of the investigation", said one FBI agent.NEWS, Unraveling 9–11 Was in the Bags, February 6, 2009,weblink Newsday, April 11, 2012, Within hours of the attacks, the FBI released the names and in many cases the personal details of the suspected pilots and hijackers.BOOK, Against All Enemies: Inside America's War on Terrorism, Clarke, Richard A., 2004, Simon & Schuster, New York, 978-0-7432-6823-3, 13–14, Against All Enemies, WEB, FBI Announces List of 19 Hijackers,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation, September 4, 2011, On September 27, 2001, they released photos of all 19 hijackers, along with information about possible nationalities and aliases.WEB, The FBI Releases 19 Photographs of Individuals Believed to be the Hijackers of the Four Airliners that Crashed on September 11, 2001,weblink Federal Bureau of Investigation, September 4, 2011, Fifteen of the men were from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Egypt, and one from Lebanon.NEWS, Johnston, David, TWO YEARS LATER: 9/11 TACTICS; Official Says Qaeda Recruited Saudi Hijackers to Strain Ties,weblink September 4, 2011, The New York Times, September 9, 2003, By midday, the U.S. National Security Agency and German intelligence agencies had intercepted communications pointing to Osama bin Laden.NEWS, Piece by piece, the jigsaw of terror revealed,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091015065134weblink">weblink October 15, 2009, September 4, 2011, The Independent, September 30, 2001, London, Two of the hijackers were known to have travelled with a bin Laden associate to Malaysia in 20009/11 Commission Report pp. 266–272 and hijacker Mohammed Atta had previously gone to Afghanistan.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121109021924weblink">The Manhunt Goes Global Time magazine October 15, 2001 He and others were part of a terrorist cell in Hamburg.NEWS, John, Tagliabue, Bonner, Raymond,weblink A Nation challenged: German Intelligence; German Data Led U.S. to Search For More Suicide Hijacker Teams, The New York Times, September 29, 2001, September 4, 2011, One of the members of the Hamburg cell was discovered to have been in communication with Khalid Sheik Mohammed who was identified as a member of al-Qaeda.9/11 Commission Report pp. 276–277Authorities in the United States and Britain also obtained electronic intercepts, including telephone conversations and electronic bank transfers, which indicate that Mohammed Atef, a bin Laden deputy, was a key figure in the planning of the 9/11 attacks. Intercepts were also obtained that revealed conversations that took place days before September 11 between bin Laden and an associate in Pakistan. In those conversations, the two referred to "an incident that would take place in America on, or around, September 11" and they discussed potential repercussions. In another conversation with an associate in Afghanistan, bin Laden discussed the "scale and effects of a forthcoming operation." These conversations did not specifically mention the World Trade Center or Pentagon, or other specifics.NEWS, The proof they did not reveal, Sunday Times, October 7, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011116020322weblink">weblink November 16, 2001, {{Bar chartHijackers in the September 11 attacks>the 19 hijackers| label_type = Nationality| data_type = Number| bar_width = 20| width_units = em| data_max = 19| label1 = Saudi Arabia| data1 = 15| label2 = United Arab Emirates| data2 = 2| label3 = Egypt| data3 = 1| label4 = Lebanon| data4 = 1}}The FBI did not record the 2,977 deaths from the attacks in their annual violent crime index for 2001. In a disclaimer, the FBI stated that "the number of deaths is so great that combining it with the traditional crime statistics will have an outlier effect that falsely skews all types of measurements in the program's analyses."WEB,weblink Crime in the United States 2001, Federal Bureau of Investigation, October 28, 2002, 2, September 12, 2018, New York City also did not include the deaths in their annual crime statistics for 2001.NEWS, Hanrahan, Mark, Henryk Siwiak, Shot To Death On September 11th: Case Remains Unsolved,weblink Huffington Post, September 8, 2011, September 6, 2016,

CIA

The Inspector General of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) conducted an internal review of the agency's pre-9/11 performance and was harshly critical of senior CIA officials for not doing everything possible to confront terrorism. He criticized their failure to stop two of the 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar, as they entered the United States and their failure to share information on the two men with the FBI.WEB,weblink Deep Background, American Conservative, April 1, 2005, April 11, 2012, In May 2007, senators from both major U.S. political parties drafted legislation to make the review public. One of the backers, Senator Ron Wyden said, "The American people have a right to know what the Central Intelligence Agency was doing in those critical months before 9/11."NEWS, Katherine, Shrader, Senators Want CIA to Release 9/11 Report,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, Associated Press, May 17, 2007, September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071017005618weblink">weblink October 17, 2007, dead,

Congressional inquiry

In February 2002, the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence formed a joint inquiry into the performance of the U.S. Intelligence Community.Press Release of Intelligence Committee, Senate and House Intelligence Committees Announce Joint Inquiry into the September 11 Terrorist Attacks, February 14, 2002. Their 832-page report released in December 2002WEB,weblink Congressional Reports: Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, August 10, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100807204747weblink">weblinkserialset/creports/911.html, August 7, 2010, detailed failings of the FBI and CIA to use available information, including about terrorists the CIA knew were in the United States, in order to disrupt the plots.Athan G. Theoharis, editor, The Central Intelligence Agency: Security Under Scrutiny, Greenwood Publishing Group, [https:books.google.com/books?id=-nj4RLdHCU0C&pg=PA223 p. 222-224], 2006, {{ISBN|0-313-33282-7}} The joint inquiry developed its information about possible involvement of Saudi Arabian government officials from non-classified sources.Ali Watkins, Senate intelligence panel could seek to declassify documents; it just doesn't {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140903123631weblink|date=September 3, 2014 }}, McClatchy Washington Bureau, August 12, 2013. Nevertheless, the Bush administration demanded 28 related pages remain classified. In December 2002, the inquiry's chair Bob Graham (D-FL) revealed in an interview that there was "evidence that there were foreign governments involved in facilitating the activities of at least some of the terrorists in the United States."Improving Intelligence, PBS interview with Sen. Bob Graham, December 11, 2002. September 11 victim families were frustrated by the unanswered questions and redacted material from the Congressional inquiry and demanded an independent commission. September 11 victim families,Chris Mondics, Struggling to detail alleged Saudi role in 9/11 attacks, Philadelphia Inquirer, March 31, 2014. members of congressPaul Sperry, Inside the Saudi 9/11 coverup, New York Post, December 15, 2013.April 10, 2014 Letter to Barack Obama, signed by Representatives Walter B. Jones Jr. and Stephen Lynch. and the Saudi Arabian government are still seeking release of the documents.Jake Tapper, Why hasn't Obama kept promise to declassify 28 pages of a report about 9/11?", CNN, September 8, 2014.MAGAZINE, The Twenty-Eight Pages, The New Yorker, Lawrence, Wright,weblink September 9, 2014, August 30, 2019, In June 2016, CIA chief John Brennan says that he believes 28 redacted pages of a congressional inquiry into 9/11 will soon be made public, and that they will prove that the government of Saudi Arabia had no involvement in the September 11 attacks.Euan McKirdy, weblink, CNN, June 14, 2016.In September 2016, the Congress passed the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act that would allow relatives of victims of the September 11 attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for its government's alleged role in the attacks."Why Obama doesn't want 9/11 families suing Saudi Arabia". USA Today. September 23, 2016."Saudi Arabia threatens to pull $750B from U.S. economy if Congress allows them to be sued for 9/11 terror attacks". Daily News (New York). April 16, 2016."Mayor de Blasio joins Democrats in calling on President Obama to go after Saudi Arabia on 9/11 ties". Daily News (New York). April 19, 2016.

9/11 Commission

The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission), chaired by Thomas Kean and Lee H. Hamilton, was formed in late 2002 to prepare a thorough account of the circumstances surrounding the attacks, including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks.WEB,weblink National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, govinfo.library.unt.edu, September 4, 2011, On July 22, 2004, the Commission issued the 9/11 Commission Report. The report detailed the events of 9/11, found the attacks were carried out by members of al-Qaeda, and examined how security and intelligence agencies were inadequately coordinated to prevent the attacks. Formed from an independent bipartisan group of mostly former Senators, Representatives, and Governors, the commissioners explained, "We believe the 9/11 attacks revealed four kinds of failures: in imagination, policy, capabilities, and management".WEB, Foresight-and Hindsight,weblink National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, September 4, 2011, The Commission made numerous recommendations on how to prevent future attacks, and in 2011 was dismayed that several of its recommendations had yet to be implemented.NEWS, Bennett, Brian, Post-9/11 assessment sees major security gaps,weblink September 4, 2011, Los Angeles Times, August 30, 2011,

National Institute of Standards and Technology

{{See also|7 World Trade Center#9/11 and collapse}}(File:WTC-Wreckage-exterior shell of south tower.jpg|thumb|right|The exterior support columns from the lower level of the South Tower remain standing after the collapse of the building.)The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) investigated the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC. The investigations examined why the buildings collapsed and what fire protection measures were in place, and evaluated how fire protection systems might be improved in future construction.WEB, NIST's World Trade Center Investigation,weblink National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, December 14, 2007, September 4, 2011, The investigation into the collapse of 1 WTC and 2 WTC was concluded in October 2005 and that of 7 WTC was completed in August 2008.WEB, NIST WTC 7 Investigation Finds Building Fires Caused Collapse,weblink The National Institute of Standards and Technology, September 4, 2011, August 21, 2008, NIST found that the fireproofing on the Twin Towers' steel infrastructures was blown off by the initial impact of the planes and that, had this not occurred, the towers likely would have remained standing.BOOK, National Construction Safety Team,weblink Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers, National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States Department of Commerce, Executive Summary, September 2005, April 10, 2011, PDF, A 2007 study of the north tower's collapse published by researchers of Purdue University determined that, since the plane's impact had stripped off much of the structure's thermal insulation, the heat from a typical office fire would have softened and weakened the exposed girders and columns enough to initiate the collapse regardless of the number of columns cut or damaged by the impact.JOURNAL, Irfanoglu, A., Hoffmann, C. M., 10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3828(2008)22:1(62), Engineering Perspective of the Collapse of WTC-I, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 22, 62, 2008, As the aircraft debris went through several stories in the tower, much of the thermal insulation on the core columns would have been scoured off. Under such conditions, the ensuing fire would be sufficient to cause instability and initiate collapse. From an engineering perspective, impact damage to the core structure had a negligible effect on the critical thermal load required to initiate collapse in the core structure., NEWS, Purdue creates scientifically based animation of 9/11 attack, Tally, Steve, Purdue News Service,weblink June 12, 2007, September 4, 2011, The aircraft moved through the building as if it were a hot and fast lava flow", Sozen says. "Consequently, much of the fireproofing insulation was ripped off the structure. Even if all of the columns and girders had survived the impact â€“ an unlikely event â€“ the structure would fail as the result of a buckling of the columns. The heat from an ordinary office fire would suffice to soften and weaken the unprotected steel. Evaluation of the effects of the fire on the core column structure, with the insulation removed by the impact, showed that collapse would follow whatever the number of columns cut at the time of the impact., The director of the original investigation stated that "the towers really did amazingly well. The terrorist aircraft didn't bring the buildings down; it was the fire which followed. It was proven that you could take out two-thirds of the columns in a tower and the building would still stand."WEB, Building a Terror-Proof Skyscraper: Experts Debate Feasibility, Options, Pete, Sigmund,weblink April 11, 2012, September 25, 2002, The fires weakened the trusses supporting the floors, making the floors sag. The sagging floors pulled on the exterior steel columns causing the exterior columns to bow inward. With the damage to the core columns, the buckling exterior columns could no longer support the buildings, causing them to collapse. Additionally, the report found the towers' stairwells were not adequately reinforced to provide adequate emergency escape for people above the impact zones.WEB, Translating WTC Recommendations into Model Building Codes, National Institute of Standards and Technology,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110310004023weblink">weblink March 10, 2011, September 4, 2011, October 25, 2007, NIST concluded that uncontrolled fires in 7 WTC caused floor beams and girders to heat and subsequently "caused a critical support column to fail, initiating a fire-induced progressive collapse that brought the building down".

Alleged Saudi role

In July 2016, the Obama administration released a document, compiled by US investigators Dana Lesemann and Michael Jacobson, known as "File 17",NEWS, Saudi diplomats ‘links to 9/11 attackers’,weblink The Week, April 20, 2016, which contains a list naming three dozen people, including the suspected Saudi intelligence officers attached to Saudi Arabia's embassy in Washington, D.C.,NEWS, US to reveal Saudi official allegedly tied to 9/11 attackers,weblink Al-Jazeera, 13 September 2019, which connects Saudi Arabia to the hijackers.NEWS, Riechmann, Deb, File 17 Is Glimpse Into Still-Secret 28 Pages About 9/11,weblink Associated Press, July 2, 2016, NEWS, CIA and Saudi Arabia Conspired to Keep 9/11 Details Secret, New Book Says,weblink Newsweek, August 28, 2018,

Rebuilding

(File:OneWorldTradeCenter.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Rebuilt One World Trade Center nearing completion in July 2013)On the day of the attacks, New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani stated: "We will rebuild. We're going to come out of this stronger than before, politically stronger, economically stronger. The skyline will be made whole again."NEWS, Taylor, Tess,weblink Rebuilding in New York, September 26, 2001, Architecture Week, 68, September 4, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511012010weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, dead, The damaged section of the Pentagon was rebuilt and occupied within a year of the attacks.NEWS, Oglesby, Christy, Phoenix rises: Pentagon honors 'hard-hat patriots',weblink CNN, September 11, 2002, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041218040531weblink">weblink December 18, 2004, May 29, 2014, The temporary World Trade Center PATH station opened in late 2003 and construction of the new 7 World Trade Center was completed in 2006. Work on rebuilding the main World Trade Center site was delayed until late 2006 when leaseholder Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey agreed on financing.NEWS,weblink An Agreement Is Formalized on Rebuilding at Ground Zero, The New York Times, Bagli, Charles V., September 22, 2006, September 4, 2011, The construction of One World Trade Center began on April 27, 2006, and reached its full height on May 20, 2013. The spire was installed atop the building at that date, putting 1 WTC's height at 1,776 feet (541 m) and thus claiming the title of the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.NEWS,weblink One World Trade Center gets spire, bringing it to its full 1,776-foot height, Badia, Erik, May 10, 2013, New York Daily News website, January 12, 2015, Sit, Ryan, One WTC finished construction and opened on November 3, 2014.NEWS,weblink One World Trade Center Opens Its Doors, Iyengar, Rishi, November 3, 2014, Time, January 12, 2015, On the World Trade Center site, three more office towers were to be built one block east of where the original towers stood.WEB, Lower Manhattan: Current Construction,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110914070256weblink">weblink September 14, 2011, Lower Manhattan Construction Command Center, September 8, 2011, 4 WTC, meanwhile, opened in November 2013, making it the second tower on the site to open behind 7 World Trade Center, as well as the first building on the Port Authority property.WEB,weblink NYC's World Trade Tower Opens 40% Empty in Revival, November 12, 2013, Bloomberg.com, October 5, 2015, 3 WTC opened on June 11, 2018, becoming the fourth skyscraper at the site to be completed.WEB,weblink New World Trade Center to open after years of delays, 2018-06-10, USA TODAY, 2018-06-11, On the 16th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, a writer for Curbed New York said that although "there is a World Trade Center again", it was not finished, as 2 and 5 WTC did not have definite completion dates, among other things.WEB, Bindelglass, Evan, The status of the World Trade Center complex, 16 years later, Curbed NY, September 11, 2017,weblink January 11, 2018,

Memorials

In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held around the world, and photographs of the dead and missing were posted around Ground Zero. A witness described being unable to "get away from faces of innocent victims who were killed. Their pictures are everywhere, on phone booths, street lights, walls of subway stations. Everything reminded me of a huge funeral, people quiet and sad, but also very nice. Before, New York gave me a cold feeling; now people were reaching out to help each other."WEB, Sigmund, Pete, Crews Assist Rescuers in Massive WTC Search,weblink Construction Equipment Guide, September 4, 2011, File:September 11th Tribute in Light from Bayonne, New Jersey.jpg|thumb|The Tribute in Light on September 11, 2014, the thirteenth anniversary of the attacks, seen from Bayonne, New JerseyBayonne, New JerseyOne of the first memorials was the Tribute in Light, an installation of 88 searchlights at the footprints of the World Trade Center towers.NEWS, Tribute in light to New York victims, BBC News Online, March 6, 2002,weblink April 1, 2012, In New York City, the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition was held to design an appropriate memorial on the site.WEB,weblink About the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, September 4, 2011, World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, The winning design, Reflecting Absence, was selected in August 2006, and consists of a pair of reflecting pools in the footprints of the towers, surrounded by a list of the victims' names in an underground memorial space.NEWS, Associated Press, WTC Memorial Construction Begins, CBS News, March 6, 2006,weblink September 4, 2011, The memorial was completed on September 11, 2011;WEB,weblink A Place of Remembrance, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, 2011, November 5, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141105175631weblink">weblink November 5, 2014, a museum also opened on site on May 21, 2014.WEB,weblink National September 11 Memorial Museum opens, Fox NY, May 21, 2014, May 21, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140521194934weblink">weblink May 21, 2014, In Arlington County, the Pentagon Memorial was completed and opened to the public on the seventh anniversary of the attacks in 2008.NEWS, Nick, Miroff, Creating a Place Like No Other,weblink The Washington Post, September 11, 2008, September 4, 2011, NEWS, Nick, Miroff, A Long-Awaited Opening, Bringing Closure to Many,weblink The Washington Post, September 12, 2008, September 4, 2011, It consists of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon.NEWS, Dwyer, Timothy,weblink Pentagon Memorial Progress Is Step Forward for Families, May 26, 2007, The Washington Post, September 4, 2011, When the Pentagon was repaired in 2001–2002, a private chapel and indoor memorial were included, located at the spot where Flight 77 crashed into the building.WEB,weblink DefenseLINK News Photos â€“ Pentagon's America's Heroes Memorial, Department of Defense, September 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091130081905weblink">weblink November 30, 2009, In Shanksville, a concrete and glass visitor center was opened on September 10, 2015,WEB, Flight 93 National Memorial – Sources and Detailed Information, nps.gov, National Park Service, n.d.,weblink January 31, 2017, 13. When will the Memorial be finished?, situated on a hill overlooking the crash site and the white marble Wall of Names.WEB, Flight 93 National Memorial – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), nps.gov, National Park Service, May 2013, 22–23,weblink January 31, 2017, An observation platform at the visitor center and the white marble wall are both aligned beneath the path of Flight 93.NEWS, A Long Road to a Place of Peace for Flight 93 Families, The New York Times, September 9, 2015,weblink September 9, 2015, A temporary memorial is located {{convert|500|yd|0}} from the crash site.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411125737weblink">weblink April 11, 2008, Flight 93 Memorial Project, Flight 93 Memorial Project / National Park Service, September 4, 2011, New York City firefighters donated a cross made of steel from the World Trade Center and mounted on top of a platform shaped like the Pentagon.NEWS, Nephin, Dan, Steel cross goes up near flight's 9/11 Pa. crash site, August 24, 2008, Associated Press,weblink September 5, 2011, It was installed outside the firehouse on August 25, 2008.NEWS, Gaskell, Stephanie, Pa. site of 9/11 crash gets WTC beam,weblink August 25, 2008, Daily News, New York, September 4, 2011, Many other permanent memorials are elsewhere. Scholarships and charities have been established by the victims' families, and by many other organizations and private figures.NEWS, Fessenden, Ford, 9/11; After the World Gave: Where $2 Billion in Kindness Ended Up,weblink The New York Times, November 18, 2002, September 4, 2011, On every anniversary, in New York City, the names of the victims who died there are read out against a background of somber music. The President of the United States attends a memorial service at the Pentagon,NEWS,weblink The New York Times, At a Memorial Ceremony, Loss and Tension, Andy, Newman, September 11, 2010, and asks Americans to observe Patriot Day with a moment of silence. Smaller services are held in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, which are usually attended by the President's spouse.{{clear}}

See also

{{Wikipedia books|September 11 attacks}}

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist|25em}}

Bibliography{{anchor|Sources}}

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  • JOURNAL, Yitzhak, Ronen, The War Against Terrorism and For Stability of the Hashemite Regime: Jordanian Intelligence Challenges in the 21st Century, International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, Summer 2016, 29, 2, 213–235, 10.1080/08850607.2016.1121038, harv,

Further reading

  • BOOK, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States,weblink July 30, 2010, Cosimo, Inc, 978-1-61640-219-8,
  • BOOK, Stephen E, Atkins, The 9/11 Encyclopedia,weblink 2011, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-921-9,
  • BOOK, Bolton, M. Kent, 2006, U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation,weblink Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-5900-4,
  • BOOK, Caraley, Demetrios, 2002, September 11, terrorist attacks, and U.S. foreign policy,weblink Academy of Political Science, 978-1-884853-01-2,
  • BOOK, Chernick, Howard, 2005, Resilient city: the economic impact of 9/11
publisher= Russell Sage Foundation, 978-0-87154-170-3,
  • BOOK, Damico, Amy M, Quay, Sara E., 2010, September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide
publisher=Greenwood, 978-0-313-35505-9,
  • BOOK, Hampton, Wilborn, 2003, September 11, 2001: attack on New York City,weblink Candlewick Press, 978-0-7636-1949-7,
  • BOOK, Langley, Andrew, 2006, September 11: Attack on America
publisher=Compass Point Books, 978-0-7565-1620-8,
  • BOOK, Neria, Yuval, Gross, Raz, Marshall, Randall D., Susser, Ezra S., 2006, 9/11: mental health in the wake of terrorist attacks,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-83191-8,
  • BOOK, Ryan, Allan A., The 9/11 Terror Cases: Constitutional Challenges in the War against Al Qaeda, University Press of Kansas, 2015,
  • BOOK, Steven, Strasser, Craig R, Whitney, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Intelligence, The 9/11 investigations: staff reports of the 9/11 Commission: excerpts from the House–Senate joint inquiry report on 9/11: testimony from fourteen key witnesses, including Richard Clarke, George Tenet, and Condoleezza Rice,weblink 2004, PublicAffairs, 978-1-58648-279-4,

External links

{{Sister project links|d=Q10806|n=Category:9/11|q=September 11, 2001 attacks|c=Category:September 11 attacks|wikt=9/11|v=9/11|s=Category:September 11th attacks|b=no}} {{Spoken Wikipedia|En-September-11-attacks.ogg|2019-09-11}}Multimedia {{September 11 attacks|state=expanded}}{{Navboxes|list1={{World Trade Center}}{{US War on Terror}}{{al-Qaeda}}{{Aviation accidents and incidents in 2001}}{{US history}}}}{{Authority control}}{{good article}}

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