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Voice of America
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{{redirect|VOA|other uses|Voice of America (disambiguation)|and|VOA (disambiguation)}} {{for|the television series that was known during development as The Voice of America|The Voice (American TV series)}}{{selfref|For information about vandalism-only accounts on Wikipedia, see }}{{short description|Official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2018}}







factoids
|footnotes =}}(File:Voice of America headquarters - Stierch.jpg|thumb|Voice of America headquarters in Washington, D.C.)File:Voa english signing on with yankee doodle.ogg|thumb|Yankee Doodle, the interval signalinterval signalVoice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded state ownedWEB,weblink Mission and Values, InsideVOA.com, VOA Public Relations, Voice of America, August 10, 2017, multimedia agency which serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting. It is the largest U.S. international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in more than 40 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe. It is primarily viewed by foreign audiences, so VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States and its leaders.VOA was established in 1942, and the VOA charter (Public Laws 94-350 and 103-415)90 Stat. 823, 108 Stat. 4299 was signed into law in 1976 by President Gerald Ford. The charter contains its mission "to broadcast accurate, balanced, and comprehensive news and information to an international audience", and it defines the legally mandated standards in the VOA journalistic code.VOA is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and overseen by the U.S. Agency for Global Media, an independent agency of the U.S. government.WEB,weblink VOA Charter, InsideVOA.com, VOA Public Relations, Voice of America,weblink" title="archive.is/20161120165209weblink">weblink November 20, 2016, dead, Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for embassies and consulates. In 2016, VOA broadcast an estimated 1,800 hours of radio and TV programming each week to approximately 236.6 million people worldwide with about 1,050 employees and a taxpayer-funded annual budget of {{usd|218.5 million}}.NEWS, Borchers, Callum, Voice of America says it won’t become Trump TV,weblink August 11, 2017, The Washington Post, January 26, 2017, WEB, VOA Public Relations, The Largest U.S. International Broadcaster,weblink VOANews.com, Voice of America, August 11, 2017, December 5, 2016, Some commentators consider Voice of America to be a form of propaganda. However, VOA's Best Practices Guide states that "The accuracy, quality and credibility of the Voice of America are its most important assets, and they rest on the audiences’ perception of VOA as an objective and reliable source of U.S., regional and world news and information,"WEB,weblink VOA Best Practices Guide, July 30, 2018, which meets the definition of white propaganda.{{cn|date=October 2019}} Surveys show that 84% of VOA's audiences say they trust VOA to provide accurate and reliable information, and a similar percentage (84%) say that VOA helps them understand current events relevant to their lives.WEB,weblink Broadcast Board of Governors Congressional Budget Justification, p. 21, In response to the request of the United States Department of Justice that RT register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Russia's Justice Ministry labeled Voice of America and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as foreign agents in December 2017.NEWS, Stahl, Lesley, RT's editor-in-chief on election meddling, being labeled Russian propaganda,weblink January 7, 2018, CBS News, January 14, 2018, NEWS,weblink Russia designates Radio Free Europe and Voice of America as 'foreign agents', Osborn, Andrew, January 14, 2018, Reuters, January 14, 2018,

Current languages

The Voice of America website had five English language broadcasts as of 2014 (worldwide, Special English, Cambodia, Zimbabwe and Tibet). Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 46 foreign languages (radio programs are marked with an asterisk; TV programs with a plus symbol):{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}The number of languages varies according to the priorities of the United States government and the world situation.WEB,weblink FAQs, How do you make decisions to cut or add languages or programs?, December 3, 2014, bbg.gov, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141201064438weblink">weblink December 1, 2014,weblink

History

American private shortwave broadcasting before World War II

Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands.Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923–1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. {{ISBN|0-7864-0506-6}}, 105 Privately controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International Network (or White Network), which broadcast in six languages,Library of Congress. "NBC Resources Held by the Recorded Sound Section." Library of Congress the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries,Chamberlain, A.B. "CBS International Broadcast Facilities". Proceedings of the IRE, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 1942 pp. 118–29, abstract at IEEE and the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, Ohio, all of which had shortwave transmitters. Experimental programming began in the 1930s, but there were fewer than 12 transmitters in operation.{{harvp|Dizard|2004|p=24}} In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy:A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill, understanding and cooperation. Any program solely intended for, and directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service.Rose, Cornelia Bruère. National Policy for Radio Broadcasting. 1971, Ayer Publishing. {{ISBN|0-405-03580-2}}. p. 244This policy was intended to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but some broadcasters felt that it was an attempt to direct censorship.WEB, NABusiness,weblink Time.com, Time Magazine, subscription, Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda around 1940. Initially, the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news. The director of Latin American relations at the Columbia Broadcasting System was Edmund A. Chester, and he supervised the development of CBS's extensive "La Cadena de las Americas" radio network to improve broadcasting to South America during the 1940s.Dissonant Divas In Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 {{ISBN|978-0-8166-7316-2}} p. 152-153 Edmund Chester, CBS, Franklin Roosevelt and "La Cadena De Las Americas" on google.books.comAlso included among the cultural diplomacy programming on the Columbia Broadcasting System was the musical show Viva America (1942-1949) which featured the Pan American Orchestra and the artistry of several noted musicians from both North and South America, including Alfredo Antonini, Juan Arvizu, Eva Garza, Elsa Miranda, Nestor Mesta Chaires, Miguel Sandoval, John Serry Sr., and Terig Tucci.A Pictorial History of Radio, Settel Irving Grosset & Dunlap Publishers, New York, 1960 & 1967, Pg. 146, Library of Congress #67-23789Media Sound & Culture in Latin America. Editors: Bronfman, Alejanda & Wood, Andrew Grant. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburg, PA, USA, 2012, Pg. 49 {{ISBN|978-0-8229-6187-1}} weblink See pg. 49Anthony, Edwin D. Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs. National Archives and Record Services - General Services Administration Washington D.C., 1937 p. 25-26 Library of Congress Catalog No. 73-600146 Records of the Office of Inter-American Affairs - Radio Division at the U.S. National Archive on www.archives.gov By 1945, broadcasts of the show were carried by 114 stations on CBS's "La Cadena de las Americas" network in 20 Latin American nations. These broadcasts proved to be highly successful in supporting President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Pan-Americanism throughout South America during World War II.Dissonant Divas in Chicana Music: The Limits of La Onda Deborah R. Vargas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2012 p. 152-155 {{ISBN|978-0-8166-7316-2}} OCIAA (Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs), FDR's Good Neighbor Policy, CBS, Viva America, La Cadena de las Americas on google.books.com

World War II

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government's Office of the Coordinator of Information (COI, in Washington) had already begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis through its Foreign Information Service (FIS, in New York) headed by playwright Robert E. Sherwood, the playwright who served as president Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor.WEB,weblink The Voice of America: Origins and Recollections, Roberts, Walter R., October 3, 2010,weblink 26 April 2018, Direct programming began a week after the United States’ entry into World War II in December 1941, with the first broadcast from the San Francisco office of the FIS via a leased General Electric’s transmitter to the Philippines in English (other languages followed). The next step was to broadcast to Germany, which was called Stimmen aus Amerika ("Voices from America") and was transmitted on February 1, 1942. It was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, and every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war... The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth."Roberts, Walter R. UNC.edu See also: WEB,weblink A Belated Correction: The Real First Broadcast of the Voice of America, Kern, Chris, October 3, 2010, Roosevelt approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan (COI) and Sherwood (FIS) had recommended to him. It was Sherwood who actually coined the term "The Voice of America" to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City.The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942, officially took over VOA's operations. VOA reached an agreement with the British Broadcasting Corporation to share medium-wave transmitters in Britain, and expanded into Tunis in North Africa and Palermo and Bari, Italy as the Allies captured these territories. The OWI also set up the American Broadcasting Station in Europe.{{harvp|Dizard|2004|pp=24–25}}Asian transmissions started with one transmitter in California in 1941; services were expanded by adding transmitters in Hawaii and, after recapture, the Philippines.{{harvp|Dizard|2004|p=25}}By the end of the war, VOA had 39 transmitters and provided service in 40 languages. Programming was broadcast from production centers in New York and San Francisco, with more than 1,000 programs originating from New York. Programming consisted of music, news, commentary, and relays of U.S. domestic programming, in addition to specialized VOA programming.BOOK, Sterling, Christopher H., John Michael, Kittross, 2001, Stay Tuned: a History of American Broadcasting, LEA's Communication Series, Lawernce Erlbaum Associates, 3rd, 978-0-8058-2624-1, 263, About half of VOA's services, including the Arabic service, were discontinued in 1945.{{harvp|Rugh|2006|p=13}} In late 1945, VOA was transferred to the Department of State.

Cold War

{{more citations needed|section|date=January 2018}}In 1947, VOA started broadcasting to the Soviet citizens in Russia under the pretext of countering "more harmful instances of Soviet propaganda directed against American leaders and policies" on the part of the internal Soviet Russian-language media, according to John B. Whitton's treatise, Cold War Propaganda.JOURNAL, John B. Whitton, 1951, Cold War propaganda, American Journal of International Law, 45, 1, 151–53, 2194791, The Soviet Union responded by initiating electronic jamming of VOA broadcasts on April 24, 1949.Charles W. Thayer headed VOA in 1948–49.Over the next few years, the U.S. government debated the best role of Voice of America. The decision was made to use VOA broadcasts as a part of its foreign policy to fight the propaganda of the Soviet Union and other countries.The Arabic service resumed on January 1, 1950, with a half-hour program. This program grew to 14.5 hours daily during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and was six hours a day by 1958.In 1952, Voice of America installed a studio and relay facility aboard a converted U.S. Coast Guard cutter renamed Courier whose target audience was Soviet Union and other members of Warsaw Pact. The Courier was originally intended to become the first in a fleet of mobile, radio broadcasting ships (see offshore radio) that built upon U.S. Navy experience during WWII in using warships as floating broadcasting stations. However, the Courier eventually dropped anchor off the island of Rhodes, Greece with permission of the Greek government to avoid being branded as a pirate radio broadcasting ship. This VOA offshore station stayed on the air until the 1960s when facilities were eventually provided on land. The Courier supplied training to engineers who later worked on several of the European commercial offshore broadcasting stations of the 1950s and 1960s.Control of VOA passed from the State Department to the U.S. Information Agency when the latter was established in 1953. to transmit worldwide, including to the countries behind the Iron Curtain and to the People's Republic of China (PRC).Starting in the 1950s, VOA broadcast American jazz, with Willis Conover hosting a daily program from 1955 until 1996, which was highly popular worldwide drawing 30 million listeners at its peak. A program aimed at South Africa in 1956 broadcast two hours nightly, and special programs such as The Newport Jazz Festival were also transmitted. This was done in association with tours by U.S. musicians, such as Dizzy Gillespie, Louis Armstrong, and Duke Ellington, sponsored by the State Department.Appy, Christian G. Cold War Constructions: The Political Culture of United States Imperialism. 2000, University of Massachusetts Press; {{ISBN|1-55849-218-6}}, p. 126. From August 1952 through May 1953, Billy Brown, a high school senior in Westchester County, New York, had a Monday night program in which he shared everyday happenings in Yorktown Heights, New York. Brown's program ended due to its popularity: his "chatty narratives" attracted so much fan mail, VOA couldn't afford the $500 a month in clerical and postage costs required to respond to listeners' letters.NEWS, Folsom, Merrill, 'Voice' to Drop Boy's Broadcasts; Can't Afford to Answer Fan Mail, The New York Times, Vol CII, No 34823, pg 1, 28 May 1953, Throughout the Cold War, many of the targeted countries' governments sponsored jamming of VOA broadcasts, which sometimes led critics to question the broadcasts' actual impact. For example, in 1956, Polish People's Republic stopped jamming VOA transmissions {{Citation needed|date=March 2015}}, but People's Republic of Bulgaria continued to jam the signal through the 1970s. Chinese language VOA broadcasts were jammed beginning in 1956 and extending through 1976.Broadcasting Yearbook, 1976 and 1979 editions. However, after the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, interviews with participants in anti-Soviet movements verified the effectiveness of VOA broadcasts in transmitting information to socialist societies.Conference Report, Cold War Impact of VOA Broadcasts, Hoover Institution and the Cold War International History Project of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Oct. 13–16, 2004 The People's Republic of China diligently jams VOA broadcasts.WEB,weblink Fighting the Chinese Government "Firedragon" – Music Jammer AND "Sound of Hope" Broadcasting (SOH), Taiwan, January 15, 2008, PDF, Bihlmayer, Ulrich, September 12, 2006, IARU Region 1 Monitoring System, Cuba has also been reported to interfere with VOA satellite transmissions to Iran from its Russian-built transmission site at Bejucal.WEB,weblink U.S.: Cuba Jamming TV Signals To Iran – Local News Story – WTVJ, January 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081224191817weblink">weblink 24 December 2008, David Jackson, former director of Voice of America, noted: "The North Korean government doesn't jam us, but they try to keep people from listening through intimidation or worse. But people figure out ways to listen despite the odds. They're very resourceful."Jackson, David. "The Future of Radio II." World Radio TV Handbook, 2007 edition. 2007, Billboard Books. {{ISBN|0-8230-5997-9}}. p 38.Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, VOA covered some of the era's most important news, including Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech and Neil Armstrong's first walk on the moon. During the Cuban missile crisis, VOA broadcast around-the-clock in Spanish.In the early 1980s, VOA began a $1.3 billion rebuilding program to improve broadcast with better technical capabilities. Also in the 1980s, VOA also added a television service, as well as special regional programs to Cuba, Radio Martí and TV Martí. Cuba has consistently attempted to jam such broadcasts and has vociferously protested U.S. broadcasts directed at Cuba.In September 1980, VOA started broadcasting to Afghanistan in Dari and in Pashto in 1982. At the same time, VOA started to broadcast U.S. government editorials, clearly separated from the programming by audio cues.In 1985, VOA Europe was created as a special service in English that was relayed via satellite to AM, FM, and cable affiliates throughout Europe. With a contemporary format including live disc jockeys, the network presented top musical hits as well as VOA news and features of local interest (such as "EuroFax") 24 hours a day. VOA Europe was closed down without advance public notice in January 1997 as a cost-cutting measure.JOURNAL, Holland, Bill, VOA Europe: A Victim of Bureaucracy?, Billboard, March 8, 1997, 109, 10,weblink December 2, 2017, It was followed by VOA Express, which from July 4, 1999 revamped into VOA Music Mix. Since November 1, 2014 stations are offered VOA1 (which is a rebranding of VOA Music Mix).In 1989, Voice of America expanded its Mandarin and Cantonese programming to reach the millions of Chinese and inform the country about the pro-democracy movement within the country, including the demonstration in Tiananmen Square.Starting in 1990, the U.S. consolidated its international broadcasting efforts, with the establishment of the Bureau of Broadcasting.

Post–Cold War

With the breakup of the Soviet bloc in Eastern Europe, VOA added many additional language services to reach those areas. This decade was marked by the additions of Tibetan, Kurdish (to Iran and Iraq), Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, and Rwanda-Rundi language services.In 1993, the Clinton administration advised cutting funding for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as it was felt post-Cold War information and influence was not needed in Europe. This plan was not well received, and he then proposed the compromise of the International Broadcasting Act. The Broadcasting Board of Governors was established and took control from the Board for International Broadcasters which previously oversaw funding for RFE/RL.In 1994, President Clinton signed the International Broadcasting Act into law. This law established the International Broadcasting Bureau as a part of the U.S. Information Agency and created the Broadcasting Board of Governors with oversight authority. In 1998, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act was signed into law and mandated that BBG become an independent federal agency as of October 1, 1999. This act also abolished the U.S.I.A. and merged most of its functions with those of the State Department.In 1994, Voice of America became the firstWEB,weblink The Voice of America: First on the Internet, Kern, Chris, January 15, 2008, broadcast-news organization to offer continuously updated programs on the Internet.

Cuts in services

The Arabic Service was abolished in 2002 and replaced by a new radio service, called the Middle East Radio Network or Radio Sawa, with an initial budget of $22 million. Radio Sawa offered mostly Western and Middle Eastern popular songs with periodic brief news bulletins. Today, the network has expanded to television with Alhurra and to various social media and websitesweblink May 16, 2004; Worldnet, a satellite television service, was merged into the VOA network.Radio programs in Russian ended in July 2008. In September 2008, VOA eliminated the Hindi language service after 53 years.NEWS,weblink India Set to Lose Voice of America, December 3, 2014, September 12, 2008, Washington Post, Rama, Lakshmi, Broadcasts in Ukrainian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bosnian also ended.WEB,weblink Voice of America to Cut Language Services, December 3, 2014, July 3, 2008, propublica.org, These reductions were part of American efforts to concentrate more resources to broadcast to the Muslim world.In September 2010, VOA started radio broadcasts in Sudan. As U.S. interests in South Sudan have grown, there is a desire to provide people with free information.Abedje, Ashenafi. "Voice of America Expands its Sudan Programming," Voice of America News, September 17, 2010. Retrieved on March 25, 2011In 2013, VOA finished foreign language transmissions on shortwave and medium wave to Albania, Georgia, Iran and Latin America; as well as English language broadcasts to the Middle East and Afghanistan.WEB,weblink VOA Reducing Radio Frequencies, December 3, 2014, March 26, 2013, insidevoa.com, The movement was done due to budget cuts.On July 1, 2014, VOA cut most of its shortwave transmissions in English to Asia.WEB,weblink Voice of America Makes More Cuts to International Shortwave Broadcast Schedule, December 3, 2014, July 1, 2014, arrl.org, Shortwave broadcasts in Azerbaijani, Bengali, Khmer, Kurdish, Lao, and Uzbek were dropped too. On August 11, 2014, the Greek service ended after 72 years on air.WEB,weblink Voice of America Ends Greek Broadcasts, December 3, 2014, August 11, 2014, bbg.gov, WEB,weblink After 72 years on air, VOA's Greek Service goes silent, December 3, 2014, August 12, 2014, Kathimerini,

List of languages {| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size: 87%;"

! LanguageVoice of America History, VOA Language Service Fact Sheets !! from !! to !! Website !! RemarksEnglish language>English 1942 present www.voanews.com Amoy dialect > 19451963 – Cantonese 194119491987 data-sort-value="present" 美國之音 style="vertical-align:top;"| see also Radio Free AsiaMandarin Chinese >美国之音 >| see also Radio Free Asia Portuguese language (to Latin America) > 194519482001 style="vertical-align:top;"| Spanish language (to Latin America) > 194519481956present style="vertical-align:top;"Voz de América > see also Radio y Televisión MartíTagalog language>Tagalog 1941 1946 – Afrikaans >| Arabic 19421950 data-sort-value="2002" – style="vertical-align:top;"| see also Radio Sawa and AlhurraBulgarian language>Bulgarian 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeCzech language>Czech 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeDanish language>Danish 1942 1945 – Persian language > 194519601966present style="vertical-align:top;"صدای آمریکا > see also Radio Farda Finnish language > 19451953 style="vertical-align:top;"|Flemish >|French language>French (to France) 1942 1961 – German language > – Modern Greek>Greek 1942 2014 - Hungarian language>Hungarian 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeIndonesian language>Indonesian 1942 present VOA Indonesia Italian language > 19451957 style="vertical-align:top;"| Japanese language > 19451962 style="vertical-align:top;"|Korean language>Korean 1942 present VOA 한국어 see also Radio Free AsiaNorwegian language>Norwegian 1942 1945 – Polish language>Polish 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free Europe Portuguese (to Portugal) 1942195119761987 data-sort-value="1993" –   (for local radio stations) Romanian language>Romanian 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeSlovak language>Slovak 1942 2004 – see also Radio Free Europe Spanish (to Spain) 19421955 data-sort-value="1993" -(for local radio stations) Thai language > 19581988present style="vertical-align:top;"วอยซ์ ออฟ อเมริกา >| Turkish language > 1945present style="vertical-align:top;"Amerika'nın Sesi >| Albanian language > 1945present style="vertical-align:top;"Zëri i Amerikës > see also Radio Free Europe Burmese language > 1945present style="vertical-align:top;"ဗီြအိုေအသတင္းဌာန > see also Radio Free AsiaCroatian language>Croatian 1943 2011 – see also Radio Free EuropeSerbian language>Serbian 1943 present Glas Amerike see also Radio Free EuropeSwedish language>Swedish 1943 1945 – Vietnamese language > 1946present style="vertical-align:top;"Ðài Tiếng nói Hoa Kỳ > see also Radio Free AsiaDutch language>Dutch 1944 1945 – Icelandic language>Icelandic 1944 1944 – Wu Chinese (Shanghai) >| Slovene language > 19452004 style="vertical-align:top;" see also Radio Free EuropeRussian language>Russian 1947 present Голос Америки see also Radio LibertyUkrainian language>Ukrainian 1949 present Голос Америки see also Radio Liberty Standard Tibetan > present ཨ་རིའི་རླུང་འཕྲིན་ཁང་།www.voatibetanenglish.com see also Radio Free AsiaArmenian language>Armenian 1951 present (web) Ô±Õ´Õ¥Ö€Õ«Õ¯Õ¡ÕµÕ« Ձայն see also Radio Liberty Azerbaijani language > 1953present (web) style="vertical-align:top;"Amerikanın SÉ™si > see also Radio LibertyEstonian language>Estonian 1951 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeGeorgian language>Georgian 1951 present (web) – see also Radio LibertyHakka Chinese>Hakka 1951 1954 – Hebrew language>Hebrew 1951 1953 – Hindi 19511954 data-sort-value="2008" – Latvian language>Latvian 1951 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeLithuanian language>Lithuanian 1951 2004 – see also Radio Free EuropeMalaysian language>Malayan 1951 1955 – Shantou dialect>Swatow 1951 1953 – Tatar language>Tatar 1951 1953 – see also Radio Liberty Urdu 19511954 data-sort-value="present" وائس آف امریکہ Tamil language>Tamil 1954 1970 – Khmer language > 1957present វីអូអេwww.voacambodia.com style="vertical-align:top;"| see also Radio Free AsiaBelarusian language>Belarusian 1956 1957 – see also Radio LibertyGujarati language>Gujarati 1956 1958 – Malayalam >|Telegu language>Telegu 1956 1958 – Bangla language>Bangla 1958 present ভয়েস অফ আমেরিকা Uzbek language > present style="vertical-align:top;"Amerika Ovozi > see also Radio LibertyVOA Afrique >|Lao language>Lao 1962 present ສຽງອາເມຣິກາ ວີໂອເອ see also Radio Free AsiaSwahili language>Swahili 1962 present Sauti ya Amerika www.voaafrica.comwww.voazimbabwe.com >|Voz da América >|Hausa language>Hausa 1979 present Muryar Amurka Dari language>Dari 1980 present صدای امریکا Amharic >የአሜሪካ ድምፅ >|Pashto (to Afghanistan) >اشنا راډیو >|French-based creole languages>Creole 1987 present Lavwadlamerik Nepali language>Nepali 1992 1993 – Somali language > 1995present style="vertical-align:top;"VOA Somali >|Kurdish languages>Kurdish 1992 present ده‌نگی ئه‌مه‌ریکاDengê Amerîka Oromo language>Afaan Oromo 1996 present Sagalee Ameerikaa Bosnian language>Bosnian 1996 present Glas Amerike see also Radio Free EuropeKinyarwanda/Kirundi >Ijwi ry'Amerika >|Tigrinya language>Tigrinya 1996 present ድምፂ ረድዮ ኣሜሪካ Macedonian language>Macedonian 1999 2008 – see also Radio Free EuropeZimbabwean Ndebele language>Ndebele 2003 present VOA Ndebele Shona language>Shona 2003 present VOA Shona ډیوه ریډیو >|Bambara language>Bambara 2013 present VOA Bambara

List of directors

  •   1941–1942 Robert E. Sherwood (Foreign Information Service)
  • 1942–1943 John Houseman
  • 1943–1945 Louis G. Cowan
  • 1945–1946 John Ogilvie
  • 1948–1949 Charles W. Thayer
  • 1949–1952 Foy D. Kohler
  • 1952–1953 Alfred H. Morton
  • 1953–1954 Leonard Erikson
  • 1954–1956 John R. Poppele
  • 1956–1958 Robert E. Burton
  • 1958–1965 Henry Loomis
  • 1965–1967 John Chancellor
  • 1967–1968 John Charles Daly
  • 1969–1977 Kenneth R. Giddens
  • 1977–1979 R. Peter Straus
  • 1980–1981 Mary Bitterman
  • 1981–1982 James B. Conkling
  • 1982 John Hughes
  • 1982–1984 Kenneth Tomlinson
  • 1985 Gene Pell
  • 1986–1991 Dick Carlson
  • 1991–1993 Chase Untermeyer
  • 1994–1996 Geoffrey Cowan
  • 1997–1999 Evelyn S. Lieberman
  • 1999–2001 Sanford J. Ungar
  • 2001–2002 Robert R. Reilly
  • 2002–2006 David S. Jackson
  • 2006–2011 Danforth W. Austin
  • 2011–2015 David Ensor
  • 2016– Amanda Bennett
  • Agencies

    Voice of America has been a part of several agencies. From its founding in 1942 to 1945, it was part of the Office of War Information, and then from 1945 to 1953 as a function of the State Department. VOA was placed under the U.S. Information Agency in 1953. When the USIA was abolished in 1999, VOA was placed under the Broadcasting Board of Governors, or BBG, which is an autonomous U.S. government agency, with bipartisan membership. The Secretary of State has a seat on the BBG.{{harvp|Rugh|2006|p=14}} The BBG was established as a buffer to protect VOA and other U.S.-sponsored, non-military, international broadcasters from political interference. It replaced the Board for International Broadcasting (BIB) that oversaw the funding and operation of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, a branch of VOA.Raghavan, Sudarsan V., Stephen S. Johnson, and Kristi K. Bahrenburg. "Sending cross-border static: on the fate of Radio Free Europe and the influence of international broadcasting," Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 47, 1993, access on March 25, 2011.

    Laws

    Smith–Mundt Act

    From 1948 until its amendment in 2013, Voice of America was forbidden to broadcast directly to American citizens under § 501 of the Smith–Mundt Act.NEWS,weblink Taxpayer money at work: US-funded foreign broadcasts finally available in the US, Elizabeth, Chuck, NBC News, July 20, 2013, The act was amended as a result of the passing of the Smith-Mundt Modernization Act provision of the National Defense Authorization Act for 2013.NEWS, Hudson, John, U.S. Repeals Propaganda Ban, Spreads Government-Made News to Americans,weblink July 16, 2013, Foreign Policy, July 14, 2013, The intent of the legislation in 1948 was to protect the American public from propaganda actions by their own government and to have no competition with private American companies.Broderick, James F., and Darren W. Miller. Consider the Source: A Critical Guide to 100 prominent news and information sites on the Web. Medford, NJ: Information Today, 2007. {{ISBN|0-910965-77-3}}, {{ISBN|978-0-910965-77-4}}, p. 388. The amendment had the intent of adapting to the Internet and allow American citizens to request access to VOA contentweblink

    Internal policies

    VOA charter

    Under the Eisenhower administration in 1959, VOA Director Henry Loomis commissioned a formal statement of principles to protect the integrity of VOA programming and define the organization's mission, and was issued by Director George V. Allen as a directive in 1960 and was endorsed in 1962 by USIA director Edward R. Murrow.{{harvp|Rugh|2006|pp=13–14}} The principles were signed into law on July 12, 1976, by President Gerald Ford. It reads:The long-range interests of the United States are served by communicating directly with the peoples of the world by radio. To be effective, the Voice of America must win the attention and respect of listeners. These principles will therefore govern Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. 1. VOA will serve as a consistently reliable and authoritative source of news. VOA news will be accurate, objective, and comprehensive. 2. VOA will represent America, not any single segment of American society, and will therefore present a balanced and comprehensive projection of significant American thought and institutions. 3. VOA will present the policies of the United States clearly and effectively, and will also present responsible discussions and opinion on these policies.

    "Firewall"

    The Voice of America Firewall was put in place with the 1976 VOA Charter and laws passed in 1994 and 2016 as a way of ensuring the integrity of VOA's journalism. This policy fights against propaganda and promotes unbiased and objective journalistic standards in the agency. The charter is one part of this firewall and the other laws assist in ensuring high standards of journalismweblink

    "Two-source rule"

    According to former VOA correspondent Alan Heil, the internal policy of VOA News is that any story broadcast must have two independently corroborating sources or have a staff correspondent actually witness an event.Columbia University Press. Interview with Alan Heil, author of Voice of America {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070706051252weblink |date=July 6, 2007 }}

    Newsroom

    Voice of America's central newsroom has hundreds of journalists and dozens of full-time domestic and overseas correspondents, who are employees of the U.S. government or paid contractors. They are augmented by hundreds of contract correspondents and stringers throughout the world, who file in English or in one of VOA's other radio and television broadcast languages.In late 2005, VOA shifted some of its central-news operation to Hong Kong where contracted writers worked from a "virtual" office with counterparts on the overnight shift in Washington, D.C., but this operation was shut down in early 2008.

    Shortwave frequencies

    By December 2014, the number of transmitters and frequencies used by VOA had been greatly reduced. VOA still uses shortwave transmissions to cover some areas of Africa and Asia. Shortwave broadcasts still take place in these languages: Afaan Oromoo, Amharic, Bambara, Cantonese, Chinese, English, Indonesian, Korean and Swahili.

    VOA Radiogram

    VOA Radiogram was an experimental Voice of America program starting in March 2013 which transmitted digital text and images via shortwave radiograms.WEB,weblink VOA Radiogram, VOA Radiogram, April 15, 2014, There were 220 editions of the program, transmitted each weekend from the Edward R. Murrow transmitting station. The audio tones that comprised the bulk of each 30 minute program were transmitted via an analog transmitter, and could be decoded using a basic AM shortwave receiver with freely downloadable software of the Fldigi family. This software is available for Windows, Apple (OSX), Linux, and FreeBSD systems.Broadcasts can also be decoded using the free TIVAR app from the Google Play store using any Android device.The mode used most often on VOA Radiogram, for both text and images, was MFSK32, but other modes were also occasionally transmitted.The final edition of VOA Radiogram was transmitted during the weekend of June 17–18, 2017, a week before the retirement of the program producer from VOA. An offer to continue the broadcasts on a contract basis was declined,WEB,weblink VOA Radiogram, 20–21 May 2017: Special doomed edition, VOA Radiogram, June 26, 2017, so a follow-on show called Shortwave Radiogram began transmission on June 25, 2017 from the WRMI transmitting site in Okeechobee, Florida.Shortwave Radiogram, 25 June 2017: First show. Holding my breath. VOA Radiogram Official Site
    Shortwave Radiogram program scheduleWEB,weblink Shortwave Radiogram Tumblr Site, swradiogram.net, June 27, 2017, {| class="wikitable"
    ! Day ||Time (UTC) !! Shortwave frequency (MHz) || Origin|Space Line, Bulgaria|WRMI, Florida|WRMI, Florida|WRMI, Florida

    Transmission facilities

    One of VOA's radio transmitter facilities was originally based on a {{convert|625|acre|km2|adj=on}} site in Union Township (now West Chester Township) in Butler County, Ohio, near Cincinnati. The site is now a recreational park with a lake, lodge, dog park, and Voice of America museum. The Bethany Relay Station operated from 1944 to 1994.WEB,weblink Voice of America - Ohio History Central, www.ohiohistorycentral.org, en, 2018-12-02, Other former sites include California (Dixon, Delano), Hawaii, Okinawa, (Monrovia) Liberia, Costa Rica, Belize, and at least two in Greece.{{citation needed|date = February 2012}}Between 1983 and 1990, VOA made significant upgrades to transmission facilities in Botswana, Morocco, Thailand, Kuwait, and Sao Tome.NEWS,weblink VOA Through the Years, VOA, 2018-12-02, en, Currently, VOA and USAGM continue to operate shortwave radio transmitters and antenna farms at International Broadcasting Bureau Greenville Transmitting Station in the United States, close to Greenville, North Carolina, "Site B." They do not use FCC-issued callsigns, since they are overseen by the NTIA, which is the Federal Government equivalent of the FCC (which regulates state government and public & private communications) and they operate under different rules. The IBB also operates a transmission facility on São Tomé and (Tinang) Concepcion, Tarlac, Philippines for VOA.{{citation needed|date = February 2012}}File:VOA SiteB building.JPG|Edward R. Murrow Greenville Transmitting Station, the last operational VOA broadcasting station in the US, located in North Carolina's Inner Banks.File:2009-0725-CA-Delano-VOArelay.jpg|The Delano Transmitting Station, which used a very large curtain array, was closed in October 2007.

    Comparing VOA-RFE-RL-RM to other broadcasters

    In 1996, the U.S.'s international radio output consisted of 992 hours per week by VOA, 667 by Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and 162 by Radio Marti.

    Controversy

    Mullah Omar interview

    In late September 2001, VOA aired a report that contained brief excerpts of an interview with then Taliban leader Mullah Omar Mohammad, along with segments from President Bush's post-9/11 speech to Congress, an expert in Islam from Georgetown University,{{who|date=July 2019}} and comments by the foreign minister of Afghanistan's anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. State Department officials including Richard Armitage and others argued that the report amounted to giving terrorists a platform to express their views.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}} In response, reporters and editors argued for the VOA's editorial independence from its governors.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}} VOA received praise from press organizations for its protests, and the following year in 2002, it won the University of Oregon's Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism.WEB,weblink Ancil Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism, University of Oregon, May 23, 2016,

    Abdul Malik Rigi interview

    On April 2, 2007, Abdul Malik Rigi, the leader of Jundullah, a militant group with possible links to al-Qaeda, appeared on Voice of America's Persian language service. VOA introduced Rigi as "the leader of popular Iranian resistance movement."WEB,weblink VoA interviews Iranian terrorist culprit in a sign of backing, PressTV, April 2, 2007, September 5, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121021055147weblink">weblink October 21, 2012, mdy-all, {{unreliable source?|date=May 2015}}{{verification needed|date=May 2015}} The interview resulted in public condemnation by the Iranian-American community, as well as the Iranian government.WEB,weblink Iranian speaker says U.S. supports "terrorists", swissinfo, January 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071205232531weblink">weblink December 5, 2007, WEB,weblink fa:گفتوگوي صداي آمريکا با قاتل مردم بلوچستان!, January 15, 2008, Persian, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070410034234weblink">weblink April 10, 2007, Jundullah is a militant organization that has been linked to numerous attacks on civilians, such as the 2009 Zahedan explosion.WEB,weblink Preparing the Battlefield, NEWS
    , Massoud
    , Ansari
    , Sunni Muslim group vows to behead Iranians
    , Washington Times
    , January 16, 2006
    ,weblink
    , April 5, 2007,

    Tibetan protester interview

    In February 2013, a documentary released by China Central Television interviewed a Tibetan self-immolator who failed to kill himself. The interviewee said he was motivated by Voice of America's broadcasts of commemorations of people who committed suicide in political self-immolation. VOA denied any allegations of instigating self-immolations and demanded that the Chinese station retract its report.NEWS,weblink Chinese documentary alleges US broadcaster incites Tibetan self-immolations, Ed, Flanagan, February 7, 2013, Behind the Wall, NBC News,

    Trump presidency concerns

    After the inauguration of US President Donald Trump, several tweets by Voice of America (one of which was later removed) seemed to support the widely criticized statements by White House press secretary Sean Spicer about the crowd size and biased media coverage. This first raised concerns over possible attempts by Trump to politicize the state-funded agency.Voice of America says it won’t become Trump TV, Washington PostTrump moves to put his own stamp on Voice of America, PoliticoCan Donald Trump turn Voice of America into his own private megaphone?, LA TimesDonald Trump sends two aides to Voice of America studios, raising fears he’s going to politicize the outlet, Salon This amplified already growing propaganda concerns over the provisions in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, signed into law by Barack Obama, which replaced the board of the Broadcasting Board of Governors with a CEO appointed by the president and to allow the VOA to broadcast to American audiences. Trump sent two of his political aides, Matthew Ciepielowski and Matthew Schuck, to the agency to aid its current CEO during the transition to the Trump administration. Criticism was raised over Trump's choice of aides; Schuck was a staff writer for right-wing website The Daily Surge until April 2015, while Ciepielowski was a field director at the conservative advocacy group Americans for Prosperity. VOA officials responded with assurances that they would not become "Trump TV". BBG head John F. Lansing told NPR that it would be illegal for the administration to tell VOA what to broadcast, while VOA director Amanda Bennett stressed that while "government-funded", the agency is not "government-run".

    Guo Wengui interview

    On April 19, 2017, VOA interviewed the Chinese real estate tycoon Guo Wengui in a live broadcast. The whole interview was scheduled for 3 hours. After Guo Weigui alleged to own evidence of corruption among the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of China, the highest political authority of China, the interview was abruptly cut off, after only one hour and seventeen minutes of broadcasting. Guo's allegations involved Fu Zhenhua and Wang Qishan, the latter being a member of the Politburo Standing Committee and the leader of the massive anti-graft movement.China’s most wanted man is in the United States. Quartz. It was reported that Beijing warned VOA's representatives not to interview Guo for his "unsubstantiated allegations".WEB, China says Interpol notice issued for outspoken tycoon Guo,weblink Yahoo! News, Associated Press,weblink 26 December 2018, Four members of the U.S. Congress requested the Office of Inspector General to conduct an investigation into this interruption on August 27, 2017.WEB,weblink Members of Congress request OIG investigation of VOA and BBG handling of Guo Wengui interview EXCLUSIVE, BBG Watch, September 30, 2017, The OIG investigation concluded that the decision to curtail the Guo interview was based solely on journalistic best practices rather than any pressure from the Chinese government.WEB,weblink Internal VOA email published on Medium, Another investigation, by Professor Mark Feldstein, Richard Eaton, Chair of Broadcast Journalism at the University of Maryland, College Park, and a journalist with decades of experiences as an award-winning television investigative reporter, concluded that "The failure to comply with leadership’s instructions during the Guo interview “was a colossal and unprecedented violation of journalistic professionalism and broadcast industry standards.” The report also said that "There had been “a grossly negligent approach” to pre-interview vetting and failure to “corroborate the authenticity of Guo’s evidence or interview other sources” in violation of industry standards. The interview team apparently “demonstrated greater loyalty to its source than to its employer — at the expense of basic journalistic standards of accuracy, verification, and fairness," the Feldstein report concluded.

    See also

    References

    {{Reflist}}

    Bibliography

    {{Library resources box}}
    • BOOK, Dizard, Wilson P., 2004, Inventing Public Diplomacy: The Story of the U.S. Information Agency, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1-58826-288-X, harv,
    • BOOK, Rugh, William A., 2006, American Encounters with Arabs: the "Soft Power" of U.S. Public Diplomacy in the Middle East, Praeger, 978-0-275-98817-3, harv, registration,weblink

    External links

    {{commons category}} {{Broadcasting Board of Governors}}{{Telecommunications}}{{US Shortwave Radio}}

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